Science.gov

Sample records for mediate mechanical hyperalgesia

  1. TRPC1 and TRPC6 channels cooperate with TRPV4 to mediate mechanical hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Dina, Olayinka A.; Chen, Xiaoje; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) contributes to mechanical hyperalgesia of diverse etiologies, presumably as part of a mechanoreceptor signaling complex (Alessandri-Haber et al., 2008). To investigate the hypothesis that a functional interaction between TRPV4 and stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) is involved in this mechanical transduction mechanism, we used a selective SACs inhibitor, GsMTx-4. Intradermal injection of GsMTx-4 in the rat hind paw reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators. In vivo single fiber recordings showed that GsMTx-4 reversed inflammatory mediator-induced decrease in mechanical threshold in half of sensitized C-fibers. Furthermore, GsMTx-4 reduced hyperalgesia to both mechanical and hypotonic stimuli in different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain while it had no effect on baseline mechanical nociceptive thresholds. TRPC1 and TRPC6, two GsMTx-4-sensitive SACs are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG). Single-cell RT-PCR showed that messenger RNAs for TRPV4, TRPC1 and TRPC6 are frequently co-expressed in DRG neurons. Spinal intrathecal administration of oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to TRPC1 and TRPC6, like that to TRPV4, reversed the hyperalgesia to mechanical and hypotonic stimuli induced by inflammatory mediators without affecting baseline mechanical nociceptive threshold. However, antisense to TRPC6, but not to TRPC1, reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by a thermal injury or the TRPV4 selective agonist 4α-PDD. We conclude that TRPC1 and TRPC6 channels cooperate with TRPV4 channels to mediate mechanical hyperalgesia and primary afferent nociceptor sensitization although they may have distinctive roles. PMID:19439599

  2. A Peripheral Adrenoceptor-mediated Sympathetic Mechanism Can Transform Stress-induced Analgesia into Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Donello, John E.; Guan, Yun; Tian, Mingting; Cheevers, Cynthia V.; Alcantara, Miguel; Cabrera, Sara; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Gil, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress has paradoxical effects on pain, causing stress-induced analgesia, but also exacerbating pain via poorly understood mechanisms. Adrenergic neurotransmission is integral in pathways that regulate the response to both pain and stress. Hyperalgesia is often associated with enhanced adrenergic sensitivity of primary afferents, but sympathetic nervous system outflow has not been demonstrated to exacerbate pain perception following stress. Methods Rats or C57/BL6 wild type mice treated with α-2 receptor antagonists or α-2A receptor knockout mice were exposed to ultrasonic noise stress or footshock stress and subsequently tested for hotplate paw withdrawal latencies. The sensory sensitivity of α-2A knockout mice to electrical and chemical stimuli was tested neurophysiologically and behaviorally. The effects of sympatholytic treatments were investigated. Results Noise and footshock stressors induced thermal hyperalgesia in rats pretreated systemically with α-2 antagonists. Wild type mice pretreated with α-2 antagonists and α-2A knockout mice also exhibited noise stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Local spinal or intraplantar injection of an α-2 antagonist counteracted stress-induced analgesia without causing hyperalgesia. α-2A knockout mice had decreased thresholds for peripheral sensitization with sulprostone and for windup of the dorsal horn neuronal response to repetitive electrical stimuli. Stress-induced hyperalgesia was abolished and the sensitization was attenuated by sympathectomy or systemic administration of an α-1-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions Sympathetic postganglionic nerves can enhance pain sensation via a peripheral α-1-adrenoceptor mechanism when sympathetic outflow is disinhibited. The net effect of stress on pain sensation reflects a balance between descending spinal inhibition and sympathetic outflow that can shift towards pain facilitation when central and peripheral α-2-adrenoceptor inhibitory mechanisms are

  3. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W.; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K.; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (Y-25130 or ondansetron) blocked the SP-induced hyperalgesia. The SP-induced hyperalgesia was both GABAA and NMDA receptor-dependent after pre- and post-treatment with selective antagonists at the spinal level. A microinjection of SP into the RVM also led to increased NMDA NR1 receptor subunit phosphorylation in spinal cord tissue. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperalgesia involved a shift in the anionic gradient in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and an increase in phosphorylated NKCC1 protein (isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter). Following a low dose of SP infused into the RVM, intrathecal muscimol (GABAA agonist) increased SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, phosphorylated NKCC1 protein expression, and NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation in the spinal cord. The thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by intrathecal gabazine, the GABAA receptor antagonist, and MK-801, the NMDA receptor channel blocker. These findings indicate that NK-1 receptors in the RVM are involved in SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, this hyperalgesia is 5-HT3-receptor dependent at the spinal level, and involves the functional interaction of spinal GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:20888891

  4. Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mediates orofacial mechanical hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a unique member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase plays an important role in neuronal development, and deregulation of its activity leads to neurodegenerative disorders. Cdk5 also serves an important function in the regulation of nociceptive signaling. Our previous studies revealed that the expression of Cdk5 and its activator, p35, is upregulated in nociceptive neurons during peripheral inflammation. The aim of the present study was to characterize the involvement of Cdk5 in orofacial pain. Since mechanical hyperalgesia is the distinctive sign of many orofacial pain conditions, we adapted an existing orofacial stimulation test to assess the behavioral responses to mechanical stimulation in the trigeminal region of the transgenic mice with either reduced or increased Cdk5 activity. Results Mice overexpressing or lacking p35, an activator of Cdk5, showed altered phenotype in response to noxious mechanical stimulation in the trigeminal area. Mice with increased Cdk5 activity displayed aversive behavior to mechanical stimulation as indicated by a significant decrease in reward licking events and licking time. The number of reward licking/facial contact events was significantly decreased in these mice as the mechanical intensity increased. By contrast, mice deficient in Cdk5 activity displayed mechanical hypoalgesia. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time the important role of Cdk5 in orofacial mechanical nociception. Modulation of Cdk5 activity in primary sensory neurons makes it an attractive potential target for the development of novel analgesics that could be used to treat multiple orofacial pain conditions. PMID:24359609

  5. Mechanical Stimulation Enhances Endothelin-1 Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    When comparing a cumulative dose-response curve for endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia to the effect of individual doses (1 ng, 10 ng, 100 ng and 1 µg) administered in separate groups of rats, a marked difference was observed in the peak magnitude of hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia was measured as decrease in the threshold for mechanically-induced withdrawal of the hind paw. The cumulative dosing protocol produced markedly greater maximum hyperalgesia. To determine whether this was due to the cumulative dosing protocol or to the repeated exposure to the mechanical test stimulus, we evaluated the impact of repeated testing on ET-1-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. While ET-1-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was dose- and time-dependent, repeated testing of nociceptive threshold, at 5 minute intervals, following a single dose of ET-1, produced further decrease in nociceptive threshold. This mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of ET-1 hyperalgesia lasted only 3–4 hrs, while the hyperalgesia lasted in excess of 5 days. The stimulation-enhanced hyperalgesia also occurred after a second injection of ET-1, administered 24 hours after the initial dose. That this phenomenon is unique to ET-1 is suggested by the observation that while five additional, direct-acting hyperalgesic agents — PGE2, NGF, GDNF, IL-6 and TNFα — induced robust mechanical hyperalgesia, none produced mechanical stimulation-enhanced hyperalgesia. PMID:21277948

  6. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Elizabeth K; Green, Paul G; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D

    2013-02-13

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique among a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ET(A) receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia but had no effect on SIEH, suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Because vascular endothelial cells are both stretch sensitive and express ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase Cε (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X(2/3) receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hindlimb vibration) and in a model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X(2/3) receptor.

  7. Vascular Endothelial Cells Mediate Mechanical Stimulation-Induced Enhancement of Endothelin Hyperalgesia via Activation of P2X2/3 Receptors on Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Green, Paul G.; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique amongst a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ETA and ETB, attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ETA receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia, but had no effect on SIEH suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Since vascular endothelial cells are both stretch-sensitive and express ETA and ETB receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X2/3 receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hind limb vibration) and in model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X2/3 receptor. PMID:23407944

  8. Functional interactions between NMDA receptors and TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat masseter muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok; Saloman, Jami L.; Weiland, Gustave; Auh, Q-Schick; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y.

    2012-01-01

    NMDA and TRPV1 receptors that are expressed in sensory neurons have been independently demonstrated to play important roles in peripheral pain mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated whether the two receptor-channel systems form a functional complex that provides the basis for the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct application of NMDA induced a time dependent increase in mechanical sensitivity, which was significantly blocked when the muscle was pretreated with a specific TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810. The NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and TRPV1 were co-expressed in 32% of masseter afferents in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Furthermore, NR1 and NR2B formed protein-protein complexes with TRPV1 in TG as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Calcium imaging analyses further corroborated that NMDA and TRPV1 receptors functionally interact. In TG culture, application of NMDA resulted in phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine or tyrosine, residues of TRPV1 in a time course similar to that of the development of NMDA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The NMDA-induced phosphorylation was significantly attenuated by CaMKII and PKC inhibitors, but not by a PKA inhibitor. Consistent with the biochemical data, the NMDA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was also effectively blocked when the muscle was pretreated with a CaMKII or PKC inhibitor. Thus, NMDA receptors and TRPV1 functionally interact via CaMKII and PKC signaling cascades and contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. These data offer novel mechanisms by which two ligand-gated channels in sensory neurons interact and reinforce the notion that TRPV1 functions as a “signal integrator” under pathological conditions. PMID:22609428

  9. The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 mediates mechanical hyperalgesia induced by the activation of B1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Meotti, Flavia Carla; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Manjavachi, Marianne; Calixto, João B

    2017-02-01

    The kinin receptor B1 and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) work as initiators and gatekeepers of nociception and inflammation. This study reports that the nociceptive transmission induced by activation of B1 receptor is dependent on TRPA1 ion channel. The mechanical hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of B1 agonist des-Arginine(9)-bradykinin (DABK) or TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde and was evaluated by the withdrawal response after von Frey Hair application in the hind paw. After behavioral experiments, lumbar spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested to assess protein expression and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR, respectively. The pharmacological antagonism (HC030031) or the down-regulation of TRPA1 greatly inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by DABK. Intrathecal injection of DABK up regulated the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1) in lumbar spinal cord (L5-L6); TRPA1 protein and mRNA in lumbar spinal cord; and B1 receptor mRNA in both lumbar spinal cord and DRG. The knockdown of TRPA1 prevented microglia activation induced by DABK. Furthermore, the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by either DABK or by cinnamaldehyde was significantly reduced by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), protein kinase C (PKC) or phospholipase C (PLC). In summary, this study revealed that TRPA1 positively modulates the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by B1 receptor activation in the spinal cord and that the classical GPCR downstream molecules PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), 3,4,5-inositide phosphate (IP3) and PKC are involved in the nociceptive transmission triggered by these two receptors.

  10. Activation of Gi induces Mechanical Hyperalgesia Post Stress or Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Olayinka A.; Khasar, Sachia G.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    In studies of the role of primary afferent nociceptor plasticity in the transition from acute to chronic pain we recently reported that exposure to unpredictable sound stress or a prior inflammatory response induces long-term changes in the second messenger signaling pathway, in nociceptors, mediating inflammatory hyperalgesia; this change involves a switch from a Gs-cAMP-PKA to a Gi-PKC signaling pathway. To more directly study the role of Gi in mechanical hyperalgesia we evaluated the nociceptive effect of the Gi activator, mastoparan. Intradermal injection of mastoparan in the rat hind paw induces dose-dependent (0.1 ng – 1 μg) mechanical hyperalgesia. The highly selective inhibitor of Gi, Pertussis toxin, and of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), PKCεV1–2, both markedly attenuate mastoparan-induced hyperalgesia in stressed rats but had no effect on mastoparan-induced hyperalgesia in unstressed rats. Similar effects were observed, at the site of nociceptive testing, after recovery from carrageenan-induced inflammation. These studies provide further confirmation for a switch to a Gi-activated and PKCε-dependent signaling pathway in primary mechanical hyperalgesia, induced by stress or inflammation. PMID:19275929

  11. AKAP-dependent sensitization of Ca(v) 3.2 channels via the EP(4) receptor/cAMP pathway mediates PGE(2) -induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Aoki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Maiko; Kanaoka, Daiki; Nishimoto, Yuta; Tsubota-Matsunami, Maho; Yamanaka, Rumi; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2013-02-01

    The Ca(v) 3.2 isoform of T-type Ca(2+) channels (T channels) is sensitized by hydrogen sulfide, a pro-nociceptive gasotransmitter, and also by PKA that mediates PGE(2) -induced hyperalgesia. Here we examined and analysed Ca(v) 3.2 sensitization via the PGE(2) /cAMP pathway in NG108-15 cells that express Ca(v) 3.2 and produce cAMP in response to PGE(2) , and its impact on mechanical nociceptive processing in rats. In NG108-15 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, T-channel-dependent currents (T currents) were measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The molecular interaction of Ca(v) 3.2 with A-kinase anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150) and its phosphorylation were analysed by immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting in NG108-15 cells. Mechanical nociceptive threshold was determined by the paw pressure test in rats. In NG108-15 cells and/or rat DRG neurons, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) or PGE(2) increased T currents, an effect blocked by AKAP St-Ht31 inhibitor peptide (AKAPI) or KT5720, a PKA inhibitor. The effect of PGE(2) was abolished by RQ-00015986-00, an EP(4) receptor antagonist. AKAP150 was co-immunoprecipitated with Ca(v) 3.2, regardless of stimulation with db-cAMP, and Ca(v) 3.2 was phosphorylated by db-cAMP or PGE(2) . In rats, intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of db-cAMP or PGE(2) caused mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect suppressed by AKAPI, two distinct T-channel blockers, NNC 55-0396 and ethosuximide, or ZnCl(2) , known to inhibit Ca(v) 3.2 among T channels. Oral administration of RQ-00015986-00 suppressed the PGE(2) -induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest that PGE(2) causes AKAP-dependent phosphorylation and sensitization of Ca(v) 3.2 through the EP(4) receptor/cAMP/PKA pathway, leading to mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist αβmeATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand

  13. Ethanol withdrawal induces hyperalgesia mediated by PKCepsilon.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Messing, Robert O; Levine, Jon D

    2006-07-01

    Symptoms of ethanol withdrawal include heightened responses to sensory stimuli, as well as tremors and convulsions. We tested the hypothesis that repeated episodes of ethanol intake and withdrawal exacerbate the symptoms of alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathy. In contrast to the hyperalgesia produced when an alcohol (6.5%)-containing diet was fed continuously to male rats which took 4 weeks to develop (Dina et al., 2000), feeding alcohol (6.5%) in repeated cycles of 4 days of alcohol followed by 3 days without alcohol resulted in a withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia that began at the end of one weekly cycle and reached a maximum during the fourth cycle. For ethanol withdrawal to produce hyperalgesia, ethanol consumption needed to be terminated for a period of 2 days. Paradoxically, as the amount of alcohol consumed decreased, the hyperalgesia induced by withdrawal developed more rapidly, being maximal between 1.4 and 1.6% ethanol. These results suggest that continued exposure to ethanol also has a neuroprotective effect. Withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia, similar to the hyperalgesia induced by continuous, chronic alcohol intake, was inhibited reversibly by intrathecal administration of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon.

  14. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinov, Tijana; Glenn-Finer, Rose; Burley, Sarah; Tonc, Elena; Balsells, Evelyn; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Swanson, Linnea; Daughters, Randy S; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2013-01-01

    The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  15. TRPA1, NMDA receptors and nitric oxide mediate mechanical hyperalgesia induced by local injection of magnesium sulfate into the rat hind paw.

    PubMed

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Prostran, Milica Š

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that while magnesium, an antagonist of the glutamate subtype of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, possesses analgesic properties, it can induce writhing in rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and mechanism of action of local (intraplantar) administration of magnesium sulfate (MS) on the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimuli. The PWT was evaluated by the electronic von Frey test in male Wistar rats. Tested drugs were either co-administered intraplantarly (i.pl.) with MS or given into the contralateral paw to exclude systemic effects. MS at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6.2 mg/paw (i.pl.) induced a statistically significant (as compared to 0.9% NaCl) and dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia. Only isotonic MS (250 mmol/l or 6.2% or 6.2 mg/paw) induced mechanical hyperalgesia that lasted at least six hours. Isotonic MS-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by co-injection of camphor, a non-selective TRPA1 antagonist (0.3, 1 and 2.5 μg/paw), MK-801, a NMDA receptor antagonist (0.001, 0.025 and 0.1 μg/paw), L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (20, 50 and 100 μg/paw), ARL 17477, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor (5.7 and 17 μg/paw), SMT, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor (1 and 2.78 μg/paw), and methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (5, 20 and 125 μg/paw). Drugs injected into the contralateral hind paw did not produce significant effects. These results suggest that an i.pl. injection of MS produces local peripheral mechanical hyperalgesia via activation of peripheral TRPA1 and NMDA receptors and peripheral production of NO.

  16. GRK2 in sensory neurons regulates epinephrine-induced signalling and duration of mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijing; Heijnen, Cobi J; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Garza Carbajal, Anibal; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2011-07-01

    Epinephrine (EPI) contributes to hyperalgesia in inflammatory and stress conditions. EPI signals via adrenoceptors, which are regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). We previously reported that GRK2 is decreased in nociceptors during chronic inflammation. Herein, we investigated whether GRK2 modulates EPI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia by using GRK2(+/-) mice, which express 50% of the GRK2 protein. We demonstrate for the first time that EPI-induced mechanical as well as thermal hyperalgesia is prolonged to approximately 21 days in GRK2(+/-) mice, whereas it lasts only 3 to 4 days in wild-type mice. Using cell- specific GRK2-deficient mice, we further show that a low level of GRK2 in primary sensory neurons is critical for this prolongation of EPI-induced hyperalgesia. Low GRK2 in microglia had only a small effect on EPI-induced hyperalgesia. Low GRK2 in astrocytes did not alter EPI-induced hyperalgesia. EPI-induced hyperalgesia was prolonged similarly in mice with tamoxifen-induced homozygous or heterozygous deletion of GRK2. In terms of EPI signalling pathways, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 inhibited EPI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in wild-type mice, whereas H-89 had no effect in mice with low GRK2 in sensory neurons (SNS-GRK2(+/-) mice). Conversely, intraplantar injection of the protein kinase Cε PKCε inhibitor TAT-PKC(εv1-2) inhibited hyperalgesia in sensory neuron specific (SNS)-GRK2(+/-) mice and not in wild-type mice. These results indicate that low GRK2 in primary sensory neurons switches EPI-induced signalling from a protein kinase A-dependent toward a PKCε-dependent pathway that ultimately mediates prolonged EPI-induced hyperalgesia.

  17. Pharmacological modulation of secondary mediator systems--cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP--on inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F Q; Teixeira, M M; Ferreira, S H

    1999-06-01

    1. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the relevance of neuronal balance of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP concentration for functional regulation of nociceptor sensitivity during inflammation. 2. Injection of PGE2 (10-100 ng paw-1) evoked a dose-dependent hyperalgesic effect which was mediated via a cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (PKA) inasmuch as hyperalgesia was blocked by the PKA inhibitor H89. 3. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram and RP73401, but not PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors potentiated the hyperalgesic effects of PGE2. The hyperalgesic effect of dopamine was also enhanced by rolipram. Moreover, rolipram significantly potentiated hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8. This suggests that neuronal cyclic AMP mediates the prostanoid and sympathetic components of mechanical hyperalgesia. Moreover, in the neuron cyclic AMP is mainly metabolized by PDE4. 4. To examine the role of the NO/cyclic GMP pathway in modulating mechanical hyperalgesia, we tested the effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. This substance counteracts the inhibitory effects of the NO donor, SNAP, on the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. 5. The ODQ potentiated hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, ODQ had no significant effect on the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 and dopamine. This indicates that the hyperalgesic cytokines may activate soluble guanylate cyclase, which down-regulate the ability of these substances to cause hyperalgesia. This event appears not to be mediated by prostaglandin or dopamine. 6. In conclusion, the results presented in this paper confirm an association between (i) hyperalgesia and elevated levels of cyclic AMP as well as (ii) antinociception and elevated levels of cyclic GMP. The intracellular levels of cyclic AMP that enhance hyperalgesia are controlled by the PDE4 isoform and appear to result in activation of protein kinase A whereas the

  18. Peripheral contributions to the mechanical hyperalgesia following a lumbar 5 spinal nerve lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, J H; Lee, B H; Nam, T S; Kim, J W; Kim, D W; Leem, J W

    2010-01-13

    Using lumbar 5 (L5) dorsal root rhizotomy-bearing rats, we examined the extent to which L5 spinal nerve lesion (SNL)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was governed by two peripheral components, that is Wallerian degeneration (WD) and peripherally-propagating injury discharge (PID). The contribution of WD to SNL-induced hyperalgesia was studied by excluding PID with lidocaine treatment that blocked nerve conduction temporarily, but completely at the time of injury, whereas PID was examined separately by using brief tetanic electrical stimulation of the spinal nerve mimicking PID. Following the disappearance of L5 rhizotomy-induced transient hyperalgesia, L5 SNL resulted in long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia as early as one day post-SNL despite a PID block, highlighting the role of WD. In a comparative experiment, a delayed onset of hyperalgesia (7 days) was measured in L3 rhizotomy-bearing rats following L3 SNL with a PID block, in which injured fiber (L3) was separated from intact fibers (L4 and L5) anatomically until they meet at the peripheral terminals, supporting the importance of interactions between degenerating and adjacent intact fibers for WD-induced hyperalgesia. Tetanic electrical stimulation of decentralized L5 spinal nerve resulted in mechanical hyperalgesia developing within 1 day and persisting for 7 days. This hyperalgesia was prevented by lidocaine blockade of the L5 nerve, and was unaffected by lidocaine blockades of the central inputs from L3 and L4 fibers during L5 nerve stimulation, suggesting the mediation of PID-induced hyperalgesia by sensitization, not activation, of peripheral terminals of adjacent intact afferents. The similar hyperalgesia was also observed following electrical stimulation of decentralized L3 spinal nerve. Prior elimination of L4 C-fibers by local capsaicin prevented hyperalgesia induced either by L5 SNL with a PID block or by L5 nerve stimulation. These results suggest that neighboring C-afferents remaining intact after

  19. Mechanisms involved in facial heat hyperalgesia induced by endothelin-1 in female rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael Fernandes de; Oliveira, Luana Lechenakoski de; Nones, Carina Fernanda Mattedi; Dos Reis, Renata Cristiane; Araya, Erika Ivanna; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Rae, Giles Alexander; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2017-11-01

    Pronociceptive responses to endothelins in the trigeminal system seem to be mediated by ETA and ETB receptors, which have been shown to be expressed in neurons of the trigeminal ganglion of humans and rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to induce facial heat hyperalgesia in female rats, the contribution of ETA and ETB receptors to this response, as well as the mechanisms underlying heat hyperalgesia induced by ET-1. ET-1 (100pmol/50μL) was injected into the upper lip and heat hyperalgesia was evaluated for up to 6h. Facial heat hyperalgesia induced by ET-1 was assessed in rats pre-treated locally with BQ-123 or BQ-788 (selective ETA and ETB receptor antagonists, respectively, 30nmol/50μL); BCTC (TRPV1 receptor antagonist; 300μg/50μL); anti-NGF (3μg/50μL); K252a (TrkA inhibitor, 1μg/50μL); or in rats that received intraganglionar resiniferatoxin injection (RTX, 200ng/10μL) to promote C-fibers ablation. ET-1 induced facial heat hyperalgesia that persisted up to 6h and was prevented by BQ-123, BQ-788 or by intraganglionar RTX injection. Likewise, local pre-treatment with BCTC abolished ET-1 induced facial heat hyperalgesia up to 3h. Local pre-treatment with anti-NGF or K252a was effective to prevent ET-1 induced heat hyperalgesia. In conclusion, ET-1 is able to induce heat hyperagelsia in trigeminal primary afferents of female rats, which is mediated by ETA and ETB receptors. Activation of TRPV1 receptors and NGF-signaling pathways may contribute to heat hyperalgesia induced by ET-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic and static components of mechanical hyperalgesia in human hairy skin.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, M; Lundberg, L E; Torebjörk, H E

    1992-11-01

    resulted in a reappearance of on-going pain and hyperalgesia. The effect of a nerve compression block of the superficial radial nerve on these sensations was tested in 14 experiments. When the ability to perceive light touch had been abolished, there was also no touch-evoked pain, indicating that this component of mechanical hyperalgesia is mediated by large-diameter primary afferents. At a later stage of the block when the subjects' ability to perceive cold stimuli had also been lost, application of cool stimuli still eliminated on-going burning pain, suggesting that pain relief afforded by cooling the skin acts at the peripheral receptor level and not by central masking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 leads to muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jin Y; Lee, Jong-Seok; Zhang, Youping

    2009-08-01

    The involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in mediating craniofacial muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, we confirmed the expression of TRPV1 in masseter afferents in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG), and provided new data that TRPA1 is also expressed in primary afferents innervating masticatory muscles in double-labeling immunohistochemistry experiments. We then examined whether the activation of each TRP channel in the masseter muscle evokes acute nocifensive responses and leads to the development of masseter hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation using the behavioral models that have been specifically designed and validated for the craniofacial system. Intramuscular injections with specific agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1, capsaicin and mustard oil (MO), respectively, produced immediate nocifensive hindpaw responses followed by prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, effectively attenuated the capsaicin-induced muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia. Similarly, pretreatment of the muscle with a selective TRPA1 antagonist, AP18, significantly blocked the MO-induced muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia. We confirmed these data with another set of selective antagonist for TRPV1 and TRPA1, AMG9810 and HC030031, respectively. Collectively, these results provide compelling evidence that TRPV1 and TRPA1 can functionally contribute to muscle nociception and hyperalgesia, and suggest that TRP channels expressed in muscle afferents can engage in the development of pathologic muscle pain conditions.

  2. Activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 leads to muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Jin Y.; Lee, Jong-Seok; Zhang, Youping

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in mediating craniofacial muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia was investigated in male Sprague Dawley rats. First, we confirmed the expression of TRPV1 in masseter afferents in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG), and provided new data that TRPA1 is also expressed in primary afferents innervating masticatory muscles in double-labeling immunohistochemistry experiments. We then examined whether activation of each TRP channel in the masseter muscle evokes acute nocifensive responses and leads to the development of masseter hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation using the behavioral models that have been specifically designed and validated for the craniofacial system. Intramuscular injections with specific agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1, capsaicin and mustard oil (MO), respectively, produced immediate nocifensive hindpaw responses followed by prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, effectively attenuated the capsaicin-induced muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia. Similarly, pretreatment of the muscle with a selective TRPA1 antagonist, AP18, significantly blocked the MO-induced muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia. We confirmed these data with another set of selective antagonist for TRPV1 and TRPA1, AMG9810 and HC030031, respectively. Collectively, these results provide compelling evidence that TRPV1 and TRPA1 can functionally contribute to muscle nociception and hyperalgesia, and suggest that TRP channels expressed in muscle afferents can engage in the development of pathologic muscle pain conditions. PMID:19464796

  3. Muscular mechanical hyperalgesia after lengthening contractions in rats depends on stretch velocity and range of motion.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Katanosaka, K; Abe, M; Yamanaka, A; Nosaka, K; Mizumura, K; Taguchi, T

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated stretch variables and mechanical factors of lengthening contractions (LC) in the processes leading to muscular mechanical hyperalgesia in rats to understand mechanisms underpinning delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Under isoflurane anaesthesia, ankle extensor muscles were loaded with repetitive LC with angular stretch velocities (50°, 100°, 200° and 400°/s) at a fixed range of motion (ROM) of 90°, and with ROMs (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) at a fixed velocity of 200°/s. Mechanical hyperalgesia was observed in a velocity- and ROM-dependent manner. Under the fixed ROM, integrated torque generated during LC (iTq[max] ) was inversely correlated with the velocity, but the rate of torque increase during LC (rTq[max] ) was positively and significantly correlated with the velocity, and the magnitude of hyperalgesia was correlated with rTq[max] (p < 0.001). When the velocity was fixed, iTq[max] was significantly correlated with ROM, and the magnitude of hyperalgesia was correlated with iTq[max] (p < 0.01). Necrotic myofibres were observed only sparsely (<0.8%) after any of the LC protocols tested. Up-regulation of nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the muscle was positively correlated with the increases in the LC velocity and ROM (p < 0.05~0.001). Both velocity and ROM are pivotal variables determining the initiation of mechanical hyperalgesia. Neurotrophic factor-mediated peripheral mechanisms, but apparently not inflammatory changes caused by myofibre damage, are responsible for the mechanical hyperalgesia. Mechanical hyperalgesia appears after LC in a stretch velocity- and range of motion-dependent manner. The rate of torque increase and integrated torque are the crucial factors. Neurotrophic factor-mediated peripheral pain mechanisms without robust inflammatory changes caused by myofibre damage were required for this mechanical hyperalgesia. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  4. Mitochondrial dependence of NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carissa; Levine, Emma; Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are present at high concentration at the site of sensory transduction in the peripheral terminals of nociceptors [14; 31]. Since nerve growth factor (NGF), which induces nociceptor sensitization by acting on the high affinity TrkA receptor [28], also produces local recruitment of mitochondria in DRG neurons [5; 6], we evaluated the role of mitochondria in NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Inhibition of three major mitochondrial functions—oxidation of nutrients, ATP production, and generation of reactive oxygen species—markedly attenuated NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Disruption of microtubules, which are required for the trafficking and subcellular localization of mitochondria, also attenuated NGF hyperalgesia. Our results suggest a contribution of mitochondrial localization and function to NGF-dependent pain syndromes. PMID:21570183

  5. Dietary fish oil inhibits mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats by blocking nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wang, Ya-Yun; Cao, Rui; Hou, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Rui-Hua; Wang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common complications of early-onset diabetes mellitus is peripheral diabetic neuropathy, which is manifested either by loss of nociception or by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease in human beings with characteristic symptoms of hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown anti-inflammatory role in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the inflammation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the allodynia and hyperalgesia were also evaluated. Dietary fish oil effectively attenuated both allodynia and hyperalgesia induce by STZ injection. Along with the behavioral findings, DRG from fish oil-treated diabetic rats displayed a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) compared with untreated diabetic rats. Fish oil supplementation also increased the phosphorylation of AKT in DRG of diabetic rats. These results suggested that dietary fish oil-inhibited allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats may stem from its anti-inflammatory potential by regulating NF-κB and AKT. Fish oil might be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripheral Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation leads to muscle mechanical hyperalgesia through TRPV1 phosphorylation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Man-Kyo; Lee, Jongseok; Joseph, John; Saloman, Jami; Ro, Jin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated glutamate levels within injured muscle play important roles in muscle pain and hyperalgesia. In this study, we hypothesized that PKC-dependent TRPV1 phosphorylation contributes to the muscle mechanical hyperalgesia following activation of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5). Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), an mGlu1/5 agonist, in the masseter muscle was attenuated by AMG9810, a specific TRPV1 antagonist. AMG9810 also suppressed mechanical hyperalgesia evoked by pharmacological activation of PKC. DHPG-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was suppressed by pretreatment with a decoy peptide that disrupted interactions between TRPV1 and A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP), which facilitates phosphorylation of TRPV1. In dissociated trigeminal ganglia (TG), DHPG upregulated serine phosphorylation of TRPV1 (S800) during which DHPG-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was prominent. The TRPV1 phosphorylation at S800 was suppressed by a PKC inhibitor. Electrophysiological measurements in TG neurons demonstrated that TRPV1 sensitivity was enhanced by pretreatment with DHPG, and this was prevented by a PKC, but not by a PKA, inhibitor. These results suggest that mGlu1/5 activation in masseter afferents invoke phosphorylation of TRPV1 serine residues including S800, and that phosphorylation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 is involved in masseter mechanical hyperalgesia. These data support a role of TRPV1 as an integrator of glutamate receptor signaling in muscle nociceptors. PERSPECTIVE This article demonstrates that activation of mGlu1/5 leads to phosphorylation of a specific TRPV1 residue via PKC and AKAP150 in trigeminal sensory neurons, and that functional interactions between glutamate receptors and TRPV1 mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the muscle tissue. PMID:25451626

  7. Electroacupuncture suppresses capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia through an endogenous spinal opioid mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Wang, Jigong; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hee Kee; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2009-01-01

    Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization. Capsaicin (0.5%, 10 μl) was injected into the plantar side of the left hind paw, and foot withdrawal thresholds in response to von Frey stimuli (mechanical sensitivity) were determined for both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in rats. EA (2 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to various pairs of acupoints, GB30-GB34, BL40-BL60, GV2-GV6, LI3-LI6 and SI3-TE8, for 30 min under isofluraine anesthesia and then the effect of EA on mechanical sensitivity of paw was determined. EA applied to the ipsilateral SI3-TE8, but none the other acupoints, significantly reduced capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia but not primary hyperalgesia. EA analgesic effect was inhibited by a systemic non-specific opioid receptor (OR) antagonist or an intrathecal μ- or δ-OR antagonist. EA analgesic effect was not affected by an intrathecal κ-OR antagonist or systemic adrenergic receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that EA produces a stimulation point specific analgesic effect on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia (central sensitization), mediated by activating endogenous spinal μ and δ opioid receptors. PMID:19646817

  8. The BDNF/TrkB Signaling Pathway Is Involved in Heat Hyperalgesia Mediated by Cdk5 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Xue, Qing-Sheng; Yan-Luo; Huang, Jin-Lu; Zhang, Su; Shao, Hai-Jun; Lu, Han; Wang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to play an important role in mediating inflammation-induced heat hyperalgesia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, could reverse the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. Results Heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA was significantly reversed by roscovitine, TrkB-IgG, and the TrkB inhibitor K252a, respectively. Furthermore, BDNF was significantly increased from 0.5 h to 24 h after CFA injection in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Intrathecal adminstration of the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine had no obvious effects on BDNF levels. Increased TrkB protein level was significantly reversed by roscovitine between 0.5 h and 6 h after CFA injection. Cdk5 and TrkB co-immunoprecipitation results suggested Cdk5 mediates the heat hyperalgesia induced by CFA injection by binding with TrkB, and the binding between Cdk5 and TrkB was markedly blocked by intrathecal adminstration of roscovitine. Conclusion Our data suggested that the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway was involved in CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia mediated by Cdk5. Roscovitine reversed the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA by blocking BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, suggesting that severing the close crosstalk between Cdk5 and the BDNF/TrkB signaling cascade may present a potential target for anti-inflammatory pain. PMID:24465591

  9. The BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway is involved in heat hyperalgesia mediated by Cdk5 in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Xue, Qing-Sheng; Yan-Luo; Huang, Jin-Lu; Zhang, Su; Shao, Hai-Jun; Lu, Han; Wang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to play an important role in mediating inflammation-induced heat hyperalgesia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether roscovitine, an inhibitor of Cdk5, could reverse the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. Heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA was significantly reversed by roscovitine, TrkB-IgG, and the TrkB inhibitor K252a, respectively. Furthermore, BDNF was significantly increased from 0.5 h to 24 h after CFA injection in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Intrathecal adminstration of the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine had no obvious effects on BDNF levels. Increased TrkB protein level was significantly reversed by roscovitine between 0.5 h and 6 h after CFA injection. Cdk5 and TrkB co-immunoprecipitation results suggested Cdk5 mediates the heat hyperalgesia induced by CFA injection by binding with TrkB, and the binding between Cdk5 and TrkB was markedly blocked by intrathecal adminstration of roscovitine. Our data suggested that the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway was involved in CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia mediated by Cdk5. Roscovitine reversed the heat hyperalgesia induced by peripheral injection of CFA by blocking BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, suggesting that severing the close crosstalk between Cdk5 and the BDNF/TrkB signaling cascade may present a potential target for anti-inflammatory pain.

  10. Ca(2+) influx mediates the TRPV4-NO pathway in neuropathic hyperalgesia following chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yin, Cui-Ping; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-02-19

    Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) in rats is a typical model of neuropathic pain. TRPV4 contributed to mechanical allodynia induced by the CCD model. Our previous study demonstrated that TRPV4 enhances neuropathic hyperalgesia through a NO-cGMP-PKG cascade. However, the underlying mechanism(s) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx is involved in the TRPV4-NO pathway. Regulation of intracellular calcium concentration by intrathecal injection of TRPV4-targeted siRNA significantly decreased the behavioural hyperalgesia, NF-κB activity, and NO content in CCD rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of mibefradil significantly induced dose-dependent increases in the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWT), as well as decreases in NF-κB activity and NO content in DRG of CCD rats. Moreover, pre-treatment with 4α-PDD attenuated the suppressive effects of mibefradil on CCD-induced neuropathic hyperalgesia, NF-κB activity, and NO production. The data showed that TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx might be engaged in the TRPV4-NO pathway in neuropathic hyperalgesia in the CCD model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic stress-induced mechanical hyperalgesia is controlled by capsaicin-sensitive neurones in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Scheich, B; Vincze, P; Szőke, É; Borbély, É; Hunyady, Á; Szolcsányi, J; Dénes, Á; Környei, Zs; Gaszner, B; Helyes, Zs

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice. The effects of desensitization on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced responses were analysed using behavioural tests, chronic neuronal activity assessment in the central nervous system with FosB immunohistochemistry and peripheral cytokine concentration measurements. Chronic restraint stress induced mechanical and cold hypersensitivity and increased light preference in the light-dark box test. Open-field and tail suspension test activities were not altered. Adrenal weight increased, whereas thymus and body weights decreased in response to CRS. FosB immunopositivity increased in the insular cortex, dorsomedial hypothalamic and dorsal raphe nuclei, but not in the spinal cord dorsal horn after the CRS. CRS did not affect the cytokine concentrations of hindpaw tissues. Surprisingly, RTX pretreatment augmented stress-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, abolished light preference and selectively decreased the CRS-induced neuronal activation in the insular cortex. RTX pretreatment alone increased the basal noxious heat threshold without influencing the CRS-evoked cold hyperalgesia and augmented neuronal activation in the somatosensory cortex and interleukin-1α and RANTES production. Chronic restraint stress induces hyperalgesia without major anxiety, depression-like behaviour or peripheral inflammatory changes. Increased stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in RTX-pretreated mice is presumably mediated by central mechanisms including cortical plastic

  12. Sound stress-induced long-term enhancement of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats is maintained by sympathoadrenal catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Khasar, Sachia G.; Dina, Olayinka A.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    While stress plays an important role in chronic widespread pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. We have recently demonstrated, in a model of chronic widespread pain, that prolonged enhancement of immune mediator hyperalgesia, induced by unpredictable sound stress, requires a contribution of both the sympathoadrenal (epinephrine) and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (corticosterone) neuroendocrine stress axes. Since this stress protocol produced sustained elevation of plasma epinephrine, in the current study we have tested the hypothesis that the sympathoadrenal axis also plays a role in maintenance of symptoms in this model of chronic widespread pain. After establishment, adrenal medullectomy abolished the enhancement of epinephrine-induced cutaneous and muscle hyperalgesia. Administration of stress levels of epinephrine to adrenal medullectomized rats reconstituted the pain phenotype. These observations suggest that the sympathoadrenal stress axis plays a major role in the induction as well as maintenance of stress-induced enhancement of mechanical hyperalgesia, mediated by prolonged elevation of circulating epinephrine. Perspective We present data showing mechanical hyperalgesia persisting for up to 28 days after exposure to sound stress, with evidence that the sympathoadrenal axis mediator, epinephrine, plays a major role. These findings could have clinical implications with regard to novel potential treatments for chronic widespread pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia. PMID:19576859

  13. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  14. Ranolazine attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Casey, Gregory P; Roberts, Jomar S; Paul, Dennis; Diamond, Ivan; Gould, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether ranolazine, a new anti-angina medication, could be an effective analgesic agent in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) produces an extended period of hyperalgesia that is associated with a dramatic up-regulation of Na(v) 1.7 sodium channels in populations of large and small dorsal root ganglion neurons related to the injection site. Ranolazine appears to produce its anti-angina effect through blocking the late sodium current associated with the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v) 1.5. Because ranolazine also inhibits Na(v) 1.7, and 1.8, we sought to determine whether it could be an effective analgesic agent in CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Baseline determinations of withdrawal from thermal and mechanical stimulation were made in Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300-350 x g). Following determination of baseline, one hindpaw in each group was injected with 0.1 mL of CFA. The contralateral paw received saline. Thermal and mechanical stimulation was repeated on the third day post-injection. Vehicle (0.9% isotonic saline; pH 3.0) or ranolazine was then administered in randomized and blinded doses either by intraperitoneal (ip) injection (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) or by oral gavage (po; 0, 20, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). Animals were again tested 30 minutes (ip) and 1 hour (po) after drug administration. Ranolazine produced dose-dependant analgesia on mechanical allodynia induced by CFA injection, but had no effect on thermal hyperalgesia. Ranolazine's potential as a new option for managing both angina and chronic inflammatory pain warrants further study.

  15. Epac–protein kinase C alpha signaling in purinergic P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia after inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanping; Li, Guangwen; Chen, Yong; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) is a major mechanism contributing to injury-induced exaggerated pain responses. We showed in a previous study that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)–dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (Epac1) in rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) is upregulated after inflammatory injury, and it plays a critical role in P2X3R sensitization by activating protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) inside the cells. protein kinase C epsilon has been established as the major PKC isoform mediating injury-induced hyperalgesic responses. On the other hand, the role of PKCα in receptor sensitization was seldom considered. Here, we studied the participation of PKCα in Epac signaling in P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia. The expression of both Epac1 and Epac2 and the level of cAMP in DRGs are greatly enhanced after complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)–induced inflammation. The expression of phosphorylated PKCα is also upregulated. Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)–induced P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia is not only blocked by Epac antagonists but also by the classical PKC isoform inhibitors, Go6976, and PKCα-siRNA. These CFA effects are mimicked by the application of the Epac agonist, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2 -O-methyl-cAMP (CPT), in control rats, further confirming the involvement of Epacs. Because the application of Go6976 prior to CPT still reduces CPT-induced hyperalgesia, PKCα is downstream of Epacs to mediate the enhancement of P2X3R responses in DRGs. The pattern of translocation of PKCα inside DRG neurons in response to CPT or CFA stimulation is distinct from that of PKCε. Thus, in contrast to prevalent view, PKCα also plays an essential role in producing complex inflammation-induced receptor-mediated hyperalgesia. PMID:26963850

  16. Epac-protein kinase C alpha signaling in purinergic P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia after inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanping; Li, Guangwen; Chen, Yong; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) is a major mechanism contributing to injury-induced exaggerated pain responses. We showed in a previous study that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (Epac1) in rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) is upregulated after inflammatory injury, and it plays a critical role in P2X3R sensitization by activating protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) inside the cells. protein kinase C epsilon has been established as the major PKC isoform mediating injury-induced hyperalgesic responses. On the other hand, the role of PKCα in receptor sensitization was seldom considered. Here, we studied the participation of PKCα in Epac signaling in P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia. The expression of both Epac1 and Epac2 and the level of cAMP in DRGs are greatly enhanced after complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. The expression of phosphorylated PKCα is also upregulated. Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced P2X3R-mediated hyperalgesia is not only blocked by Epac antagonists but also by the classical PKC isoform inhibitors, Go6976, and PKCα-siRNA. These CFA effects are mimicked by the application of the Epac agonist, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2 -O-methyl-cAMP (CPT), in control rats, further confirming the involvement of Epacs. Because the application of Go6976 prior to CPT still reduces CPT-induced hyperalgesia, PKCα is downstream of Epacs to mediate the enhancement of P2X3R responses in DRGs. The pattern of translocation of PKCα inside DRG neurons in response to CPT or CFA stimulation is distinct from that of PKCε. Thus, in contrast to prevalent view, PKCα also plays an essential role in producing complex inflammation-induced receptor-mediated hyperalgesia.

  17. Activation of NMDA receptors in the brainstem, RVM and NGC, mediates mechanical hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, LFS; DeSantana, JM; Sluka, KA

    2010-01-01

    Repeated injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle induced both muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. We have previously shown that microinjection of local anesthetic into either the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) reverses this muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. Although prior studies show that NMDA receptors in the RVM play a clear role in mediating visceral and inflammatory hypersensitivity, the role of NMDA receptors in the NGC, or in non-inflammatory muscle pain is unclear. Therefore, the present study evaluated involvement of the NMDA receptors in the RVM and NGC in muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline, 5 days apart, resulted in a bilateral decrease in the withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle in all groups 24 h after the second injection. Microinjection of NMDA receptor antagonists into the RVM reversed both the muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity. However, microinjection of NMDA receptor antagonists into the NGC only reversed cutaneous, but not muscle hypersensitivity. These results suggest that NMDA receptors in the RVM mediate both muscle and cutaneous hypersensitivity, but those in the NGC mediated only cutaneous hypersensitivity after muscle insult. PMID:19853525

  18. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D.; Green, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is well known to exacerbate pain. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal handling, which induces resilience to the negative impact of stress by increasing the quality and quantity of maternal care, attenuates the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress in the adult rat. Neonatal male rats underwent the handling protocol on postnatal days 2–9, weaned at 21 days and tested for muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold at postnatal days 50–75. Decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold in skeletal muscle in adult rats, produced by exposure to water-avoidance stress, was significantly attenuated by neonatal handling. Neonatal handling also attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by intramuscular administration of the pronociceptive inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2 in rats exposed as adults to water-avoidance stress. Neonatal handling, which induces a smaller corticosterone response in adult rats exposed to a stressor as well as changes in central nervous system neurotransmitter systems, attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress and enhanced prostaglandin hyperalgesia in adult animals. PMID:25637700

  19. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2015-03-30

    Chronic stress is well known to exacerbate pain. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal handling, which induces resilience to the negative impact of stress by increasing the quality and quantity of maternal care, attenuates the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress in the adult rat. Neonatal male rats underwent the handling protocol on postnatal days 2-9, weaned at 21 days and tested for muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold at postnatal days 50-75. Decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold in skeletal muscle in adult rats, produced by exposure to water-avoidance stress, was significantly attenuated by neonatal handling. Neonatal handling also attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by intramuscular administration of the pronociceptive inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2 in rats exposed as adults to water-avoidance stress. Neonatal handling, which induces a smaller corticosterone response in adult rats exposed to a stressor as well as changes in central nervous system neurotransmitter systems, attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress and enhanced prostaglandin hyperalgesia in adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle produced by a novel mechanism in rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2011-09-01

    Stress exacerbates both experimental and clinical pain, most well-characterized in irritable bowel and fibromyalgia syndromes. Since it has been hypothesized that cytokines play an etiopathogenic role in fibromyalgia and other chronic widespread pain conditions, we investigated the relationship between stress and cytokines in a model of stress-induced chronic somatic pain. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of stress on the hyperalgesia-induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the role of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis α (TNFα). Fourteen days after exposure to a 4-day protocol of unpredictable sound stress, the ability of systemic LPS (100 μg/kg, i.p) to elicit cytokine-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in gastrocnemius muscle. LPS-induced hyperalgesia was significantly greater in stressed rats, but when rats were treated intrathecally with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), to decrease either the gp130 subunit of the IL-6 receptor or the TNFα receptor, in nociceptors, skeletal muscle hyperalgesia in sound stressed, but not control, rats was prevented. These data suggest that chronic stress alters signaling in the primary afferent nociceptor for the hyperalgesia induced by endogenously produced pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Enhanced cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle produced by a novel mechanism in rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Olayinka A.; Levine, Jon D.; Green, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress exacerbates both experimental and clinical pain, most well-characterized in irritable bowel and fibromyalgia syndromes. Since it has been hypothesized that cytokines play an etiopathogenic role in fibromyalgia and other chronic widespread pain conditions, we investigated the relationship between stress and cytokines in a model of stress-induced chronic somatic pain. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of stress on the hyperalgesia-induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis α (TNFα). Fourteen days after exposure to a 4-day protocol of unpredictable sound stress, the ability of systemic LPS (100 μg/kg, i.p) to elicit cytokine-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in gastrocnemius muscle. LPS-induced hyperalgesia was significantly greater in stressed rats, but when rats were treated intrathecally with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), to decrease either the gp130 subunit of the IL-6 receptor or the TNFα receptor, in nociceptors, skeletal muscle hyperalgesia in sound stressed, but not control, rats was prevented. These data suggest that chronic stress alters signaling in the primary afferent nociceptor for the hyperalgesia induced by endogenously produced pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21419675

  2. HCN2 channels account for mechanical (but not heat) hyperalgesia during long-standing inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schnorr, Sabine; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Kistner, Katrin; Rajab, Hamsa; Käßer, Johannes; Hess, Andreas; Reeh, Peter; Ludwig, Andreas; Herrmann, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    There is emerging evidence that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels are involved in the development of pathological pain, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Mice lacking the HCN isoform 2 display reduced heat but unchanged mechanical pain behavior, as recently shown in preclinical models of acute inflammatory pain. However, the impact of HCN2 to chronic pain conditions is less clear and has not been examined so far. In this report, we study the role of HCN2 in the complete Freund's adjuvant inflammation model reflecting chronic pain conditions. We used sensory neuron-specific as well as inducible global HCN2 mutants analyzing pain behavior in persistent inflammation and complemented this by region-specific administration of an HCN channel blocker. Our results demonstrate that the absence of HCN2 in primary sensory neurons reduces tactile hypersensitivity in chronic inflammatory conditions but leaves heat hypersensitivity unaffected. This result is in remarkable contrast to the recently described role of HCN2 in acute inflammatory conditions. We show that chronic inflammation results in an increased expression of HCN2 and causes sensitization in peripheral and spinal terminals of the pain transduction pathway. The contribution of HCN2 to peripheral sensitization mechanisms was further supported by single-fiber recordings from isolated skin-nerve preparations and by conduction velocity measurements of saphenous nerve preparations. Global HCN2 mutants revealed that heat hypersensitivity-unaffected in peripheral HCN2 mutants-was diminished by the additional disruption of central HCN2 channels, suggesting that thermal hyperalgesia under chronic inflammatory conditions is mediated by HCN2 channels beyond primary sensory afferents.

  3. Forced swim-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated by CRF2 receptors but not by TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E; Kovacs, Katalin J; Pasley, Jeffrey D; Nunez, Myra G; Larson, Alice A

    2013-09-01

    The exacerbation of musculoskeletal pain by stress in humans is modeled by the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in rodents following a forced swim. We hypothesized that stress-sensitive corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and transient receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are responsible for the swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia. We confirmed that a cold swim (26 °C) caused a transient, morphine-sensitive decrease in grip force responses reflecting musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in mice. Pretreatment with the CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin 2B, but not the CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI-35965, attenuated this hyperalgesia. Desensitizing the TRPV1 receptor centrally or peripherally using desensitizing doses of resiniferatoxin (RTX) failed to prevent the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia produced by cold swim. SB-366791, a TRPV1 antagonist, also failed to influence swim-induced hyperalgesia. Together these data indicate that swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated, in part, by CRF2 receptors but is independent of the TRPV1 receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forced swim-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated by CRF2 receptors but not by TRPV1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E.; Kovacs, Katalin J.; Pasley, Jeff D.; Nunez, Myra G.; Larson, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    The exacerbation of musculoskeletal pain by stress in humans is modeled by the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in rodents following a forced swim. We hypothesized that stress-sensitive corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and transient receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are responsible for the swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia. We confirmed that a cold swim (26°C) caused a transient, morphine-sensitive decrease in grip force responses reflecting musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in mice. Pretreatment with the CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin 2B, but not the CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI-35965, attenuated this hyperalgesia. Desensitizing the TRPV1 receptor centrally or peripherally using desensitizing doses of resiniferatoxin (RTX) failed to prevent the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia produced by cold swim. SB-366791, a TRPV1 antagonist, also failed to influence swim-induced hyperalgesia. Together these data indicate that swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated, in part, by CRF2 receptors but is independent of the TRPV1 receptor. PMID:23624287

  5. Synthesis of Lipid Mediators during UVB-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sisignano, Marco; Angioni, Carlo; Ferreiros, Nerea; Schuh, Claus-Dieter; Suo, Jing; Schreiber, Yannick; Dawes, John M.; Antunes-Martins, Ana; Bennett, David L. H.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs). However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP) genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs. PMID:24349046

  6. Activated spinal astrocytes are involved in the maintenance of chronic widespread mechanical hyperalgesia after cast immobilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined spinal glial cell activation as a central nervous system mechanism of widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in rats that experienced chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) 2 weeks after cast immobilization. Activated spinal microglia and astrocytes were investigated immunohistologically in lumbar and coccygeal spinal cord segments 1 day, 5 weeks, and 13 weeks following cast removal. Results In the lumbar cord, astrocytes were activated after microglia. Astrocytes also were activated after microglia in the coccygeal cord, but with a delay that was longer than that observed in the lumbar cord. This activation pattern paralleled the observation that mechanical hyperalgesia occurred in the hindleg or the hindpaw before the tail. The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) immune response in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on the last day of cast immobilization suggested that nerve damage might not occur in CPCP rats. The neural activation assessed by the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immune response in DRG arose 1 day after cast removal. In addition, L-α-aminoadipate (L-α-AA), an inhibitor of astrocyte activation administered intrathecally 5 weeks after cast removal, inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia in several body parts including the lower leg skin and muscles bilaterally, hindpaws, and tail. Conclusions These findings suggest that activation of lumbar cord astrocytes is an important factor in widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in CPCP. PMID:24456903

  7. Differential involvement of TRPV1 receptors at the central and peripheral nerves in CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshihito; Hara, Tomokazu; Imai, Aki; Sakakibara, Ayano

    2007-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists are known to attenuate two typical symptoms of inflammatory hyperalgesia: thermal and mechanical. However, it is not clear whether the sites of participation of TRPV1 for each symptom are different. In this study, we clarified the difference between the site of TRPV1 involvement in both symptoms by analysing the anti-hyperalgesic activity of two kinds of TRPV1 antagonists given locally (i.e. intraplantarly and intrathecally) in rats with CFA (complete Freund's adjuvant)-induced inflammation. TRPV1 antagonists BCTC (N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl) tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide, 1-300 microg) and SB-366791 (N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide, 30-300 microg) administered intraplantarly in a dose-dependent manner inhibited CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia. In addition, CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia was significantly reversed by intrathecal administration of 1-100 microg of BCTC and SB-366791. While intraplantar BCTC (1-300 microg) and SB-366791 (30-300 microg) did not reverse CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, 1-100 microg of intrathecally administered BCTC and SB-366791 dose-dependently reduced mechanical hyperalgesia. Regression analysis showed that a correlation exists between the inhibitory effects on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia after intrathecal administration (correlation factor = 0.6521), but not after intraplantar administration (correlation factor = 0.0215). These data suggest that TRPV1 in the peripheral endings of the primary afferents plays a key role in thermal hyperalgesia, but it makes only a minor contribution in CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Furthermore, it is suggested that the spinal TRPV1 is critical in the development of both types of hyperalgesia.

  8. P2X7 Receptor Mediates Spinal Microglia Activation of Visceral Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yi; Lee, I-Hui; Tan, Ping-Heng; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2015-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the activated spinal microglia in association with the pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remain unknown. We tested whether P2X7R on spinal microglia mediates the pathogenesis of visceral pain using a CP rat model. The CP model was induced via intraductal injection of 2% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid into male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hyperalgesia was assessed based on the mechanical sensitivity to Von-Frey filaments (VFFs), and nocifensive behaviors were measured in response to electrical stimulation of the pancreas. Three weeks after CP induction, spinal cord samples were harvested for immunostaining, immunoblot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of the P2X7R. Changes in nocifensive behaviors and associated molecular effectors were assessed by blocking spinal cord P2X7R pharmacologically using the selective P2X7R antagonist brilliant blue G (BBG) or genetically using short interfering RNA (siRNA). CP induced a significant up-regulation of spinal P2X7R expression, which colocalized with a microglial marker (OX-42). Intrathecal administration of BBG significantly attenuated CP-related visceral hyperalgesia in response to VFF-mediated or electrical stimulation of the pancreas, which was associated with suppressed spinal expression of P2X7R and inhibited activation of spinal microglia. Intrathecal injection of siRNA to knock down P2X7R expression in the spinal cord would suppress the nociceptive behaviors in CP rats. Spinal microglia P2X7R mediates central sensitization of chronic visceral pain in CP. BBG may represent an effective drug for the treatment of chronic pain in CP patients.

  9. Spinal fMRI Reveals Decreased Descending Inhibition during Secondary Mechanical Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Torge; Wolff, Stephan; Riedel, Christian; Baron, Ralf; Stroman, Patrick W.; Jansen, Olav; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical hyperalgesia is one distressing symptom of neuropathic pain which is explained by central sensitization of the nociceptive system. This sensitization can be induced experimentally with the heat/capsaicin sensitization model. The aim was to investigate and compare spinal and supraspinal activation patterns of identical mechanical stimulation before and after sensitization using functional spinal magnetic resonance imaging (spinal fMRI). Sixteen healthy subjects (6 female, 10 male, mean age 27.2±4.0 years) were investigated with mechanical stimulation of the C6 dermatome of the right forearm during spinal fMRI. Testing was always performed in the area outside of capsaicin application (i.e. area of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia). During slightly noxious mechanical stimulation before sensitization, activity was observed in ipsilateral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DLPT) which correlated with activity in ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal gray matter (dGM) suggesting activation of descending nociceptive inhibition. During secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased activity was observed in bilateral DLPT, ipsilateral/midline rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and contralateral subnucleus reticularis dorsalis, which correlated with activity in ipsilateral dGM. Comparison of voxel-based activation patterns during mechanical stimulation before/after sensitization showed deactivations in RVM and activations in superficial ipsilateral dGM. This study revealed increased spinal activity and decreased activity in supraspinal centers involved in pain modulation (SRD, RVM, DLPT) during secondary mechanical hyperalgesia suggesting facilitation of nociception via decreased endogenous inhibition. Results should help prioritize approaches for further in vivo studies on pain processing and modulation in humans. PMID:25372292

  10. Dynamic mechanical assessment of muscle hyperalgesia in humans: The dynamic algometer

    PubMed Central

    Finocchietti, Sara; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is often associated with a nonhomogeneous distribution of mechanical hyperalgesia. Consequently, new methods able to detect this distribution are needed. OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new method for assessing muscle hyperalgesia with high temporal and spatial resolution that provides complementary information compared with information obtained by traditional static pressure algometry. METHODS: The dynamic pressure algometer was tested bilaterally on the tibialis anterior muscle in 15 healthy subjects and compared with static pressure algometry. The device consisted of a wheel that was rolled over the muscle tissue with a fixed velocity and different predefined forces. The pain threshold force was determined and pain intensity to a fixed-force stimulation was continuously rated on a visual analogue scale while the wheel was rolling over the muscle. The pressure pain sensitivity was evaluated before, during, and after muscle pain and hyperalgesia induced unilaterally by either injection of hypertonic saline (0.5 mL, 6%) into the tibialis anterior or eccentric exercise evoking delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.88 for the dynamic thresholds; thus, the method was reliable. Compared with baseline, both techniques detected hyperalgesia at the saline injection site and during DOMS (P<0.05). The dynamic algometer also detected the widespread, patchy distribution of sensitive loci during DOMS, which was difficult to evaluate using static pressure algometry. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The present study showed that dynamic pressure algometry is a reliable tool for evaluating muscle hyperalgesia (threshold and pain rating) with high temporal and spatial resolution. It can be applied as a simple clinical bed-side test and as a quantitative tool in pharmacological profiling studies. PMID:25664539

  11. Activation of the cAMP transduction cascade contributes to the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A

    1997-11-01

    cord level results in mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia and that the secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia following intradermal injection of capsaicin is mediated by this same transduction cascade.

  12. The dorsomedial hypothalamus mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia and is the source of the pronociceptive peptide cholecystokinin in the rostral ventromedial medulla.

    PubMed

    Wagner, K M; Roeder, Z; Desrochers, K; Buhler, A V; Heinricher, M M; Cleary, D R

    2013-05-15

    While intense or highly arousing stressors have long been known to suppress pain, relatively mild or chronic stress can enhance pain. The mechanisms underlying stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) are only now being defined. The physiological and neuroendocrine effects of mild stress are mediated by the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), which has documented connections with the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a brainstem region capable of facilitating nociception. We hypothesized that stress engages both the DMH and the RVM to produce hyperalgesia. Direct pharmacological activation of the DMH increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in awake animals, confirming that the DMH can mediate behavioral hyperalgesia. A behavioral model of mild stress also produced mechanical hyperalgesia, which was blocked by inactivation of either the DMH or the RVM. The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) acts in the RVM to enhance nociception and is abundant in the DMH. Using a retrograde tracer and immunohistochemical labeling, we determined that CCK-expressing neurons in the DMH are the only significant supraspinal source of CCK in the RVM. However, not all neurons projecting from the DMH to the RVM contained CCK, and microinjection of the CCK2 receptor antagonist YM022 in the RVM did not interfere with SIH, suggesting that transmitters in addition to CCK play a significant role in this connection during acute stress. While the RVM has a well-established role in facilitation of nociception, the DMH, with its well-documented role in stress, may also be engaged in a number of chronic or abnormal pain states. Taken as a whole, these findings establish an anatomical and functional connection between the DMH and RVM by which stress can facilitate pain.

  13. Behavioral evidence of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia induced by intradermal cinnamaldehyde in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsagareli, Merab G.; Tsiklauri, Nana; Zanotto, Karen L.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Klein, Amanda H.; Sawyer, Carolyn M.; Gurtskaia, Gulnazi; Abzianidze, Elene; Carstens, E.

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 agonists cinnamaldehyde (CA) and mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate= AITC) induce heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in human skin, and sensitize responses of spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn neurons to noxious skin heating in rats. TRPA1 is also implicated in cold nociception. We presently used behavioral methods to investigate if CA affects sensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli in rats. Unilateral intraplantar injection of CA (5-20%) induced a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in latency for ipsilateral paw withdrawal from a noxious heat stimulus, peaking (61.7% of pre-injection baseline) by 30 min with partial recovery at 120 min. The highest dose of CA also significantly reduced the contralateral paw withdrawal latency. CA significantly reduced mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the injected paw that peaked sooner (3 min) and was more profound (44.4% of baseline), with no effect contralaterally. Bilateral intraplantar injections of CA resulted in a significant cold hyperalgesia (cold-plate test) and a weak enhancement of innocuous cold avoidance (thermal preference test). The data are consistent with roles for TRPA1 in thermal (hot and cold) hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. PMID:20219630

  14. [Study of the influence of emotion stress on mechanical hyperalgesia of masseter muscles in rats].

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Miao, Li; Chen, Yong-Jin; Chen, Jun

    2008-06-01

    To study the influence of emotion stress on mechanical hyperalgesia of masseter muscles in rats through the equipment of communication box. 50 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Control group, emotion stress (ES) group, drug control group, saline treated control group and footshock (FS) group, 10 rats each group. Footshock group only induced emotion stress and was not concerned with the result of the experiment. The last four groups of the rats were placed in communication box and bred under the same conditions during the experiment time. According to Rens' method, von Frey filaments were used to assess the muscle mechanical threshold, head withdrawal, leg raising and crying were observed as pain action. 1) During the adaptive period of 7 days before the emotion stress experiment, mechanical pain values of bilateral masseter muscles were descent and were stabilized in the 5 th to 7 th day. In emotion stress period, hyperalgesia of emotion stress group was induced in bilateral masseter muscles, and the peak time was the 7 th day, then it alleviated in the following days and was stabilized in the 12 th to 14 th day, but its pain threshold was lower than blank control group. 2)During the emotion stress period, the change of drug control group was similar to stress group but its pain threshold was higher. It is suggested that emotion stress can lead to the hyperalgesia of masseter muscles and antidepressant drug can lower the hyperalgsia resulted of emotion stress.

  15. Nociceptor modulated central sensitization causes mechanical hyperalgesia in acute chemogenic and chronic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, M; Torebjörk, H E; Wahren, L K

    1994-06-01

    Brush-evoked pain (mechanical allodynia, dynamic mechanical hyperalgesia) is a hallmark of neuropathic and inflammatory pain states. Here we have examined the neural mechanisms that induce and maintain this component of mechanical hyperalgesia. The principle finding of these experiments is that the severity of brush-evoked pain correlates with the intensity of background pain in patients suffering from chronic painful neuropathies and in normal subjects with acute experimental chemogenic pain. In experiments on nine normal subjects topical application of mustard oil for 5 min evoked strong burning pain and hyperalgesia to light mechanical stimuli. Differential nerve blocks (by compression of the superficial radial nerve) revealed that the brush-evoked pain was transmitted by A beta-fibres, which normally encode non-painful tactile sensations, while the burning pain was signalled by C-fibres. Psychophysical measurements showed that mustard oil treatment resulted in a pronounced sensitization of nociceptors to heat so that subsequent innocuous changes of skin temperature from 35 to 40 degrees C resulted in a proportional increase of burning background pain. Changes in the magnitude of ongoing burning pain were closely correlated (r = 0.81) to the intensity of brush-evoked pain. While conduction block of A-fibres eliminated only touch-evoked pain, blockade of C-fibre excitation instantaneously abolished both ongoing and touch-evoked pain. In nine patients with chronic neuralgia (15 years mean duration) ongoing and brush-evoked pain were examined. In six patients, differential block of A beta-fibres eliminated touch-evoked pain, but ongoing pain persisted when only C-fibres were conducting. Complete relief of both ongoing and stimulus-induced pain was obtained in two patients with intravenous regional guanethedine block and in two other individuals by local anaesthetic blocks of nerves supplying the symptomatic skin, indicating that input from primary afferents was

  16. Melatonin Alters the Mechanical and Thermal Hyperalgesia Induced by Orofacial Pain Model in Rats.

    PubMed

    Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Oliveira, Carla; Adachi, Lauren Naomi Spezia; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; de Freitas, Joice S; de Souza, Andressa; Quevedo, Alexandre; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone that presents a wide range of physiological functions including regulating circadian rhythms and sleep, enhancing immune function, sleep improvement, and antioxidant effects. In addition, melatonin has received special attention in pain treatment since it is effective and presents few adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acute dose of melatonin upon hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in a chronic orofacial pain model in Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive behavior was assessed by facial Von Frey and the hot plate tests at baseline and thereafter 30, 60, and 120 min, 24 h, and 7 days after melatonin treatment. We demonstrated that acute melatonin administration alters mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by an orofacial pain model (TMD), highlighting that the melatonin effect upon mechanical hyperalgesia remained until 7 days after its administration. Besides, we observed specific tissue profiles of neuroimmunomodulators linked to pain conditions and/or melatonin effect (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and interleukins 6 and 10) in the brainstem levels, and its effects were state-dependent of the baseline of these animals.

  17. Morphine hyperalgesia gated through microglia-mediated disruption of neuronal Cl− homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Francesco; Trang, Tuan; Mattioli, Theresa-Alexandra M.; Laffray, Sophie; Del’Guidice, Thomas; Lorenzo, Louis-Etienne; Castonguay, Annie; Doyon, Nicolas; Zhang, Wenbo; Godin, Antoine G.; Mohr, Daniela; Beggs, Simon; Vandal, Karen; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Cahill, Catherine; Salter, Michael W.; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A major unresolved issue in treating pain is the paradoxical hyperalgesia produced by the gold-standard analgesic morphine and other opiates. We show here that hyperalgesia-inducing treatment with morphine causes downregulation of the K+-Cl− cotransporter KCC2, impairing Cl− homeostasis in spinal lamina l neurons. Restoring Eanion reversed the morphine-induced hyperalgesia without affecting tolerance. The hyperalgesia was also reversed by ablating spinal microglia. Morphine hyperalgesia, but not tolerance, required μ opioid receptor-dependent expression of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) in microglia and μ-independent gating of the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by P2X4Rs. Blocking BDNF-TrkB signalling preserved Cl− homeostasis and reversed the hyperalgesia. Gene-targeted mice in which BDNF was deleted from microglia did not develop hyperalgesia to morphine. Yet, neither morphine antinociception nor tolerance was affected in these animals. Our findings dissociate morphine-induced hyperalgesia from tolerance and unveil the microglia-to-neuron P2X4-BDNF-KCC2 pathway as a therapeutic target to prevent hyperalgesia without affecting morphine analgesia. PMID:23292683

  18. Thiamine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin and their combination inhibit thermal, but not mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with primary sensory neuron injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Bei; Gan, Qiang; Rupert, Ronald L; Zeng, Yin-Ming; Song, Xue-Jun

    2005-03-01

    Neuropathic pain after nerve injury is severe and intractable, and current drugs and nondrug therapies offer substantial pain relief to no more than half of affected patients. The present study investigated the analgesic roles of the B vitamins thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6) and cyanocobalamin (B12) in rats with neuropathic pain caused by spinal ganglia compression (CCD) or loose ligation of the sciatic nerve (CCI). Thermal hyperalgesia was determined by a significantly shortened latency of foot withdrawal to radiant heat, and mechanical hyperalgesia was determined by a significantly decreased threshold of foot withdrawal to von Frey filaments stimulation of the plantar surface of hindpaw. Results showed that (1) intraperitoneal injection of B1 (5, 10, 33 and 100 mg/kg), B6 (33 and 100 mg/kg) or B12 (0.5 and 2 mg/kg) significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia; (2) the combination of B1, B6 and B12 synergistically inhibited thermal hyperalgesia; (3) repetitive administration of vitamin B complex (containing B1/B6/B12 33/33/0.5 mg/kg, for 1 and 2 wk) produced long-term inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia; and (4) B vitamins did not affect mechanical hyperalgesia or normal pain sensation, and exhibited similar effects on CCD and CCI induced-hyperalgesia. The present studies demonstrate effects of B vitamins on pain and hyperalgesia following primary sensory neurons injury, and suggest the possible clinical utility of B vitamins in the treatment of neuropathic painful conditions following injury, inflammation, degeneration or other disorders in the nervous systems in human beings.

  19. The chemokine CCL5 induces CCR1-mediated hyperalgesia in mice inoculated with NCTC 2472 tumoral cells.

    PubMed

    Pevida, M; Lastra, A; Meana, Á; Hidalgo, A; Baamonde, A; Menéndez, Luis

    2014-02-14

    Although the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR1 has been demonstrated in several structures related to nociception, supporting the nociceptive role of chemokines able to activate it, the involvement of CCR1 in neoplastic pain has not been previously assessed. We have assayed the effects of a CCR1 antagonist, J113863, in two murine models of neoplastic hyperalgesia based on the intratibial injection of either NCTC 2472 fibrosarcoma cells, able to induce osteolytic bone injury, or B16-F10 melanoma cells, associated to mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone pathological features. The systemic administration of J113863 inhibited thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia but not mechanical allodynia in mice inoculated with NCTC 2472 cells. Moreover, in these mice, thermal hyperalgesia was counteracted following the peritumoral (10-30μg) but not spinal (3-5μg) administration of J113863. In contrast, hyperalgesia and allodynia measured in mice inoculated with B16-F10 cells remained unaffected after the administration of J113863. The inoculation of tumoral cells did not modify the levels of CCL3 at tumor or spinal cord. In contrast, although the concentration of CCL5 remained unmodified in mice inoculated with B16-F10 cells, increased levels of this chemokine were measured in tumor-bearing limbs, but not the spinal cord, of mice inoculated with NCTC 2472 cells. Increased levels of CCL5 were also found following the incubation of NCTC 2472, but not B16-F10, cells in the corresponding culture medium. The intraplantar injection of CCL5 (0.5ng) to naïve mice evoked thermal hyperalgesia prevented by the coadministration of J113863 or the CCR5 antagonist, d-Ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), demonstrating that CCL5 can induce thermal hyperalgesia in mice through the activation of CCR1 or CCR5. However, contrasting with the inhibitory effect evoked by J113863, the systemic administration of DAPTA did not prevent tumoral hyperalgesia. Finally, the peritumoral administration of an anti

  20. Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Resveratrol During Inflammatory Hyperalgesia via Differential Regulation of pro-Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization of nociceptive neurons by inflammatory mediators leads to hypersensitivity for normal painful stimuli which is termed hyperalgesia. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in pathological pain; therefore, antioxidants qualify as potential anti-hyperalgesic agents. The present study examines the efficacy of the natural antioxidant resveratrol in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced hyperalgesic rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was measured at different time points by paw withdrawal latency test and confirmed by c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn. The impact of resveratrol treatment on inflammatory mediators at peripheral (paw skin) and central (spinal cord) sites was determined during early (6 h) as well as late phase (48 h) of hyperalgesia. Intraplanter injection of CFA increased the level of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 as well as inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS in paw skin in both phases. In case of spinal cord, the level of COX-2 was found to be elevated in both phases, whereas iNOS could not be detected. The cytokines were found to be elevated only in late phase in spinal cord. Administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg) shifted the level of all inflammatory mediators towards normal, except cytokines in paw skin. The present study suggests that the anti-nociceptive effect of resveratrol is implicated at both peripheral and central sites in a tissue specific manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia upon acute opioid withdrawal in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Sarah M; Allen, Caroline P; Zissen, Maurice H; Kendig, Joan J

    2004-07-01

    Upon withdrawal from opioids many patients experience a heightened sensitivity to stimuli and an exaggerated pain response. We present evidence that neonatal rats exhibit allodynia and hyperalgesia on acute opiate withdrawal. Postnatal 7 and 21 day rats were used to approximately model a full term human infant and a human child, respectively. The opiate antagonist naloxone was used to precipitate withdrawal at 30 or 120 min after a single acute administration of morphine. Alternatively, rats were allowed to undergo spontaneous withdrawal. Behavioral manifestations of withdrawal syndrome were not observed when naloxone was administered at 30 min post-morphine, but were present when withdrawal was precipitated at 120 min. Spontaneous and precipitated withdrawal from a single acute administration of morphine produced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in postnatal day 7 rats and mechanical allodynia in postnatal day 21 rats. A higher dose of morphine was required to produce mechanical allodynia in postnatal day 21 versus 7 rats but this increase was independent of the analgesic efficacy of morphine at these two ages. The present work illustrates the need to examine the phenomenon of hypersensitivity upon opioid withdrawal in the human pediatric population.

  2. α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors contribute to the maintenance of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia, but not thermal or mechanical allodynia.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sarasa; Christie, Macdonald J

    2014-10-02

    The current pharmacological treatments for chronic pain are limited. The first analgesic drug approved for clinical use in decades that has a novel molecular target is the synthetic version of a naturally occurring conotoxin. Several conotoxins that target ion channels have progressed to clinical trials for the relief of pain. Vc1.1 and RgIA are analgesic α-conotoxins that target α9-subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α9-nAChR) as well as GABAB receptor mechanisms. However, the evidence for the involvement of α9-nAChRs in pain is controversial. In the present study, the role of the α9-nAChR in pain was assessed using a battery of behavioural pain tests and pain models in α9-nAChR knockout (KO) mice. α9-nAChR KO mice showed normal responses to acute noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli, and developed normal chronic cold and mechanical allodynia in inflammatory and nerve injury pain models. However, KO animals developed mechanical hyperalgesia to a lesser extent than their wild type (WT) counterparts in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Chronic neuropathic pain is sustained in WT mice for at least 21 days post injury, while KO mice show significant recovery by 14 days post injury. KO sham mice were also resistant to the repeated-measures effect of the noxious pain test that caused a gradual onset of mild mechanical hyperalgesia in WT sham animals. The α9-nAChR is not involved in acute pain perception or chronic thermal or mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia but does contribute to the intensity and duration of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia, suggesting that pain-relieving actions of antagonists that target this site may be restricted to high threshold mechanosensation. The α9-nAChR appears to be a valid target for pharmacological compounds that alleviate long-term mechanical hyperalgesia and may be of use as a prophylactic drug to prevent the development of some symptoms of chronic pain.

  3. Naloxone rapidly evokes endogenous kappa opioid receptor-mediated hyperalgesia in naïve mice pretreated briefly with GM1 ganglioside or in chronic morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stanley M; Shen, Ke-Fei

    2007-09-05

    inhibitory kappa opioid receptor signaling, and converting endogenous opioid receptor-mediated hyperalgesia to analgesia. Co-treatment with kelatorphan stabilizes putative endogenous opioid peptide agonists released by naloxone in GM1-treated mice, so that analgesia is evoked rather than hyperalgesia. Acute treatment of chronic morphine-dependent mice with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (0.1 ng/kg) results in remarkably similar rapid blocking of naloxone (10 microg/kg)-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia and unmasking of prominent opioid analgesia. These studies may clarify complex mechanisms underlying opioid physical dependence and opioid addiction.

  4. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ectopic neuronal discharge after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Song, X J; Hu, S J; Greenquist, K W; Zhang, J M; LaMotte, R H

    1999-12-01

    Chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (CCD) was produced in adult rats by implanting a stainless steel rod unilaterally into the intervertebral foramen, one rod at L(4) and another at L(5). Two additional groups of rats received either a sham surgery or an acute injury consisting of a transient compression of the ganglion. Withdrawal of the hindpaw was used as evidence of a nocifensive response to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the plantar surface. In addition, extracellular electrophysiological recordings of spontaneous discharges were obtained from dorsal root fibers of formerly compressed ganglia using an in vitro nerve-DRG-dorsal root preparation. The mean threshold force of punctate indentation and the mean threshold temperature of heating required to elicit a 50% incidence of foot withdrawal ipsilateral to the CCD were significantly lower than preoperative values throughout the 35 days of postoperative testing. The number of foot withdrawals ipsilateral to the CCD during a 20-min contact with a temperature-controlled floor was significantly increased over preoperative values throughout postoperative testing when the floor was 4 degrees C (hyperalgesia) and, to a lesser extent, when it was 30 degrees C (spontaneous pain). Stroking the foot with a cotton wisp never elicited a reflex withdrawal before surgery but did so in most rats tested ipsilateral to the CCD during the first 2 postoperative weeks. In contrast, the CCD produced no changes in responses to mechanical or thermal stimuli on the contralateral foot. The sham operation and acute injury produced no change in behavior other than slight, mechanical hyperalgesia for approximately 1 day, ipsilateral to the acute injury. Ectopic spontaneous discharges generated within the chronically compressed ganglion and, occurring in the absence of blood-borne chemicals and without an intact sympathetic nervous system, were recorded from neurons with intact, conducting, myelinated or unmyelinated

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Donors Increase the Responsiveness of Dorsal Horn Neurons and Induce Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Lee, Inhyung; Chun, Sang Woo; Kim, Hee Kee

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers have analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through spinal mechanisms in the rat. The studies suggest that superoxide in spinal cord is one of important mediators of persistent pain. To test the hypothesis that increase of superoxide-derived intermediates leads to central sensitization and pain, the effects of an intrathecal injection of chemical ROS donors releasing either OH∙, OCl−, or H2O2 were examined on pain behaviors. Following treatment with t-BOOH (OH∙ donor), dorsal horn neuron responses to mechanical stimuli in normal rats and the changes of neuronal excitability were explored on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamping recordings. Intrathecal administration of t-BOOH or NaOCl (OCl− donor), but not H2O2, significantly decreased mechanical thresholds of hind paws. The responses of wide dynamic range neurons to mechanical stimuli increased after a local application of t-BOOH. The t-BOOH increased the frequency and the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, depolarized membrane potential in SG neurons, and increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. These results suggest that elevated ROS, especially OH∙, in the spinal cord sensitized dorsal horn neurons and produced hyperalgesia in normal rats. PMID:26457204

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activates ERK in primary sensory neurons and mediates inflammatory heat hyperalgesia through TRPV1 sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhi-Ye; Xu, Haoxing; Clapham, David E; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2004-09-22

    Although the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathway typically regulates cell growth and survival, increasing evidence indicates the involvement of this pathway in neural plasticity. It is unknown whether the PI3K pathway can mediate pain hypersensitivity. Intradermal injection of capsaicin and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their respective TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1) and TrkA receptors on nociceptor sensory nerve terminals. We examined the activation of PI3K in primary sensory DRG neurons by these inflammatory agents and the contribution of PI3K activation to inflammatory pain. We further investigated the correlation between the PI3K and the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) pathway. Capsaicin and NGF induce phosphorylation of the PI3K downstream target AKT (protein kinase B), which is blocked by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, indicative of the activation of PI3K by both agents. ERK activation by capsaicin and NGF was also blocked by PI3K inhibitors. Similarly, intradermal capsaicin in rats activated PI3K and ERK in C-fiber DRG neurons and epidermal nerve fibers. Injection of PI3K or MEK (ERK kinase) inhibitors into the hindpaw attenuated capsaicin- and NGF-evoked heat hyperalgesia but did not change basal heat sensitivity. Furthermore, PI3K, but not ERK, inhibition blocked early induction of hyperalgesia. In acutely dissociated DRG neurons, the capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current was strikingly potentiated by NGF, and this potentiation was completely blocked by PI3K inhibitors and primarily suppressed by MEK inhibitors. Therefore, PI3K induces heat hyperalgesia, possibly by regulating TRPV1 activity, in an ERK-dependent manner. The PI3K pathway also appears to play a role that is distinct from ERK by regulating the early onset of inflammatory pain.

  7. Tetrodotoxin suppresses thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a rat full thickness thermal injury pain model.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margaux M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Petz, Lawrence N; Korz, Walter; Wong, Donald; Clifford, John L

    2015-10-21

    Burn injuries have been identified as the primary cause of injury in 5% of U.S. military personnel evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Severe burn-associated pain is typically treated with opioids such as fentanyl, morphine, and methadone. Side effects of opioids include respiratory depression, cardiac depression, decrease in motor and cognitive function, as well as the development of hyperalgesia, tolerance and dependence. These effects have led us to search for novel analgesics for the treatment of burn-associated pain in wounded combat service members. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical trials as an analgesic. A phase 3 clinical trial for cancer-related pain has been completed and phase 3 clinical trials on chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain are planned. It has also been shown in mice to inhibit the development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. TTX was originally identified as a neurotoxin in marine animals but has now been shown to be safe in humans at therapeutic doses. The antinociceptive effects of TTX are thought to be due to inhibition of Na(+) ion influx required for initiation and conduction of nociceptive impulses. One TTX sensitive sodium channel, Nav1.7, has been shown to be essential in lowering the heat pain threshold after burn injuries. To date, the analgesic effect of TTX has not been tested in burn-associated pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a full thickness thermal injury on the right hind paw. TTX (8 μg/kg) was administered once a day systemically by subcutaneous injection beginning 3 days post thermal injury and continued through 7 days post thermal injury. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were assessed 60 and 120 min post injection on each day of TTX treatment. TTX significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia at all days tested and had a less robust, but statistically significant suppressive effect on mechanical

  8. TRPA1 mediates bladder hyperalgesia in a mouse model of cystitis.

    PubMed

    DeBerry, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Erica S; Davis, Brian M

    2014-07-01

    Urinary bladder pain is a primary symptom associated with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. We used systemic injections of cyclophosphamide (CYP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent, to induce cystitis and examine the roles of 2 channels previously demonstrated to be required for inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia: transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Injection of CYP (100 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 5 days was accompanied by bladder edema and urothelial ulceration, but without significant plasma extravasation or infiltration of neutrophils. Toluidine blue staining showed a significant increase in the number of degranulated bladder mast cells after CYP treatment. Despite this mild pathology, CYP-treated mice exhibited bladder hyperalgesia 1 day after the final injection that persisted 7 days later. Although many previous studies of visceral hyperalgesia have reported changes in dorsal root ganglion neuron TRPV1 expression and/or function, we found no change in bladder afferent TRPV1 expression or sensitivity on the basis of the percentage of bladder afferents responsive to capsaicin, including at submaximal concentrations. In contrast, the percentage of bladder afferents expressing functional TRPA1 protein (i.e., those responsive to mustard oil) increased ∼2.5-fold 1 day after CYP treatment, and remained significantly elevated 7 days later. Moreover, bladder hyperalgesia was reversed by acute treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results indicate that CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia can be induced without robust inflammation or changes in primary afferent TRPV1. However, significant changes were observed in TRPA1 expression, and blockade of TRPA1 alleviated CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia.

  9. The major brain endocannabinoid 2-AG controls neuropathic pain and mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Pellkofer, Hannah L; Havla, Joachim; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; Azad, Shahnaz C; Kuempfel, Tania; Magerl, Walter; Huge, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent myelitis is one of the predominant characteristics in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While paresis, visual loss, sensory deficits, and bladder dysfunction are well known symptoms in NMO patients, pain has been recognized only recently as another key symptom of the disease. Although spinal cord inflammation is a defining aspect of neuromyelitis, there is an almost complete lack of data on altered somatosensory function, including pain. Therefore, eleven consecutive patients with NMO were investigated regarding the presence and clinical characteristics of pain. All patients were examined clinically as well as by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) following the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). Additionally, plasma endocannabinoid levels and signs of chronic stress and depression were determined. Almost all patients (10/11) suffered from NMO-associated neuropathic pain for the last three months, and 8 out of 11 patients indicated relevant pain at the time of examination. Symptoms of neuropathic pain were reported in the vast majority of patients with NMO. Psychological testing revealed signs of marked depression. Compared to age and gender-matched healthy controls, QST revealed pronounced mechanical and thermal sensory loss, strongly correlated to ongoing pain suggesting the presence of deafferentation-induced neuropathic pain. Thermal hyperalgesia correlated to MRI-verified signs of spinal cord lesion. Heat hyperalgesia was highly correlated to the time since last relapse of NMO. Patients with NMO exhibited significant mechanical and thermal dysesthesia, namely dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation. Moreover, they presented frequently with either abnormal mechanical hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia, which depended significantly on plasma levels of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerole (2-AG). These data emphasize the high prevalence of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia in patients

  10. The Major Brain Endocannabinoid 2-AG Controls Neuropathic Pain and Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Pellkofer, Hannah L.; Havla, Joachim; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; Azad, Shahnaz C.; Kuempfel, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent myelitis is one of the predominant characteristics in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While paresis, visual loss, sensory deficits, and bladder dysfunction are well known symptoms in NMO patients, pain has been recognized only recently as another key symptom of the disease. Although spinal cord inflammation is a defining aspect of neuromyelitis, there is an almost complete lack of data on altered somatosensory function, including pain. Therefore, eleven consecutive patients with NMO were investigated regarding the presence and clinical characteristics of pain. All patients were examined clinically as well as by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) following the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). Additionally, plasma endocannabinoid levels and signs of chronic stress and depression were determined. Almost all patients (10/11) suffered from NMO-associated neuropathic pain for the last three months, and 8 out of 11 patients indicated relevant pain at the time of examination. Symptoms of neuropathic pain were reported in the vast majority of patients with NMO. Psychological testing revealed signs of marked depression. Compared to age and gender-matched healthy controls, QST revealed pronounced mechanical and thermal sensory loss, strongly correlated to ongoing pain suggesting the presence of deafferentation-induced neuropathic pain. Thermal hyperalgesia correlated to MRI-verified signs of spinal cord lesion. Heat hyperalgesia was highly correlated to the time since last relapse of NMO. Patients with NMO exhibited significant mechanical and thermal dysesthesia, namely dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation. Moreover, they presented frequently with either abnormal mechanical hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia, which depended significantly on plasma levels of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerole (2-AG). These data emphasize the high prevalence of neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia in patients

  11. CX3CR1 Mediates Nicotine Withdrawal-Induced Hyperalgesia via Microglial P38 MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yonghong; Shi, Wenhui; Xie, Guannan; Yu, Ailan; Wang, Qinghe; Zhang, Zongwang

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported that nicotine withdrawal (NT) significantly increased pain sensitivity in rats. Recent reports suggest that fractalkine is involved in the spinal cord neuron-to-microglia activation via CX3CR1 signaling. However, its contribution to NT-induced hyperalgesia and the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of NT was used to test the changes in CX3CR1 expression in the spinal cord. We also evaluated the effect of the CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody on spinal microglial activity, the expression of phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) and heat-induced pain responses. We established a NT model via subcutaneous injection of pure nicotine (3 mg/kg), three times daily for 7 days. The expression of CX3CR1 was studied by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Following NT, the rats received daily intrathecal injections of CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody for 3 days. The change in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed. The activation of microglia and the expression of p-p38-MAPK were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of CX3CR1 was significantly increased after NT and co-localized with IBA-1. NT rats treated with CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody showed significantly increased PWL on day 4 after NT. Furthermore, the activation of microglia and the expression of p-p38-MAPK in the spinal cord were suppressed. These results indicate that microglial CX3CR1/p38MAPK pathway is critical for the development of pain hypersensitivity after NT.

  12. Negative expectations facilitate mechanical hyperalgesia after high-frequency electrical stimulation of human skin.

    PubMed

    van den Broeke, E N; Geene, N; van Rijn, C M; Wilder-Smith, O H G; Oosterman, J

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of human skin induces not only an increased pain sensitivity in the conditioning area but also an increased pain sensitivity to mechanical punctate stimuli in the non-conditioned surrounding skin area. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this heterotopically increased mechanical pain sensitivity can be facilitated through the induction of negative expectations. In two independent conditions [a nocebo (n = 15) and control condition (n = 15)], we applied mechanical pain stimuli before, directly after, 10 min and 20 min after HFS in the skin area surrounding the conditioning area, and measured the reported pain intensity [visual analogue scale (VAS)]. All subjects (of both conditions) received a written instruction about the HFS protocol, but only the instruction in the nocebo condition was extended by the following text (in Dutch): 'After the HFS, your skin will become more sensitive to the pinprick stimulation'. Our results clearly show that induced expectations of increased mechanical pain sensitivity after HFS facilitates the reported pain intensity after HFS more than when no information is given. This study shows for the first time that brain mechanisms, via the induction of negative expectations, can facilitate heterotopic mechanical hyperalgesia after HFS of human skin. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Effect of Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors on hyperalgesia in rats with CFA-induced inflammation via direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianping; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Huo, Yuping; Chen, Tingjun; Hu, Fenjuan; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2013-11-01

    Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) receptors are exclusively distributed in small-sized neurons in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We investigated the effects of MrgC receptor activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia and its mechanisms. A selective MrgC receptor agonist, bovine adrenal medulla peptide 8-22 (BAM8-22) or melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) or the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist CTAP was administered intrathecally (i.t.) in rats injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in one hindpaw. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed. Neurochemicals were measured by immunocytochemistry, Western blot, ELISA and RT-PCR. CFA injection increased mRNA for MrgC receptors in lumbar DRG. BAM8-22 or MSH, given i.t., generated instant short and delayed long-lasting attenuations of CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. These effects were associated with decreased up-regulation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), CGRP and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn and/or DRG. However, i.t. administration of CTAP blocked the induction by BAM8-22 of delayed anti-hyperalgesia and inhibition of nNOS and CGRP expression in DRG. BAM8-22 also increased mRNA for MORs and pro-opiomelanocortin, along with β-endorphin content in the lumbar spinal cord and/or DRG. MrgC receptors and nNOS were co-localized in DRG neurons. Activation of MrgC receptors suppressed up-regulation of pronociceptive mediators and consequently inhibited inflammatory pain, because of the activation of up-regulated MrgC receptors and subsequent endogenous activity at MORs. The uniquely distributed MrgC receptors could be a novel target for relieving inflammatory pain. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Effect of Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors on hyperalgesia in rats with CFA-induced inflammation via direct and indirect mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianping; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Huo, Yuping; Chen, Tingjun; Hu, Fenjuan; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) receptors are exclusively distributed in small-sized neurons in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We investigated the effects of MrgC receptor activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia and its mechanisms. Experimental Approach A selective MrgC receptor agonist, bovine adrenal medulla peptide 8-22 (BAM8-22) or melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) or the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist CTAP was administered intrathecally (i.t.) in rats injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in one hindpaw. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed. Neurochemicals were measured by immunocytochemistry, Western blot, ELISA and RT-PCR. Key Results CFA injection increased mRNA for MrgC receptors in lumbar DRG. BAM8-22 or MSH, given i.t., generated instant short and delayed long-lasting attenuations of CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. These effects were associated with decreased up-regulation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), CGRP and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn and/or DRG. However, i.t. administration of CTAP blocked the induction by BAM8-22 of delayed anti-hyperalgesia and inhibition of nNOS and CGRP expression in DRG. BAM8-22 also increased mRNA for MORs and pro-opiomelanocortin, along with β-endorphin content in the lumbar spinal cord and/or DRG. MrgC receptors and nNOS were co-localized in DRG neurons. Conclusions and Implications Activation of MrgC receptors suppressed up-regulation of pronociceptive mediators and consequently inhibited inflammatory pain, because of the activation of up-regulated MrgC receptors and subsequent endogenous activity at MORs. The uniquely distributed MrgC receptors could be a novel target for relieving inflammatory pain. PMID:23909597

  15. The effect of intrathecal gabapentin on mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats induced by spinal nerve ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Duck Hwan; Lee, Jung Il; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo

    2002-01-01

    Gabapentin decreases the level of glutamate and elevates that of alpha-amino-butyric acid in the central nervous system. Gabapentin was shown to have antinociceptive effects in several facilitated pain models. Intrathecal gabapentin was also known to be effective in reducing mechanical allodynia in animals with neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated to see whether intrathecal gabapentin produces antihyperalgesic effects on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats and whether its effects are associated with motor impairment. To induce neuropathic pain in Sprague-Dawley rats, left L5 and L6 spinal nerves were ligated. After a week, lumbar catheterization into subarachnoid space was performed. Then, paw withdrawal times to thermal stimuli and vocalization thresholds to paw pressure were determined before and up to 2 hr after intrathecal injection of gabapentin. Also, motor functions including performance times on rota-rod were determined. Intrathecal gabapentin attenuated significantly thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats, but did not block thermal and mechanical nociception in sham-operated rats. Intrathecal gabapentin of antihyperalgesic doses inhibited motor coordination performance without evident ambulatory dysfunction. This study demonstrates that intrathecal gabapentin is effective against thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, in spite of moderate impairment of motor coordination. PMID:11961308

  16. Kinin Receptors Sensitize TRPV4 Channel and Induce Mechanical Hyperalgesia: Relevance to Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Robson; Bicca, Maíra A; Manjavachi, Marianne N; Segat, Gabriela C; Dias, Fabiana Chaves; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Calixto, João B

    2017-03-10

    Kinin B1 (B1R) and B2 receptors (B2R) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel are known to play a critical role in the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel (PTX) in rodents. However, the downstream pathways activated by kinin receptors as well as the sensitizers of the TRPV4 channel involved in this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigated whether kinins sensitize TRPV4 channels in order to maintain PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. The mechanical hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (BK, a B2R agonist) or des-Arg(9)-BK (DABK, a B1R agonist) was inhibited by the selective TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. Additionally, BK was able to sensitize TRPV4, thus contributing to mechanical hyperalgesia. This response was dependent on phospholipase C/protein kinase C (PKC) activation. The selective kinin B1R (des-Arg(9)-[Leu(8)]-bradykinin) and B2R (HOE 140) antagonists reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PTX, with efficacies and time response profiles similar to those observed for the TRPV4 antagonist (HC-067047). Additionally, both kinin receptor antagonists inhibited the overt nociception induced by hypotonic solution in PTX-injected animals. The same animals presented lower PKCε levels in skin and dorsal root ganglion samples. The selective PKCε inhibitor (εV1-2) reduced the hypotonicity-induced overt nociception in PTX-treated mice with the same magnitude observed for the kinin receptor antagonists. These findings suggest that B1R or B2R agonists sensitize TRPV4 channels to induce mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. This mechanism of interaction may contribute to PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy through the activation of PKCε. We suggest these targets represent new opportunities for the development of effective analgesics to treat chronic pain.

  17. Involvement of spinal glutamate transporter-1 in the development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinshan; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhaoduan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of the development of type 2 diabetes on glutamate homeostasis in the spinal cord. Therefore, we quantified the extracellular levels of glutamate in the spinal cord of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats using in vivo microdialysis. In addition, protein levels of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in the spinal cord of ZDF rats were measured using Western blot. Finally, the effects of repeated intrathecal injections of ceftriaxone, which was previously shown to enhance GLT-1 expression, on the development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as on basal extracellular level of glutamate and the expression of GLT-1 in the spinal cord of ZDF rats were evaluated. It was found that ZDF rats developed mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, which were associated with increased basal extracellular levels of glutamate and attenuated levels of GLT-1 expression in the spinal cord, particularly in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, repeated intrathecal administrations of ceftriaxone dose-dependently prevented the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia in ZDF rats, which were correlated with enhanced GLT-1 expression without altering the basal glutamate levels in the spinal cord of ZDF rats. Overall, the results suggested that impaired glutamate reuptake in the spinal cord may contribute to the development of neuropathic pains in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27932896

  18. Ischemic compression block attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia evoked from latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Ding, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Jing; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that large-diameter myelinated muscle afferents contribute to the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The ischemic compression blockage (ICB) of large-diameter myelinated muscle afferents was obtained with a 7-cm-wide tourniquet applied around the upper arm proximal to the brachioradialis muscle in 20 healthy subjects. This study consisted of two randomized sessions with an interval of 1 week in between each session. In one session, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure threshold for eliciting referred pain (PTRP) were measured at an MTrP region in the brachioradialis muscle in one forearm. In another session, PPT was measured at a non-MTrP region in the brachioradialis muscle of the contralateral forearm at the time of pre-compression, 20 min following compression, and 10 min after decompression. The results showed that ICB, which mainly blocks large-diameter myelinated muscle afferents, was associated with an increase in PPT and PTRP (all P < 0.001) at MTrP regions but not at non-MTrP regions. These results suggest that large-diameter muscle afferents may be involved in pain and mechanical hyperalgesia at MTrPs.

  19. Assessment of Morphine-induced Hyperalgesia and Analgesic Tolerance in Mice Using Thermal and Mechanical Nociceptive Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Elhabazi, Khadija; Ayachi, Safia; Ilien, Brigitte; Simonin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance severely impact the clinical efficacy of opiates as pain relievers in animals and humans. The molecular mechanisms underlying both phenomena are not well understood and their elucidation should benefit from the study of animal models and from the design of appropriate experimental protocols. We describe here a methodological approach for inducing, recording and quantifying morphine-induced hyperalgesia as well as for evidencing analgesic tolerance, using the tail-immersion and tail pressure tests in wild-type mice. As shown in the video, the protocol is divided into five sequential steps. Handling and habituation phases allow a safe determination of the basal nociceptive response of the animals. Chronic morphine administration induces significant hyperalgesia as shown by an increase in both thermal and mechanical sensitivity, whereas the comparison of analgesia time-courses after acute or repeated morphine treatment clearly indicates the development of tolerance manifested by a decline in analgesic response amplitude. This protocol may be similarly adapted to genetically modified mice in order to evaluate the role of individual genes in the modulation of nociception and morphine analgesia. It also provides a model system to investigate the effectiveness of potential therapeutic agents to improve opiate analgesic efficacy. PMID:25145878

  20. Nerve growth factor and associated nerve sprouting contribute to local mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of bone injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, M; Shiraishi, Y; Ozaki, N; Hayashi, K; Hori, K; Ichiyanagi, M; Sugiura, Y

    2012-08-01

    To clarify the mechanism of tenderness after bone injury, we investigated changes in the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, nerve distribution and nerve growth factor (NGF)-expression in a rat model of bone injury without immobilization for bone injury healing. Rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1) rats incised in the skin and periosteum, followed by drilling a hole in the tibia [bone lesion group (BLG)]; (2) those incised in the skin and periosteum without bone drilling [periosteum lesion group (PLG)]; and (3) those incised in the skin [skin lesion group (SLG)]. Mechanical hyperalgesia continued for 28 days at a lesion in the BLG, 21 days in PLG and 5 days in SLG after treatments, respectively. Endochondral ossification was observed on days 5-28 in BLG and on days 5-21 in PLG. Nerve growth appeared in deep connective tissue (DCT) at day 28 in BLG. Nerve fibres increased in both cutaneous tissue and DCT at day 7 in PLG, but they were not found at day 28. Mechanical hyperalgesia accompanied with endochondral ossification and nerve fibres increasing at the lesion in both BLG and PLG. NGF was expressed in bone-regenerating cells during the bone injury healing. Anti-NGF and trk inhibitor K252a inhibited hyperalgesia in the different time course. This study shows that localized tenderness coincides with the bone healing and involves NGF expression and nerve sprouting after bone injury. The findings present underlying mechanisms and provide pathophysiological relevance of local tenderness to determination of bone fracture and its healing.

  1. The relationship of bone-tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression to mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity in intact female and ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Smeester, B A; O'Brien, E E; Michlitsch, K S; Lee, J-H; Beitz, A J

    2016-06-02

    Recently, our group established a relationship between tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and the development of bone tumor nociception in male mice. As an extension of this work, we now report on the association of tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity to changes in spinal cord dorsal horn GFAP and aromatase expression in intact (INT) female mice and the effect of ovariectomy on these parameters. Implantation of fibrosarcoma cells produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia in INT animals, while ovariectomized (OVX) females had significantly less mechanical hyperalgesia. Cold hypersensitivity was apparent by post-implantation day 7 in INT and OVX females compared to their saline-injected controls and increased throughout the experiment. The decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia in OVX females was mirrored by significant decreases in spinal astrocyte activity in laminae I-II, III-IV, V-VI and X and aromatase expression in laminae V-VI and X in the dorsal horn of tumor-bearing animals. Administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole reduced tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT females only suggesting that the tumor-induced increase in aromatase expression and its associated increase in spinal estrogen play a role in the development of bone tumor-induced hyperalgesia. Finally, intrathecal (i.t.) administration of 17β-estradiol caused a significant increase in tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT tumor-bearing females. Since i.t. 17β-estradiol increases tumor pain and ovariectomy significantly decreases tumor pain, as well as spinal aromatase, estrogen may play a critical role in the spinal cord response to the changing tumor environment and the development of tumor-induced nociception.

  2. The TrkA receptor mediates experimental thermal hyperalgesia produced by nerve growth factor: Modulation by the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Khodorova, Alla; Nicol, Grant D; Strichartz, Gary

    2017-01-06

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and its activation of the sphingomyelin signaling cascade are essential for mechanical hypersensitivity resulting from locally injected nerve growth factor (NGF). Here the roles of the same effectors, and of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor, are evaluated for thermal hyperalgesia from NGF. Sensitivity of rat hind paw plantar skin to thermal stimulation after local sub-cutaneous injection of NGF (500ng) was measured by the latency for paw withdrawal (PWL) from a radiant heat source. PWL was reduced from baseline values at 0.5-22h by ∼40% from that in naïve or vehicle-injected rats, and recovered to pre-injection levels by 48h. Local pre-injection with a p75(NTR) blocking antibody did not affect the acute thermal hyperalgesia (0.5-3.5h) but hastened its recovery so that it had reversed to baseline by 22h. In addition, GW4869 (2mM), an inhibitor of the neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) that is an enzyme in the p75(NTR) pathway, also failed to prevent thermal hyperalgesia. However, C2-ceramide, an analog of the ceramide produced by sphingomyelinase, did cause thermal hyperalgesia. Injection of an anti-TrkA antibody known to promote dimerization and activation of that receptor, independent of NGF, also caused thermal hyperalgesia, and prevented the further reduction of PWL from subsequently injected NGF. A non-specific inhibitor of tropomyosin receptor kinases, K252a, prevented thermal hyperalgesia from NGF, but not that from the anti-TrkA antibody. These findings suggest that the TrkA receptor has a predominant role in thermal hypersensitivity induced by NGF, while p75(NTR) and its pathway intermediates serve a modulatory role.

  3. Do Australian Football players have sensitive groins? Players with current groin pain exhibit mechanical hyperalgesia of the adductor tendon.

    PubMed

    Drew, Michael K; Lovell, Gregory; Palsson, Thorvaldur S; Chiarelli, Pauline E; Osmotherly, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity, clinical classifications and prevalence of groin pain in Australian football players. Case-control. Professional (n=66) and semi-professional (n=9) Australian football players with and without current or previous groin injuries were recruited. Diagnoses were mapped to the Doha Agreement taxonomy. Point and career prevalence of groin pain was calculated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at regional and distant sites using handheld pressure algometry across four sites bilaterally (adductor longus tendon, pubic bone, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior muscle). To assess the relationship between current groin pain and fixed effects of hyperalgesia of each site and a history of groin pain, a mixed-effect logistic regression model was utilised. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve were determined for the model. Point prevalence of groin pain in the preseason was 21.9% with a career prevalence of 44.8%. Adductor-related groin pain was the most prevalent classification in the pre-season period. Hyperalgesia was observed in the adductor longus tendon site in athletes with current groin pain (OR=16.27, 95% CI 1.86 to 142.02). The ROC area under the curve of the regression model was fair (AUC=0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83). Prevalence data indicates that groin pain is a larger issue than published incidence rates imply. Adductor-related groin pain is the most common diagnosis in pre-season in this population. This study has shown that hyperalgesia exists in Australian football players experiencing groin pain indicating the value of assessing mechanical pain sensitivity as a component of the clinical assessment. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells Improves Mechanical Hyperalgesia, Cold Allodynia and Nerve Function in Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Funakubo, Megumi; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, BM-MNCs or vehicle saline were injected into the unilateral hind limb muscles. Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in SD rats were measured as the number of foot withdrawals to von Frey hair stimulation and acetone application, respectively. Two weeks after the BM-MNC transplantation, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), mRNA expressions and histology were assessed. The BM-MNC transplantation significantly ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in the BM-MNC-injected side. Furthermore, the slowed MNCV/SNCV and decreased SNBF in diabetic rats were improved in the BM-MNC-injected side. BM-MNC transplantation improved the decreased mRNA expression of NT-3 and number of microvessels in the hind limb muscles. There was no distinct effect of BM-MNC transplantation on the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. These results suggest that autologous transplantation of BM-MNCs could be a novel strategy for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125614

  5. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells improves mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and nerve function in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Keiko; Sato, Jun; Funakubo, Megumi; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, BM-MNCs or vehicle saline were injected into the unilateral hind limb muscles. Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in SD rats were measured as the number of foot withdrawals to von Frey hair stimulation and acetone application, respectively. Two weeks after the BM-MNC transplantation, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), mRNA expressions and histology were assessed. The BM-MNC transplantation significantly ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in the BM-MNC-injected side. Furthermore, the slowed MNCV/SNCV and decreased SNBF in diabetic rats were improved in the BM-MNC-injected side. BM-MNC transplantation improved the decreased mRNA expression of NT-3 and number of microvessels in the hind limb muscles. There was no distinct effect of BM-MNC transplantation on the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. These results suggest that autologous transplantation of BM-MNCs could be a novel strategy for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  6. Differential effects of lidocaine on nerve growth factor (NGF)-evoked heat- and mechanical hyperalgesia in humans.

    PubMed

    Weinkauf, B; Obreja, O; Schmelz, M; Rukwied, R

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects of a non-specific sodium channel blocker (lidocaine) on heat pain thresholds and mechanical impact pain at day 7 and 21 after intradermal injection of 1 μg NGF. Measurements were performed in 12 healthy male subjects prior to and 5 min after intradermal injection of 150 μl lidocaine administered at concentrations of 0.01% (∼0.4 mM) and 0.1% (∼4 mM) to both NGF and control skin sites. NGF caused a maximum reduction of heat pain thresholds at day 7 (NGF 42.6 ± 0.6 vs. 49.4 ± 0.3 °C in control skin). Lidocaine sensitized normal skin for heat pain, but reduced heat hyperalgesia after NGF at day 7 (44.3 ± 0.8 °C, lidocaine 0.1%; p < 0.005). Pain upon supra-threshold mechanical impact stimulation was increased after NGF at day 7 (VAS 29 + 5) and massively enhanced at day 21 (VAS 64 + 5, p < 0.001). Lidocaine dose-dependently attenuated mechanically-induced pain at both control and NGF-treated sites. Maximum lidocaine effects on mechanical hyperalgesia were recorded at day 21 in NGF skin (pain reduction to VAS 37 ± 4, p < 0.00001). Repetitive impact stimuli caused increasingly more pain at the NGF sites at day 21 and this pain increase was efficiently suppressed by lidocaine 0.1%. Lidocaine differentially affects NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia (analgesic effect) and heat sensitivity of nociceptors (sensitizing effect). These opposing responses may be attributed to block of sodium channels vs. sensitization of TRPV1. NGF-evoked extreme mechanical impact pain indicates high action potential discharge frequencies, which might be more susceptible to lidocaine block. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  7. Advanced oxidation protein products sensitized the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 via NADPH oxidase 1 and 4 to cause mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ruoting; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Baihui; Wu, Xiaoliang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Liao, Congrui; Zhong, Zhaoming; Chen, Jianting

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a possible pathogenesis of hyperalgesia. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a new family of oxidized protein compounds, have been considered as a novel marker of oxidative stress. However, the role of AOPPs in the mechanism of hyperalgesia remains unknown. Our study aims to investigate whether AOPPs have an effect on hyperalgesia and the possible underlying mechanisms. To identify the AOPPs involved, we induced hyperalgesia in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in hindpaw. The level of plasma AOPPs in CFA-induced rats was 1.6-fold in comparison with what in normal rats (P<0.05). After intravenous injection of AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in Sprague-Dawley rats, the paw mechanical thresholds, measured by the electronic von Frey system, significantly declined. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that AOPPs increased expressions of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) tissues. In-vitro studies were performed on primary DRG neurons which were obtained from both thoracic and lumbar DRG of rats. Results indicated that AOPPs triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in DRG neurons, which were significantly abolished by ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and small-interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of Nox1 or Nox4. The expressions of Nox1, Nox4, TRPV1 and CGRP were significantly increased in AOPPs-induced DRG neurons. And relevant siRNA or inhibitors notably suppressed the expressions of these proteins and the calcium influxes in AOPPs-induced DRG neurons. In conclusion, AOPPs increased significantly in CFA-induced hyperalgesia rats and they activated Nox1/Nox4-ROS to sensitize TRPV1-dependent Ca2+ influx and CGRP release which led to inducing mechanical hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Peripheral gene expression profile of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated cold stress in SHRSP5/Dmcr rats.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Yasuko; Umetsu, Rena; Mizukami, Yukako; Yamamura, Aya; Kitamori, Kazuya; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Ikeda, Katsumi; Yamori, Yukio

    2015-09-01

    Repeated cold stress (RCS) is known to transiently induce functional disorders associated with hypotension and hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the effects of RCS (24 and 4 °C alternately at 30-min intervals during the day and 4 °C at night for 2 days, followed by 4 °C on the next 2 consecutive nights) on the thresholds for cutaneous mechanical pain responses and on peripheral expression of "pain-related genes" in SHRSP5/Dmcr rats, which are derived from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. To define genes peripherally regulated by RCS, we detected changes in the expression of pain-related genes in dorsal root ganglion cells by PCR-based cDNA subtraction analysis or DNA microarray analysis, and confirmed the changes by RT-PCR. We found significantly changed expression in eight pain-related genes (upregulated: Fyn, St8sia1, and Tac 1; downregulated: Ctsb, Fstl1, Itpr1, Npy, S100a10). At least some of these genes may play key roles in hyperalgesia induced by RCS.

  9. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Russo, Andrew F; Hammond, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether mice with a deficiency of neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein, exhibit a nociceptive phenotype and probed a possible contribution by calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the absence of inflammation, Nf1+/- mice (B6.129S6 Nf1/J) and wild type littermates responded comparably to heat or mechanical stimuli, except for a subtle enhanced mechanical sensitivity in female Nf1+/- mice. Nociceptive phenotype was also examined after inflammation induced by capsaicin and formalin, which release endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin evoked comparable heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in Nf1+/- and wild type mice of both genders. Formalin injection caused a similar duration of licking in male Nf1+/- and wild type mice. Female Nf1+/- mice licked less than wild type mice, but displayed other nociceptive behaviors. In contrast, intraplantar injection of CGRP caused greater heat hyperalgesia in Nf1+/- mice of both genders compared to wild type mice. Male Nf1+/- mice also exhibited greater mechanical hypersensitivity; however, female Nf1+/- mice exhibited less mechanical hypersensitivity than their wild type littermates. Transcripts for calcitonin gene-related peptide were similar in the dorsal root ganglia of both genotypes and genders. Transcripts for receptor activity-modifying protein-1, which is rate-limiting for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, in the spinal cord were comparable for both genotypes and genders. The increased responsiveness to intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide suggests that the peripheral actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide are enhanced as a result of the neurofibromin deficit. The analgesic efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists may therefore merit investigation in neurofibromatosis patients.

  10. Heat Hyperalgesia and Mechanical Hypersensitivity Induced by Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in a Mouse Model of Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie; Marquez de Prado, Blanca; Russo, Andrew F.; Hammond, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether mice with a deficiency of neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase activating protein, exhibit a nociceptive phenotype and probed a possible contribution by calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the absence of inflammation, Nf1+/− mice (B6.129S6 Nf1/J) and wild type littermates responded comparably to heat or mechanical stimuli, except for a subtle enhanced mechanical sensitivity in female Nf1+/− mice. Nociceptive phenotype was also examined after inflammation induced by capsaicin and formalin, which release endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin evoked comparable heat hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in Nf1+/− and wild type mice of both genders. Formalin injection caused a similar duration of licking in male Nf1+/− and wild type mice. Female Nf1+/− mice licked less than wild type mice, but displayed other nociceptive behaviors. In contrast, intraplantar injection of CGRP caused greater heat hyperalgesia in Nf1+/− mice of both genders compared to wild type mice. Male Nf1+/− mice also exhibited greater mechanical hypersensitivity; however, female Nf1+/− mice exhibited less mechanical hypersensitivity than their wild type littermates. Transcripts for calcitonin gene-related peptide were similar in the dorsal root ganglia of both genotypes and genders. Transcripts for receptor activity-modifying protein-1, which is rate-limiting for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, in the spinal cord were comparable for both genotypes and genders. The increased responsiveness to intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide suggests that the peripheral actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide are enhanced as a result of the neurofibromin deficit. The analgesic efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists may therefore merit investigation in neurofibromatosis patients. PMID:25184332

  11. The critical role of leukotriene B4 in antigen-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in immunised rats

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Joice Maria; Sachs, Daniela; Canetti, Claudio Azevedo; Poole, Stephen; Ferreira, Sérgio Henrique; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the mediators responsible for mechanical hypersensitivity induced by antigen challenge in rats immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). Challenge with OVA (12.5–100 μg, intraplantar) caused a dose- and time-dependent mechanical hypersensitivity, which peaked 3 h after, decreased thereafter and reached control levels 24 h later. Levels of TNFα, IL-1β and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) were increased in paw skin after antigen challenge. OVA-evoked hypersensitivity was partially inhibited (about 51%) by pretreatment with anti-TNFα , IL-1β and IL-8 sera or with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), but not anti-NGF serum. Pretreatment with thalidomide (45 mg kg−1) or pentoxifylline (100 mg kg−1) also partially inhibited the hypersensitivity at 1–3 h after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg kg−1) or atenolol (1 mg kg−1) reduced the OVA-induced hypersensitivity at 1 and 3 h, but not at 5 h after challenge, while the combination of B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor antagonists was ineffective over the same times. Pretreatment with MK886 (5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor, 3 mg kg−1), CP 105696 (LTB4 receptor antagonist; 3 mg kg−1) or dexamethasone (0.5 mg kg−1) inhibited the hypersensitivity from 1 to 5 h. Furthermore, LTB4 levels were increased in the paw skin of challenged rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that the TNFα-, IL-1β- and CINC-1-driven release of prostaglandins, sympathetic amines and LTB4 mediates the first 3 h of mechanical hypersensitivity induced by antigen challenge in rats. At 5 h after OVA administration, although TNFα has some role, LTB4 is the critical nociceptive mediator. PMID:12871832

  12. Phosphorylation of CREB and mechanical hyperalgesia is reversed by blockade of the cAMP pathway in a time-dependent manner after repeated intramuscular acid injections.

    PubMed

    Hoeger-Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2003-07-02

    Spinal activation of the cAMP pathway produces mechanical hyperalgesia, sensitizes nociceptive spinal neurons, and phosphorylates the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which initiates gene transcription. This study examined the role of the cAMP pathway in a model of chronic muscle pain by assessing associated behavioral changes and phosphorylation of CREB. Bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia of the paw was induced by administering two injections of acidic saline, 5 d apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. Interestingly, the increases in immunoreactivity for CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn occur 24 hr, but not 1 week, after the second injection of acidic saline compared with pH 7.2 intramuscular injections. Spinal blockade of adenylate cyclase prevents the expected increase in p-CREB that occurs after intramuscular acid injection. The reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia by adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A inhibitors spinally follows a similar pattern with reversal at 24 hr, but not 1 week, compared with the vehicle controls. The p-CREB immunoreactivity in the superficial dorsal horn correlates with the mechanical withdrawal threshold such that increases in p-CREB are associated with decreases in threshold. Therefore, activation of the cAMP pathway in the spinal cord phosphorylates CREB and produces mechanical hyperalgesia associated with intramuscular acid injections. The mechanical hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of CREB depend on early activation of the cAMP pathway during the first 24 hr but are independent of the cAMP pathway by 1 week after intramuscular injection of acid.

  13. Inflammation enhances Y1 receptor signaling, neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of hyperalgesia, and substance P release from primary afferent neurons

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Bradley K.; Fu, Weisi; Kuphal, Karen E.; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Winter, Michelle K.; Chen, Wenling; Corder, Gregory F.; Urban, Janice H.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Marvizon, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and inhibits spinal nociceptive processing, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-hyperalgesic actions are unclear. We hypothesized that NPY acts at neuropeptide Y1 receptors in dorsal horn to decrease nociception by inhibiting substance P (SP) release, and that these effects are enhanced by inflammation. To evaluate SP release, we used microdialysis and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in rat. NPY decreased capsaicin-evoked SP-like immunoreactivity in microdialysate of the dorsal horn. NPY also decreased non-noxious stimulus (paw brush)-evoked NK1R internalization (as well as mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical and cold allodynia) after intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Similarly, in rat spinal cord slices with dorsal root attached, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY inhibited dorsal root stimulus-evoked NK1R internalization. In rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, Y1 receptors colocalized extensively with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In dorsal horn neurons, Y1 receptors were extensively expressed and this may have masked detection of terminal co-localization with CGRP or SP. To determine whether the pain inhibitory actions of Y1 receptors are enhanced by inflammation, we administered [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY after intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rat. We found that [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY reduced paw clamp-induced NK1R internalization in CFA rats but not uninjured controls. To determine the contribution of increased Y1 receptor-G protein coupling, we measured [35S]GTPγS binding simulated by [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY in mouse dorsal horn. CFA inflammation increased the affinity of Y1 receptor G-protein coupling. We conclude that Y1 receptors contribute to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of NPY by mediating inhibition of SP release, and that Y1 receptor signaling in the dorsal horn is enhanced during inflammatory nociception. PMID:24184981

  14. Analgesic Effect of Photobiomodulation on Bothrops Moojeni Venom-Induced Hyperalgesia: A Mechanism Dependent on Neuronal Inhibition, Cytokines and Kinin Receptors Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Victoria Regina da Silva; Toniolo, Elaine Flamia; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; da Silva Jr., José Antonio; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-01-01

    Background Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice. Mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia were evaluated by von Frey filaments at different time points after venom injection. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied at the site of Bmv injection at wavelength of red 685 nm with energy density of 2.2 J/cm2 at 30 min and 3 h after venom inoculation. Neuronal activation in the dorsal horn spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry of Fos protein and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, B1 and B2 kinin receptors were evaluated by Real time-PCR 6 h after venom injection. Photobiomodulation reversed Bmv-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia and decreased Fos expression, induced by Bmv as well as the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and B1 and B2 kinin receptors. Finally, an increase on IL-10, was observed following LLLT. Conclusion/Significance These data demonstrate that LLLT interferes with mechanisms involved in nociception and hyperalgesia and modulates Bmv-induced nociceptive signal. The use of photobiomodulation in reducing local pain induced by Bothropic venoms should be considered as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of local symptoms induced after bothropic snakebites. PMID:27749899

  15. Sex differences in hypothalamic-mediated tonic norepinephrine release for thermal hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Banerjee, T; Jeong, Y; Holden, J E

    2016-06-02

    Neuropathic pain is treated using serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with mixed results. Pain facilitation mediated by α1-adrenoceptors may be involved, but whether norepinephrine (NE) is tonically released is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether NE is tonically released from A7 cells following chronic constriction injury (CCI), and if the lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays a role in this release in male and female rats with nociceptive and neuropathic pain types. Neuropathic groups received left CCI while nociceptive groups remained naïve to injury. Fourteen days later, rats were given intrathecal infusion of either the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (74 μg), or normal saline for control. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) from a thermal stimulus was measured. The generalized estimated equation method was used for statistical analysis. Nociceptive rats given WB4101 had a PWL significantly longer than saline control (7.89 ± 0.63 vs. 5.87 ± 0.52 s), while the PWL of neuropathic rats given WB4101 was 13.20 ± 0.52 s compared to 6.78 ± 0.52 s for the saline control rats. Yohimbine had no significant effect. Microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl) in the A7 catecholamine cell group to prevent synaptic transmission blocked the effect of WB4101 in all groups, supporting the notion that spinally descending A7 cells tonically release NE that contributes to α1-mediated nociceptive facilitation. Microinjection of CoCl into the left LH blocked the effect of WB4101 in nociceptive and neuropathic male rats, but had no effect in female rats of either pain type, suggesting differential innervation. These findings indicate that tonic release of NE acts at pronociceptive α1-adrenoceptors, that this effect is greater in rats with nerve damage, and that, while NE comes primarily from the A7 cell group, LH innervation of the A7 cell group is different between the sexes. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by

  16. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the hyperalgesia to noxious mechanical stimulation induced by the application of a tourniquet to a forelimb of sheep.

    PubMed

    Welsh, E M; Nolan, A M

    1994-11-01

    A tourniquet was used in conjunction with a mechanical threshold testing device to investigate the suitability of the technique for the investigation of analgesic drugs in sheep. The changes to the mechanical thresholds to noxious stimulation during and after the inflation of a pneumatic tourniquet on a limb were recorded, and the influence of pre-treatment with two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was studied. Fentanyl, an opioid agonist with known analgesic properties in sheep, was used as a positive control. The tourniquet significantly reduced the mechanical thresholds on the ipsi- but not the contralateral limb. Pretreatment with either flunixin meglumine or carprofen attenuated the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, and fentanyl initially caused a significant anti-nociceptive effect. The time to aversion was not significantly different between the treatments. These results suggest that hyperalgesia induced by a tourniquet may be a useful technique for the investigation of the anti-nociceptive effects of analgesic drugs in sheep.

  17. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P < 0.01), and immunohistochemistry with Neurofilament 200 indicated more myelinated afferents existed in MTrSs (P < 0.01). Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) recordings at MTrSs showed that specific block of myelinated afferents in sciatic nerve with tetrodotoxin (TTX) led to significantly decreased SEA (P < 0.05). Behavioral assessment showed that mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Block of myelinated afferents by intramuscular TTX injection increased MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P < 0.01), while MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P < 0.05) and then increased (P > 0.05). 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs.

  18. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P < 0.01), and immunohistochemistry with Neurofilament 200 indicated more myelinated afferents existed in MTrSs (P < 0.01). Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) recordings at MTrSs showed that specific block of myelinated afferents in sciatic nerve with tetrodotoxin (TTX) led to significantly decreased SEA (P < 0.05). Behavioral assessment showed that mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Block of myelinated afferents by intramuscular TTX injection increased MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P < 0.01), while MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P < 0.05) and then increased (P > 0.05). 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs. PMID:26064165

  19. Pulsed radiofrequency reduced complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia via the spinal c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hung; Yang, Chien-Hui; Juang, Sin-Ei; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey; Lin, Chung-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment involves the pulsed application of a radiofrequency electric field to a nerve. The technology offers pain relief for patients suffering from chronic pain who do not respond well to conventional treatments. We tested whether PRF treatment attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain. The profile of spinal c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) phosphorylation was evaluated to elucidate the potential mechanism. Injection of CFA into the unilateral hind paw of rats induced mechanical hyperalgesia in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hind paws. We administered 500-kHz PRF treatment in 20-ms pulses, at a rate of 2 Hz (2 pulses per second) either to the sciatic nerve in the mid-thigh, or to the L4 anterior primary ramus just distal to the intervertebral foramen in both the CFA group and no-PRF group rats. Tissue samples were examined at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days following PRF treatments. Behavioral studies showed that PRF applied close to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) significantly attenuated CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia compared to no-PRF group (P < .05). And western blotting revealed significant attenuation of the activation of JNK in the spinal dorsal horn compared to no-PRF group animals (P < .05). Application of PRF close to DRG provides an effective treatment for CFA-induced persistent mechanical hyperalgesia by attenuating JNK activation in the spinal dorsal horn.

  20. Effects of distal nerve injuries on dorsal-horn neurons and glia: relationships between lesion size and mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Siegel, S M; Oaklander, A L

    2009-01-23

    Penetrating limb injuries are common and usually heal without long-lasting effects, even when nerves are cut. However, rare nerve-injury patients develop prolonged and disabling chronic pain (neuralgia). When pain severity is disproportionate to severity of the inciting injury, physicians and insurers may suspect exaggeration and limit care or benefits, although the nature of the relationship between lesion-size and the development and persistence of neuralgia remains largely unknown. We compared cellular changes in the spinal dorsal-horn (the initial CNS pain-processing area) after partial or total tibial-nerve axotomies in male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine if these changes are proportional to the numbers of peripheral axons cut. Unoperated rats provided controls. Plantar hind-paw responses to touch, pin, and cold were quantitated bilaterally to identify hyperalgesic rats. We also compared data from nerve-injured rats with or without hyperalgesic responses to mechanical hind-paw stimulation to evaluate concordance between pain behaviors and dorsal-horn cellular changes. Hyperalgesia was no less prevalent or severe after partial than after total axotomy. L(5) spinal-cord sections from rats killed 7 days postoperatively were labeled for markers of primary afferents (substance P calcitonin gene-related peptide isolectin B4, gamma aminobutyric acid, and glial fibrillary acidic protein), then labeled cells were stereologically quantitated in somatotopically defined dorsal-horn regions. Total axotomy reduced markers of primary afferents more than partial axotomy. In contrast, GABA-immunoreactive profiles were similarly reduced after both lesions, and in rats with sensory loss versus hyperalgesia. Numbers of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes increased independently of lesion size and pain status. Small nerve injuries can thus have magnified and disproportionate effects on dorsal-horn neurons and glia, perhaps providing a biological correlate for the disproportionate

  1. Effects of Distal Nerve Injuries on Dorsal-Horn Neurons and Glia: Relationships Between Lesion Size and Mechanical Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. W.; Siegel, S. M.; Oaklander, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Penetrating limb injuries are common and usually heal without long-lasting effects, even when nerves are cut. However, rare nerve-injury patients develop prolonged and disabling chronic pain (neuralgia). When pain severity is disproportionate to severity of the inciting injury, physicians and insurers may suspect exaggeration and limit care or benefits, although the nature of the relationship between lesion-size and the development and persistence of neuralgia remains largely unknown. We compared cellular changes in the spinal dorsal-horn (the initial CNS pain-processing area) after partial or total tibial-nerve axotomies in male Sprague–Dawley rats to determine if these changes are proportional to the numbers of peripheral axons cut. Unoperated rats provided controls. Plantar hind-paw responses to touch, pin, and cold were quantitated bilaterally to identify hyperalgesic rats. We also compared data from nerve-injured rats with or without hyperalgesic responses to mechanical hind-paw stimulation to evaluate concordance between pain behaviors and dorsal-horn cellular changes. Hyperalgesia was no less prevalent or severe after partial than after total axotomy. L5 spinal-cord sections from rats killed 7 days postoperatively were labeled for markers of primary afferents (substance P calcitonin gene-related peptide isolectin B4, gamma aminobutyric acid, and glial fibrillary acidic protein), then labeled cells were stereologically quantitated in somatotopically defined dorsal-horn regions. Total axotomy reduced markers of primary afferents more than partial axotomy. In contrast, GABA-immunoreactive profiles were similarly reduced after both lesions, and in rats with sensory loss versus hyperalgesia. Numbers of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes increased independently of lesion size and pain status. Small nerve injuries can thus have magnified and disproportionate effects on dorsal-horn neurons and glia, perhaps providing a biological correlate for the disproportionate

  2. Galanin-Mediated Behavioural Hyperalgesia from the Dorsomedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Involves Two Independent Descending Pronociceptive Pathways.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Diana; Viisanen, Hanna; Wei, Hong; Almeida, Armando; Pertovaara, Antti; Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) by galanin (GAL) induces behavioural hyperalgesia. Since DMH neurones do not project directly to the spinal cord, we hypothesized that the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), a pronociceptive region projecting to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and/or the serotoninergic raphe-spinal pathway acting on the spinal 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R) could relay descending nociceptive facilitation induced by GAL in the DMH. Heat-evoked paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) and activity of SDH neurones were assessed in monoarthritic (ARTH) and control (SHAM) animals after pharmacological manipulations of the DMH, DRt and spinal cord. The results showed that GAL in the DMH and glutamate in the DRt lead to behavioural hyperalgesia in both SHAM and ARTH animals, which is accompanied particularly by an increase in heat-evoked responses of wide-dynamic range neurons, a group of nociceptive SDH neurones. Facilitation of pain behaviour induced by GAL in the DMH was reversed by lidocaine in the DRt and by ondansetron, a 5HT3R antagonist, in the spinal cord. However, the hyperalgesia induced by glutamate in the DRt was not blocked by spinal ondansetron. In addition, in ARTH but not SHAM animals PWL was increased after lidocaine in the DRt and ondansetron in the spinal cord. Our data demonstrate that GAL in the DMH activates two independent descending facilitatory pathways: (i) one relays in the DRt and (ii) the other one involves 5-HT neurones acting on spinal 5HT3Rs. In experimental ARTH, the tonic pain-facilitatory action is increased in both of these descending pathways.

  3. Galanin-Mediated Behavioural Hyperalgesia from the Dorsomedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Involves Two Independent Descending Pronociceptive Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Diana; Viisanen, Hanna; Wei, Hong; Almeida, Armando; Pertovaara, Antti; Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) by galanin (GAL) induces behavioural hyperalgesia. Since DMH neurones do not project directly to the spinal cord, we hypothesized that the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), a pronociceptive region projecting to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and/or the serotoninergic raphe-spinal pathway acting on the spinal 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R) could relay descending nociceptive facilitation induced by GAL in the DMH. Heat-evoked paw-withdrawal latency (PWL) and activity of SDH neurones were assessed in monoarthritic (ARTH) and control (SHAM) animals after pharmacological manipulations of the DMH, DRt and spinal cord. The results showed that GAL in the DMH and glutamate in the DRt lead to behavioural hyperalgesia in both SHAM and ARTH animals, which is accompanied particularly by an increase in heat-evoked responses of wide-dynamic range neurons, a group of nociceptive SDH neurones. Facilitation of pain behaviour induced by GAL in the DMH was reversed by lidocaine in the DRt and by ondansetron, a 5HT3R antagonist, in the spinal cord. However, the hyperalgesia induced by glutamate in the DRt was not blocked by spinal ondansetron. In addition, in ARTH but not SHAM animals PWL was increased after lidocaine in the DRt and ondansetron in the spinal cord. Our data demonstrate that GAL in the DMH activates two independent descending facilitatory pathways: (i) one relays in the DRt and (ii) the other one involves 5-HT neurones acting on spinal 5HT3Rs. In experimental ARTH, the tonic pain-facilitatory action is increased in both of these descending pathways. PMID:26565961

  4. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces LPS-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a rat model of inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, Bora; Jinks, Steven L.; Schmelzer, Kara R.; Waite, Troy; Kim, In Hae; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides in acyclic systems. In man this enzyme is the product of a single copy gene (EPXH-2) present on chromosome 8. The human sEH is of interest due to emerging roles of its endogenous substrates, epoxygenated fatty acids, in inflammation and hypertension. One of the consequences of inhibiting sEH in rodent inflammation models is a profound decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory and proalgesic lipid metabolites including prostaglandins. This prompted us to hypothesize that sEH inhibitors may have antinociceptive properties. Here we tested if sEH inhibitors can reduce inflammatory pain. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar LPS injection and sEH inhibitors were delivered topically. We found that two structurally dissimilar but equally potent sEH inhibitors can be delivered through the transdermal route and that sEH inhibitors effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in rats treated with LPS. In addition we show that epoxydized arachidonic acid metabolites, EETs, are also effective in attenuating thermal hyperalgesia in this model. In parallel with the observed biological activity metabolic analysis of oxylipids showed that inhibition of sEH resulted with a decrease in PGD2 levels and sEH generated degradation products of linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolites with a concomitant increase in epoxides of linoleic acid. These data show that inhibition of sEH may become a viable therapeutic strategy to attain analgesia. PMID:16962614

  5. Motor cortex stimulation reduces hyperalgesia in an animal model of central pain.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jessica M; Ji, Yadong; Masri, Radi

    2011-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex has been used since 1991 to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Since its inception, motor cortex stimulation (MCS) treatment has had varied clinical outcomes. Until this point, there has not been a systematic study of the stimulation parameters that most effectively treat chronic pain, or of the mechanisms by which MCS relieves pain. Here, using a rodent model of central pain, we perform a systematic study of stimulation parameters used for MCS and investigate the mechanisms by which MCS reduces hyperalgesia. Specifically, we study the role of the inhibitory nucleus zona incerta (ZI) in mediating the analgesic effects of MCS. In animals with mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, we find that stimulation at 50 μA, 50 Hz, and 300 μs square pulses for 30 minutes is sufficient to reverse mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. We also find that stimulation of the ZI mimics the effects of MCS and that reversible inactivation of ZI blocks the effects of MCS. These findings suggest that the reduction of hyperalgesia may be due to MCS effects on ZI. In an animal model of central pain syndrome, motor cortex stimulation reduces hyperalgesia by activating zona incerta and therefore restoring inhibition in the thalamus.

  6. Nuclear factor-kappa B decoy suppresses nerve injury and improves mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Munetaka; Inoue, Gen; Gemba, Takefumi; Watanabe, Tomoko; Ito, Toshinori; Koshi, Takana; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Yamashita, Masaomi; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a gene transcriptional regulator of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the transduction efficiency of NF-κB decoy to dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as well as the decrease in nerve injury, mechanical allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model. Forty rats were used in this study. NF-κB decoy–fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was injected intrathecally at the L5 level in five rats, and its transduction efficiency into DRG measured. In another 30 rats, mechanical pressure was placed on the DRG at the L5 level and nucleus pulposus harvested from the rat coccygeal disc was transplanted on the DRG. Rats were classified into three groups of ten animals each: a herniation + decoy group, a herniation + oligo group, and a herniation only group. For behavioral testing, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated. In 15 of the herniation rats, their left L5 DRGs were resected, and the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was evaluated immunohistochemically compared to five controls. The total transduction efficiency of NF-κB decoy–FITC in DRG neurons was 10.8% in vivo. The expression of CGRP and ATF-3 was significantly lower in the herniation + decoy group than in the other herniation groups. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly suppressed in the herniation + decoy group. NF-κB decoy was transduced into DRGs in vivo. NF-κB decoy may be useful as a target for clarifying the mechanism of sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. PMID:19308465

  7. Nuclear factor-kappa B decoy suppresses nerve injury and improves mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Munetaka; Inoue, Gen; Gemba, Takefumi; Watanabe, Tomoko; Ito, Toshinori; Koshi, Takana; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Yamashita, Masaomi; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a gene transcriptional regulator of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the transduction efficiency of NF-kappaB decoy to dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as well as the decrease in nerve injury, mechanical allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model. Forty rats were used in this study. NF-kappaB decoy-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was injected intrathecally at the L5 level in five rats, and its transduction efficiency into DRG measured. In another 30 rats, mechanical pressure was placed on the DRG at the L5 level and nucleus pulposus harvested from the rat coccygeal disc was transplanted on the DRG. Rats were classified into three groups of ten animals each: a herniation + decoy group, a herniation + oligo group, and a herniation only group. For behavioral testing, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated. In 15 of the herniation rats, their left L5 DRGs were resected, and the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was evaluated immunohistochemically compared to five controls. The total transduction efficiency of NF-kappaB decoy-FITC in DRG neurons was 10.8% in vivo. The expression of CGRP and ATF-3 was significantly lower in the herniation + decoy group than in the other herniation groups. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly suppressed in the herniation + decoy group. NF-kappaB decoy was transduced into DRGs in vivo. NF-kappaB decoy may be useful as a target for clarifying the mechanism of sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation.

  8. Tempol Ameliorates and Prevents Mechanical Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Kee; Hwang, Seon-Hee; Abdi, Salahadin

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and prevent. Tempol decreases cellular superoxide radical levels and oxidative stress. The aims of our study were to investigate the analgesic and preventive effects of tempol on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rats and to identify the associated mechanisms of action. Neuropathic pain was induced with intraperitoneally injected paclitaxel on four alternate days in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Tempol was administered systemically as a single injection and a continuous infusion before or after the injection of paclitaxel. The mechanical threshold for allodynia, protein levels, and free radical levels were measured using von Frey filaments, Western blotting, and live cell imaging, respectively. After the rats developed neuropathic pain behavior, a single intraperitoneal injection and continuous infusion of tempol ameliorated paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. Systemic infusion of tempol in the early phase of the development of pain behavior prevented the development of paclitaxel-induced pain behavior. Paclitaxel increased the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C, phosphorylated nuclear factor κB, phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia; however, tempol decreased these levels. Paclitaxel also increased superoxide levels in a culture of primary dorsal root ganglion cells and tempol decreased these levels. In conclusion, tempol alleviates and prevents chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain in rats by reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and free radicals in dorsal root ganglia. PMID:28138318

  9. Inhibition of endogenous NGF degradation induces mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously shown a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis of the skin following subcutaneous injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw. This sprouting correlated with an increase in pain-related sensitivity. We hypothesized that this sprouting and pain-related behavior were caused by an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of mature NGF degradation, using a matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) inhibitor, was sufficient to reproduce a similar phenotype. Results Behavioral tests performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after intra-plantar MMP-2/9 inhibitor administration demonstrated that acute and chronic injections of the MMP-2/9 inhibitor induced sensitization, in a dose dependent manner, to mechanical, hot and cold stimuli as measured by von Frey filaments, Hargreaves and acetone tests, respectively. Moreover, the protein levels of mature NGF (mNGF) were increased, whereas the levels and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 were reduced in the glabrous skin of the hind paw. MMP-2/9 inhibition also led to a robust sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis but there were no changes in the density of peptidergic nociceptive afferents. Conclusions These findings indicate that localized MMP-2/9 inhibition provokes a pattern of sensitization and fiber sprouting comparable to that previously obtained following CFA injection. Accordingly, the modulation of endogenous NGF levels should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory pain associated with arthritis. PMID:23889761

  10. Metastatic human breast cancer to the spine produces mechanical hyperalgesia and gait deficits in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Ruiz-Valls, Alejandro; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Ampuero, Ana M; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; De Silva, Samantha; Bernhardt, Lydia J; Goodwin, Courtney Rory; Ahmed, Ali Karim; Li, Yuxin; Phillips, Neil A; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2017-09-01

    Metastases to the spine are a common source of severe pain in cancer patients. The secondary effects of spinal metastases include pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, and neurological deficits. As the disease progresses, pain severity can increase until it becomes refractory to medical treatments and leads to a decreased quality of life for patients. A key obstacle in the study of pain-induced spinal cancer is the lack of reliable and reproducible spine cancer animal models. In the present study, we developed a reproducible and reliable rat model of spinal cancer using human-derived tumor tissue to evaluate neurological decline using imaging and behavioral techniques. The present study outlines the development and characterization of an orthotopic model of human breast cancer to the spine in immunocompromised rats. This is a basic science study. Female immunocompromised rats were randomized into three groups: tumor (n=8), RBC3 mammary adenocarcinoma tissue engrafted in the L5 vertebra body; sham (n=6), surgery performed but not tumor engrafted; and control (n=6), naive rats, no surgery performed. To evaluate the neurological impairment due to tumor invasion, functional assessment was done in all rodents at day 40 after tumor engraftment using locomotion gait analysis and pain response to a mechanical stimulus (Randall-Selitto test). Bioluminescence (BLI) was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed to evaluate bone changes due to tumor invasion. The animals were euthanized at day 45 and their spines were harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Tumor growth in the spine was confirmed by BLI imaging and corroborated by histological analysis. Cone beam computed tomography images were characterized by a decrease in the bone intensity in the lumbar spine consistent with tumor location on BLI. On H&E staining of tumor-engrafted animals, there was a near-complete ablation of the ventral and

  11. Colocalization of aromatase in spinal cord astrocytes: Differences in expression and relationship to mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in murine models of a painful and a non-painful bone tumor

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Elaine E; Smeester, Branden A; Michlitsch, Kyle S; Lee, Jang-Hern; Beitz, Alvin J

    2015-01-01

    While spinal cord astrocytes play a key role in the generation of cancer pain, there have been no studies that have examined the relationship of tumor-induced astrocyte activation and aromatase expression during the development of cancer pain. Here, we examined tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, and changes in GFAP and aromatase expression in murine models of painful and non-painful bone cancer. We demonstrate that implantation of fibrosarcoma cells, but not melanoma cells, produces robust mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in tumor-bearing mice compared to saline-injected controls. Secondly, this increase in mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia is mirrored by significant increases in both spinal astrocyte activity and aromatase expression in the dorsal horn of fibrosarcoma-bearing mice. Importantly, we show that aromatase is only found within a subset of astrocytes and not in neurons in the lumbar spinal cord. Finally, administration of an aromatase inhibitor reduced tumor-induced hyperalgesia in fibrosarcoma-bearing animals. We conclude that a painful fibrosarcoma tumor induces a significant increase in spinal astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and that the up-regulation of aromatase plays a role in the development of bone tumor-induced hyperalgesia. Since spinal aromatase is also upregulated, but to a lesser extent, in non-painful melanoma bone tumors, it may also be neuroprotective and responsive to the changing tumor environment. PMID:26071956

  12. Eccentric Muscle Contraction and Stretching Evoke Mechanical Hyperalgesia and Modulate CGRP and P2X3 Expression in a Functionally Relevant Manner

    PubMed Central

    Dessem, Dean; Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Evancho, Melena; Moutanni, Aicha; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Bai, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive, movement-based models were used to investigate muscle pain. In rats, the masseter muscle was rapidly stretched or electrically stimulated during forced lengthening to produce eccentric muscle contractions (EC). Both EC and stretching disrupted scattered myofibers and produced intramuscular plasma extravasation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were elevated in the masseter 24h following EC. At 48h, neutrophils increased and ED1 macrophages infiltrated myofibers while ED2 macrophages were abundant at 4d. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evident in the ipsilateral head 4h-4d after a single bout of EC and for 7d following multiple bouts (1 bout/d for 4d). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA increased in the trigeminal ganglion 24h following EC while immunoreactive CGRP decreased. By 2d, CGRP-muscle afferent numbers equaled naive numbers implying that CGRP is released following EC and replenished within 2d. EC elevated P2X3 mRNA and increased P2X3-muscle afferent neuron number for 12d while electrical stimulation without muscle contraction altered neither CGRP nor P2X3 mRNA levels. Muscle stretching produced hyperalgesia for 2d whereas contraction alone produced no hyperalgesia. Stretching increased CGRP mRNA at 24h but not CGRP-muscle afferent number at 2–12d. In contrast, stretching significantly increased the number of P2X3-muscle afferent neurons for 12d. The sustained, elevated P2X3 expression evoked by EC and stretching may enhance nociceptor responsiveness to ATP released during subsequent myofiber damage. Movement-based actions such as EC and muscle stretching produce unique tissue responses and modulate neuropeptide and nociceptive receptor expression in a manner particularly relevant to repeated muscle damage. PMID:20207080

  13. The Relationship between Mechanical Hyperalgesia Assessed by Manual Tender Point Examination and Disease Severity in Patients with Chronic Widespread Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Jespersen, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders; Bennett, Robert; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The clinical utility of tender point (TP) examination in patients reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) is the subject of contemporary debate. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia assessed by manual TP examination and clinical disease severity. 271 women with CWP were recruited from a clinical setting. Data collection included patient-reported symptoms, health-related quality of life variables, and observation-based measures of functional ability, muscle strength, 6-minute walk, and pressure pain thresholds measured by cuff algometry. TP examination was conducted according to ACR-guidelines. Relationships between disease variables and TP count (TPC) were analyzed with logistic regression in a continuum model, allowing the TPC to depend on the included disease variables and two regression models carried out for a TPC threshold level, varying between 1 and 17. The threshold analyses indicated a TPC threshold at 8, above which a large number of disease variables became consistently significant explanatory factors, whereas none of the disease variables reached a significance level in the continuum model. These results support the premise that the presence of mechanical hyperalgesia influences symptomatology in CWP and that the severity of clinical expression is related to a threshold of TPs, rather than being part of a continuum.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of melatonin in a rat model of post-inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia: a centrally mediated process.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Aaron; Sood, Manu; Zhang, Zhihong; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; Sengupta, Jyoti N; Miranda, Adrian

    2010-06-01

    Previous reports suggest that melatonin may play an important role in visceral nociception and neurogenic inflammation. We aimed to examine the role of melatonin on visceral hypersensitivity and to explore the site of action using a rat model of post-inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia. In all rats, a baseline viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD; 10-60mmHg) was recorded prior and 1 week following tri-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colonic inflammation. Melatonin (30, 45 or 60mg/kg, ip) was given 20min before testing the VMR in naïve and TNBS-treated rats. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferent (PNA) fibers and lumbosacral (LS) spinal neurons in TNBS-treated animals. The effect of melatonin (60mg/kg) was examined on responses of PNAs and spinal neurons to graded CRD. In separate experiments, luzindole (non-specific MT(1)/MT(2) receptor antagonist) or naltrexone (non-specific opiod receptor antagonist) was injected prior to melatonin. Following TNBS, there was a significant increase in the VMR to CRD compared to baseline. This increase was attenuated by melatonin (60mg/kg) at pressures >20mmHg. The same dose of melatonin had no effect on the VMR in naïve animals. In TNBS-treated rats, melatonin significantly attenuated the responses of CRD-sensitive spinal neurons to CRD, but had no effect in spinal transected rats or PNA fibers. Both luzindole and naltrexone blocked melatonin's effect on the VMR and LS spinal neurons. Results indicate melatonin's antinociceptive effects are not via a peripheral site of action but rather a supra-spinal process linked to the central opioidergic system.

  15. Distinct terminal and cell body mechanisms in the nociceptor mediate hyperalgesic priming.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Araldi, Dioneia; Levine, Jon D

    2015-04-15

    Hyperalgesic priming, a form of neuroplasticity in nociceptors, is a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain in the rat, which involves signaling from the site of an acute tissue insult in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of a nociceptor to its cell body that, in turn, induces a signal that travels back to the terminal to mediate a marked prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In the present experiments, we studied the underlying mechanisms in the cell body and compared them to the mechanisms in the nerve terminal. Injection of a cell-permeant cAMP analog, 8-bromo cAMP, into the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical hyperalgesia and priming with an onset more rapid than when induced at the peripheral terminal. Priming induced by intraganglion 8-bromo cAMP was prevented by an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to mRNA for a transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and by an inhibitor of importin, which is required for activated CREB to get into the nucleus. While peripheral administration of 8-bromo cAMP also produced hyperalgesia, it did not produce priming. Conversely, interventions administered in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that induces priming-PKCε activator, NGF, and TNF-α-when injected into the ganglion produce hyperalgesia but not priming. The protein translation inhibitor cordycepin, injected at the peripheral terminal but not into the ganglion, reverses priming induced at either the ganglion or peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. These data implicate different mechanisms in the soma and terminal in the transition to chronic pain.

  16. Distinct Terminal and Cell Body Mechanisms in the Nociceptor Mediate Hyperalgesic Priming

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Araldi, Dioneia

    2015-01-01

    Hyperalgesic priming, a form of neuroplasticity in nociceptors, is a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain in the rat, which involves signaling from the site of an acute tissue insult in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of a nociceptor to its cell body that, in turn, induces a signal that travels back to the terminal to mediate a marked prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In the present experiments, we studied the underlying mechanisms in the cell body and compared them to the mechanisms in the nerve terminal. Injection of a cell-permeant cAMP analog, 8-bromo cAMP, into the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical hyperalgesia and priming with an onset more rapid than when induced at the peripheral terminal. Priming induced by intraganglion 8-bromo cAMP was prevented by an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to mRNA for a transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and by an inhibitor of importin, which is required for activated CREB to get into the nucleus. While peripheral administration of 8-bromo cAMP also produced hyperalgesia, it did not produce priming. Conversely, interventions administered in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that induces priming—PKCε activator, NGF, and TNF-α—when injected into the ganglion produce hyperalgesia but not priming. The protein translation inhibitor cordycepin, injected at the peripheral terminal but not into the ganglion, reverses priming induced at either the ganglion or peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. These data implicate different mechanisms in the soma and terminal in the transition to chronic pain. PMID:25878283

  17. Pre-injury administration of morphine prevents development of neuropathic hyperalgesia through activation of descending monoaminergic mechanisms in the spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Md Harunor; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether pre-injury administration of morphine can prevent partial sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We observed that pre-injury administration of subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) morphine dose-dependently prevented the development of both thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia at 7 days following nerve injury in mice. The pre-injury morphine (s.c.)-induced analgesia was significantly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone injected s.c. or i.c.v., but not i.t., suggesting that systemic morphine produced the pre-emptying effects mainly by acting at the supra-spinal sites. Since it is believed that activation of descending monoaminergic mechanisms in spinal cord largely contributes to the supra-spinal analgesic effects of morphine, we investigated the involvement of serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms in spinal cord in the pre-injury morphine-induced analgesic effects. We found that pre-injury s.c. morphine-induced analgesic effect was significantly blocked by i.t. pretreatment with serotonergic antagonist, methysergide and noradrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. In addition, pre-injury i.t. injection of serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine and α2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine significantly prevented the neuropathic hyperalgesia. We next examined whether pre-injury morphine prevented the expression of neuronal hyperactivity markers such as c-Fos and protein kinase C γ (PKCγ) in the spinal dorsal horn. We found that pre-injury administration of s.c. morphine prevented increased expressions of both c-Fos and PKCγ observed following nerve injury. Similar results were obtained with i.t. fluoxetine and clonidine. Altogether these results suggest that pre-injury administration of morphine might prevent the development of neuropathic pain through activation of descending monoaminergic pain inhibitory pathways. PMID:15932652

  18. The Glt1 glutamate receptor mediates the establishment and perpetuation of chronic visceral pain in an animal model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, A Lenore; Jellison, Forrest C; Lee, Una J; Bradesi, Sylvie; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2016-04-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a lower urinary tract pain disorder characterized by increased urinary frequency and bladder pain. Glutamate (Glu) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter modulating nociceptive networks. Glt1, an astrocytic transporter responsible for Glu clearance, is critical in pain signaling termination. We sought to examine the role of Glt1 in stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia and urinary frequency. In a model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia with high construct validity to human IC/BPS, female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 10-day water avoidance stress (WAS). Referred hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were assessed after WAS with von Frey filaments. After behavioral testing, we assessed Glt1 expression in the spinal cord by immunoblotting. We also examined the influence of dihydrokainate (DHK) and ceftriaxone (CTX), which downregulate and upregulate Glt1, respectively, on pain development. Rats exposed to WAS demonstrated increased voiding frequency, increased colonic motility, anxiety-like behaviors, and enhanced visceral hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. This behavioral phenotype correlated with decreases in spinal Glt1 expression. Exogenous Glt1 downregulation by DHK resulted in hyperalgesia similar to that following WAS. Exogenous Glt1 upregulation via intraperitoneal CTX injection inhibited the development of and reversed preexisting pain and voiding dysfunction induced by WAS. Repeated psychological stress results in voiding dysfunction and hyperalgesia that correlate with altered central nervous system glutamate processing. Manipulation of Glu handling altered the allodynia developing after psychological stress, implicating Glu neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of bladder hyperalgesia in the WAS model of IC/BPS.

  19. The Glt1 glutamate receptor mediates the establishment and perpetuation of chronic visceral pain in an animal model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Jellison, Forrest C.; Lee, Una J.; Bradesi, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a lower urinary tract pain disorder characterized by increased urinary frequency and bladder pain. Glutamate (Glu) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter modulating nociceptive networks. Glt1, an astrocytic transporter responsible for Glu clearance, is critical in pain signaling termination. We sought to examine the role of Glt1 in stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia and urinary frequency. In a model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia with high construct validity to human IC/BPS, female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 10-day water avoidance stress (WAS). Referred hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were assessed after WAS with von Frey filaments. After behavioral testing, we assessed Glt1 expression in the spinal cord by immunoblotting. We also examined the influence of dihydrokainate (DHK) and ceftriaxone (CTX), which downregulate and upregulate Glt1, respectively, on pain development. Rats exposed to WAS demonstrated increased voiding frequency, increased colonic motility, anxiety-like behaviors, and enhanced visceral hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. This behavioral phenotype correlated with decreases in spinal Glt1 expression. Exogenous Glt1 downregulation by DHK resulted in hyperalgesia similar to that following WAS. Exogenous Glt1 upregulation via intraperitoneal CTX injection inhibited the development of and reversed preexisting pain and voiding dysfunction induced by WAS. Repeated psychological stress results in voiding dysfunction and hyperalgesia that correlate with altered central nervous system glutamate processing. Manipulation of Glu handling altered the allodynia developing after psychological stress, implicating Glu neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of bladder hyperalgesia in the WAS model of IC/BPS. PMID:26697981

  20. Contribution of the rostral ventromedial medulla to post-anxiety induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Cornélio, Alianda Maira; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Morgan, Michael M

    2012-04-23

    Rats exposed to an elevated plus maze (EPM) with four open arms display antinociception while on the maze and hyperalgesia immediately upon removal. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying EPM-induced antinociception and the subsequent hyperalgesia except that the antinociception is not mediated by endogenous opioids. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that endogenous cannabinoids and/or the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) contributes to EPM-induced antinociception. Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on baseline nociception to formalin administration into the hindpaw or on the antinociception produced by placing a rat on the open EPM. Likewise, inactivation of the RVM by microinjecting the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (10 ng/0.5 μL) had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of placing a rat in the EPM. However, RVM inactivation blocked the hyperalgesia produced upon removal from the EPM. Although distinct classes of RVM neurons inhibit and facilitate nociception, the present data demonstrate that the antinociception induced by the EPM and the subsequent hyperalgesia is mediated by distinct neural pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cold allodynia and hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain: the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine--a double-blind, cross-over comparison with alfentanil and placebo.

    PubMed

    Jørum, E; Warncke, T; Stubhaug, A

    2003-02-01

    Cold allodynia and hyperalgesia are frequent clinical findings in patients with neuropathic pain. While there have been several clinical studies showing the involvement of central sensitization mechanisms and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and ongoing pain, the mechanisms of thermal allodynia and hyperalgesia have received less attention. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine on thermal allodynia/hyperalgesia, ongoing pain and mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia in patients with neuropathic pain (11 patients with post-traumatic neuralgia and one patient with post-herpetic neuralgia). All the patients were known to suffer from severe cold allodynia (cold pain detection threshold (CPDT): 23.8 degrees C, median value). The mu-opioid agonist alfentanil was used as an active control. The study design was double-blind and placebo-controlled and the drugs were administered i.v. (bolus dose and infusion). CPDT in the asymptomatic contralateral area was found to be significantly decreased (cold allodynia) compared to CPDT in site- and age-matched normal controls. Heat pain detection thresholds were found to be normal and no consistent heat hyperalgesia occurred. Alfentanil significantly reduced cold allodynia (by increasing CPDT) in symptomatic area (P=0.0076). Ketamine did not significantly increase the threshold. Significant and marked reductions of hyperalgesia to cold (visual analogue score at threshold value) were seen following both alfentanil (4.5 before, 1.4 after, median value) and ketamine (6.8 before, 0.4 after, median value). Alfentanil and ketamine also significantly reduced ongoing pain and mechanical hyperalgesia. It is concluded that NMDA-receptor mediated central sensitization is involved in cold hyperalgesia, but since CPDT remained unaltered, it is likely that other mechanisms are present.

  2. PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF HYPERALGESIA EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Grava, André Luiz; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol and indomethacin plus atenolol) and analgesic drugs (morphine) on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by the nucleus pulposus (NP) in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats of weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. Hyperalgesia was induced by means of a fragment of NP removed from the sacrococcygeal region that was placed in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion. The 30 animals were divided into experimental groups according to the drug used. The drugs were administered for two weeks after the surgical procedure to induce hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated using the paw pressure test, von Frey electronic test and Hargreaves test, over a seven-week period. Results: The greatest reduction of hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals treated with morphine, followed by dexamethasone, indomethacin and atenolol. Reductions in hyperalgesia were observed after drug administration ceased, except for the group of animals treated with morphine, in which there was an increase in hyperalgesia after discontinuation of the treatment. Conclusion: Hyperalgesia induced by NP contact with the DRG can be reduced through administration of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, but a greater reduction was observed with the administration of dexamethasone. PMID:27026966

  3. Characterization of nociceptin hyperalgesia and allodynia in conscious mice

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Naoki; Minami, Toshiaki; Okuda-Ashitaka, Emiko; Sugimoto, Tetsuo; Sakai, Masato; Onaka, Masahiko; Mori, Hidemaro; Imanishi, Toshihiro; Shingu, Koh; Ito, Seiji

    1997-01-01

    demonstrate that, whereas the mechanisms of the nociceptin-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia are evidently distinct, they involve a common neurochemical event beginning with the disinhibition of the inhibitory glycinergic response. Morphine may induce allodynia through a pathway common to nociceptin, but the nociceptin receptor does not mediate the action of high doses of morphine. PMID:9179380

  4. A comparison of hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation induced by melittin and capsaicin in humans.

    PubMed

    Sumikura, H; Andersen, O K; Drewes, A M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2003-02-13

    Melittin (a main compound of bee venom) and capsaicin were injected intradermally in healthy human volunteers: (1) to study secondary mechanical hyperalgesia (static hyperalgesia and dynamic hyperalgesia) around the injection site; and (2) to correlate the sensory changes to the neurogenic inflammation assessed by laser-doppler blood flowmetry. Melittin 50 microg and capsaicin 10 microg induced comparable spontaneous pain and increased blood flow (neurogenic inflammation). Intradermal injection of melittin induced regions of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia around the injection site, however, they were not as large as the hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin. This is the first report studying mechanical hyperalgesia induced by melittin in humans, and the results were in agreement with the previous observations in rats. Melittin seems to be a valuable model to study a possible contribution of neurogenic inflammation to hyperalgesia in humans.

  5. Acid evoked thermal hyperalgesia involves peripheral P2Y1 receptor mediated TRPV1 phosphorylation in a rodent model of thrombus induced ischemic pain.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Gu; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Oh, Seog Bae; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2014-01-09

    We previously developed a thrombus-induced ischemic pain (TIIP) animal model, which was characterized by chronic bilateral mechanical allodynia without thermal hyperalgesia (TH). On the other hand we had shown that intraplantar injection of acidic saline facilitated ATP-induced pain, which did result in the induction of TH in normal rats. Because acidic pH and increased ATP are closely associated with ischemic conditions, this study is designed to: (1) examine whether acidic saline injection into the hind paw causes the development of TH in TIIP, but not control, animals; and (2) determine which peripheral mechanisms are involved in the development of this TH. Repeated intraplantar injection of pH 4.0 saline, but not pH 5.5 and 7.0 saline, for 3 days following TIIP surgery resulted in the development of TH. After pH 4.0 saline injections, protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) were elevated in the plantar muscle indicating that acidic stimulation intensified ischemic insults with decreased tissue acidity. At the same time point, there were no changes in the expression of TRPV1 in hind paw skin, whereas a significant increase in TRPV1 phosphorylation (pTRPV1) was shown in acidic saline (pH 4.0) injected TIIP (AS-TIIP) animals. Moreover, intraplantar injection of chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor) and AMG9810 (a TRPV1 antagonist) effectively alleviated the established TH. In order to investigate which proton- or ATP-sensing receptors contributed to the development of TH, amiloride (an ASICs blocker), AMG9810, TNP-ATP (a P2Xs antagonist) or MRS2179 (a P2Y1 antagonist) were pre-injected before the pH 4.0 saline. Only MRS2179 significantly prevented the induction of TH, and the increased pTRPV1 ratio was also blocked in MRS2179 injected animals. Collectively these data show that maintenance of an acidic environment in the ischemic hind paw of TIIP rats results in the phosphorylation of TRPV1 receptors via a PKC

  6. Acid evoked thermal hyperalgesia involves peripheral P2Y1 receptor mediated TRPV1 phosphorylation in a rodent model of thrombus induced ischemic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously developed a thrombus-induced ischemic pain (TIIP) animal model, which was characterized by chronic bilateral mechanical allodynia without thermal hyperalgesia (TH). On the other hand we had shown that intraplantar injection of acidic saline facilitated ATP-induced pain, which did result in the induction of TH in normal rats. Because acidic pH and increased ATP are closely associated with ischemic conditions, this study is designed to: (1) examine whether acidic saline injection into the hind paw causes the development of TH in TIIP, but not control, animals; and (2) determine which peripheral mechanisms are involved in the development of this TH. Results Repeated intraplantar injection of pH 4.0 saline, but not pH 5.5 and 7.0 saline, for 3 days following TIIP surgery resulted in the development of TH. After pH 4.0 saline injections, protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) were elevated in the plantar muscle indicating that acidic stimulation intensified ischemic insults with decreased tissue acidity. At the same time point, there were no changes in the expression of TRPV1 in hind paw skin, whereas a significant increase in TRPV1 phosphorylation (pTRPV1) was shown in acidic saline (pH 4.0) injected TIIP (AS-TIIP) animals. Moreover, intraplantar injection of chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor) and AMG9810 (a TRPV1 antagonist) effectively alleviated the established TH. In order to investigate which proton- or ATP-sensing receptors contributed to the development of TH, amiloride (an ASICs blocker), AMG9810, TNP-ATP (a P2Xs antagonist) or MRS2179 (a P2Y1 antagonist) were pre-injected before the pH 4.0 saline. Only MRS2179 significantly prevented the induction of TH, and the increased pTRPV1 ratio was also blocked in MRS2179 injected animals. Conclusion Collectively these data show that maintenance of an acidic environment in the ischemic hind paw of TIIP rats results in the phosphorylation of

  7. Cathepsin S is Activated During Colitis and Causes Visceral Hyperalgesia by a PAR2-dependent Mechanism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cattaruzza, Fiore; Lyo, Victoria; Jones, Ella; Pham, David; Hawkins, James; Kirkwood, Kimberley; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo; Ibeakanma, Charles; Vanner, Stephen J.; Bogyo, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Although proteases control inflammation and pain, the identity, cellular origin, mechanism of action, and causative role of proteases that are activated during disease are not defined. We investigated the activation and function of cysteine cathepsins (Cat) in colitis. Methods Since protease activity, rather than expression, is regulated, we treated mice with fluorescent activity-based probes that covalently modify activated cathepsins. Activated proteases were localized by tomographic imaging of intact mice and confocal imaging of tissues, and were identified by electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. We examined the effects of activated cathepsins on excitability of colonic nociceptors and on colonic pain, and determined their role in colonic inflammatory pain by gene deletion. Results Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging localized activated cathepsins to the inflamed colon of piroxicam-treated il10−/− mice. Confocal imaging detected activated cathepsins in colonic macrophages and spinal neurons and microglial cells of mice with colitis. Gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation identified activated Cat-B, Cat-L and Cat-S in colon and spinal cord, and Cat-S was preferentially secreted into the colonic lumen. Intraluminal Cat-S amplified visceromotor responses to colorectal distension and induced hyperexcitability of colonic nociceptors, which required expression of protease-activated receptor-2. Cat-S deletion attenuated colonic inflammatory pain induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Conclusions Activity-based probes enable non-invasive detection, cellular localization and proteomic identification of proteases activated during colitis and are potential diagnostic tools for detection of predictive disease biomarkers. Macrophage cathepsins are activated during colitis, and Cat-S activates nociceptors to induce visceral pain via protease-activated receptor-2. Cat-S mediates colitis pain and is a potential therapeutic target. PMID

  8. KCNQ channels in nociceptive cold-sensing trigeminal ganglion neurons as therapeutic targets for treating orofacial cold hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Ikeda, Ryo; Jia, Zhanfeng; Ling, Jennifer; Zuo, Xiaozhuo; Li, Min; Gu, Jianguo G

    2015-07-31

    Hyperexcitability of nociceptive afferent fibers is an underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain and ion channels involved in neuronal excitability are potentially therapeutic targets. KCNQ channels, a subfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels mediating M-currents, play a key role in neuronal excitability. It is unknown whether KCNQ channels are involved in the excitability of nociceptive cold-sensing trigeminal afferent fibers and if so, whether they are therapeutic targets for orofacial cold hyperalgesia, an intractable trigeminal neuropathic pain. Patch-clamp recording technique was used to study M-currents and neuronal excitability of cold-sensing trigeminal ganglion neurons. Orofacial operant behavioral assessment was performed in animals with trigeminal neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin or by infraorbital nerve chronic constrictive injury. We showed that KCNQ channels were expressed on and mediated M-currents in rat nociceptive cold-sensing trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. The channels were involved in setting both resting membrane potentials and rheobase for firing action potentials in these cold-sensing TG neurons. Inhibition of KCNQ channels by linopirdine significantly decreased resting membrane potentials and the rheobase of these TG neurons. Linopirdine directly induced orofacial cold hyperalgesia when the KCNQ inhibitor was subcutaneously injected into rat orofacial regions. On the other hand, retigabine, a KCNQ channel potentiator, suppressed the excitability of nociceptive cold-sensing TG neurons. We further determined whether KCNQ channel could be a therapeutic target for orofacial cold hyperalgesia. Orofacial cold hyperalgesia was induced in rats either by the administration of oxaliplatin or by infraorbital nerve chronic constrictive injury. Using the orofacial operant test, we showed that retigabine dose-dependently alleviated orofacial cold hyperalgesia in both animal models. Taken together, these findings indicate that KCNQ channel plays a

  9. IB4(+) nociceptors mediate persistent muscle pain induced by GDNF

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro; Chen, Xiaojie; Bogen, Oliver; Green, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a well-known source of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which can produce mechanical hyperalgesia. Since some neuromuscular diseases are associated with both increased release of GDNF and intense muscle pain, we explored the role of GDNF as an endogenous mediator in muscle pain. Intramuscularly injected GDNF induced a dose-dependent (0.1–10 ng/20 μl) persistent (up to 3 wk) mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Once hyperalgesia subsided, injection of prostaglandin E2 at the site induced a prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia (>72 h) compared with naïve rats (<4 h; hyperalgesic priming). Selective neurotoxic destruction of IB4(+) nociceptors attenuated both GDNF hyperalgesia and hyperalgesic priming. Ergonomic muscular injury induced by eccentric exercise or mechanical vibration increased muscle GDNF levels at 24 h, a time point where rats also exhibited marked muscle hyperalgesia. Intrathecal antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to mRNA encoding GFRα1, the canonical binding receptor for GDNF, reversibly inhibited eccentric exercise- and mechanical vibration-induced muscle hyperalgesia. Finally, electrophysiological recordings from nociceptors innervating the gastrocnemius muscle in anesthetized rats, revealed significant increase in response to sustained mechanical stimulation after local GDNF injection. In conclusion, these data indicate that GDNF plays a role as an endogenous mediator in acute and induction of chronic muscle pain, an effect likely to be produced by GDNF action at GFRα1 receptors located in IB4(+) nociceptors. PMID:22914655

  10. Induction of Hyperalgesia in Pigs through Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels and Reduction of the Resistance through Acupuncture: A Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Bo; Xu, Yi-Hui; Tian, Yu-Ying; Li, Hong; Wang, Guang-Jun; Huang, Tao; Jia, Shu-Yong

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic theory of Chinese medicine, pain is due to the blockage in meridian channels, and acupuncture was invented to treat pain by “dredging” the channels. To test the theory, a hyperalgesia model was made by injecting hydrogel into low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC) in 12 anaesthetized minipigs. Tail-flick threshold and ear-flick threshold were measured using a thermal radiation dolorimeter, and relative flick threshold (RFT) was calculated. Hydraulic resistance (HR) was measured with a biological HR measuring instrument on low HR points on LHRC and on control points with higher HR located outside LHRC; readings were recorded before, during, and after acupuncture treatment. RFT decreased after blocking the LRHC and was still significantly decreased 2 days and 4 days afterwards. No significant changes occurred when injecting saline into the same points or injecting gel into points outside the channel. Subsequent acupuncture reduced HR on LRHC along meridians but had no significant effect on sites with higher HR located outside LHRC. One of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture treatment for chronic pain may be that acupuncture affects peripheral tissue by reducing the HR in LHRC along meridians, improving the flow of interstitial fluid and removing algogenic substances and thereby relieving pain. PMID:23997798

  11. Gabapentin enhances anti-nociceptive effects of morphine on heat, cold, and mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Gholam Ali; Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Abed, Alireza; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Mahlooji, Mohadeseh; Banafshe, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Neuropathic pain is caused by lesions or diseases affecting the somatosensory system and often responds poorly to typical medications. In this study, we evaluated anti-nociceptive effects of morphine, gabapentin and their combination on heat hyperalgesia, cold and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Morphine (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) and gabapentin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were administered either alone or in combination (morphine 2 mg/kg and gabapentin 5 mg/kg). Results: Our results showed that morphine and gabapentin alone produce anti-nociceptive effects at higher doses (morphine 4 and 8 mg/kg and gabapentin 10 and 20 mg/kg) whereas their combination resulted in better analgesia at lower doses as compared to other treatment groups (morphine 2 mg/kg or gabapentin 5 mg/kg). Conclusion: These findings suggest that gabapentin potentiates the analgesic effects of morphine in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain and combination of these drugs may be considered as a beneficial treatment for neuropathic pain. PMID:25729543

  12. Does Naloxone Reinstate Secondary Hyperalgesia in Humans after Resolution of a Burn Injury? A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Manuel P.; Werner, Mads U.; Ringsted, Thomas K.; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Taylor, Bradley K.; Dahl, Joergen B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Development of secondary hyperalgesia following a cutaneous injury is a centrally mediated, robust phenomenon. The pathophysiological role of endogenous opioid signalling to the development of hyperalgesia is unclear. Recent animal studies, carried out after the resolution of inflammatory pain, have demonstrated reinstatement of tactile hypersensitivity following administration of μ-opioid-receptor-antagonists. In the present study in humans, we analyzed the effect of naloxone when given after the resolution of secondary hyperalgesia following a first-degree burn injury. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers were included in this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Following baseline assessment of thermal and mechanical thresholds, a first-degree burn injury (BI; 47°C, 7 minutes, thermode area 12.5 cm2) was induced on the lower leg. Secondary hyperalgesia areas around the BI-area, and separately produced by brief thermal sensitization on the contralateral thigh (BTS; 45°C, 3 minutes, area 12.5 cm2), were assessed using a polyamide monofilament at pre-BI and 1, 2, and 3 hours post-BI. At 72 hrs, BI and BTS secondary hyperalgesia areas were assessed prior to start of a 30 minutes intravenous infusion of naloxone (total dose 21 microg/kg) or placebo. Fifteen minutes after start of the infusion, BI and BTS secondary hyperalgesia areas were reassessed, along with mechanical and thermal thresholds. Results Secondary hyperalgesia areas were demonstrable in all volunteers 1–3 hrs post-BI, but were not demonstrable at 72 hrs post-burn in 73–86% of the subjects. Neither magnitude of secondary hyperalgesia areas nor the mechanical and thermal thresholds were associated with naloxone-treated compared to placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion Naloxone (21 microg/kg) did not reinstate secondary hyperalgesia when administered 72 hours after a first-degree burn injury and did not increase BTS-generated hyperalgesia. The negative

  13. Spinal prostaglandin E receptors of the EP2 subtype and the glycine receptor alpha3 subunit, which mediate central inflammatory hyperalgesia, do not contribute to pain after peripheral nerve injury or formalin injection.

    PubMed

    Hösl, Katharina; Reinold, Heiko; Harvey, Robert J; Müller, Ulrike; Narumiya, Shuh; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2006-12-15

    Inflammation, peripheral nerve injury and chemical irritants can cause central sensitization in pain pathways. Prostaglandins produced in the CNS induce central sensitization during inflammation mainly by relieving nociceptive neurons from glycinergic inhibition. We have recently identified spinal prostaglandin E receptors of the EP2 subtype (EP2 receptors) and the glycine receptor alpha3 subunit (GlyR alpha3) as signal transduction elements involved in the generation of central inflammatory hyperalgesia. It is however still unknown to what extent inhibition of glycine receptors by PGE2 contributes to neuropathic or chemically induced pain. To address this question, we have analyzed mice deficient in the EP2 receptor (EP2-/- mice) or in the GlyR alpha3 subunit (GlyR alpha3-/- mice) using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin test. We found that EP2-/- mice and GlyR alpha3-/- mice develop thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in the CCI model indistinguishable from that seen in wild-type mice. In the formalin test, EP2-/- mice, but not GlyR alpha3-/- mice, exhibited reduced nocifensive behavior. The lack of a phenotype in GlyR alpha3-/- mice together with the absence of a facilitating effect of intrathecal PGE2 on formalin-induced nociception in wild-type mice suggests that peripheral rather than spinal EP2 receptors are involved. These results indicate that inhibition of glycinergic neurotransmission by EP2 receptor activation does not contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury or chemical irritation with formalin. Our results thus provide further evidence that inflammatory hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain involve different mechanisms of central sensitization.

  14. Nerve growth factor evokes hyperalgesia in mice lacking the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, I; Reiter, R; Toyka, K V; Koltzenburg, M

    1998-10-16

    Endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to be an important mediator of inflammatory pain and exogenous application of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) produces pain and hyperalgesia in animals and humans. Since NGF can act through two receptors types, the high affinity tyrosine kinase A (trkA) receptor and the low affinity p75 receptor, we used transgenic mice lacking p75 to analyse the relative importance of these receptors. After systemic injection of rhNGF (5 mg/ kg), pharmacokinetic studies revealed similar serum levels and elimination profiles of exogenously administered rhNGF in both strains of mice. Although animals lacking p75 have increased mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds they developed both heat and mechanical hyperalgesia after systemic injection of rhNGF whose magnitude did not differ significantly from wildtype animals. This means that NGF-induced hyperalgesia can occur in the absence of the p75 receptor and suggests that the trkA receptor is sufficient to mediate the acute noxious action of NGF.

  15. The assessment of cold hyperalgesia after an incision.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Moritz; Reichl, Sylvia U; Augustin, Miriam; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Zahn, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    Although cold hypersensitivity is a well-documented phenomenon in animals and humans with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, little is known about the presence of cold hyperalgesia after surgery. Therefore, we studied primary cold hyperalgesia after a surgical incision in mice. Before and after plantar incision, inflammation with complete Freund adjuvant, and spared nerve ligation, unrestrained male animals were placed on a Peltier-cooled cold plate with a surface temperature of 0 degrees C and withdrawal latencies were measured. Additionally, incision-induced cold hyperalgesia was also assessed in female animals. Furthermore, skin temperature before and after plantar incision and inflammation were assessed by using infrared thermography (Varioscan LW 3011; Infratec, Dresden, Germany). Cold hyperalgesia to a noxious cold stimulus was observed after inflammation and nerve injury but not after a surgical incision. Similar results were demonstrated for female animals after incision. Furthermore, a significant increase in skin temperature was recorded after inflammation but not after incision, indicating that a surgery evokes only minor inflammatory effects. The present data give strong evidence that a surgical incision does not cause cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, a lack of cold hyperalgesia in unrestrained male and female mice after incision was not due to increased skin temperature after incision. Finally, we demonstrated that in contrast to a surgical incision, inflammation and nerve injury generate intense cold hyperalgesia and an increase in skin temperature, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in surgical and inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  16. Primary afferent second messenger cascades interact with specific integrin subunits in producing inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Hucho, Tim; Yeh, Jenny; Malik-Hall, Misbah; Reichling, David B; Levine, Jon D

    2005-05-01

    We recently reported that hyperalgesia induced by the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) requires intact alpha1, alpha3 and beta1 integrin subunit function, whereas epinephrine-induced hyperalgesia depends on alpha5 and beta1. PGE(2)-induced hyperalgesia is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), while epinephrine-induced hyperalgesia is mediated by a combination of PKA, protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK). We hypothesized that inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia involves specific interactions between different subsets of integrin subunits and particular second messenger species. In the present study, function-blocking anti-integrin antibodies and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were used to elucidate these interactions in rat. Hyperalgesia produced by an activator of adenylate cyclase (forskolin) depended on alpha1, alpha3 and beta1 integrins. However, hyperalgesia induced by activation of the cascade at a point farther downstream (by cAMP analog or PKA catalytic subunit) was independent of any integrins tested. In contrast, hyperalgesia induced by a specific PKCepsilon agonist depended only on alpha5 and beta1 integrins. Hyperalgesia induced by agonism of MAPK/ERK depended on all four integrin subunits tested (alpha1, alpha3, alpha5 and beta1). Finally, disruption of lipid rafts antagonized hyperalgesia induced by PGE(2) and by forskolin, but not that induced by epinephrine. Furthermore, alpha1 integrin, but not alpha5, was present in detergent-resistant membrane fractions (which retain lipid raft components). These observations suggest that integrins play a critical role in inflammatory pain by interacting with components of second messenger cascades that mediate inflammatory hyperalgesia, and that such interaction with the PGE(2)-activated pathway may be organized by lipid rafts.

  17. Differential coding of hyperalgesia in the human brain: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Maihöfner, Christian; Handwerker, Hermann O

    2005-12-01

    Neuropathic pain can be both ongoing or stimulus-induced. Stimulus-induced pain, also known as hyperalgesia, can be differentiated into primary and secondary hyperalgesia. The former results from sensitization of peripheral nociceptive structures, the latter involves sensitization processes within the central nervous system (CNS). Hypersensitivity towards heat stimuli, i.e. thermal hyperalgesia, is a key feature of primary hyperalgesia, whereas secondary hyperalgesia is characterized by hypersensitivity towards mechanical (e.g. pin-prick) stimulation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated if brain activation patterns associated with primary and secondary hyperalgesia might differ. Thermal and pin-prick hyperalgesia were induced on the left forearm in 12 healthy subjects by topical capsaicin (2.5%, 30 min) application. Equal pain intensities of both hyperalgesia types were applied during fMRI experiments, based on previous quantitative sensory testing. Simultaneously, subjects had to rate the unpleasantness of stimulus-related pain. Pin-prick hyperalgesia (i.e. subtraction of brain activations during pin-prick stimulation before and after capsaicin exposure) led to activations of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1 and S2), associative-somatosensory cortices, insula and superior and inferior frontal cortices (SFC, IFC). Brain areas activated during thermal hyperalgesia (i.e. subtraction of brain activations during thermal stimulation before and after capsaicin exposure) were S1 and S2, insula, associative-somatosensory cortices, cingulate cortex (GC), SFC, middle frontal cortex (MFC) and IFC. When compared to pin-prick hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia led to an increased activation of bilateral anterior insular cortices, MFC, GC (Brodmann area 24' and 32') and contralateral SFC and IFC, despite equal pain intensities. Interestingly, stronger activations of GC, contralateral MFC and anterior insula significantly correlated

  18. Fatiguing exercise enhances hyperalgesia to muscle inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sluka, Kathleen A; Rasmussen, Lynn A

    2010-02-01

    Since many people with chronic fatigue present with pain and many people with chronic pain present with fatigue, we tested if fatigue would enhance the response to pain in male and female mice. We further tested for the activation of brainstem nuclei by the fatigue task using c-fos as a marker. Fatigue was induced by having mice spontaneously run in running wheel for 2h. Carrageenan (0.03%) was injected into the gastrocnemius muscle either 2h before or 2h after the fatigue task. The mechanical sensitivity of the paw (von Frey filaments), muscle (tweezers), grip force and running wheel activity was assessed before and 24h after injection of carrageenan. Both male and female mice that performed the fatigue task, either before or after intramuscular injection of carrageenan, showed an enhanced mechanical sensitivity of the paw, but not the muscle. Ovariectomized mice showed a similar response to male mice. There was a decrease in running wheel activity after carrageenan injection, but no change in grip force suggesting that mice had no deficit in motor performance induced by the carrageenan. C-fos expression was observed in the nucleus raphe pallidus, obscurus, and magnus after the fatigue task suggesting an increased activity in the raphe nuclei in response to the fatigue task. Therefore, widespread hyperalgesia is enhanced by the fatigue response but not hyperalgesia at the site of insult. We suggest that this effect is sex-dependent and involves mechanisms in the brainstem to result in an enhanced hyperalgesia.

  19. Phosphorylation of TRPV1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 promotes TRPV1 surface localization, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Du, Junxie; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an important serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in many physiological processes. Recently, Cdk5 has been reported to phosphorylate TRPV1 at threonine 407 (Thr-407) in humans (Thr-406 in rats), which enhances the function of TRPV1 channel and promotes thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates TRPV1 at Threonine 406 and promotes the surface localization of TRPV1, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. The mutation of Thr-406 of TRPV1 to alanine reduced the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeletal elements and decreased the binding of TRPV1 with the motor protein KIF13B, which led to reduced surface distribution of TRPV1. Disrupting the phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 dramatically reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in HEK 293 cells after transient expression and the channel function in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Notably, intrathecal administration of the interfering peptide against the phosphorylation of Thr-406 alleviated heat hyperalgesia and reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain rats. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 increases the surface level and the function of TRPV1, while the TAT-T406 peptide can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. Our studies provide a potential therapy for inflammatory pain.

  20. Sustained Morphine Administration Induces TRPM8-Dependent Cold Hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kerui; Jasmin, Luc

    2017-02-01

    It is not uncommon for patients chronically treated with opioids to exhibit opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and this has been widely reported clinically and experimentally. The molecular substrate for this hyperalgesia is multifaceted, and associated with a complex neural reorganization even in the periphery. For instance, we have recently shown that chronic morphine-induced heat hyperalgesia is associated with an increased expression of GluN2B containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, as well as of the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1, in small-diameter primary sensory neurons only. Cold allodynia is also a common complaint of patients chronically treated with opioids, yet its molecular mechanisms remain to be understood. Here we present evidence that the cold sensor TRPM8 channel is involved in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. After 7 days of morphine administration, we observed an upregulation of TRPM8 channels using patch clamp recording on sensory neurons and Western blot analysis on dorsal root ganglia. The selective TRPM8 antagonist RQ-00203078 blocked cold hyperalgesia in morphine-treated rats. Also, TRPM8 knockout mice failed to develop cold hyperalgesia after chronic administration of morphine. Our results show that chronic morphine upregulates TRPM8 channels, which is in contrast with the previous finding that acute morphine triggers TRPM8 internalization.

  1. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, Wendy M; Chen, Wenling; Kim, Hyeyoung; Minasyan, Ani; Ennes, Helena S; McRoberts, James A; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G

    2016-01-06

    Many chronic pain disorders alternate between bouts of pain and periods of remission. The latent sensitization model reproduces this in rodents by showing that the apparent recovery ("remission") from inflammatory or neuropathic pain can be reversed by opioid antagonists. Therefore, this remission represents an opioid receptor-mediated suppression of a sustained hyperalgesic state. To identify the receptors involved, we induced latent sensitization in mice and rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw. In WT mice, responses to mechanical stimulation returned to baseline 3 weeks after CFA. In μ-opioid receptor (MOR) knock-out (KO) mice, responses did not return to baseline but partially recovered from peak hyperalgesia. Antagonists of α2A-adrenergic and δ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia in WT mice and abolished the partial recovery from hyperalgesia in MOR KO mice. In rats, antagonists of α2A adrenergic and μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia during remission from CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Therefore, these four receptors suppress hyperalgesia in latent sensitization. We further demonstrated that suppression of hyperalgesia by MORs was due to their constitutive activity because of the following: (1) CFA-induced hyperalgesia was reinstated by the MOR inverse agonist naltrexone (NTX), but not by its neutral antagonist 6β-naltrexol; (2) pro-enkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, and pro-dynorphin KO mice showed recovery from hyperalgesia and reinstatement by NTX; (3) there was no MOR internalization during remission; (4) MORs immunoprecipitated from the spinal cord during remission had increased Ser(375) phosphorylation; and (5) electrophysiology recordings from dorsal root ganglion neurons collected during remission showed constitutive MOR inhibition of calcium channels. Chronic pain causes extreme suffering to millions of people, but its mechanisms remain to be unraveled. Latent sensitization is a phenomenon

  2. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walwyn, Wendy M.; Chen, Wenling; Kim, Hyeyoung; Minasyan, Ani; Ennes, Helena S.; McRoberts, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic pain disorders alternate between bouts of pain and periods of remission. The latent sensitization model reproduces this in rodents by showing that the apparent recovery (“remission”) from inflammatory or neuropathic pain can be reversed by opioid antagonists. Therefore, this remission represents an opioid receptor-mediated suppression of a sustained hyperalgesic state. To identify the receptors involved, we induced latent sensitization in mice and rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw. In WT mice, responses to mechanical stimulation returned to baseline 3 weeks after CFA. In μ-opioid receptor (MOR) knock-out (KO) mice, responses did not return to baseline but partially recovered from peak hyperalgesia. Antagonists of α2A-adrenergic and δ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia in WT mice and abolished the partial recovery from hyperalgesia in MOR KO mice. In rats, antagonists of α2A adrenergic and μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia during remission from CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Therefore, these four receptors suppress hyperalgesia in latent sensitization. We further demonstrated that suppression of hyperalgesia by MORs was due to their constitutive activity because of the following: (1) CFA-induced hyperalgesia was reinstated by the MOR inverse agonist naltrexone (NTX), but not by its neutral antagonist 6β-naltrexol; (2) pro-enkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, and pro-dynorphin KO mice showed recovery from hyperalgesia and reinstatement by NTX; (3) there was no MOR internalization during remission; (4) MORs immunoprecipitated from the spinal cord during remission had increased Ser375 phosphorylation; and (5) electrophysiology recordings from dorsal root ganglion neurons collected during remission showed constitutive MOR inhibition of calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain causes extreme suffering to millions of people, but its mechanisms remain to be unraveled. Latent

  3. Spinal manipulation reduces pain and hyperalgesia after lumbar intervertebral foramen inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Jun; Gan, Qiang; Cao, Jun-Li; Wang, Zheng-Bei; Rupert, Ronald L

    2006-01-01

    To document potential mediating effects of the Activator-assisted spinal manipulative therapy (ASMT) on pain and hyperalgesia after acute intervertebral foramen (IVF) inflammation. The IVF inflammation was mimicked by in vivo delivery of inflammatory soup directly into the L5 IVF in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were determined by the shortened latency of foot withdrawal to radiant heat and von Frey filament stimulation to the hind paw, respectively. Intracellular recordings were obtained in vitro from L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) somata. DRG inflammation was examined by observation of the appearance and hematoxylin and eosin staining. ASMT was applied to the spinous process of L4, L5, and L6. A series of 10 adjustments were initiated 24 hours after surgery and subsequently applied daily for 7 consecutive days and every other day during the second week. (1) ASMT applied on L5, L6, or L5 and L6 spinous process significantly reduced the severity and duration of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia produced by the IVF inflammation. However, ASMT applied on L4 did not affect the response in rats with IVF inflammation or the controls; (2) electrophysiological studies showed that hyperexcitability of the DRG neurons produced by IVF inflammation was significantly reduced by ASMT; (3) pathological studies showed that manifestations of the DRG inflammation, such as the increased vascularization and satellitosis, were significantly reduced 2 to 3 weeks after ASMT. These studies show that ASMT can significantly reduce the severity and shorten the duration of pain and hyperalgesia caused by lumbar IVF inflammation. This effect may result from ASMT-induced faster elimination of the inflammation and recovery of excitability of the inflamed DRG neurons by improving blood and nutrition supplement to the DRG within the affected IVF. Manipulation of a specific spinal segment may play an important role in optimizing recovery from

  4. Low doses of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitors rapidly evoke opioid receptor-mediated thermal hyperalgesia in naïve mice which is converted to prominent analgesia by cotreatment with ultra-low-dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stanley M; Shen, Ke-Fei

    2008-09-22

    Systemic (s.c.) injection in naïve mice of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) inhibitors, e.g. 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine [(IBMX) or caffeine, 10 mg/kg] or the more specific cAMP-PDE inhibitor, rolipram (1 mug/kg), rapidly evokes thermal hyperalgesia (lasting >5 h). These effects appear to be mediated by enhanced excitatory opioid receptor signaling, as occurs during withdrawal in opioid-dependent mice. Cotreatment of these mice with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX, 0.1 ng/kg-1 pg/kg, s.c.) results in prominent opioid analgesia (lasting >4 h) even when the dose of rolipram is reduced to 1 pg/kg. Cotreatment of these cAMP-PDE inhibitors in naïve mice with an ultra-low-dose (0.1 ng/kg) of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or the mu-opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) also results in opioid analgesia. These excitatory effects of cAMP-PDE inhibitors in naïve mice may be mediated by enhanced release of small amounts of endogenous bimodally-acting (excitatory/inhibitory) opioid agonists by neurons in nociceptive networks. Ultra-low-dose NTX, nor-BNI or beta-FNA selectively antagonizes high-efficacy excitatory (hyperalgesic) Gs-coupled opioid receptor-mediated signaling in naïve mice and results in rapid conversion to inhibitory (analgesic) Gi/Go-coupled opioid receptor-mediated signaling which normally requires activation by much higher doses of opioid agonists. Cotreatment with a low subanalgesic dose of kelatorphan, an inhibitor of multiple endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes, stabilizes endogenous opioid agonists released by cAMP-PDE inhibitors, resulting in conversion of the hyperalgesia to analgesia without requiring selective blockade of excitatory opioid receptor signaling. The present study provides a novel pharmacologic paradigm that may facilitate development of valuable non-narcotic clinical analgesics utilizing cotreatment with ultra-low-dose rolipram plus ultra-low-dose NTX or related

  5. Initial thermal heat hypoalgesia and delayed hyperalgesia in a murine model of bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Luis; Lastra, Ana; Fresno, Manuel F; Llames, Sara; Meana, Alvaro; Hidalgo, Agustín; Baamonde, Ana

    2003-04-18

    The recent development of rodent models of bone cancer pain has started to provide the basis for demonstrating the particular neurochemical and behavioral entity of cancer pain. Behaviourally, both spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia related to mechanical, but not thermal, noxious stimuli have been described in cancer-bearing animals. We have carried out a histological and behavioural study focused on the reactivity to noxious heat in C3H/HeJ mice receiving an intratibial injection of 10(5) NCTC 2472 cells. These cells, able to induce an osteosarcoma, break through bone into soft tissues 2 weeks after cell inoculation, producing a macroscopical increase of the limb size from the fourth week. Thermal reactivity is diminished during the first 2 weeks after cell implantation, this hypoalgesia being reversed by the administration of naloxone (10 mg/kg). In contrast, during the fourth and fifth weeks after NCTC 2472 cell implantation, an increased nociceptive heat reactivity, instead of hypoalgesia, was obtained. This thermal hyperalgesia was prevented by the systemic administration of morphine (15 mg/kg). Throughout the whole period studied, mice showed signs of spontaneous pain behaviour that reached its maximum 3 weeks after inoculation. In conclusion, we show that the presence of thermal heat hyperalgesia is preceded by an initial opioid-mediated hypoalgesic state, in this murine model of bone cancer pain.

  6. The Complement System Component C5a Produces Thermal Hyperalgesia via Macrophage-to-Nociceptor Signaling That Requires NGF and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Shutov, Leonid P; Warwick, Charles A; Shi, Xiaoyu; Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Shepherd, Andrew J; Mohapatra, Durga P; Woodruff, Trent M; Clark, J David; Usachev, Yuriy M

    2016-05-04

    The complement cascade is a principal component of innate immunity. Recent studies have underscored the importance of C5a and other components of the complement system in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear how the complement system communicates with nociceptors and which ion channels and receptors are involved. Here we demonstrate that inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant was accompanied by C5a upregulation and was markedly reduced by C5a receptor (C5aR1) knock-out or treatment with the C5aR1 antagonist PMX53. Direct administration of C5a into the mouse hindpaw produced strong thermal hyperalgesia, an effect that was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice, and was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. Immunohistochemistry of mouse plantar skin showed prominent expression of C5aR1 in macrophages. Additionally, C5a evoked strong Ca(2+) mobilization in macrophages. Macrophage depletion in transgenic macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis mice abolished C5a-dependent thermal hyperalgesia. Examination of inflammatory mediators following C5a injection revealed a rapid upregulation of NGF, a mediator known to sensitize TRPV1. Preinjection of an NGF-neutralizing antibody or Trk inhibitor GNF-5837 prevented C5a-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Notably, NGF-induced thermal hyperalgesia was unaffected by macrophage depletion. Collectively, these results suggest that complement fragment C5a induces thermal hyperalgesia by triggering macrophage-dependent signaling that involves mobilization of NGF and NGF-dependent sensitization of TRPV1. Our findings highlight the importance of macrophage-to-neuron signaling in pain processing and identify C5a, NGF, and TRPV1 as key players in this cross-cellular communication. This study provides mechanistic insight into how the complement system, a key component of innate immunity, regulates the development of pain

  7. The Complement System Component C5a Produces Thermal Hyperalgesia via Macrophage-to-Nociceptor Signaling That Requires NGF and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Shutov, Leonid P.; Warwick, Charles A.; Shi, Xiaoyu; Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Shepherd, Andrew J.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; Woodruff, Trent M.; Clark, J. David

    2016-01-01

    The complement cascade is a principal component of innate immunity. Recent studies have underscored the importance of C5a and other components of the complement system in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear how the complement system communicates with nociceptors and which ion channels and receptors are involved. Here we demonstrate that inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant was accompanied by C5a upregulation and was markedly reduced by C5a receptor (C5aR1) knock-out or treatment with the C5aR1 antagonist PMX53. Direct administration of C5a into the mouse hindpaw produced strong thermal hyperalgesia, an effect that was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice, and was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. Immunohistochemistry of mouse plantar skin showed prominent expression of C5aR1 in macrophages. Additionally, C5a evoked strong Ca2+ mobilization in macrophages. Macrophage depletion in transgenic macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis mice abolished C5a-dependent thermal hyperalgesia. Examination of inflammatory mediators following C5a injection revealed a rapid upregulation of NGF, a mediator known to sensitize TRPV1. Preinjection of an NGF-neutralizing antibody or Trk inhibitor GNF-5837 prevented C5a-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Notably, NGF-induced thermal hyperalgesia was unaffected by macrophage depletion. Collectively, these results suggest that complement fragment C5a induces thermal hyperalgesia by triggering macrophage-dependent signaling that involves mobilization of NGF and NGF-dependent sensitization of TRPV1. Our findings highlight the importance of macrophage-to-neuron signaling in pain processing and identify C5a, NGF, and TRPV1 as key players in this cross-cellular communication. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides mechanistic insight into how the complement system, a key component of innate immunity, regulates the

  8. Metallopeptidase inhibition potentiates bradykinin-induced hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Ruben; Por, Elaine D.; Berg, Kelly A.; Clarke, William P.; Glucksman, Marc J.; Jeske, Nathaniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide bradykinin (BK) sensitizes nociceptor activation following its release in response to inflammatory injury. Thereafter, the bioactivity of bradykinin is controlled by the enzymatic activities of circulating peptidases. One such enzyme, the metalloendopeptidase EC3.4.24.15 (EP24.15), is co-expressed with bradykinin receptors in primary afferent neurons. In this study, utilizing approaches encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and behavioral animal models, we discover a crucial role for EP24.15 and the closely-related EP24.16 in modulating bradykinin-mediated hyperalgesia. Pharmacological analyses indicate that EP24.15 and EP24.16 inhibition significantly enhances bradykinin type-2 receptor activation by bradykinin in primary trigeminal ganglia cultures. In addition, bradykinin-induced sensitization of TRPV1 activation is increased in the presence of the EP24.15/16 inhibitor JA-2. Furthermore, behavioral analyses illustrate a significant dose-response relationship between JA-2 and bradykinin-mediated thermal hyperalgesia. These results indicate an important physiological role for the metallopeptidases EP24.15 and EP24.16 in regulating bradykinin-mediated sensitization of primary afferent nociceptors. PMID:21458920

  9. Standardized Aqueous Tribulus terristris (nerunjil) extract attenuates hyperalgesia in experimentally induced diabetic neuropathic pain model: role of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Ranjithkumar, Ravichandran; Prathab Balaji, S; Balaji, Bhaskar; Ramesh, R V; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate standardized aqueous Tribulus terristris (nerunjil) extract on the pain threshold response in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathic pain model in rats. After a single injection of STZ (40 mg/kg; i.p.), Wistar male rats were tested by the thermal and chemical-induced pain models. Diabetic rats exhibited significant hyperalgesia, and these rats were left untreated for the first four weeks. Thereafter, treatment was initiated and continued up to week-8. All the rats except the vehicle-treated group received insulin 5 IU/kg/day to maintain plasma glucose levels. Treatment with nerunjil (100 and 300 mg/kg; p.o.) for 4 weeks significantly attenuated the nociception in behavioural models. Nerunjil also inhibited the tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 beta levels. The effect of nerunjil (300 mg/kg) is comparable to the standard drug Pregabalin (100 mg/kg). Nerunjil increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and decreased the lipid peroxide levels in dose-dependent manner. Insulin alone-treated rats failed to attenuate hyperalgesic response. In comparison to insulin alone-treated rats, nerunjil exhibited significant increase in the pain threshold response. It could be concluded that in controlled diabetic states, nerunjil attenuated the neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine release.

  10. Characterization of spinal α-adrenergic modulation of nociceptive transmission and hyperalgesia throughout postnatal development in rats

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S M; Fitzgerald, M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: The selective α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine is used clinically for analgesia and sedation, but effects in early life are not well characterized. Investigation of age-related effects of dexmedetomidine is important for evaluating responses to exogenously administered analgesics and provides insight into postnatal function of noradrenergic pathways. Experimental Approach: We examined effects of epidural dexmedetomidine in anaesthetized rat pups (3, 10 and 21 postnatal days) using a quantitative model of nociception and C-fibre induced hyperalgesia. Electromyographic recordings of withdrawal responses to hindpaw mechanical stimuli measured effects of dexmedetomidine upon the baseline reflex and the response to mustard oil application on the hindpaw (primary hyperalgesia) or hindlimb (secondary hyperalgesia). In addition, we compared epidural with systemic administration, examined effects of spinal transection and evaluated heart rate changes following dexmedetomidine. Key Results: Epidural dexmedetomidine dose-dependently prevented mustard oil-induced hyperalgesia at all ages but dose requirements were lower in the youngest pups. Higher doses also suppressed the baseline nociceptive reflex when given epidurally, but had no effect when given systemically. Analgesic efficacy was the same for primary and secondary hyperalgesia, and was not diminished by spinal cord transection. Conclusions and Implications: Our laboratory studies predict that spinally mediated α2-agonist analgesia would be effective throughout postnatal development, dose requirements would be lower in early life and selective anti-hyperalgesic effects could be achieved with epidural administration at doses lower than associated with antinociceptive or cardiovascular effects. Clinical trials of α2 agonists in neonates and infants should consider developmentally regulated changes. PMID:17533423

  11. Persistent Nociception Triggered by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Is Mediated by TRPV1 and Oxidative Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Michael A; Ruparel, Shivani; Green, Dustin P; Chen, Paul B; Por, Elaine D; Jeske, Nathaniel A; Gao, Xiaoli; Flores, Eric R; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2015-06-03

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in certain chronic pain conditions and is a sufficient stimulus to cause lasting pain in humans, but the actual mechanisms underlying the persistent effects of NGF remain incompletely understood. We developed a rat model of NGF-induced persistent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and oxidative mechanisms in the persistent effects of NGF. Persistent thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia require de novo protein translation and are mediated by TRPV1 and oxidative mechanisms. By comparing effects after systemic (subcutaneous), spinal (intrathecal) or hindpaw (intraplantar) injections of test compounds, we determined that TRPV1 and oxidation mediate persistent thermal hypersensitivity via peripheral and spinal sites of action and mechanical allodynia via only a spinal site of action. Therefore, NGF-evoked thermal and mechanical allodynia are mediated by spatially distinct mechanisms. NGF treatment evoked sustained increases in peripheral and central TRPV1 activity, as demonstrated by increased capsaicin-evoked nocifensive responses, increased calcitonin gene-related peptide release from hindpaw skin biopsies, and increased capsaicin-evoked inward current and membrane expression of TRPV1 protein in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Finally, we showed that NGF treatment increased concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic-acid-derived oxidized TRPV1 agonists in spinal cord and skin biopsies. Furthermore, increases in oxidized TRPV1-active lipids were reduced by peripheral and spinal injections of compounds that completely blocked persistent nociception. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF evokes a persistent nociceptive state mediated by increased TRPV1 activity and oxidative mechanisms, including increased production of oxidized lipid TRPV1 agonists.

  12. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Joseph, Elizabeth K; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2010-04-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and reexposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60-80Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration. Exposure of a hind limb to vibration-produced mechanical hyperalgesia measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exposed hind limb, which persisted for approximately 2 weeks. When nociceptive thresholds had returned to baseline, exposure to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia. The chronic prolongation of vibration- and cytokine-hyperalgesia was prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to protein kinase Cepsilon, a second messenger in nociceptors implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Vibration-induced hyperalgesia was inhibited by spinal intrathecal administration of ODN antisense to receptors for the type-1 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) receptor. Finally, in TNFalpha-pretreated muscle, subsequent vibration-induced hyperalgesia was markedly prolonged. These studies establish a model of vibration-induced acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, and identify the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha and the second messenger protein kinase Cepsilon as targets against which therapies might be directed to prevent and/or treat this common and very debilitating chronic pain syndrome. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms Mediating Vibration-induced Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Analyzed in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Olayinka A.; Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Levine, Jon D.; Green, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and re-exposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60–80 Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia to a pro-inflammatory cytokine or re-exposure to vibration. Exposure of a hind limb to vibration produced mechanical hyperalgesia measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exposed hind limb, which persisted for ~2 weeks. When nociceptive thresholds had returned to baseline, exposure to a pro-inflammatory cytokine or re-exposure to vibration produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia. The chronic prolongation of vibration- and cytokine-hyperalgesia induced by vibration was prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to protein kinase Cε, a second messenger in nociceptors implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Vibration-induced hyperalgesia was inhibited by spinal intrathecal administration of ODN antisense to receptors for the type-1 tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) receptor. Finally, in TNFα-pretreated muscle, subsequent vibration-induced hyperalgesia was markedly prolonged. Perspective These studies establish a model of vibration-induced acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, and identify the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα and the second messenger PKCε as targets against which therapies might be directed to prevent and/or treat this common and very debilitating chronic pain syndrome. PMID:19962353

  14. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Aslaksen, Per M; Lyby, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females) participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor "fear of medical pain" significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality.

  15. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Aslaksen, Per M; Lyby, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females) participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor “fear of medical pain” significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality. PMID:26491370

  16. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION AT BOTH HIGH AND LOW FREQUENCIES ACTIVATES VENTROLATERAL PERIAQUEDUCTAL GREY TO DECREASE MECHANICAL HYPERALGESIA IN ARTHRITIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Desantana, J. M.; Da Silva, L. F. S.; De Resende, M. A.; Sluka, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is widely used for the treatment of pain. TENS produces an opioid-mediated antinociception that utilizes the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM). Similarly, antinociception evoked from the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is opioid-mediated and includes a relay in the RVM. Therefore, we investigated whether the ventrolateral or dorsolateral PAG mediates antinociception produced by TENS in rats. Paw and knee joint mechanical withdrawal thresholds were assessed before and after knee joint inflammation (3% kaolin/carrageenan), and after TENS stimulation (active or sham). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2; 5 mM) or vehicle was microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) or dorsolateral periaqueductal grey (dlPAG) prior to treatment with TENS. Either high (100 Hz) or low (4 Hz) frequency TENS was then applied to the inflamed knee for 20 min. Active TENS significantly increased withdrawal thresholds of the paw and knee joint in the group microinjected with vehicle when compared to thresholds prior to TENS (P<0.001) or to sham TENS (P<0.001). The increases in withdrawal thresholds normally observed after TENS were prevented by microinjection of CoCl2 into the vlPAG, but not the dlPAG prior to TENS and were significantly lower than controls treated with TENS (P<0.001). In a separate group of animals, microinjection of CoCl2 into the vlPAG temporarily reversed the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold suggesting a role for the vlPAG in the facilitation of joint pain. No significant difference was observed for dlPAG. We hypothesize that the effects of TENS are mediated through the vlPAG that sends projections through the RVM to the spinal cord to produce an opioid-mediated analgesia. PMID:19576962

  17. Inflammatory Signals Enhance Piezo2-Mediated Mechanosensitive Currents

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Adrienne E.; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Petrus, Matthew J.; Xiao, Bailong; Coste, Bertrand; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-01-01

    Summary Heightened nociceptor function caused by inflammatory mediators such as bradykinin contributes to increased pain perception (hyperalgesia) to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. While sensitization of the heat transducer TRPV1 largely subserves thermal hyperalgesia, cellular mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia have been elusive. The role of the mechanically-activated (MA) channel piezo2 (known as FAM38B) present in mammalian sensory neurons is unknown. We test the hypothesis that piezo2 activity is enhanced by bradykinin, an algogenic peptide that induces mechanical hyperalgesia within minutes. Piezo2 current amplitude is increased and inactivation slowed by bradykinin 2 receptor (BDKRB2) activation in heterologous expression systems. Protein Kinase A (PKA) and Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonists enhance piezo2 activity. BDKRB2-mediated effects are abolished by PKA and PKC inhibitors. Finally, piezo2-dependent MA currents in a class of native sensory neurons are enhanced 8-fold by bradykinin via PKA and PKC. Thus, piezo2 sensitization may contribute to PKA- and PKC-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:22921401

  18. Inflammatory signals enhance piezo2-mediated mechanosensitive currents.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Adrienne E; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Petrus, Matthew J; Xiao, Bailong; Coste, Bertrand; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-09-27

    Heightened nociceptor function caused by inflammatory mediators such as bradykinin (BK) contributes to increased pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia) to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. Although it is known that sensitization of the heat transducer TRPV1 largely subserves thermal hyperalgesia, the cellular mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia have been elusive. The role of the mechanically activated (MA) channel piezo2 (known as FAM38B) present in mammalian sensory neurons is unknown. We test the hypothesis that piezo2 activity is enhanced by BK, an algogenic peptide that induces mechanical hyperalgesia within minutes. Piezo2 current amplitude is increased and inactivation is slowed by bradykinin receptor beta 2 (BDKRB2) activation in heterologous expression systems. Protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) agonists enhance piezo2 activity. BDKRB2-mediated effects are abolished by PKA and PKC inhibitors. Finally, piezo2-dependent MA currents in a class of native sensory neurons are enhanced 8-fold by BK via PKA and PKC. Thus, piezo2 sensitization may contribute to PKA- and PKC-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TDAG8 involved in initiating inflammatory hyperalgesia and establishing hyperalgesic priming in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shih-Ping; Huang, Ya-Han; Chang, Chung-Jen; Huang, Yu-Fen; Hsieh, Wei-Shan; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Satoshii; Sun, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain, resulting from injury, arthritis, and cancer, is often accompanied by inflammation. High concentrations of protons found in inflamed tissues results in tissue acidosis, a major cause of pain and hyperalgesia. Acidosis signals may mediate a transition from acute to chronic hyperalgesia (hyperalgesic priming) via proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The expression of T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing GPCR, is increased during inflammatory hyperalgesia. Attenuating TDAG8 expression in the spinal cord inhibits bone cancer pain, but whether TDAG8 is involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia or hyperalgesic priming remains unclear. In this study, we used TDAG8-knockout or -knockdown to explore the role of TDAG8 in pain. Suppressed TDAG8 expression delayed the onset of inflammatory hyperalgesia and shortened hyperalgesic time in mice. In a dual acid-injection model (acid [pH 5.0] injected twice, 5 days apart), shRNA inhibition of TDAG8 shortened the duration of the second hyperalgesia. Similar results were found in TDAG8-deficient mice. The dual administration of TDAG8 agonist also confirmed that TDAG8 is involved in hyperalgsic priming. Accordingly, TDAG8 may mediate acidosis signals to initiate inflammatory hyperalgesia and establish hyperalgesic priming. PMID:28145512

  20. Referred muscle pain/hyperalgesia and central sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2003-05-01

    Referred muscle pain, resulting from algogenic conditions in viscera or other deep somatic structures (another muscle, a joint), is most often accompanied by secondary hyperalgesia and trophic changes (hypotrophy). Referred pain/ hyperalgesia from viscera is partly due to central sensitisation of viscero-somatic convergent neurons (triggered by the massive afferent visceral barrage) but also probably results from a reflex arc activation (the visceral input triggers reflex muscle contraction in turn responsible for sensitisation of muscle nociceptors). Referred pain/hyperalgesia from deep somatic structures is not explained by the mechanism of central sensitisation of convergent neurons in its original form, since there is little,convergence from deep tissues in the dorsal horn neurons. It has been proposed that these connections, not present from the beginning, are opened by nociceptive input from skeletal muscle, and that referral to myotomes outside the lesion results from the spread of central sensitisation to adjacent spinal segments.

  1. P2X3 and TRPV1 functionally interact and mediate sensitization of trigeminal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saloman, Jami L.; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) affect a large percentage of the population. Identifying mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. In this study, we provide evidence of functional interactions between two ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and propose that the interactions serve as an underlying mechanism for the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter muscle was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats via an electronic anesthesiometer (Ro et al., 2009). Direct intramuscular injection of a selective P2X3 agonist, αβmeATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Mechanical sensitivity in the contralateral muscle was unaffected suggesting local P2X3 mediate the hyperalgesia. Anesthetizing the overlying skin had no effect on αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia confirming the contribution of P2X3 from muscle. Importantly, the αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810. P2X3 was co-expressed with TRPV1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Additionally, in a subpopulation of P2X3/TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly amplified following P2X3 activation. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglia cultures. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 min, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Previously, activation of either P2X3 or TRPV1 had been independently implicated in the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. Our data propose P2X3 and TRPV1 interact in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization

  2. Thermal hyperalgesia assessment for rats after spinal cord injury: developing a valid and useful pain index.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hung Tae; Kim, Taehee; Novotny, Brianna; Khan, Nayab; Aksamit, James; Siegel, Steven; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S; Resnick, Daniel K

    2014-06-01

    Ongoing research to understand the mechanism behind pain is heavily dependent on animal testing. However, unlike humans, animal subjects cannot directly communicate with researchers to express the degree of pain they are experiencing. Therefore, measuring the presence of pain in animal studies is based on behavioral tests. The use of arbitrary values for determining the presence of pain in animal studies is an oversimplification of a complex and cortically dependent process. The purpose of the present study was to identify a statistically supported latency time indicator that can be used as an accurate index for hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to T9 contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). A statistical analysis of latency of withdrawal from stimulus-mediated spinal reflex in 979 Sprague-Dawley rats that had been subjected to a T9 contusive SCI was performed. This is a retrospective review of a large research database derived from a series of studies performed evaluating thermal hyperalgesia in rats after SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a T9 contusive SCI and were tested for withdrawal latency from a heat stimulus. Assessment was done preinjury and on Postinjury Days 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the chronic phase of injury via a plantar withdrawal test. The baseline test results of the 979 rats showed a significant resemblance to the normal distribution. The observed change in withdrawal showed mean latency drops of 0.42 second (standard error of the mean [SEM], 0.18; p=.026), 0.57 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.004), 0.63 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.002), and 0.69 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.0003). The standard deviation from the mean at all four postsurgical assessments was between 2.8 and 2.9 seconds. Interpretation of withdrawal latency times as a marker for thermal hyperalgesia must be based on an appreciation for the normal distribution of pain scores. Recognizing that withdrawal latency is normally distributed both before and after injury allows for

  3. Characterizing pinprick-evoked brain potentials before and after experimentally induced secondary hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Mouraux, André; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Pfau, Doreen B.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperalgesia is believed to be a key feature of “central sensitization” and is characterized by enhanced pain to mechanical nociceptive stimuli. The aim of the present study was to characterize, using EEG, the effects of pinprick stimulation intensity on the magnitude of pinprick-elicited brain potentials [event-related potentials (ERPs)] before and after secondary hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in humans. Pinprick-elicited ERPs and pinprick-evoked pain ratings were recorded in 19 healthy volunteers, with mechanical pinprick stimuli of varying intensities (0.25-mm probe applied with a force extending between 16 and 512 mN). The recordings were performed before (T0) and 30 min after (T1) intradermal capsaicin injection. The contralateral noninjected arm served as control. ERPs elicited by stimulation of untreated skin were characterized by 1) an early-latency negative-positive complex peaking between 120 and 250 ms after stimulus onset (N120-P240) and maximal at the vertex and 2) a long-lasting positive wave peaking 400–600 ms after stimulus onset and maximal more posterior (P500), which was correlated to perceived pinprick pain. After capsaicin injection, pinprick stimuli were perceived as more intense in the area of secondary hyperalgesia and this effect was stronger for lower compared with higher stimulus intensities. In addition, there was an enhancement of the P500 elicited by stimuli of intermediate intensity, which was significant for 64 mN. The other components of the ERPs were unaffected by capsaicin. Our results suggest that the increase in P500 magnitude after capsaicin is mediated by facilitated mechanical nociceptive pathways. PMID:26334010

  4. Descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM initiate and maintain bilateral hyperalgesia after muscle insult

    PubMed Central

    Tillu, DV; Gebhart, GF; Sluka, KA

    2008-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is involved in facilitation of spinal nociceptive processing and generation of hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. We hypothesized that the bilateral hyperalgesia that develops after repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline is initiated and maintained by activation of descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebral guide cannulae into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or the nucleus gigantocellularis (Gi). Two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle 5 days apart leads to robust hyperalgesia after the second injection. Either ropivacaine (local anesthetic) or vehicle (control) was microinjected into the RVM prior to the first intramuscular acid injection, prior to the second injection, or 24h after the second injection. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the paw (von Frey filaments) and the muscle (tweezer) were measured before and 24h after induction of hyperalgesia. The withdrawal thresholds for both the paw (cutaneous secondary hyperalgesia) and muscle (primary hyperalgesia) were decreased 24h after the second intramuscular acid injection in the vehicle control groups. Administration of ropivacaine prior to the first intramuscular acid injection had no effect on development of either cutaneous or muscle hyperalgesia that develops after the second injection. However, neither cutaneous nor muscle hyperalgesia developed in the group treated with ropivacaine prior to the second intramuscular injection. Ropivacaine also significantly reversed the hyperalgesia in the group treated 24h after the second intramuscular acid injection. Thus, the RVM is critical for both the development and maintenance of hyperalgesia after muscle insult. PMID:17764841

  5. Forgiveness and relationship satisfaction: mediating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Selby, Edward A; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-08-01

    Although the ability to forgive transgressions has been linked to overall relationship satisfaction, the mechanisms that mediate this association have not been established. We propose that the tendency to forgive a romantic partner increases relationship satisfaction via increased relational effort and decreased negative conflict. In two studies, we used structural equations modeling to examine these variables as potential mechanisms that drive this association. In Study 1 (N = 523) and Study 2 (N = 446) we found that these variables significantly mediated the association between forgiveness and relationship satisfaction. The findings were robust when examined concurrently and longitudinally, across multiple measures of forgiveness, and when accounting for baseline relationship satisfaction and interpersonal commitment. These two mechanisms parallel theorized positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness and the motivational transformation that is said to underlie forgiveness. Theoretical implications and implications for intervention are discussed.

  6. Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction: Mediating Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the ability to forgive transgressions has been linked to overall relationship satisfaction, the mechanisms that mediate this association have not been established. We propose that the tendency to forgive a romantic partner increases relationship satisfaction via increased relational effort and decreased negative conflict. In two studies, we used structural equations modeling to examine these variables as potential mechanisms that drive this association. In Study 1 (N = 523) and Study 2 (N = 446) we found that these variables significantly mediated the association between forgiveness and relationship satisfaction. The findings were robust when examined concurrently and longitudinally, across multiple measures of forgiveness, and when accounting for baseline relationship satisfaction and interpersonal commitment. These two mechanisms parallel theorized positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness and the motivational transformation that is said to underlie forgiveness. Theoretical implications and implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:21707170

  7. Many Mechanisms Mediating Mobilization: An Alliterative Review

    PubMed Central

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Pelus, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Blood cell production is maintained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that reside in specialized niches within bone marrow. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) causes HSC egress from bone marrow niches and trafficking to the peripheral blood, a process termed “mobilization”. Although the mobilization phenomenon has been known for some time and is utilized clinically to acquire HSC for transplant, the mechanisms mediating HSC release are not completely understood. We discuss recent advances and controversies in defining mechanisms responsible for G-CSF induced mobilization. Recent findings New reports define a role for resident monocytes/macrophages in maintaining niche cells, which is diminished after G-CSF treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for mobilization. While osteoblasts have been reported to be a primary component of the HSC niche, new results suggest a unique niche composed of innervated mesenchymal stem cells. Modulating bioactive lipid signaling also facilitates mobilization, and may define a future therapeutic strategy. Summary Hematopoietic mobilization by G-CSF is primarily mediated by alterations to the bone marrow niche by both direct and indirect mechanisms, rather than directly altering HSC function. Further understanding of the processes mediating mobilization will advance our understanding on the cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche. PMID:21537168

  8. Many mechanisms mediating mobilization: an alliterative review.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Pelus, Louis M

    2011-07-01

    Blood cell production is maintained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in specialized niches within bone marrow. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) causes HSC egress from bone marrow niches and trafficking to the peripheral blood, a process termed 'mobilization'. Although the mobilization phenomenon has been known for some time and is utilized clinically to acquire HSC for transplant, the mechanisms mediating HSC release are not completely understood. We discuss recent advances and controversies in defining the mechanisms responsible for G-CSF-induced mobilization. New reports define a role for resident monocytes/macrophages in maintaining niche cells, which is diminished after G-CSF treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for mobilization. Although osteoblasts have been reported to be a primary component of the HSC niche, new results suggest a unique niche composed of innervated mesenchymal stem cells. Modulating bioactive lipid signaling also facilitates mobilization, and may define a future therapeutic strategy. Hematopoietic mobilization by G-CSF is primarily mediated by alterations to the bone marrow niche by both direct and indirect mechanisms, rather than directly altering HSC function. Further understanding of the processes mediating mobilization will advance our understanding on the cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche.

  9. ASIC3 is required for development of fatigue-induced hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Nicholas S.; Brito, Renan G.; Oliveira Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    An acute bout of exercise can exacerbate pain, hindering participation in regular exercise and daily activities. The mechanisms underlying pain in response to acute exercise are poorly understood. We hypothesized that proton accumulation during muscle fatigue activates ASIC3 on muscle nociceptors to produce hyperalgesia. We investigated the role of ASIC3 using genetic and pharmacological approaches in a model of fatigue-enhanced hyperalgesia. This model uses two injections of pH 5.0 saline into muscle in combination with an electrically-induced fatigue of the same muscle just prior to the second injection of acid to induce mechanical hyperalgesia. We show a significant decrease in muscle force and decrease in muscle pH after 6 minutes of electrical stimulation. Genetic deletion of ASIC3 using knockout mice and pharmacological blockade of ASIC3 with APETx2 in muscle prevents the fatigue-enhanced hyperalgesia. However, ASIC3−/− mice and APETx2 have no effect on the fatigue response. Genetic deletion of ASIC3 in primary afferents innervating muscle using an HSV-1 expressing miRNA to ASIC3 surprisingly had no effect on the development of the hyperalgesia. Muscle fatigue increased the number of macrophages in muscle, and removal of macrophages from muscle with clodronate liposomes prevented the development of fatigue-enhanced hyperalgesia. Thus, these data suggest that fatigue reduces pH in muscle that subsequently activates ASIC3 on macrophages to enhance hyperalgesia to muscle insult. PMID:25577172

  10. Contributions of spinal D-amino acid oxidase to chronic morphine-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuai; Li, Xin-Yan; Gong, Nian; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2015-12-10

    Spinal D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is an FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme which mediates the conversion of neutral and polar D-amino acids (including D-serine) to the corresponding α-keto acids, and simultaneously produces hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. This study has aimed to explore the potential contributions of spinal DAAO and its mediated hydrogen peroxide/D-serine metabolism to the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia. Bi-daily subcutaneous injections of morphine to mice over 7 days induced thermal hyperalgesia as measured by both the hot-plate and tail-immersion tests, and spinal astroglial activation with increased spinal gene expression of DAAO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)). Subcutaneous injections of the potent DAAO inhibitor CBIO (5-chloro-benzo[D]isoxazol-3-ol) prevented and reversed the chronic morphine-induced hyperalgesia. CBIO also inhibited both astrocyte activation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intrathecal injection of the hydrogen peroxide scavenger PBN (phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone) and of catalase completely reversed established morphine hyperalgesia, whereas subcutaneous injections of exogenous D-serine failed to alter chronic morphine-induced hyperalgesia. These results provided evidence that spinal DAAO and its subsequent production of hydrogen peroxide rather than the D-serine metabolism contributed to the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia.

  11. Intrathecal AAV Serotype 9-mediated Delivery of shRNA Against TRPV1 Attenuates Thermal Hyperalgesia in a Mouse Model of Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takashi; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Kaburagi, Hidetoshi; Sotome, Shinichi; Yoshida-Tanaka, Kie; Ukegawa, Madoka; Kuwahara, Hiroya; Yamamoto, Mariko; Tajiri, Mio; Miyata, Haruka; Hirai, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Okawa, Atsushi; Yokota, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy for neuropathic pain requires efficient gene delivery to both central and peripheral nervous systems. We previously showed that an adenoassociated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) could suppress target molecule expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord upon intrathecal injection. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this approach, we constructed an AAV9 vector encoding shRNA against vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), which is an important target gene for acute pain, but its role in chronic neuropathic pain remains unclear. We intrathecally injected it into the subarachnoid space at the upper lumbar spine of mice 3 weeks after spared nerve injury (SNI). Delivered shTRPV1 effectively suppressed mRNA and protein expression of TRPV1 in the DRG and spinal cord, and it attenuated nerve injury-induced thermal allodynia 10–28 days after treatment. Our study provides important evidence for the contribution of TRPV1 to thermal hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain and thus establishes intrathecal AAV9-mediated gene delivery as an investigative and potentially therapeutic platform for the nervous system. PMID:24322332

  12. Opioid induced hyperalgesia in anesthetic settings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Pain is difficult to investigate and difficult to treat, in part, because of problems in quantification and assessment. The use of opioids, combined with classic anesthetics to maintain hemodynamic stability by controlling responses to intraoperative painful events has gained significant popularity in the anesthetic field. However, several side effects profiles concerning perioperative use of opioid have been published. Over the past two decades, many concerns have arisen with respect to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), which is the paradoxical effect wherein opioid usage may decrease pain thresholds and increase atypical pain unrelated to the original, preexisting pain. This brief review focuses on the evidence, mechanisms, and modulatory and pharmacologic management of OIH in order to elaborate on the clinical implication of OIH. PMID:25473457

  13. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine Prolongs the Duration of Thermal Antinociception and Prevents Bupivacaine-Induced Rebound Hyperalgesia via Regional Mechanism in a Mouse Sciatic Nerve Block Model

    PubMed Central

    An, Ke; Elkassabany, Nabil M.; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. Methods A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations of various medications, including dexamethasone and/or bupivacaine. Neurobehavioral changes were observed for 2 days prior to injection, and then continuously for up to 7 days after injection. In addition, the sciatic nerves were harvested at either 2 days or 7 days after injection. Toluidine blue dyeing and immunohistochemistry test were performed to study the short-term and long-term histopathological changes of the sciatic nerves. There were six study groups: normal saline control, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) only, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg) only, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with low-dose (0.14mg/kg) dexamethasone, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with high-dose (0.5mg/kg) dexamethasone, and bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with intramuscular dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg). Results High-dose perineural dexamethasone, but not systemic dexamethasone, combined with bupivacaine prolonged the duration of both sensory and motor block of mouse sciatic nerve. There was no significant difference on the onset time of the sciatic nerve block. There was “rebound hyperalgesia” to thermal stimulus after the resolution of plain bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. Interestingly, both low and high dose perineural dexamethasone prevented bupivacaine-induced hyperalgesia. There was an early phase of axon degeneration and Schwann cell response as represented by S-100 expression as well as the percentage of demyelinated axon and nucleus in the plain bupivacaine group compared with the bupivacaine plus dexamethasone groups on post-injection day 2, which resolved on post-injection day 7. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perineural dexamethasone

  14. Effects and mechanisms of gastric electrical stimulation on visceral pain in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia secondary to chemically induced mucosal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Tan, Y; Song, G; Chen, J D Z

    2014-02-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been suggested as a potential treatment for patients with gastric motility disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the effects and mechanisms of GES on visceral pain in awaken rats. Under anesthesia, acetic acid was injected into the submucosal layer of the stomach wall in Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. Each rat was chronically placed with an intragastric balloon and two pairs of electrodes on gastric serosa for GES and at the neck muscles for electromyography (EMG) recordings respectively. The study was composed of four experiments. Exp 1 was designed to determine optimal GES parameters in reducing EMG response to gastric distention (GD). Exp 2 was performed to investigate the effect of GES on gastric tone/accommodation. Exp 3 was to investigate if the opioid pathway was involved in the analgesic effects of GES. Exp 4 was to assess the effectiveness of GES on the spinal cord neurons (T9-T10) responding to GD. (i) Gastric electrical stimulation with a train on of 0.1 s and off of 0.4 s, 0.25 ms, 100 Hz, and 6 mA significantly reduced GD-induced EMG responses at GD 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. (ii) The inhibitory effects of GES on the GD-induced EMG responses were blocked by Naloxone. (iii) GES inhibited 90% of high-threshold (HT) spinal neurons in response to GD. However, GES with the same parameters only suppressed 36.3% low-threshold (LT) neuronal response to GD. Gastric electrical stimulation with optimal parameters inhibits visceral pain; the analgesic effect of GES on visceral pain is mediated via the endogenous opioid system and the suppression of spinal afferent neuronal activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  16. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-04

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner.

  17. Differential modulation of remifentanil-induced analgesia and postinfusion hyperalgesia by S-ketamine and clonidine in humans.

    PubMed

    Koppert, Wolfgang; Sittl, Reinhard; Scheuber, Karin; Alsheimer, Monika; Schmelz, Martin; Schüttler, Jürgen

    2003-07-01

    Experimental studies and clinical observations suggest a possible role for opioids to induce pain and hyperalgesia on withdrawal. The authors used a new experimental pain model in human skin to determine the time course of analgesic and hyperalgesic effects of the mu-receptor agonist remifentanil alone or in combination with the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist S-ketamine or the alpha(2)-receptor agonist clonidine. Thirteen volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation at a high current density (2 Hz, 67.3 +/- 16.8 mA, mean +/- SD) induced acute pain (numerical 11-point rating scale: 5-6 out of 10) and stable areas of mechanical hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli and touch (allodynia). The magnitude of pain and area of hyperalgesia were assessed before, during, and after drug infusion (remifentanil at 0.1 microg x kg-1 x min-1 and S-ketamine at 5 microg x kg-1 x min-1 over a period of 30 min, respectively; clonidine infusion at 2 microg/kg for 5 min). Remifentanil reduced pain and areas of punctate hyperalgesia during infusion. In contrast, postinfusion pain and hyperalgesia were significantly higher than control. During infusion of S-ketamine, pain and hyperalgesia decreased and gradually normalized after infusion. When given in combination, S-ketamine abolished postinfusion increase of punctate hyperalgesia but did not reduce increased pain ratings. Clonidine alone did not significantly attenuate pain or areas of hyperalgesia. However, when given in combination with remifentanil, clonidine attenuated postinfusion increase of pain ratings. Opioid-induced postinfusion hyperalgesia could be abolished by S-ketamine, suggesting an N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor mechanism. In contrast, elevated pain ratings after infusion were not reduced by ketamine but were alleviated by the alpha(2)-receptor agonist clonidine. The results of this study suggest different mechanisms of opioid

  18. Inflammation mobilizes local resources to control hyperalgesia: the role of endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniela P; da Motta, Patrícia G; Lima, Patrícia P; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Caliari, Marcelo V; Pacheco, Daniela F; Pacheco, Cinthia F; Francischi, Janetti N; Duarte, Igor D G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the endogenous control of nociception at a peripheral level during inflammation. Using a pharmacological approach and the rat paw pressure test, we assessed the effect of an intraplantar injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and bestatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, on hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, which mimics an inflammatory process, or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which directly sensitizes nociceptors. Naloxone induced a significant and dose-dependent (25, 50 or 100 μg) increase in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, but not PGE(2)-induced hyperalgesia. Bestatin (400 μg/paw) significantly counteracted carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, inducing an increase in the nociceptive threshold compared to control, but it did not modify hyperalgesia induced by PGE(2) injection into the rat paw. Positive β-endorphin immunoreactivity was increased in paw inflammation induced by carrageenan in comparison with the control group. However, PGE(2) did not significantly alter the immunostained area. These results provide evidence for activation of the endogenous opioidergic system during inflammation and indicate that this system regulates hyperalgesia through a negative feedback mechanism, modulating it at a peripheral level.

  19. Oxidative Mechanisms of Monocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephen J.; Lobuglio, Albert F.; Kessler, Howard B.

    1980-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate were able to rapidly destroy autologous erythrocyte targets. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was related to phorbol myristate acetate concentration and monocyte number. Purified preparations of lymphocytes were incapable of mediating erythrocyte lysis in this system. The ability of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes to lyse erythrocyte targets was markedly impaired by catalase or superoxide dismutase but not by heat-inactivated enzymes or albumin. Despite a simultaneous requirement for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the cytotoxic event, a variety of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers did not effect cytolysis. However, tryptophan significantly inhibited cytotoxicity. The myeloperoxidase inhibitor cyanide enhanced erythrocyte destruction, whereas azide reduced it modestly. The inability of cyanide to reduce cytotoxicity coupled with the protective effect of superoxide dismutase suggests that cytotoxicity is independent of the classic myeloperoxidase system. We conclude that monocytes, stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, generate superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which together play an integral role in this cytotoxic mechanism.

  20. Importance of CRF receptor-mediated mechanisms of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the processing of anxiety and pain.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lee; Schulkin, Jay; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2014-10-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated mechanisms in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have a pivotal role in stress-induced anxiety and hyperalgesia. Although CRF is known to activate two receptor subtypes, CRF1 and CRF2, attempts to delineate the specific role of each subtype in modulating anxiety and nociception have been inconsistent. Here we test the hypothesis that CRF1 and CRF2 receptor activation in the anteriolateral BNST (BNSTAL) facilitates divergent mechanisms modulating comorbid anxiety and hyperalgesia. Microinfusions of the specific antagonists CP376395 and Astressin2B into the BNSTAL were used to investigate CRF1 and CRF2 receptor functions, respectively. We found that CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the BNSTAL had opposing effects on exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze, somatic mechanical threshold, and the autonomic and endocrine response to stress. However, CRF1 or CRF2 receptor antagonism in the BNSTAL revealed complementary roles in facilitating the acoustic startle and visceromotor reflexes. Our results suggest that the net effect of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor activation in the BNSTAL is pathway-dependent and provides important insight into the CRF receptor-associated circuitry that likely underpins stress-induced pathologies.

  1. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD13-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Gerber, Claire; Rahman, M Mamunur; Vernier, Kaitlyn M; Pereira, Flavia E; Subramani, Jaganathan; Caromile, Leslie A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    CD13/Aminopeptidase N is a transmembrane metalloproteinase that is expressed in many tissues where it regulates various cellular functions. In inflammation, CD13 is expressed on myeloid cells, is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and mediates monocyte/endothelial adhesion by homotypic interactions. In animal models the lack of CD13 alters the profiles of infiltrating inflammatory cells at sites of ischaemic injury. Here, we found that CD13 expression is enriched specifically on the pro-inflammatory subset of monocytes, suggesting that CD13 may regulate trafficking and function of specific subsets of immune cells. To further dissect the mechanisms regulating CD13-dependent trafficking we used the murine model of thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis. Peritoneal monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were significantly decreased in inflammatory exudates from global CD13KO animals when compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type and CD13KO primary myeloid cells, or wild-type myeloid cells pre-treated with CD13-blocking antibodies into thioglycollate-challenged wild-type recipients demonstrated fewer CD13KO or treated cells in the lavage, suggesting that CD13 expression confers a competitive advantage in trafficking. Similarly, both wild-type and CD13KO cells were reduced in infiltrates in CD13KO recipients, confirming that both monocytic and endothelial CD13 contribute to trafficking. Finally, murine monocyte cell lines expressing mouse/human chimeric CD13 molecules demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of the protein mediates CD13 adhesion. Therefore, this work verifies that the altered inflammatory trafficking in CD13KO mice is the result of aberrant myeloid cell subset trafficking and further defines the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:24627994

  2. Traumatic Stress Promotes Hyperalgesia via Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-1 Receptor (CRFR1) Signaling in Central Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Itoga, Christy A; Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Whitaker, Annie M; Lu, Yi-Ling; Schreiber, Allyson L; Baynes, Brittni B; Baiamonte, Brandon A; Richardson, Heather N; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-09-01

    Hyperalgesia is an exaggerated response to noxious stimuli produced by peripheral or central plasticity. Stress modifies nociception, and humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit co-morbid chronic pain and amygdala dysregulation. Predator odor stress produces hyperalgesia in rodents. Systemic blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptors (CRFR1s) reduces stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia. We hypothesized that CRF-CRFR1 signaling in central amygdala (CeA) mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats with high stress reactivity. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to predator odor stress in a conditioned place avoidance paradigm and indexed for high (Avoiders) and low (Non-Avoiders) avoidance of predator odor-paired context, or were unstressed Controls. Rats were tested for the latency to withdraw hindpaws from thermal stimuli (Hargreaves test). We used pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical techniques to assess the role of CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA in stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited higher CRF peptide levels in CeA that did not appear to be locally synthesized. Intra-CeA CRF infusion mimicked stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by systemic or intra-CeA injection of a CRFR1 antagonist. Finally, intra-CeA infusion of tetrodotoxin produced thermal hyperalgesia in unstressed rats and blocked the anti-hyperalgesic effect of systemic CRFR1 antagonist in stressed rats. These data suggest that rats with high stress reactivity exhibit hyperalgesia that is mediated by CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA.

  3. Traumatic Stress Promotes Hyperalgesia via Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-1 Receptor (CRFR1) Signaling in Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Itoga, Christy A; Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Whitaker, Annie M; Lu, Yi-Ling; Schreiber, Allyson L; Baynes, Brittni B; Baiamonte, Brandon A; Richardson, Heather N; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesia is an exaggerated response to noxious stimuli produced by peripheral or central plasticity. Stress modifies nociception, and humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit co-morbid chronic pain and amygdala dysregulation. Predator odor stress produces hyperalgesia in rodents. Systemic blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptors (CRFR1s) reduces stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia. We hypothesized that CRF-CRFR1 signaling in central amygdala (CeA) mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats with high stress reactivity. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to predator odor stress in a conditioned place avoidance paradigm and indexed for high (Avoiders) and low (Non-Avoiders) avoidance of predator odor-paired context, or were unstressed Controls. Rats were tested for the latency to withdraw hindpaws from thermal stimuli (Hargreaves test). We used pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical techniques to assess the role of CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA in stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited higher CRF peptide levels in CeA that did not appear to be locally synthesized. Intra-CeA CRF infusion mimicked stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by systemic or intra-CeA injection of a CRFR1 antagonist. Finally, intra-CeA infusion of tetrodotoxin produced thermal hyperalgesia in unstressed rats and blocked the anti-hyperalgesic effect of systemic CRFR1 antagonist in stressed rats. These data suggest that rats with high stress reactivity exhibit hyperalgesia that is mediated by CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA. PMID:27013358

  4. Histamine-induced itch converts into pain in neuropathic hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Schwarz, K; Kleinert, A; Schattschneider, J; Wasner, G

    2001-11-16

    Physiologically, itch and pain are transmitted in separate specific peripheral C-units and central afferent pathways. Some neuropathic pain patients with intact but sensitized (irritable) primary C-nociceptors have spontaneous pain, heat hyperalgesia, static and dynamic mechanical hyperalgesia. The question was whether cutaneous histamine application induces pain in these patients. For comparison histamine was applied into normal skin experimentally sensitized by capsaicin. Histamine application in the capsaicin-induced primary or secondary hyperalgesic skin did not change the intensity and quality of capsaicin pain. Itch was profoundly inhibited. Conversely, histamine application in neuropathic skin induced severe increase in spontaneous burning pain but no itch. In neuropathies irritable nociceptors may express histamine receptors or induce central sensitization to histaminergic stimuli so that itch converts into pain.

  5. Viscero-visceral hyperalgesia: characterization in different clinical models.

    PubMed

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Lapenna, Domenico; Tafuri, Emmanuele; Mezzetti, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Co-existing algogenic conditions in two internal organs in the same patient may mutually enhance pain symptoms (viscero-visceral hyperalgesia). The present study assessed this phenomenon in different models of visceral interaction. In a prospective evaluation, patients with: (a) coronary artery disease (CAD)+gallstone (Gs) (common sensory projection: T5); (b) irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)+dysmenorrhea (Dys) (T10-L1); (c) dysmenorrhea/endometriosis+urinary calculosis (Cal)(T10-L1); and (d) gallstone+left urinary calculosis (Gs+LCal) (unknown common projection) were compared with patients with CAD, Gs, IBS, Dys or Cal only, for spontaneous symptoms (number/intensity of pain episodes) over comparable time periods and for referred symptoms (muscle hyperalgesia; pressure/electrical pain thresholds) from each visceral location. In patients' subgroups, symptoms were also re-assessed after treatment of each condition or after no treatment. (a) CAD+Gs presented more numerous/intense angina/biliary episodes and more referred muscle chest/abdominal hyperalgesia than CAD or Gs; cardiac revascularization or cholecystectomy also reduced biliary or cardiac symptoms, respectively (0.001hyperalgesia than IBS or Dys; hormonal dysmenorrhea treatment also reduced IBS symptoms; IBS dietary treatment also improved dysmenorrhea (0.001hyperalgesia than Cal or Dys; hormonal dysmenorrhea treatment/laser treatment for endometriosis also improved urinary symptoms; lithotripsy for urinary stone also reduced menstrual symptoms (0.001Mechanisms of viscero-visceral hyperalgesia between organs with documented

  6. Neuroprotective Mechanisms Mediated by CDK5 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Gohar; Greig, Nigel H.; Anwar, Firoz; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Zamzami, Mazin A.; Al-Talhi, Hasan A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase belonging to the family of cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition to maintaining the neuronal architecture, CDK5 plays an important role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, neuron migration and neurite outgrowth. Although various reports have shown links between neurodegeneration and deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, the specific role of CDK5 inhibition in causing neuroprotection in cases of neuronal insult or in neurodegenerative diseases is not well-understood. This article discusses current evidence for the involvement of CDK5 deregulation in neurodegenerative disorders and neurodegeneration associated with stroke through various mechanisms. These include upregulation of cyclin D1 and overactivation of CDK5 mediated neuronal cell death pathways, aberrant hyperphosphorylation of human tau proteins and/or neurofilament proteins, formation of neurofibrillary lesions, excitotoxicity, cytoskeletal disruption, motor neuron death (due to abnormally high levels of CDK5/p25) and colchicine-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. A better understanding of the role of CDK5 inhibition in neuroprotective mechanisms will help scientists and researchers to develop selective, safe and efficacious pharmacological inhibitors of CDK5 for therapeutic use against human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neuronal loss associated with stroke. PMID:26601962

  7. Celecoxib alleviates oxaliplatin-induced hyperalgesia through inhibition of spinal ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongping; Wang, Qinghua; Shi, Danni; Yao, Dongbo; Zhang, Lei; Xiong, Junping; Xu, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Numerous pieces of evidence have revealed that oxaliplatin (OXA) evokes mechanical and cold hypersensitivity. However, the mechanism underlying these bothersome side effects needs to be further investigated. It is well known that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) signaling play crucial roles in several pain states. Our previous data showed that Akt2 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) participated in the regulation of OXA-induced neuropathic pain. But it is still unclear whether spinal ERK1/2 signaling is involved in the regulation of OXA-induced hyperalgesia, and the linkage between COX-2 and ERK1/2 signaling in mediating OXA-induced hyperalgesia also remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the possible mechanism of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in OXA-induced neuropathic pain. Our results show that single dose of OXA (12 mg/kg) significantly attenuated both the tail withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) at days 4 after the OXA treatment. Administration of celecoxib (30 mg/kg/day) for 4 and 6 days inhibited the decrease in TWL and MWT, and each was significantly higher than that of the OXA+vehicle group and was equivalent to that of the vehicles group. OXA increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (pERK1/2) protein in the lumbar 4-5 (L4-5) spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. Administration of celecoxib for 7 days suppressed the increase in expression of COX-2 and pERK1/2 induced by OXA. Our findings suggested that COX-2 and ERK1/2 signaling in spinal cord contributed to the OXA-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27821910

  8. Mechanisms of PDGF siRNA-mediated inhibition of bone cancer pain in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Jia; He, Mu; Liu, Ran; Belegu, Visar; Dai, Ping; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Xia, Qing-Jie; Shang, Fei-Fei; Luo, Chao-Zhi; Zhou, Xue; Liu, Su; McDonald, JohnW.; Liu, Jin; Zuo, Yun-Xia; Liu, Fei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tumors that metastasize to bone frequently suffer from debilitating pain, and effective therapies for treating bone cancer are lacking. This study employed a novel strategy in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) carrying a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was used to alleviate bone cancer pain. HSV carrying PDGF siRNA was established and intrathecally injected into the cavum subarachnoidale of animals suffering from bone cancer pain and animals in the negative group. Sensory function was assessed by measuring thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. The mechanism by which PDGF regulates pain was also investigated by comparing the differential expression of pPDGFRα/β and phosphorylated ERK and AKT. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia developed in the rats with bone cancer pain, and these effects were accompanied by bone destruction in the tibia. Intrathecal injection of PDGF siRNA and morphine reversed thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with bone cancer pain. In addition, we observed attenuated astrocyte hypertrophy, down-regulated pPDGFRα/β levels, reduced levels of the neurochemical SP, a reduction in CGRP fibers and changes in pERK/ERK and pAKT/AKT ratios. These results demonstrate that PDGF siRNA can effectively treat pain induced by bone cancer by blocking the AKT-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27282805

  9. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Blass, E M; Zhou, Q; Dubner, R

    1997-02-18

    Sweet taste and nonnutritive suckling produce analgesia to transient noxious stimuli in infant rats and humans. The present study evaluated the pain-modulating effects of sucrose and suckling in a rat model of persistent pain and hyperalgesia that mimics the response to tissue injury in humans. Fore- and hindpaw withdrawal latencies from a 30 degrees or 48 degrees C brass stylus were determined in 10-day-old rats following paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 1:1 injected s.c. in a 0.01 ml volume). CFA markedly decreased escape latencies to both 48 degrees and 30 degrees C stimulation, thereby demonstrating thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The combination of nonnutritive suckling and sucrose (7.5%, 0.01-0.06 ml/min) infusion markedly increased escape latencies to forepaw stimulation in both CFA-treated and control rats. In contrast, intraoral sucrose and suckling did not increase hindpaw withdrawal latencies in either control or CFA-inflamed rats. The effect was specific to sweet taste because neither water nor isotonic saline infusion affected forepaw escape latencies. Parallel findings were obtained for CFA-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI), a marker of neuronal activation. Fos-LI was selectively induced in cervical and lumbar regions ipsilateral to forepaw and hindpaw inflammation, respectively. Suckling-sucrose treatment significantly reduced Fos-LI at the cervical but not at the lumbar regions. These findings demonstrate: (i) the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in 10-day-old rats that can be attenuated by endogenous pain-modulating systems activated by taste and nonnutritive suckling; (ii) the mediation of the sucrose-suckling analgesia and antihyperalgesia at the spinal level; and (iii) a differential rostrocaudal maturation of descending pain-modulating systems to the spinal cord of 10-day-old rats. These findings may provide new clinical approaches for engaging endogenous analgesic mechanisms in

  10. Carbamazepine Withdrawal-induced Hyperalgesia in Chronic Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenyu; Yang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Shi, Le; Sun, Qing-Li; Sun, A-Ping; Lu, Lin; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Rongsheng; Zhai, Suodi

    2015-11-01

    Combined pharmacological treatments are the most used approach for neuropathic pain. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is generally used as a third-line treatment for neuropathic pain and can be considered an option only when patients have not responded to the first- and second-line medications. In the case presented herein, a patient with neuropathic pain was treated using a combined pharmacological regimen. The patient's pain deteriorated, despite increasing the doses of opioids, when carbamazepine was discontinued, potentially because carbamazepine withdrawal disrupted the balance that was achieved by the multifaceted pharmacological regimen, thus inducing hyperalgesia. Interestingly, when carbamazepine was prescribed again, the patient's pain was successfully managed. Animal research has reported that carbamazepine can potentiate the analgesic effectiveness of morphine in rodent models of neuropathic pain and postoperative pain. This clinical case demonstrates that carbamazepine may have a synergistic effect on the analgesic effectiveness of morphine and may inhibit or postpone opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We postulate that a probable mechanism of action of carbamazepine may involve -aminobutyric acid-ergic potentiation and the interruption of glutamatergic function via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Further research is warranted to clarify the analgesic action of carbamazepine and its potential use for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic neuropathic pain patients.

  11. Central activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by novel endogenous agonists contributes to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Green, Dustin; Ruparel, Shivani; Gao, Xiaoli; Ruparel, Nikita; Patil, Mayur; Akopian, Armen; Hargreaves, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The primary complaint of burn victims is an intense, often devastating spontaneous pain, with persistence of mechanical and thermal allodynia. The transient receptor potential channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1, are expressed by a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons and contribute to inflammatory hypersensitivity. Although their function in the periphery is well known, a role for these TRP channels in central pain mechanisms is less well defined. Lipid agonists of TRPV1 are released from peripheral tissues via enzymatic oxidation after burn injury; however, it is not known if burn injury triggers the release of oxidized lipids in the spinal cord. Accordingly, we evaluated whether burn injury evoked the central release of oxidized lipids . Analysis of lipid extracts of spinal cord tissue with HPLC-MS revealed a significant increase in levels of the epoxide and diol metabolites of linoleic acid: 9,10-DiHOME, 12,13-DiHOME, 9(10)-EpOME, and 12(13)-EpOME, that was reduced after intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the oxidative enzyme inhibitor ketoconazole. Moreover, we found that these four lipid metabolites were capable of specifically activating both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Intrathecal injection of specific antagonists to TRPV1 (AMG-517) or TRPA1 (HC-030031) significantly reduced post-burn mechanical and thermal allodynia. Finally, i.t. injection of ketoconazole significantly reversed post-burn mechanical and thermal allodynia. Our data indicate that spinal cord TRPV1 and TRPA1 contributes to pain after burn and identifies a novel class of oxidized lipids elevated in the spinal cord after burn injury. Since the management of burn pain is problematic, these findings point to a novel approach for treating post-burn pain.

  12. Spinal administration of a delta opioid receptor agonist attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Holdridge, Sarah V; Cahill, Catherine M

    2007-08-01

    Neuropathic (NP) pain is a debilitating chronic pain disorder considered by some to be inherently resistant to therapy with traditional analgesics. Indeed, micro opioid receptor (OR) agonists show reduced therapeutic benefit and their long term use is hindered by the high incidence of adverse effects. However, pharmacological and physiological evidence increasingly suggests a role for deltaOR agonists in modulating NP pain symptoms. In this study, we examined the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of the spinally administered deltaOR agonist, d-[Ala(2), Glu(4)]deltorphin II (deltorphin II), as well as the changes in deltaOR expression, in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Rats with CCI exhibited cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia over a 14-day testing period. Intrathecal administration of deltorphin II reversed cold hyperalgesia on day 14 and dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia. The effects of deltorphin II were mediated via activation of the deltaOR as the effect was antagonized by co-treatment with the delta-selective antagonist, naltrindole. Western blotting experiments revealed no changes in deltaOR protein in the dorsal spinal cord following CCI. Taken together, these data demonstrate the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effectiveness of a spinally administered deltaOR agonist following peripheral nerve injury and support further investigation of deltaORs as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of NP pain.

  13. Elite swimmers with and without unilateral shoulder pain: mechanical hyperalgesia and active/latent muscle trigger points in neck-shoulder muscles.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lozano, A; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Calderón-Soto, C; Domingo-Camara, A; Madeleine, P; Arroyo-Morales, M

    2013-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the presence of mechanical hypersensitivity and active trigger points (TrPs) in the neck-shoulder muscles in elite swimmers with/without unilateral shoulder pain. Seventeen elite swimmers with shoulder pain; 18 swimmers without shoulder pain; and 15 elite athletes matched controls were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed over the levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, infraspinatus, scalene, subscapularis and tibialis anterior muscles. TrPs in the levator scapulae, upper trapezius, infraspinatus, scalene, sternocleidomastoid and subscapularis muscles were also explored. Swimmers with shoulder pain showed significant lower PPT in all muscles compared with controls (P<0.01). No differences in PPT were found between swimmers with and without shoulder pain, underlining widespread mechanical hypersensitivity. The mean number of TrPs for elite swimmer with and without shoulder pain was, respectively, 4.7 ± 1 (2.1 ± 1.5 active; 2.6 ± 1.4 latent) and 4.7 ± 1.3 (1.3 ± 1.3 active; 3.4 ± 1.5 latent), whereas healthy athletes only showed latent TrPs (2.4 ± 1.2). Elite swimmers with shoulder pain showed higher number of active TrPs than swimmers without pain, whereas it was the opposite for the number of latent muscle TrP (P<0.05). The reported mechanical hypersensitivity suggests that active TrPs play a role in the development of shoulder pain in elite swimmers.

  14. Measurement of CFA-induced hyperalgesia and morphine-induced analgesia in rats: dorsal vs plantar mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw.

    PubMed

    Soignier, R Denis; Taylor, Bradley K; Baiamonte, Brandon A; Lee, Frank A; Paul, Dennis; Gould, Harry J

    2011-03-01

    To compare the sensitivity of stimulating the plantar and dorsal hindpaw surfaces in the detection of mechanical allodynia and morphine analgesia. Several approaches are used to assess nociceptive reactivity to mechanical stimulation in animal models of pain. Although certain techniques seem to be favored for studying specific nociceptive conditions, the differences between techniques have not been directly compared and characterized. We chose to compare methods employing stimulation applied to the dorsum of the paw with stimulation of the plantar surface to demonstrate the utility of each approach in determining baseline nociceptive thresholds, changes in those thresholds after injury, and analgesic efficacy. Withdrawal thresholds from mechanical stimulation applied to the dorsal and plantar surface of the hindpaw were measured in rats treated with morphine after receiving subcutaneous injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) using Semmes-Weinstein (S-W) monofilaments and electro von Frey (EVF) stimulation. In contrast to stimulation of the dorsal surface, plantar hindpaw stimulation seldom elicited an aversive withdrawal response. Differences in withdrawal response from baseline were only detectable within the first 5 hours post-CFA and only with EVF stimulation. No significant differences in stimulation techniques were observed after the initial 5-hour window. Effective dose 50 (ED(50)) for analgesic efficacy was consistently lower using dorsal stimulation. Stimulation of the plantar surface of the paw is superior for detecting small changes in paw sensitivity at very low stimulus intensities, whereas stimulation of the dorsal surface is superior for delineating baseline pain thresholds and for detecting robust analgesia. Reliable and sensitive assessment of animal pain behaviors is critical to translational pain research. This study demonstrates the importance of using proper test protocols in animal studies and its implication in preclinical screening of

  15. Role of Corticotropin-releasing Factor Signaling in Stress-related Alterations of Colonic Motility and Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Taché, Yvette; Million, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling systems encompass CRF and the structurally related peptide urocortin (Ucn) 1, 2, and 3 along with 2 G-protein coupled receptors, CRF1 and CRF2. CRF binds with high and moderate affinity to CRF1 and CRF2 receptors, respectively while Ucn1 is a high-affinity agonist at both receptors, and Ucn2 and Ucn3 are selective CRF2 agonists. The CRF systems are expressed in both the brain and the colon at the gene and protein levels. Experimental studies established that the activation of CRF1 pathway in the brain or the colon recaptures cardinal features of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (stimulation of colonic motility, activation of mast cells and serotonin, defecation/watery diarrhea, and visceral hyperalgesia). Conversely, selective CRF1 antagonists or CRF1/CRF2 antagonists, abolished or reduced exogenous CRF and stress-induced stimulation of colonic motility, defecation, diarrhea and colonic mast cell activation and visceral hyperalgesia to colorectal distention. By contrast, the CRF2 signaling in the colon dampened the CRF1 mediated stimulation of colonic motor function and visceral hyperalgesia. These data provide a conceptual framework that sustained activation of the CRF1 system at central and/or peripheral sites may be one of the underlying basis of IBS-diarrhea symptoms. While targeting these mechanisms by CRF1 antagonists provided a relevant novel therapeutic venue, so far these promising preclinical data have not translated into therapeutic use of CRF1 antagonists. Whether the existing or newly developed CRF1 antagonists will progress to therapeutic benefits for stress-sensitive diseases including IBS for a subset of patients is still a work in progress. PMID:25611064

  16. Effects of intravenous Injections Paederiae and Stauntonia on spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by cutaneous chemical tissue injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Li; Gao, Xi-Ling; Chen, Jun; Huang, Xi; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2003-10-25

    To study whether commercial traditional Chinese medicinal preparations Injection Paederiae (IP) or Injection Stauntonia (IS) has anti-nociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory effects, we used two persistent pain models (bee venom and formalin test) to evaluate the systemic effects of IP or IS on the chemical tissue injury-induced persistent spontaneous pain-related responses (PSPR), primary thermal/mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation in conscious rats. Injection of bee venom (BV, 0.1 mg, 50 microl) into the plantar surface of one hind paw resulted in not only a 1-h monophasic PSPR such as flinching reflex in the injected paw and a subsequent period of 3-4 days primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia, but also a marked sign of inflammation, including redness and swelling of the plantar surface in the injected paw. Intraplantar injection of formalin produced two phases of PSPR as reported previously. Systemic pre-treatment with three doses of IP (0.32, 1.6 and 9.0 ml/kg, 500%) or IS (0.32, 1.6 and 9.0 ml/kg, 250%) produced a dose-dependent suppression of the BV- or formalin-induced flinching reflex of 1 h time course as compared with the saline control group. Post-treatment with IP or IS 5 min after BV injection also produced a significant suppression of the flinching reflex in both BV test and formalin test respectively, as compared with the control group. However, neither pre- nor post-treatment with IP or IS produced any significantly suppressive effect on the BV-induced primary heat and mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation. The analgesia produced by IP or IS was not mediated by the endogenous opioid receptors since naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, had no reversal effect on the IP and IS-produced analgesia in the BV-induced PSPR. Our present results suggest that IP or IS might prevent and relieve clinical persistent spontaneous pain, but without any anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on the primary heat hyperalgesia

  17. Rubus occidentalis alleviates hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kwon, Ji Wung

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) fruit extract (ROE) in a rat model of chronic muscle pain and examine the mechanisms involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and chronic muscle pain was induced by two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle. For the first experiment, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups. After the development of hyperalgesia, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9 % saline or ROE (10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg). For the second experiment, 70 rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, atropine, mecamylamine, or naloxone after the development of hyperalgesia. Ten minutes later, ROE (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. For both experiments, the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was evaluated with von Frey filaments before the first acidic saline injection, 24 h after the second injection, and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, 24 and 48 h after the drug administration. Compared with the control group, the MWT significantly increased up to 45 min after injection of ROE 100 mg/kg and up to 60 min after injection of ROE 300 mg/kg, respectively. Injection of ROE together with yohimbine or mecamylamine significantly decreased the MWT compared with the effect of ROE alone, while ROE together with dexmedetomidine significantly increased the MWT. ROE showed antinociceptive activity against induced chronic muscle pain, which may be mediated by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

  18. Role of peripheral and central TRPV1 receptors in facial heat hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Araya, Erika Ivanna; Nones, Carina Fernanda Mattedi; Ferreira, Luiz Eduardo Nunes; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Cunha, Joice Maria da; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2017-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that diabetes may be related to sensory changes in the trigeminal system. Long lasting facial heat hyperalgesia has been described in diabetic rats, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Herein, the contribution of peripheral and central TRPV1 receptors to facial heat hyperalgesia in diabeticrats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60mg/kg, i.p) and facial heat hyperalgesia was assessed once a week up to four weeks. The role of TRPV1 receptors in the heat hyperalgesia in diabetic rats was evaluated through: 1) the ablation of TRPV1 receptors by resiniferatoxin (RTX) treatment and 2) injection of the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, into the upper lip, trigeminal ganglion or medullary subarachnoid space, at doses that completed prevented the heat hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin in naïve rats. Western blot was used to estimate the changes in TRPV1 expression in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats exhibited facial heat hyperalgesia from the first up to the fourth week after streptozotocin injection, which was prevented by insulin treatment. Ablation of TRPV1-expressing fibers prevented facial hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. Capsazepine injection in all sites resulted in significant reduction of facial heat hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant decrease in TRPV1 expression in the trigeminal nerve, increased expression in the trigeminal ganglion and no changes in subnucleus caudalis when compared to normoglycemic ones. In conclusion, our results suggest that facial heat hyperalgesia in diabetic rats is maintained by peripheral and central TRPV1 receptors activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

  20. Rifaximin alters intestinal bacteria and prevents stress-induced gut inflammation and visceral hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y; Owyang, Chung

    2014-02-01

    Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nerve growth factor induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw is dependent on circulating neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; al-Rashed, S; Hoult, J R; Brain, S D

    1998-09-01

    The mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) induces thermal hyperalgesia and neutrophil accumulation have been investigated in the rat. Thermal nociceptive thresholds in rat hind paw were measured as the time taken for paw withdrawal from a heat source and neutrophil accumulation was measured in hind paw and dorsal skin samples using a myeloperoxidase assay. NGF (23-80 pmol intraplantar (i.pl.) injection) induced a significant (P < 0.05, n = 6-16) thermal hyperalgesia at 5 h after injection and significant neutrophil accumulation (P < 0.05, n = 6) was observed with NGF (40 pmol). In dorsal skin, where multiple samples can be assessed, intradermal (i.d.) NGF was 10-30 times less potent than interleukin-1beta in inducing neutrophil accumulation. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor ZM230487 (10 nmol co-injected with NGF) significantly attenuated neutrophil accumulation and hyperalgesia induced by NGF; unlike the histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists (mepyramine and methysergide) which were without effect at the times measured. Furthermore, depletion of circulating neutrophils (using a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil antibody) abolished NGF induced hyperalgesia. These results indicate that neutrophils, which accumulate in response to a 5-lipoxygenase product, play a crucial role in NGF-induced hyperalgesia.

  2. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection.

  3. Morphine-induced hyperalgesia involves mu opioid receptors and the metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Roeckel, Laurie-Anne; Utard, Valérie; Reiss, David; Mouheiche, Jinane; Maurin, Hervé; Robé, Anne; Audouard, Emilie; Wood, John N; Goumon, Yannick; Simonin, Frédéric; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2017-09-04

    Opiates are potent analgesics but their clinical use is limited by side effects including analgesic tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The Opiates produce analgesia and other adverse effects through activation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) encoded by the Oprm1 gene. However, MOR and morphine metabolism involvement in OIH have been little explored. Hence, we examined MOR contribution to OIH by comparing morphine-induced hyperalgesia in wild type (WT) and MOR knockout (KO) mice. We found that repeated morphine administration led to analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in WT mice but not in MOR KO mice. The absence of OIH in MOR KO mice was found in both sexes, in two KO global mutant lines, and for mechanical, heat and cold pain modalities. In addition, the morphine metabolite morphine-3beta-D-glucuronide (M3G) elicited hyperalgesia in WT but not in MOR KO animals, as well as in both MOR flox and MOR-Nav1.8 sensory neuron conditional KO mice. M3G displayed significant binding to MOR and G-protein activation when using membranes from MOR-transfected cells or WT mice but not from MOR KO mice. Collectively our results show that MOR is involved in hyperalgesia induced by chronic morphine and its metabolite M3G.

  4. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min, 9 cm(2)) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious

  5. Secondary Hyperalgesia Phenotypes Exhibit Differences in Brain Activation during Noxious Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mårtensson, Johan; Larsson, Henrik B. W.; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2015-01-01

    Noxious stimulation of the skin with either chemical, electrical or heat stimuli leads to the development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of injury, and to secondary hyperalgesia in normal skin surrounding the injury. Secondary hyperalgesia is inducible in most individuals and is attributed to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic. To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47°C, 7 min, 9 cm2) on the non-dominant lower-leg. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were assessed 100 min after the injury. We measured neuronal activation by recording blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals (BOLD-signals) during mechanical noxious stimulation before burn injury and in both primary and secondary hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application of the burn-injury) (p < 0.05). After the burn-injury, we found significant differences between responders during noxious stimulation of both primary (p < 0.01) and secondary hyperalgesia (p ≤ 0.04) skin areas. A decreased volume of the right (p = 0.001) and left caudate nucleus (p = 0.01) was detected in high-sensitization responders in comparison to low-sensitization responders. These findings suggest that brain-structure and neuronal activation to noxious stimulation

  6. Hyperalgesia and functional sensory loss in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Pfau, Doreen B; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Magerl, Walter

    2013-08-01

    Pain and other sensory signs in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) are still poorly understood, as most investigations focus on motor system dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate somatosensory changes in patients with primary RLS and the restoration of somatosensory function by guideline-based treatment. Forty previously untreated RLS patients were investigated unilaterally over hand and foot using quantitative sensory testing (QST) and were compared with 40 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The predominant finding in RLS patients was 3- to 4-fold increase of sensitivity to pinprick stimuli in both extremities (hand: P<.05; foot: P<.001), a sensory pathway involved in withdrawal reflexes. Pinprick hyperalgesia was not paralleled by dynamic mechanical allodynia. Additional significant sensory changes were tactile hypoesthesia in both extremities (hand: P<.05; foot P<.01) and dysesthesia to non-noxious cold stimuli (paradoxical heat sensation), which was present in the foot in an unusually high proportion (14 of 40 patients; P<.01). In 8 patients, follow-up QST 2 to 20 months after treatment with l-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) revealed a significant reduction of pinprick hyperalgesia (-60%, P<.001), improved tactile detection (+50%, P<.05), and disappearance of paradoxical heat sensation in half of the patients. QST suggested a type of spinal or supraspinal central sensitization differing from neuropathic pain or human experimental models of central sensitization by the absence of dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reversal of pinprick hyperalgesia by l-DOPA may be explained by impaired descending inhibitory dopaminergic control on spinal nociceptive neurons. Restoration of tactile sensitivity and paradoxical heat sensations suggest that they were functional disturbances resulting from central disinhibition.

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction

    PubMed Central

    López, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

  8. Aberrant TRPV1 expression in heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Urano, Hiroko; Ara, Toshiaki; Fujinami, Yoshiaki; Hiraoka, B Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Trigeminal neuropathic pain is a facial pain syndrome associated with trigeminal nerve injury. However, the mechanism of trigeminal neuropathic pain is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in heat hyperalgesia in a trigeminal neuropathic pain model. We evaluated nociceptive responses to mechanical and heat stimuli using a partial infraorbital nerve ligation (pIONL) model. Withdrawal responses to mechanical and heat stimuli to vibrissal pads (VP) were assessed using von Frey filaments and a thermal stimulator equipped with a heat probe, respectively. Changes in withdrawal responses were measured after subcutaneous injection of the TRP channel antagonist capsazepine. In addition, the expression of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglia was examined. Mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were observed in VP by pIONL. Capsazepine suppressed heat hyperalgesia but not mechanical allodynia. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia was significantly increased in the large-diameter-cell group. These results suggest that TRPV1 plays an important role in the heat hyperalgesia observed in the pIONL model.

  9. Theophylline blocks ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Selvig, Meghan

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of theophylline on the hyperalgesia produced by ethanol withdrawal using a radiant heat tail-flick assay. Chronic effects of ethanol were tested in four groups of rats which received 10 days exposure to a liquid diet [ethanol alone or with theophylline [0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], and dextrin control diet]. Ethanol withdrawal was tested 12 h after removal of the liquid diet. Effects of cumulative doses of the non-selective adenosine agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO; 0.6-10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested during withdrawal in the ethanol-treated groups. Chronic exposure to ethanol produced antinociception, and hyperalgesia was seen during withdrawal. Subchronic administration of theophylline (0.5-1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, i.p.) dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. During ethanol withdrawal, 2-CADO was less potent than when given to non-dependent rats and this effect was prevented by subchronic administration of theophylline (1.0 mg/kg). These findings provide behavioural evidence in agreement with earlier work on the role of adenosine in the development of ethanol tolerance and withdrawal, and suggest that adenosine receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia during ethanol withdrawal.

  10. Quercetin alleviates generalized hyperalgesia in mice with induced adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jichan; Liu, Xishi

    2017-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. The present study investigated the effect of quercetin in neonatal Imprinting Control Region mice with tamoxifen‑induced adenomyosis. The body weight and hotplate response latency of all mice was examined at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after birth. The mice dosed with tamoxifen were divided into four groups: high‑ or low‑quercetin group, valproic acid (VPA) group and untreated group. The group of mice that were neonatally administrated with the solvent only (no tamoxifen), received no treatment and served as a blank control group. After 3 weeks of drug treatment, the potential ability of quercetin to improve the generalized hyperalgesia in mice with induced adenomyosis was evaluated by determining the body weight, pain modulation, examining the myometrial infiltration by histology examination of the uterus and detecting the expression of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (Trpv‑1), phospho (p)‑p38 mitogen activated protein kinase p‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (p‑ERK) in DRG neurons via immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that treatment with quercetin improved the generalized hyperalgesia by extending the hotplate response latency, reduced myometrial infiltration and decreased the expression levels Trpv‑1, p‑p38 and p‑ERK in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The results indicated that quercetin decreases the incidence of hyperalgesia in mice with tamoxifen‑induced adenomyosis, and the potential mechanism is through reduced central sensitization, which may be a promising treatment for adenomyosis.

  11. Mechanics of receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Shi, Wendong; Freund, Lambert B.

    2005-07-01

    Most viruses and bioparticles endocytosed by cells have characteristic sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The process of viruses entering and leaving animal cells is mediated by the binding interaction between ligand molecules on the viral capid and their receptor molecules on the cell membrane. How does the size of a bioparticle affect receptor-mediated endocytosis? Here, we study how a cell membrane containing diffusive mobile receptors wraps around a ligand-coated cylindrical or spherical particle. It is shown that particles in the size range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can enter or exit cells via wrapping even in the absence of clathrin or caveolin coats, and an optimal particles size exists for the smallest wrapping time. This model can also be extended to include the effect of clathrin coat. The results seem to show broad agreement with experimental observations. Author contributions: H.G. and L.B.F. designed research; H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. performed research; and H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: CNT, carbon nanotube; SWNT, single-walled nanotube.

  12. Pioglitazone inhibits the development of hyperalgesia and sensitization of spinal nociresponsive neurons in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Ryan B.; Donahue, Renee R.; Adkins, Braxton G.; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Taylor, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) such as pioglitazone are FDA-approved for the treatment of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, whether TZDs reduce painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) remains unknown. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that chronic administration of pioglitazone would reduce PDN in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDFfa/fa) rats. Compared to Zucker Lean (ZLfa/+) controls, ZDF developed: (1) elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, methylglyoxal and insulin; (2) mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia at the hindpaw; (3) increased avoidance of noxious mechanical probes in a mechanical conflict avoidance behavioral assay, the first report of a measure of affective-motivational pain-like behavior in ZDF; and (4) exaggerated lumbar dorsal horn immunohistochemical expression of pressure-evoked phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK). Seven weeks of pioglitazone (30 mg · kg−1 · d−1 in food) reduced blood glucose, HbA1c, hyperalgesia, and pERK expression in ZDF. This is the first report to reveal hyperalgesia and spinal sensitization in the same ZDF animals, both evoked by a noxious mechanical stimulus that reflects pressure pain frequently associated with clinical PDN. As pioglitazone provides the combined benefit of reducing hyperglycemia, hyperalgesia, and central sensitization, we suggest that TZDs represent an attractive pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes-associated pain. PMID:26687453

  13. Role for Peroxynitrite in Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induced Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tim; Finley, Amanda; Chen, Zhoumou; Salvemini, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important mediator of inflammation recently shown in in vitro studies to increase the excitability of small diameter sensory neurons at least in part via activation of the S1P1 receptor subtype. Activation of S1PR1 has been reported to increase the formation of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide (O2•−) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO). This process favors the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−, PN), a potent mediator of hyperalgesia associated with peripheral and central sensitization. The aims of our study were to determine whether S1P causes peripheral sensitization and thermal hyperalgesia via S1PR1 activation and PN formation. Intraplantar injection of S1P in rats led to a time-dependent development of thermal hyperalgesia that was blocked by the S1PR1 antagonist, W146 but not its inactive enantiomer, W140. The hyperalgesic effects of S1P were mimicked by intraplantar injection of the well characterized S1PR1 agonist, SEW2871. The development of S1P-induced hyperalgesia was blocked by apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor and by the potent PN decomposition catalysts (FeTM-4-PyP5+ and MnTE-2-PyP5+). Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the signaling pathways engaged by S1P in the development of hyperalgesia and highlight the contribution of the S1P1 receptor-to-PN signaling in this process. PMID:21239112

  14. Effect of subcutaneous administration of calcium channel blockers on nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    White, D M; Cousins, M J

    1998-08-10

    Recent studies suggest that calcium contributes to peripheral neural mechanisms of hyperalgesia associated with nerve damage. In this animal behavioural study, we examined further the contribution of calcium in neuropathic pain by testing whether subcutaneous administration of either a calcium chelating agent or voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers attenuate nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation. Studies were carried out in animals with partially ligated sciatic nerves, an established animal model of neuropathic pain. The nociceptive flexion reflex was quantified using an Ugo Basile Analgesymeter. Partial nerve injury induced a significant decrease in mechanical threshold compared to the sham operated controls. Daily subcutaneous injections of the calcium chelating agent, Quin 2 (20 microgram/2.5 microliter), significantly attenuated the nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. Similarly, SNX-111, a N-type channel blocker, also significantly attenuated the nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. SNX-230, a P and/or Q-type channel blocker, and nifedipine, a L-type channel blocker, had no effect on the hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation. In control experiments, SNX-111 had no effect on mechanical thresholds when administered subcutaneously in either the hindpaw of normal animals or the back of the neck in nerve injury animals. This study shows that neuropathic pain involves a local calcium-dependent mechanism in the receptive field of intact neurons of an injured nerve, since it can be alleviated by subcutaneous injections of either a calcium chelating agent or SNX-111, a N-type calcium channel blocker. These agents may be effective, peripherally acting therapeutic agents for neuropathic pain.

  15. Structural mechanisms of chaperone mediated protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ClpB/Hsp104 and Hsp70 classes of molecular chaperones use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate protein aggregates and complexes, and to move proteins through membranes. ClpB/Hsp104 are members of the AAA+ family of proteins which form ring-shaped hexamers. Loops lining the pore in the ring engage substrate proteins as extended polypeptides. Interdomain rotations and conformational changes in these loops coupled to ATP hydrolysis unfold and pull proteins through the pore. This provides a mechanism that progressively disrupts local secondary and tertiary structure in substrates, allowing these chaperones to dissociate stable aggregates such as β-sheet rich prions or coiled coil SNARE complexes. While the ClpB/Hsp104 mechanism appears to embody a true power-stroke in which an ATP powered conformational change in one protein is directly coupled to movement or structural change in another, the mechanism of force generation by Hsp70s is distinct and less well understood. Both active power-stroke and purely passive mechanisms in which Hsp70 captures spontaneous fluctuations in a substrate have been proposed, while a third proposed mechanism—entropic pulling—may be able to generate forces larger than seen in ATP-driven molecular motors without the conformational coupling required for a power-stroke. The disaggregase activity of these chaperones is required for thermotolerance, but unrestrained protein complex/aggregate dissociation is potentially detrimental. Disaggregating chaperones are strongly auto-repressed, and are regulated by co-chaperones which recruit them to protein substrates and activate the disaggregases via mechanisms involving either sequential transfer of substrate from one chaperone to another and/or simultaneous interaction of substrate with multiple chaperones. By effectively subjecting substrates to multiple levels of selection by multiple chaperones, this may insure that these potent disaggregases are only activated in the appropriate context. PMID

  16. Opioid receptor–triggered spinal mTORC1 activation contributes to morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ji-Tian; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Zhao, Xiuli; Ligons, Davinna; Tiwari, Vinod; Atianjoh, Fidelis E.; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liang, Lingli; Zang, Weidong; Njoku, Dolores; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Yaster, Myron; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The development of opioid-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia is a clinical challenge for managing chronic pain. Adaptive changes in protein translation in the nervous system are thought to promote opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia; however, how opioids drive such changes remains elusive. Here, we report that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which governs most protein translation, was activated in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons after repeated intrathecal morphine injections. Activation was triggered through μ opioid receptor and mediated by intracellular PI3K/Akt. Spinal mTOR inhibition blocked both induction and maintenance of morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia, without affecting basal pain perception or locomotor functions. These effects were attributed to the attenuation of morphine-induced increases in translation initiation activity, nascent protein synthesis, and expression of some known key tolerance-associated proteins, including neuronal NOS (nNOS), in dorsal horn. Moreover, elevating spinal mTOR activity by knocking down the mTOR-negative regulator TSC2 reduced morphine analgesia, produced pain hypersensitivity, and increased spinal nNOS expression. Our findings implicate the μ opioid receptor–triggered PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in promoting morphine-induced spinal protein translation changes and associated morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. These data suggest that mTOR inhibitors could be explored for prevention and/or reduction of opioid tolerance in chronic pain management. PMID:24382350

  17. Mechanisms of cytoskeleton-mediated mechanical signal transmission in cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Gouget, Cecile L.M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid long-distance transmission of mechanical forces within cells. Because the speed of this transmission greatly exceeds that of reaction-diffusion signaling, it has been conjectured that it occurs via the propagation of elastic waves through the actin stress fiber network. To explore the plausibility of this conjecture, we recently developed a model of small amplitude stress fiber deformations in prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers subjected to external forces. The model results demonstrated that rapid mechanical signal transmission is only possible when the external force is applied orthogonal to the stress fiber axis and that the dynamics of this transmission are governed by a balance between the prestress in the stress fiber and the stress fiber's material viscosity. The present study, which is a follow-up on our previous model, uses dimensional analysis to: (1) further evaluate the plausibility of the elastic wave conjecture and (2) obtain insight into mechanical signal transmission dynamics in simple stress fiber networks. We show that the elastic wave scenario is likely not the mechanism of rapid mechanical signal transmission in actin stress fibers due to the highly viscoelastic character of these fibers. Our analysis also demonstrates that the time constant characterizing mechanical stimulus transmission is strongly dependent on the topology of the stress fiber network, implying that network organization plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cellular responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:23336020

  18. Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation Reduces Hyperalgesia Through Spinally Descending Orexin-A Neurons in Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wardach, Jacob; Wagner, Monica; Jeong, Younhee; Holden, Janean E

    2016-03-01

    No evidence to date shows that lateral hypothalamic (LH) stimulation produces orexin-A-mediated antinociception in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in a model of neuropathic pain. We conducted experiments to examine the effect of orexin-A-mediated LH stimulation in female rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) on thermal hyperalgesia. Rats receiving carbachol into the LH demonstrated antinociception on both the left CCI and right nonligated paws (p < .05). Rats were given carbachol in the LH followed by intrathecal injection of the orexin-1 (OX1) receptor antagonist SB-334867, which blocked LH-induced antinociception compared with control groups (p < .05) in the left paw, but not in the right paw. These findings support the hypothesis that LH stimulation produces antinociception in rats with thermal hyperalgesia from neuropathic pain via an orexin-A connection between the LH and the SCDH. Identification of this pathway may lead to studies using orexins to manage clinical pain.

  19. Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejection resulting from activation of complement by C1q- and MBL (mannose-binding lectin)-dependent pathways and interactions with a variety of effector cells, including macrophages and monocytes through Fcγ receptors and complement receptors. PMID:20135240

  20. Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 has a major role in mediating visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Cattaruzza, Fiore; Spreadbury, Ian; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Grady, Eileen F; Vanner, Stephen; Bunnett, Nigel W

    2010-01-01

    The excitatory ion channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) is prominently expressed by primary afferent neurons and is a mediator of inflammatory pain. Inflammatory agents can directly activate [e.g., hydroxynonenal (HNE), prostaglandin metabolites] or indirectly sensitize [e.g., agonists of protease-activated receptor (PAR(2))] TRPA1 to induce somatic pain and hyperalgesia. However, the contribution of TRPA1 to visceral pain is unknown. We investigated the role of TRPA1 in visceral hyperalgesia by measuring abdominal visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distention (CRD) after intracolonic administration of TRPA1 agonists [mustard oil (MO), HNE], sensitizing agents [PAR(2) activating peptide (PAR(2)-AP)], and the inflammatory agent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in trpa1(+/+) and trpa1(-/-) mice. Sensory neurons innervating the colon, identified by retrograde tracing, coexpressed immunoreactive TRPA1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P, expressed TRPA1 mRNA and responded to MO with depolarizing currents. Intracolonic MO and HNE increased VMR to CRD and induced immunoreactive c-fos in spinal neurons in trpa1+/+ but not in trpa1(-/-) mice. Intracolonic PAR(2)-AP induced mechanical hyperalgesia in trpa1+/+ but not in trpa1(-/-) mice. TNBS-induced colitis increased in VMR to CRD and induced c-fos in spinal neurons in trpa1(+/+) but not in trpa1(-/-) mice. Thus TRPA1 is expressed by colonic primary afferent neurons. Direct activation of TRPA1 causes visceral hyperalgesia, and TRPA1 mediates PAR(2)-induced hyperalgesia. TRPA1 deletion markedly reduces colitis-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the colon. Our results suggest that TRPA1 has a major role in visceral nociception and may be a therapeutic target for colonic inflammatory pain.

  1. Mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Takakura, Ayumi; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz; Charles, Julia F

    2017-09-29

    The mechanisms underlying the systemic effects mediated by gut microbiota are under active investigation. In addition to local, direct effects of gut microbiota on the host, metabolic products from microbiota may act peripherally, reaching distal organs through the circulation. In our recent publication we demonstrated that gut microbiota influence bone remodeling distally, promoting both bone resorption and formation. We proposed that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by the induction of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) by the microbiota metabolite short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Here we explore additional mechanisms by which microbial metabolites could directly or indirectly alter host bone remodeling. We discuss whether SCFA directly modulate bone resorption by their actions on osteoclasts, and test the possibility that serotonin is another gut microbiota derived long-distance mediator of effects on bone remodeling. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of microbiota effect on bone remodeling could help establish potential therapeutic strategies to promote bone health.

  2. Phospholipase C and protein kinase A mediate bradykinin sensitization of TRPA1: a molecular mechanism of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenglan; Dai, Yi; Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Obata, Koichi; Cui, Xiuyu; Tominaga, Makoto; Noguchi, Koichi

    2008-05-01

    Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator that plays a pivotal role in pain and hyperalgesia in inflamed tissues by exciting and/or sensitizing nociceptors. TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain. Here, using electrophysiological, immunocytochemical and behavioural analyses, we showed a functional interaction of these two inflammation-related molecules in both heterologous expressing systems and primary sensory neurons. We found that bradykinin increased the TRPA1 currents evoked by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or cinnamaldehyde in HEK293 cells expressing TRPA1 and bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R). This potentiation was inhibited by phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, and mimicked by PLC or PKA activator. The functional interaction between B2R and TRPA1, as well as the modulation mechanism, was also observed in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. In an occlusion experiment, the PLC activator could enhance AITC-induced TRPA1 current further even in saturated PKA-mediated potentiation, indicating the additive potentiating effects of the PLC and PKA pathways. These data for the first time indicate that a cAMP-PKA signalling is involved in the downstream from B2R in dorsal root ganglia neurons in addition to PLC. Finally, subcutaneous pre-injection of a sub-inflammatory dose of bradykinin into rat hind paw enhanced AITC-induced pain behaviours, which was consistent with the observations in vitro. Collectively, these results represent a novel mechanism through which bradykinin released in response to tissue inflammation might trigger the sensation of pain by TRPA1 activation.

  3. Quercetin alleviates thermal and cold hyperalgesia in a rat neuropathic pain model by inhibiting Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunmei; Xu, Yongsheng; Han, Fang; Sun, Dehai; Zhang, Hanli; Li, Xiumei; Yao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Neuropathic pain is caused by lesion or disease of the nervous system, which results in abnormal spontaneous and evoked pain. It's common in clinical practice and greatly impairs the life quality of patients, but the effective treatment is still lacking. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of quercetin (QUE) on neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed in Sprague Dawley rats to establish the neuropathic pain model. Single or continuous oral administration of QUE after the operation or continuous administration before the operation was applied to evaluate the effects of QUE on SNL-induced thermal and cold hyperalgesia. Dorsal root ganglions from these rats were harvested to analyze the expression levels of some inflammatory mediators. Primary cultured astrocytes and HEK293 cells were used to further explore the downstream signaling pathways of QUE. Both single and continuous oral administration of QUE dose-dependently alleviated SNL-induced thermal and cold hyperalgesia. Pre-administration also attenuated neuropathic pain symptoms. Meanwhile, SNL-induced increase in protein or mRNA levels of some inflammatory mediators could be down-regulated by QUE treatment. Furthermore, QUE reduced the phosphorylation of TAK1, IKK and JNK2 in cultured astrocytes. Moreover, luciferase assay in HEK293 cells showed that QUE dose-dependently inhibited NF-κB activity only via TAK1. QUE exerts anti-inflammatory effects and alleviates neuropathic pain through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. It could shed some light on the potential applications of QUE in chronic pain therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological Mechanisms Mediating Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Judith D.; Klein, Sabra L.

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similar to several emerging zoonotic viruses, persistently infect their natural reservoir hosts, without causing overt signs of disease. Spillover to incidental human hosts results in morbidity and mortality mediated by excessive proinflammatory and cellular immune responses. The mechanisms mediating the persistence of hantaviruses and the absence of clinical symptoms in rodent reservoirs are only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies indicate that during hantavirus infection, proinflammatory and antiviral responses are reduced and regulatory responses are elevated at sites of increased virus replication in rodents. The recent discovery of structural and non-structural proteins that suppress type I interferon responses in humans suggests that immune responses in rodent hosts could be mediated directly by the virus. Alternatively, several host factors, including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, and genetic factors, are reported to alter host susceptibility and may contribute to persistence of hantaviruses in rodents. Humans and reservoir hosts differ in infection outcomes and in immune responses to hantavirus infection; thus, understanding the mechanisms mediating viral persistence and the absence of disease in rodents may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disease in humans. Consideration of the coevolutionary mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence and rodent host survival is providing insight into the mechanisms by which zoonotic viruses have remained in the environment for millions of years and continue to be transmitted to humans. PMID:19043585

  5. Multiple mechanisms mediate aluminum kinetics and neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Provan, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that calcium (Ca) and membrane Ca-regulating systems may influence the kinetics and neurotoxicity of aluminum (Al). These interactions likely occur at the membrane level under physiological conditions. To more fully examine these mechanisms, the hypothesis that Al would interact with membranes under physiological conditions was tested. The results suggest that Al, under these conditions, could interact with and traverse biological membranes. A biological membrane model was used to test the hypothesis that Al interacts with an intestinal Ca transporting system. To evaluate the effects of a Ca deficient diet on Al absorption, rats were maintained on a Ca-deficient or Ca-replete diet for up to four weeks. A modified in situ preparations was prepared. Rats maintained on the Ca-deficient diet exhibited a more rapid disappearance rate from the gut and greater extent of absorption into the portal blood. To evaluate Al distribution, rats were injected with Al and maintained on the above diets for four weeks. There was generally more Al in the tissues of rats maintained on a Ca-deficient diet with the exception of heart and muscle. More Al accumulated within the hippocampus than the cerebral cortex in those rats fed a Ca-deficient diet and injected with 400 {mu}mol Al/kg. The release of radiolabeled glutamate from transverse, rat hippocampal slices was used as a model of Al neurotoxicity.

  6. EVALUATION OF HYPERALGESIA AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES OF DORSAL ROOT GANGLION INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Grava, André Luiz de Souza; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the hyperalgesia and histological abnormalities induced by contact between the dorsal root ganglion and the nucleus pulposus. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were used, divided into two experimental groups. In one of the groups, a fragment of autologous nucleus pulposus was removed from the sacrococcygeal region and deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. In the other group (control), a fragment of adipose tissue was deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated on the third day and the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation. A L5 dorsal root ganglion was removed in the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation for histological study using HE staining and histochemical study using specific labeling for iNOS. Results: Higher intensity of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion. In this group, the histological study showed abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue, characterized by an inflammatory process and axonal degeneration. The histopathological abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue presented increasing intensity with increasing length of observation, and there was a correlation with maintenance of the hyperalgesia observed in the behavioral assessment. Immunohistochemistry using specific labeling for iNOS in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion showed higher expression of this enzyme in the nuclei of the inflammatory cells (glial cells) surrounding the neurons. Conclusion: Contact between the nucleus pulposus and the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and caused histological abnormalities in the dorsal root ganglion components. These abnormalities were characterized by an inflammatory and degenerative process in the structures of the dorsal root

  7. Protective effects of dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil on remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zenggui; Wu, Weilan; Wu, Xiaodan; Lei, Hongyi; Gong, Cansheng; Xu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    High dosages of intra-operative remifentanil are associated with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combined dexmedetomidine and flurbiprofen axetil treatment on remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. Patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I–II who were diagnosed with hysteromyoma and scheduled for laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) were randomly divided into three groups. Group hyperalgesia (Group H, n=29) received intra-operative remifentanil, Group hyperalgesia and dexmedetomidine (Group HD, n=28) received remifentanil and a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine, and Group hyperalgesia, dexmedetomidine and flurbiprofen axetil (Group HDF, n=29) received remifentanil, flurbiprofen axetil and dexmedetomidine. Mechanical pain thresholds were measured during the preoperative visit and postoperatively at 1, 6 and 24-h time points. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, time to analgesic requirement, total sufentanil consumption and side effects were assessed postoperatively. Mechanical pain threshold at the incision site was significantly lower in Group H compared with Groups HD and HDF (both P<0.05), and significantly higher in Group HDF than in Group HD (P<0.05). The area of secondary hyperalgesia at the incision site was greater in Group H than in the other two groups (both P<0.05), and significantly smaller in Group HDF compared with Group HD (P<0.05). VAS scores and total sufentanil consumption were significantly higher in Group H compared with the other two groups (both P<0.05), and were significantly lower in Group HDF compared with Group HD (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine combined with flurbiprofen axetil exhibits synergetic effects in the prevention of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing LAVH. PMID:27698764

  8. Involvement of spinal somatostatin receptor SST(2A) in inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia: ultrastructural and behavioral studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Zhao, Zhi-Qi

    2008-10-01

    Our previous results have shown that somatostatin receptor subtype SST(2A) is responsible for thermal, but not mechanical nociceptive transmission in the rat spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to further examine the ultrastructural localization of SST(2A) receptor in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn and the role of SST(2A) receptor in thermal hyperalgesia following Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. We found that SST(2A) receptors in lamina II are located primarily in postsynaptic dendrites and soma, but not in axons or synaptic terminals. CFA-induced inflammation markedly increased SST(2A) receptor-like immunoreactivity in lamina II. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) evoked by noxious heating was obviously shortened 1 h after intraplantar injection of CFA, exhibiting thermal hyperalgesia. Pre-blocking SST(2A) activity by intrathecal pre-administration of CYN154806, a broad-spectrum antagonist of SST(2) receptor, or specific antiserum against SST(2A) receptor (anti-SST(2A)) significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion in CFA-treated rats. But, administration of anti-SST(2A) or CYN154806 after CFA treatment had no effect upon thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal application of SST(2A) agonist SOM-14 at different doses prior to CFA treatment did not influence thermal hyperalgesia in inflamed rats, but at a low dose shortened PWL evoked by noxious heating in normal rats. These results suggest that spinal SST(2A) receptors play a key role in triggering the generation, but not maintenance, of thermal hyperalgesia evoked by CFA-induced inflammation. The up-regulation of SST(2A) receptors in the spinal cord may be one of the mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

  9. Thermal hyperalgesia distinguishes those with severe pain and disability in unilateral lateral epicondylalgia.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate if sensory, motor, and psychological factors are different in severe lateral epicondylalgia compared with less severe cases and control. A total of 164 patients with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia and 62 healthy control participants of comparable age and sex underwent the following testing: quantitative sensory testing (pressure, thermal pain thresholds), pain-free grip, quality of life (EuroQol), and psychological (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia) testing. Cluster analysis classified patients into mild, moderate, or severe subgroups using the Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation. Data were then evaluated to determine differences between control and lateral epicondylalgia subgroups. Bilateral cold hyperalgesia (affected elbow, standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.14, P=0.000; unaffected elbow SMD -0.94, P=0.000) and unilateral heat hyperalgesia (SMD -1.06, P=0.001) were evident in severe lateral epicondylalgia in comparison to healthy controls. All patient groups regardless of severity demonstrated bilateral and widespread mechanical hyperalgesia relative to controls (P<0.003); however, only those with moderate and severe symptoms showed large differences (Absolute SMD>0.8) at all sites. Quality of life was significantly poorer in patients with severe symptoms, whereas anxiety, depression, and kinesiophobia did not differ between subgroups. Lateral epicondylalgia patients presenting with severe pain and disability could be distinguished by hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, notably bilateral cold hyperalgesia. Findings may implicate a combination of central, peripheral, and sympathetic nervous system processes and may help explain the poorer outcomes found in this subpopulation.

  10. Metformin attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy induced by streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-10-05

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which often makes the patients suffer from severe hyperalgesia and allodynia. Thus far, the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy remains unsatisfactory. Metformin, which is the first-line drug for type-2 diabetes, has been proved to attenuate hyperexcitability in sensory neurons linked to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, highlighting its potential in alleviating pain related with painful diabetic neuropathy. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of metformin on hyperalgesia and allodynia in diabetic rats. The mechanical sensitivity, heat nociception, and cold allodynia were examined. The levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and advanced glycation end-products in the blood were measured. The expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK target genes were examined in the sciatic nerves of the animals. It was found that metformin was capable of attenuating diabetes-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. In addition, metformin was capable of decreasing malondialdehyde and glycation end-products levels in blood, as well as increasing superoxide dismutas activity, indicating the inhibitory effect of metformin against diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Further studies showed that metformin could activate AMPK and increase the AMPK target genes in sciatic nerves in diabetic rats. In conclusion, metformin is able to attenuate diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia, which might be associated its anti-oxidative effect through AMPK pathway. Metformin might be used as an effective drug, especially with fewer side effects, for abnormal sensation in painful diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  12. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  13. Contralateral hyperalgesia and allodynia following intradermal capsaicin injection in man

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, R. C.; Mapp, P. I.; Harris, N.; Blake, D. R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Contralateral responses to unilateral stimuli have been well described in animal models. These range from central sensitization to peripheral inflammatory responses. Our aim was to test for contralateral responses following unilateral intradermal capsaicin injection in man. Methods. Three groups were investigated. A healthy volunteer group (1) was injected with capsaicin into the volar aspect of one forearm. A group of patients with RA (2) was also injected with capsaicin. A control group of healthy volunteers (3) was not injected with capsaicin. All groups were tested for hyperalgesia and allodynia every 10 min for 1 h following the injection using quantitative sensory testing. Results. A total of 9/14 healthy volunteers (Group 1) and 10/14 patients with RA (Group 2) demonstrated contralateral sensitization that subsided within 1 h following intradermal capsaicin injection. A total of 2/23 control subjects (Group 3) demonstrated positive responses with the monofilaments. The frequency of the contralateral responses in the experimental groups compared with the control group is significant (P < 0.05). The peak hyperalgesia was relatively delayed contralaterally compared with the ipsilateral side (35 min vs 15 min). The area of sensitization, where present, was reduced compared with the ipsilateral side (5–50%). Conclusions. This is the first demonstration of a contralateral response following a unilateral stimulus in man. Bilateral neural pathways mediating contralateral responses may have a role in the pathophysiology of chronically painful or inflammatory diseases and a confounding influence on using the contralateral limb as a control experimentally. We did not find that a systemic inflammatory disease sensitized for this phenomenon. PMID:18632788

  14. Methylglyoxal modification of Nav1.8 facilitates nociceptive neuron firing and causes hyperalgesia in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bierhaus, Angelika; Fleming, Thomas; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Leffler, Andreas; Babes, Alexandru; Neacsu, Cristian; Sauer, Susanne K; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Schnölzer, Martina; Lasitschka, Felix; Lasischka, Felix; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Kichko, Tatjana I; Konrade, Ilze; Elvert, Ralf; Mier, Walter; Pirags, Valdis; Lukic, Ivan K; Morcos, Michael; Dehmer, Thomas; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J; Edelstein, Diane; Nau, Carla; Forbes, Josephine; Humpert, Per M; Schwaninger, Markus; Ziegler, Dan; Stern, David M; Cooper, Mark E; Haberkorn, Uwe; Brownlee, Michael; Reeh, Peter W; Nawroth, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    This study establishes a mechanism for metabolic hyperalgesia based on the glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal. We found that concentrations of plasma methylglyoxal above 600 nM discriminate between diabetes-affected individuals with pain and those without pain. Methylglyoxal depolarizes sensory neurons and induces post-translational modifications of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.8, which are associated with increased electrical excitability and facilitated firing of nociceptive neurons, whereas it promotes the slow inactivation of Na(v)1.7. In mice, treatment with methylglyoxal reduces nerve conduction velocity, facilitates neurosecretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide, increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and evokes thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is reflected by increased blood flow in brain regions that are involved in pain processing. We also found similar changes in streptozotocin-induced and genetic mouse models of diabetes but not in Na(v)1.8 knockout (Scn10(-/-)) mice. Several strategies that include a methylglyoxal scavenger are effective in reducing methylglyoxal- and diabetes-induced hyperalgesia. This previously undescribed concept of metabolically driven hyperalgesia provides a new basis for the design of therapeutic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy.

  15. Descending Facilitatory Pathways From the Rostroventromedial Medulla Mediate Naloxone-precipitated Withdrawal in Morphine-Dependent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H; Lai, Josephine; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Opioids produce analgesic effects and extended use can produce physical dependence in both humans and animals. Dependence to opiates can be demonstrated by either termination of drug administration or through precipitation of the withdrawal syndrome by opiate antagonists. Key features of the opiate withdrawal syndrome include hyperalgesia, anxiety and autonomic signs such as diarrhea. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) plays an important role in the modulation of pain and for this reason, may influence withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. The mechanisms that drive opiate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia have not been elucidated. Here, rats made dependent upon morphine received naloxone to precipitate withdrawal. RVM microinjection of lidocaine, kynurenic acid (excitatory amino acid antagonist) or YM022 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) blocked withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Additionally, these treatments reduced both somatic and autonomic signs of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Spinal application of ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist thought to ultimately be engaged by descending pain facilitatory drive, also blocked hyperalgesia and somatic and autonomic features of the withdrawal syndrome. These results indicate that the RVM plays a critical role in mediating components of opioid withdrawal that may contribute to opioid dependence. Perspective Manipulations targeting these descending pathways from the RVM may diminish the consequences of prolonged opioid administration-induced dependence and be useful adjunct strategies in reducing the risk of opioid addiction. PMID:21354865

  16. Effects of binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on the hyperalgesia observed during sickness syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Bruna M T; Telles, Tatiane M B B; Lomba, Luiz A; Correia, Diego; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2017-09-01

    Acute and chronic ethanol exposure increases the risk of infection by altering the innate host's defense system. Adolescence is a critical period for brain development. Insults during this period may have long-lasting consequences. The present study investigated the effects of binge-like ethanol exposure in adolescent rats on mechanical hyperalgesia during sickness syndrome that was induced by a systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after the cessation of ethanol exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol from postnatal day (PND) 25 to PND 38 in a binge-like pattern. Hyperalgesia was assessed on the right hindpaw after an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 and 50μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on PND 51 and PND 63 or an i.c.v. or intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of IL-β (3 and 1ng, respectively) on PND 51. Ethanol exposure during adolescence did not alter mechanical thresholds which increased normally with age. The systemic injection of LPS (0.5-50μg/kg) in adult rats induced dose-related mechanical hyperalgesia. Binge-like ethanol exposure significantly increased mechanical hyperalgesia that was induced by 50μg/kg LPS on PND 51 and 63, which lasted until 24h after the injection. This change was not observed at a lower dose of LPS (5μg/kg). Acute oral treatment with ethanol 24h prior to LPS administration did not alter mechanical hyperalgesia. The i.c.v. injection of IL-1β (1-10ng) also induced dose-related mechanical hyperalgesia in the right hindpaw in non-exposed animals. In animals that were exposed to binge-like ethanol, the i.c.v. or i.pl. injection of IL-1β also increased hyperalgesia on PND 51. These results suggest that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence causes alterations in the central nervous system that can increase mechanical hyperalgesia that is observed during sickness syndrome, and this effect can be observed until adulthood after the cessation

  17. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schulteis, Gery; Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2015-03-01

    Opioids represent effective drugs for the relief of pain, yet chronic opioid use often leads to a state of increased sensitivity to pain that is exacerbated during withdrawal. A sensitization of pain-related negative affect has been hypothesized to closely interact with addiction mechanisms. Neuro-adaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence, we determined the effects of functional antagonism within these two systems on hyperalgesia-like behavior during heroin withdrawal utilizing models of both acute and chronic dependence. We found that passive or self-administered heroin produced a significant mechanical hypersensitivity. During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20 mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In contrast, several functional adrenergic system antagonists (clonidine, prazosin, propranolol) failed to alter mechanical hypersensitivity in this state. We then determined the effects of chronic MPZP or clonidine treatment on extended access heroin self-administration and found that MPZP, but not clonidine, attenuated escalation of heroin intake, whereas both drugs alleviated chronic dependence-associated hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that an early potentiation of CRF signaling occurs following opioid exposure that begins to drive both opioid-induced hyperalgesia and eventually intake escalation.

  18. Chronic CRF1 Receptor Blockade Reduces Heroin Intake Escalation and Dependence-Induced Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paula E.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Schulteis, Gery; Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids represent effective drugs for the relief of pain, yet chronic opioid use often leads to a state of increased sensitivity to pain that is exacerbated during withdrawal. A sensitization of pain-related negative affect has been hypothesized to closely interact with addiction mechanisms. Neuroadaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence, we determined the effects of functional antagonism within these two systems on hyperalgesia-like behavior during heroin withdrawal utilizing models of both acute and chronic dependence. We found that passive or self-administered heroin produced a significant mechanical hypersensitivity. During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20 mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In contrast, several functional adrenergic system antagonists (clonidine, prazosin, propranolol) failed to alter mechanical hypersensitivity in this state. We then determined the effects of chronic MPZP or clonidine treatment on extended access heroin self-administration and found that MPZP, but not clonidine, attenuated escalation of heroin intake, whereas both drugs alleviated chronic dependence-associated hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that an early potentiation of CRF signaling occurs following opioid exposure that begins to drive both opioid-induced hyperalgesia and eventually intake escalation. PMID:24330252

  19. Homocysteine-induced attenuation of vascular endothelium-dependent hyperalgesia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Green, Paul G.; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated a role of the vascular endothelium in peripheral pain mechanism by disrupting endothelial cell function using intravascular administration of octoxynol-9, a non-selective membrane active agent. As an independent test of the role of endothelial cells in pain mechanisms, we evaluated the effect of homocysteine, an agent that damages endothelial cell function. Mechanical stimulus-induced enhancement of endothelin-1 hyperalgesia in the gastrocnemius muscle of the rat was first prevented then enhanced by intravenous administration of homocysteine, but was only inhibited by its precursor, methionine. Both homocysteine and methionine significantly attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia in two models of ergonomic muscle pain, induced by exposure to vibration, and by eccentric exercise, and cutaneous mechanical hyperalgesia in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I, all previously shown responsive to octoxynol-9. This study provides independent support for a role of the endothelial cell in pain syndromes thought to have a vascular basis, and suggests that substances that are endothelial cell toxins can enhance vascular pain. PMID:25451284

  20. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gegear, Robert J.; Foley, Lauren E.; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biophysical basis of animal magnetoreception has been one of the greatest challenges in sensory biology. Recently, it was discovered that the light-dependent magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry)1. We now show using a transgenic approach that the photoreceptive, Drosophila-like Type 1 Cry and the transcriptionally repressive, vertebrate-like Type 2 Cry of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) can both function in the magnetoreception system of Drosophila and require UV-A/blue light (<420nm) to do so. The lack of magnetic responses for both Cry types under wavelengths >420 nm does not fit the widely held view that tryptophan triad-generated radical pairs mediate Cry’s ability to sense a magnetic field. We bolster this assessment using a mutant form of Drosophila and monarch Type 1 Cry and confirm that the tryptophan triad pathway does not play a critical role in magnetic transduction. Together, these results suggest that animal Crys can mediate light-dependent magnetoreception, but do so through an unconventional photochemical mechanism. This work emphasizes the utility of Drosophila transgenesis for elucidating the precise mechanisms of Cry-mediated magnetosensitivity in insects and also in vertebrates, like migrating birds. PMID:20098414

  1. Polymeric mechanical amplifiers of immune cytokine-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Webster, Jamie; Chung, Amanda; Guimarães, Pedro P. G.; Khan, Omar F.; Langer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Physical forces affect tumour growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we develop polymeric mechanical amplifiers that exploit in vitro and in vivo physical forces to increase immune cytokine-mediated tumour cell apoptosis. Mechanical amplifiers, consisting of biodegradable polymeric particles tethered to the tumour cell surface via polyethylene glycol linkers, increase the apoptotic effect of an immune cytokine on tumour cells under fluid shear exposure by as much as 50% compared with treatment under static conditions. We show that targeted polymeric particles delivered to tumour cells in vivo amplify the apoptotic effect of a subsequent treatment of immune cytokine, reduce circulating tumour cells in blood and overall tumour cell burden by over 90% and reduce solid tumour growth in combination with the antioxidant resveratrol. The work introduces a potentially new application for a broad range of micro- and nanoparticles to maximize receptor-mediated signalling and function in the presence of physical forces. PMID:28317839

  2. Polymeric mechanical amplifiers of immune cytokine-mediated apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Webster, Jamie; Chung, Amanda; Guimarães, Pedro P. G.; Khan, Omar F.; Langer, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Physical forces affect tumour growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we develop polymeric mechanical amplifiers that exploit in vitro and in vivo physical forces to increase immune cytokine-mediated tumour cell apoptosis. Mechanical amplifiers, consisting of biodegradable polymeric particles tethered to the tumour cell surface via polyethylene glycol linkers, increase the apoptotic effect of an immune cytokine on tumour cells under fluid shear exposure by as much as 50% compared with treatment under static conditions. We show that targeted polymeric particles delivered to tumour cells in vivo amplify the apoptotic effect of a subsequent treatment of immune cytokine, reduce circulating tumour cells in blood and overall tumour cell burden by over 90% and reduce solid tumour growth in combination with the antioxidant resveratrol. The work introduces a potentially new application for a broad range of micro- and nanoparticles to maximize receptor-mediated signalling and function in the presence of physical forces.

  3. Hyperalgesia in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aicher, Sue A; Silverman, Marc B; Winkler, Clayton W; Bebo, Bruce F

    2004-08-01

    Many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience clinically significant pain, yet the underlying neural mechanisms for MS pain are not understood. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied disease in rodents that mimics many clinical and pathological features of MS, including central nervous system inflammation and demyelination. To determine whether EAE is an appropriate model for MS-related pain, nociceptive responses in both male and female SJL mice were measured before and after immunization with myelin proteolipid protein peptide 139-151 (PLP(139-151)) in complete Freund's adjuvant to induce 'active' EAE. To determine if changes in nociception were due to direct effects of encephalitogenic T cells, nociceptive responses in female SJL mice were measured following the transfer of activated, PLP(139-151) specific T cells to induce 'passive' EAE. Both forepaw and tail withdrawal latencies to a radiant heat stimulus were measured. In both active and passive EAE, there was an initial increase in tail withdrawal latency (hypoalgesia) that peaked several days prior to the peak in motor deficits during the acute disease phase. During the chronic disease phase, tail withdrawal latencies decreased and were significantly faster than control latencies for up to 38 days post-immunization. This hyperalgesia was seen in both sexes and in both active and passive EAE models. Forepaw withdrawal latencies remained within 1-2 s of baseline latencies for the entire testing period, indicating that the hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia were most pronounced in clinically affected body regions. These results suggest that both active and passive EAE are useful models of MS-related pain.

  4. Attenuation of thermal nociception and hyperalgesia by VR1 blockers

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, Carolina; Humet, Marc; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Gomis, Ana; Caprini, Marco; Viana, Felix; De la Peña, Elvira; Sanchez-Baeza, Francisco; Carbonell, Teresa; De Felipe, Carmen; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Belmonte, Carlos; Messeguer, Angel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor subunit 1 (VR1) appears to play a critical role in the transduction of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli by sensory nerve endings in peripheral tissues. Thus, VR1 antagonists are useful compounds to unravel the contribution of this receptor to pain perception, as well as to induce analgesia. We have used a combinatorial approach to identify new, nonpeptidic channel blockers of VR1. Screening of a library of trimers of N-alkylglycines resulted in the identification of two molecules referred to as DD161515 {N-[2-(2-(N-methylpyrrolidinyl)ethyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} and DD191515 {[N-[3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl]glycyl]-[N-[2,4-dichlorophenethyl]glycyl]-N-(2,4-dichlorophenethyl)glycinamide} that selectively block VR1 channel activity with micromolar efficacy, rivaling that characteristic of vanilloid-related inhibitors. These compounds appear to be noncompetitive VR1 antagonists that recognize a receptor site distinct from that of capsaicin. Intraperitoneal administration of both trialkylglycines into mice significantly attenuated thermal nociception as measured in the hot plate test. It is noteworthy that these compounds eliminated pain and neurogenic inflammation evoked by intradermal injection of capsaicin into the animal hindpaw, as well as the thermal hyperalgesia induced by tissue irritation with nitrogen mustard. In contrast, responses to mechanical stimuli were not modified by either compound. Modulation of sensory nerve fibers excitability appears to underlie the peptoid analgesic activity. Collectively, these results indicate that blockade of VR1 activity attenuates chemical and thermal nociception and hyperalgesia, supporting the tenet that this ionotropic receptor contributes to chemical and thermal sensitivity and pain perception in vivo. These trialkylglycine-based, noncompetitive VR1 antagonists may likely be developed into analgesics to treat inflammatory pain. PMID:11854530

  5. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Anthony D.; Christiansen, Jens H.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6–10 Hz). PMID:24744449

  6. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    PubMed

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  7. Novel Lipid Mediators and Resolution Mechanisms in Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    Because inflammation is appreciated as a unifying basis of many widely occurring diseases, the mechanisms involved in its natural resolution are of considerable interest. Using contained, self-limited inflammatory exudates and a systems approach, novel lipid-derived mediators and pathways were uncovered in the resolution of inflammatory exudates. These new families of local mediators control both the duration and magnitude of acute inflammation as well as the return of the site to homeostasis in the process of catabasis. This new genus of specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) includes essential fatty acid–derived lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and, most recently, maresins. These families were named based on their unique structures and potent stereoselective actions. The temporally initiated biosynthesis of SPM and their direct impact on leukocyte trafficking and macrophage-directed clearance mechanisms provide clear evidence that resolution is an active, programmed response at the tissue level. Moreover, SPM that possess anti-inflammatory (ie, limiting PMN infiltration) and proresolving (enhance macrophage uptake and clearance of apoptotic PMN and microbial particles) actions as well as stimulating mucosal antimicrobial responses demonstrate that anti-inflammation and proresolution are different responses of the host and novel defining properties of these molecules. The mapping of new resolution circuits has opened the possibility for understanding mechanisms that lead from acute to chronic inflammation, or to the resolution thereof, as well as to potential, resolution-based immunopharmacological therapies. PMID:20813960

  8. Quinolone resistance in bacteria: emphasis on plasmid-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Zhi

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to quinolones/fluoroquinolones has emerged rapidly and such resistance has traditionally been attributed to the chromosomally mediated mechanisms that alter the quinolone targets (i.e. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) and/or overproduce multidrug resistance efflux pumps. However, the discovery of the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance determinant, named qnr, has substantially broadened our horizon on the molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance. Several recent reports of Qnr or its homologues encoded by transferable plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria isolated worldwide highlight the significance of the emerging plasmid-mediated mechanism(s). This also alerts us to the potential rapid dissemination of quinolone resistance determinants. Qnr belongs to the pentapeptide repeat family and protects DNA gyrase from the action of quinolone agents including the newer fluoroquinolones. This protection interplays with chromosomal mechanisms to raise significantly the resistance levels. The qnr-bearing strains generate quinolone-resistant mutants at a much higher frequency than those qnr-free strains. Furthermore, the qnr-plasmids are integron-associated and carry multiple resistance determinants providing resistance to several classes of antimicrobials including beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. The high quinolone resistance rates in Escherichia coli are used to address issues of quinolone resistance, and possible strategies for minimising quinolone resistance are discussed.

  9. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  10. Activation of JNK pathway in spinal astrocytes contributes to acute ultra-low-dose morphine thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla; Galeotti, Nicoletta

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that opioid analgesics can lead to paradoxical sensitization to pain when delivered in different administration patterns. Although opioid tolerance-induced hyperalgesia is largely studied, little is known about the mechanisms underlying acute ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia. Activation of spinal glial cells is reported to regulate pain hypersensitivity. To elucidate the mechanism involved in acute ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia, we tested whether an opioid agonist promoted the activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia and investigated the cellular pathways involved. Ultra-low-dose morphine activated spinal astrocytes with no effect on microglia. The astrocyte activation was selectively prevented by the opioid antagonist naloxone, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) silencing and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Morphine elevated spinal JNK1, JNK2, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Conversely, phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) was not elevated, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels remained unmodified. Administration of SP600125 and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK801 prevented morphine hyperalgesia. Ultra-low-dose morphine increased protein kinase C (PKC) γ phosphorylation. Pretreatment with a PKC inhibitor prevented morphine hyperalgesia and JNK and c-Jun overphosphorylation, indicating PKC is a JNK upstream modulator and illustrating the presence of a pathway involving PKC, NMDA, and JNK activated by morphine. Immunofluorescence experiments indicated the neuronal localization of spinal MOR. However, JNK was not detected in MOR-expressing cells, showing the presence of a neuron-astrocyte signaling pathway. These results illustrate the selective activation of an astrocyte JNK pathway after the stimulation of neuronal MOR, which contributes to ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia.

  11. Molecular mechanism of cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, J A; Germain, A M; Huidobro-Toro, J P; Weiner, C P

    2000-09-01

    Contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle is a tightly regulated process involving numerous endogenous substances and their intracellular second messengers. We examine the key role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in mediating smooth muscle relaxation. We briefly review the current art regarding cGMP generation and degradation, while focusing on the recent identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation. cGMP-induced SM relaxation is mediated mainly by cGMP-dependent protein kinase activation. It involves several molecular events culminating in a reduction in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and a decrease in the sensitivity of the contractile system to Ca(2+). We propose that the cGMP-induced decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity is a strategic way to achieve "active relaxation" of the smooth muscle. In summary, we present compelling evidence supporting a key role for cGMP as a mediator of smooth muscle relaxation in physiological and pharmacological settings. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Oral administration of stavudine induces hyperalgesia without affecting activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Weber, Juliane; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2007-12-05

    We have investigated whether long-term oral administration of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine affects nociception in Sprague-Dawley rats, and whether any changes of nociception are accompanied by deterioration in activity and appetite. Stavudine (50 mg kg(-1)) was administered to rats orally once daily for six weeks in gelatine cubes. Mechanical hyperalgesia of the tail was assessed using a bar algometer, and thermal hyperalgesia by tail immersion in 49 degrees C water. Withdrawal latencies were compared to those of rats receiving placebo gelatine cubes. Withdrawal latencies to the noxious thermal challenge were not affected by stavudine, but those to the mechanical challenge were significantly decreased in rats receiving stavudine, compared to rats receiving placebo, from week three to week six of drug administration (P<0.05, ANCOVA with Newman Keuls post-hoc comparisons). The overall condition of the rats was assessed by recording daily voluntary wheel running distance and maximum running speed, food intake and body mass. Daily stavudine administration did not adversely affect voluntary running activity, appetite or growth. We have shown that long-term daily oral administration of the NRTI stavudine results in mechanical hyperalgesia in rats within three weeks without affecting appetite, growth and physical activity.

  13. Dependence of MCP-1 hyperalgesia on the IB4-binding protein versican

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Oliver; Dina, Olayinka A.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The type 1 chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) has been implicated in the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intradermal injection of MCP-1 in the rat is blocked by the intrathecal administration of IB4-saporin, a selective neurotoxin for IB4+/Ret+-nociceptors. MCP-1 induced hyperalgesia is also attenuated by intrathecal antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting mRNA for versican, a molecule that binds MCP-1 and that also renders the Ret-expressing nociceptors IB4-positive (+). Finally, peripheral administration of ADAMTS-4 or chondroitinase ABC, two enzymes that disrupt versican integrity by the degradation of the versican core-protein or its chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains, respectively, also attenuated MCP-1 hyperalgesia at the site of nociceptive testing. We suggest that versican’s glycosaminoglycan side chains present MCP-1 to a CCR2 expressing cell type in the skin that, in turn, selectively activates IB4+/Ret+-nociceptors, thereby contributing to enhanced mechanical sensitivity under inflammatory conditions. PMID:19167466

  14. Mechanisms of strain-mediated mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kearney, E M; Prendergast, P J; Campbell, V A

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical conditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been adopted widely as a biophysical signal to aid tissue engineering applications. The replication of in vivo mechanical signaling has been used in in vitro environments to regulate cell differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, so that both the chemical and mechanical properties of the tissue-engineered construct are compatible with the implant site. While research in these areas contributes to tissue engineering, the effects of mechanical strain on MSC apoptosis remain poorly defined. To evaluate the effects of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on MSC apoptosis and to investigate mechanotransduction associated with strain-mediated cell death, MSCs seeded on a 2D silicone membrane were stimulated by a range of strain magnitudes for 3 days. Mechanotransduction was investigated using the stretch-activated cation channel blocker gadolinium chloride, the L-type voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nicardipine, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) blocker D-JNK inhibitor 1, and the calpain inhibitor MDL 28170. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-UTP-end nick labeling method. Results demonstrated that tensile strains of 7.5% or greater induce apoptosis in MSCs. L-type voltage-activated calcium channels coupled mechanical stress to activation of calpain and JNK, which lead to apoptosis through DNA fragmentation. The definition of the in vitro boundary conditions for tensile strain and MSCs along with a proposed mechanism for apoptosis induced by mechanical events positively contributes to the development of MSC biology, bioreactor design for tissue engineering, and development of computational methods for mechanobiology.

  15. Movement-evoked hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharides is not suppressed by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Katalin J.; Papic, Jonathan C.; Larson, Alice A.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produces a variety of effects, including movement-evoked hyperalgesia that can be measured using the grip force assay in mice. Because both lethality and enhanced sensitivity to cutaneous pain following exposure to endotoxins have each been attributed to inflammatory mediators, we explored the possibility that LPS-induced movement-evoked hyperalgesia is also sensitive to manipulations of glucocorticoids that regulate these other LPS responses. We found that the hyperalgesic effect of LPS (5 mg/kg s.c.) in mice that were adrenalectomized did not differ from that in control mice that were sham-operated, even though mortality after LPS was potentiated by adrenalectomy. The development of tolerance to the movement-evoked hyperalgesic effect of LPS also did not differ between adrenalectomized and sham-operated control mice. In addition, mifepristone (25 mg/kg s.c.), a glucocorticoid antagonist, did not attenuate the hyperalgesic effect of LPS (2 mg/kg s.c.), yet this dose of mifepristone was sufficient to enhance the incidence of lethality induced by LPS. Enhancement of glucocorticoid activity by two injections of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg s.c.) had no effect on the degree of hyperalgesia in mice injected with LPS (5 mg/kg s.c.), yet this dose of dexamethasone was sufficient to attenuate the incidence of mortality induced by LPS in adrenalectomized mice. Finally, morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) reversed the decrease in grip force caused by LPS (5 mg/kg i.p.), supporting the interpretation that decreases in grip force produced by LPS reflect muscle hyperalgesia that is not sensitive to glucocorticoids. PMID:17686584

  16. Nongenomic mechanisms of physiological estrogen-mediated dopamine efflux.

    PubMed

    Alyea, Rebecca A; Watson, Cheryl S

    2009-06-16

    Neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders that vary depending on female life stages suggest that sex hormones may influence the function of neurotransmitter regulatory machinery such as the dopamine transporter (DAT). In this study we tested the rapid nongenomic effects of several physiological estrogens [estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3)] on dopamine efflux via the DAT in a non-transfected, NGF-differentiated, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell model that expresses membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, beta, and GPR30. We examined kinase, ionic, and physical interaction mechanisms involved in estrogenic regulation of the DAT function. E2-mediated dopamine efflux is DAT-specific and not dependent on extracellular Ca2+-mediated exocytotic release from vesicular monoamine transporter vesicles (VMATs). Using kinase inhibitors we also showed that E2-mediated dopamine efflux is dependent on protein kinase C and MEK activation, but not on PI3K or protein kinase A. In plasma membrane there are ligand-independent associations of ERalpha and ERbeta (but not GPR30) with DAT. Conditions which cause efflux (a 9 min 10(-9) M E2 treatment) cause trafficking of ERalpha (stimulatory) to the plasma membrane and trafficking of ERbeta (inhibitory) away from the plasma membrane. In contrast, E1 and E3 can inhibit efflux with a nonmonotonic dose pattern, and cause DAT to leave the plasma membrane. Such mechanisms explain how gender biases in some DAT-dependent diseases can occur.

  17. Pathogenesis and mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of antibodies to red blood cells (RBC) have been studied for a century. Most clinically relevant antibodies can be detected by sensitive in vitro assays. Several mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis are well understood. Such hemolysis following transfusion is reliably avoided in a donor/recipient pair, if one individual is negative for the cognate antigen to which the other has the antibody. Study design and results Mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis were reviewed based on a presentation at the Strategies to Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions Workshop addressing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and ABO antibodies. The presented topics included the rates of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis; IgM and IgG isoagglutinins; auto- and alloantibodies; antibody specificity; A, B, A,B and A1 antigens; A1 versus A2 phenotypes; monocytes/macrophages, other immune cells and complement; monocyte monolayer assay (MMA); antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC); and transfusion reactions due to ABO and other antibodies. Conclusion Several clinically relevant questions remained unresolved, and diagnostic tools were lacking to routinely and reliably predict the clinical consequences of RBC antibodies. Most hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with IVIG were due to ABO antibodies. Reducing the titers of such antibodies in IVIG may lower the frequency of this kind of adverse event. The only way to stop these events is to have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in the IVIG products. PMID:26174897

  18. Intact subepidermal nerve fibers mediate mechanical hypersensitivity via the activation of protein kinase C gamma in spared nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Miau-Hwa; Yang, Ming-Ling; Youn, Su-Chung; Tseng, To-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background Spared nerve injury is an important neuropathic pain model for investigating the role of intact primary afferents in the skin on pain hypersensitivity. However, potential cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) participates in the regulation of neuronal plasticity for central sensitization. The downstream cascades of PDK1 include: (1) protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) controls the trafficking and phosphorylation of ionotropic glutamate receptor; (2) protein kinase B (Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is responsible for local protein synthesis. Under these statements, we therefore hypothesized that an increase of PKCγ activation and mTOR-dependent PKCγ synthesis in intact primary afferents after SNI might contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Results The variants of spared nerve injury were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats by transecting any two of the three branches of the sciatic nerve, leaving only one branch intact. Following SNIt (spared tibial branch), mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia, were significantly induced. In the first footpad, normal epidermal innervations were verified by the protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)- and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43)-immunoreactive (IR) intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) densities. Furthermore, the rapid increases of phospho-PKCγ- and phospho-mTOR-IR subepidermal nerve fibers (SENFs) areas were distinct gathered from the results of PGP9.5-, GAP43-, and neurofilament 200 (NF200)-IR SENFs areas. The efficacy of PKC inhibitor (GF 109203X) or mTOR complex 1 inhibitor (rapamycin) for attenuating mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia by intraplantar injection was dose-dependent. Conclusions From results obtained in this study, we strongly recommend that the intact SENFs persistently increase PKCγ activation and mTOR-dependent PKCγ synthesis participate

  19. Chronic infection by Leishmania amazonensis mediated through MAPK ERK mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pedro A; Petersen, Christine A

    2014-08-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review, we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to (1) motor proteins, (2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production, and (3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response.

  20. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin

    PubMed Central

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH. PMID:26074817

  1. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Russell, Daric; Weidner, Greg; Durda, Michael; Joseph, Nicholas C; Yu, Jeffrey; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain patients receiving opioid drugs are at risk for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), wherein opioid pain medication leads to a paradoxical pain state. OIH involves central sensitization of primary and secondary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion, similar to neuropathic pain. Gabapentin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog anticonvulsant used to treat neuropathic pain, has been shown in animal models to reduce fentanyl hyperalgesia without compromising analgesic effect. Chronic pain patients have also exhibited lower opioid consumption and improved pain response when given gabapentin. However, few human studies investigating gabapentin use in OIH have been performed in recent years. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie OIH and provide a critical overview of interventional therapeutic strategies, especially the clinically-successful drug gabapentin, which may reduce OIH.

  2. Intraneural dexamethasone applied simultaneously to rat sciatic nerve constriction delays the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Leandro F S; Medeiros, Daniel C; Vieira, Rafael P; Watkins, Linda R; Coelho, Márcio M; Moraes, Márcio F D

    2012-02-21

    Although neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain sensitization in models of neuropathic pain have been widely studied, there are some aspects that require further investigation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the local intraneural or perineural injections of dexamethasone, an efficacious anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drug, delays the development of both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in an experimental model of neuropathic pain in rats. Hargreaves and electronic von Frey tests were applied. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) of right sciatic nerve was performed. Single intraneural dexamethasone administration at the moment of constriction delayed the development of sensitization for thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. However, perineural administration of dexamethasone, at the highest dose, did not delay experimental pain development. These results show that inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is an essential trigger for the pathological changes that lead to both hyperalgesia and allodynia. In conclusion, this approach opens new opportunities to study cellular and molecular neuroimmune interactions associated with the development of pain derived from peripheral neuropathies.

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2B subunit in spinal cord contributes to remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia: the preventive effect of ketamine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical studies showed that intraoperative infusionof remifentanil has been associated with postoperative hyperalgesia. Previous reports suggested that spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may contribute to the development and maintenance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. In the present study, we used a rat model of postoperative pain to investigate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in spinal cord in the postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and the intervention of pretreatment with ketamine. Results Intraoperative infusion of remifentanil (0.04 mg/kg, subcutaneous) significantly enhanced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by the plantar incision during the postoperative period (each lasting between 2 h and 48 h), which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Correlated with the pain behavior changes, immunocytochemical and western blotting experiments in our study revealed that there was a marked increase in NR2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472 in the superficial dorsal horn after intraoperative infusion of remifentanil, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B at Tyr1472 in spinal dosal horn contributes to postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and supports the potential therapeutic value of ketamine for improving postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil. PMID:20042082

  4. Spinal microglia initiate and maintain hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Yi; Lu, Ching-Liang; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Lee, I-Hui; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Hsing-Feng; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The chronic, persistent pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has many characteristics of neuropathic pain, initiated and maintained by the activation of spinal microglia. We investigated whether activated microglia in the thoracic spinal cord contribute to chronic pain in a rat model of CP. CP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraductal injection of 2% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Hyperalgesia was assessed by the measurement of mechanical sensitivity of the abdomen and nocifensive behavior to electrical stimulation of the pancreas. Three weeks after induction of CP, spinal samples were analyzed by immunostaining and immunoblot analyses for levels of CD11 (a marker of microglia, determined with the antibody OX42) and phosphorylated p38 (P-p38, a marker of activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling). We examined the effects of minocycline (inhibitor of microglia) and fractalkine (microglia-activating factor) on visceral hyperalgesia in rats with CP. Rats with CP had increased sensitivity and nociceptive behaviors to mechanical probing of the abdomen and electrical stimulation of the pancreas. The dorsal horn of the thoracic spinal cords of rats with CP contained activated microglia (based on increased staining with OX42), with an ameboid appearance. Levels of P-p38 increased in rats with CP and colocalized with OX42-positive cells. Intrathecal injection of minocycline reversed and prevented the increase of nocifensive behaviors and levels of P-p38 in rats with CP. Fractalkine induced hyperalgesia in rats without CP, which was blocked by minocycline. Activated spinal microglia have important roles in maintaining and initiating chronic pain in a rat model of CP. Microglia might be a target for treatment of hyperalgesia caused by pancreatic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune-mediated mechanism for thrombocytopenia after Loxosceles spider bite.

    PubMed

    Levin, Carina; Bonstein, Lilach; Lauterbach, Roy; Mader, Rivka; Rozemman, Dganit; Koren, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Loxoscelism, characterized by high fever, vomiting, malaise, a dermonecrotic lesion, and thrombocytopenia, was diagnosed in a 3-year-old female. Clinical laboratory and dermatological signs are described. Blood test showed a transient hypercoagulable state and the presence of IgG antibodies against platelets, suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism for platelet destruction, in addition to the direct toxic effect of the spider venom. The finding of platelet antibodies after a Loxosceles spider bite has not been previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mechanisms of PDL1-mediated regulation of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Indira; Gubbels Bupp, Melanie; Dada, Shirine; Fife, Brian; Tang, Qizhi; Ansari, Mohammed Javeed; Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Vadivel, Nidyanandh; Fiorina, Paolo; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Atkinson, Mark; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Sayegh, Mohamed H

    2007-10-01

    The PD-1-PDL1 pathway plays a critical role in regulating autoimmune diabetes as blockade or deficiency of PD-1 or PDL1 results in accelerated disease in NOD mice. We explored the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these autoimmune responses by investigations involving various gene-deficient mice on the NOD background. Administration of blocking anti-PDL1 antibody to CD4+ T cell-deficient, CD8+ T cell-deficient and B cell-deficient mice demonstrated that PDL1-mediated regulation of autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is critical for diabetes development. This concept was confirmed by adoptive transfer studies utilizing lymphocytes from BDC2.5 and 4.1 (CD4+) TCR transgenic mice and 8.3 (CD8+) TCR transgenic mice; efforts showing increased proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following PDL1 blockade in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that anti-PDL1-mediated acceleration is dependent upon events occurring in the pancreatic lymph nodes during early disease stages, but becomes independent of the pancreatic lymph nodes during later disease stages. These data provide strong evidence that PDL1 regulates autoimmune diabetes by limiting the expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ autoreactive T cells, and define the timing and locale of PDL1-mediated regulation of type 1 diabetes.

  7. Mechanisms of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Endonuclease cleavage was one of the first identified mechanisms of mRNA decay but until recently it was thought to play a minor role to the better-known processes of deadenylation, decapping and exonuclease-catalyzed decay. Most of the early examples of endonuclease decay came from studies of a particular mRNA whose turnover changed in response to hormone, cytokine, developmental or nutritional stimuli. Only a few of these examples of endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay progressed to the point where the enzyme responsible for the initiating event was identified and studied in any detail. The discovery of microRNAs and RISC-catalyzed endonuclease cleavage followed by the identification of PIN (pilT N-terminal) domains that impart endonuclease activity to a number of the proteins involved in mRNA decay has led to a resurgence of interest in endonuclease-mediated mRNA decay. PIN domains show no substrate selectivity, and their involvement in a number of decay pathways highlights a recurring theme that the context in which an endonuclease functions is a primary factor in determining whether any given mRNA will be targeted for decay by this or the default exonuclease-mediated decay processes. PMID:21957046

  8. Probing the mechanisms of silicon-mediated pathogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Chen, Jining; Luo, Shiming

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant mineral element in soil, it has important role in alleviating various environmental stresses and enhancing plant resistance against pathogen, but the exact mechanism by which Si mediates pathogen resistance remains unclear. One of the resistance mechanisms is related to silicon deposition in leaf that acts as a physical barrier to hinder pathogen penetration. But more evidence show that silicon can induce defense responses that are functionally similar to systemic acquired resistance, Si-treated plants can significantly increase antioxidant enzyme activities and the production of antifungal compounds such as phenolic metabolism product, phytoalexins and pathogenesis-related proteins etc. Molecular and biochemical detections show that Si can activate the expression of defense-related genes and may play important role in the transduction of plant stress signal such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene. PMID:19568332

  9. Probing the mechanisms of silicon-mediated pathogen resistance.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kunzheng; Gao, Dan; Chen, Jining; Luo, Shiming

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant mineral element in soil, it has important role in alleviating various environmental stresses and enhancing plant resistance against pathogen, but the exact mechanism by which Si mediates pathogen resistance remains unclear. One of the resistance mechanisms is related to silicon deposition in leaf that acts as a physical barrier to hinder pathogen penetration. But more evidence show that silicon can induce defense responses that are functionally similar to systemic acquired resistance, Si-treated plants can significantly increase antioxidant enzyme activities and the production of antifungal compounds such as phenolic metabolism product, phytoalexins and pathogenesis-related proteins etc. Molecular and biochemical detections show that Si can activate the expression of defense-related genes and may play important role in the transduction of plant stress signal such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene.

  10. Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G; Lee, Crystal J J; McCallum, Gordon P; Perstin, Julia; Harper, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely alter the development of the fetus at critical periods during pregnancy, resulting in death, or in structural and functional birth defects in the surviving offspring. This process of teratogenesis may not be evident until a decade or more after birth. Postnatal functional abnormalities include deficits in brain function, a variety of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Due to the high degree of fetal cellular division and differentiation, and to differences from the adult in many biochemical pathways, the fetus is highly susceptible to teratogens, typically at low exposure levels that do not harm the mother. Insights into the mechanisms of teratogenesis come primarily from animal models and in vitro systems, and involve either receptor-mediated or reactive intermediate-mediated processes. Receptor-mediated mechanisms involving the reversible binding of xenobiotic substrates to a specific receptor are exemplified herein by the interaction of the environmental chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or "dioxin") with the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which translocates to the nucleus and, in association with other proteins, binds to AH-responsive elements (AHREs) in numerous genes, initiating changes in gene transcription that can perturb development. Alternatively, many xenobiotics are bioactivated by fetal enzymes like the cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) to highly unstable electrophilic or free radical reactive intermediates. Electrophilic reactive intermediates can covalently (irreversibly) bind to and alter the function of essential cellular macromolecules (proteins, DNA), causing developmental anomalies. Free radical reactive intermediates can enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules and/or altered signal transduction. The teratogenicity of reactive intermediates is determined to a large extent

  11. Mechanisms mediating parallel action monitoring in fronto-striatal circuits.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ness, Vanessa; Lukas, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Stüwe, Sven; Falkenstein, Michael; Saft, Carsten

    2012-08-01

    Flexible response adaptation and the control of conflicting information play a pivotal role in daily life. Yet, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating parallel control of these processes. We examined these mechanisms using a multi-methodological approach that integrated data from event-related potentials (ERPs) with structural MRI data and source localisation using sLORETA. Moreover, we calculated evoked wavelet oscillations. We applied this multi-methodological approach in healthy subjects and patients in a prodromal phase of a major basal ganglia disorder (i.e., Huntington's disease), to directly focus on fronto-striatal networks. Behavioural data indicated, especially the parallel execution of conflict monitoring and flexible response adaptation was modulated across the examined cohorts. When both processes do not co-incide a high integrity of fronto-striatal loops seems to be dispensable. The neurophysiological data suggests that conflict monitoring (reflected by the N2 ERP) and working memory processes (reflected by the P3 ERP) differentially contribute to this pattern of results. Flexible response adaptation under the constraint of high conflict processing affected the N2 and P3 ERP, as well as their delta frequency band oscillations. Yet, modulatory effects were strongest for the N2 ERP and evoked wavelet oscillations in this time range. The N2 ERPs were localized in the anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, BA24). Modulations of the P3 ERP were localized in parietal areas (BA7). In addition, MRI-determined caudate head volume predicted modulations in conflict monitoring, but not working memory processes. The results show how parallel conflict monitoring and flexible adaptation of action is mediated via fronto-striatal networks. While both, response monitoring and working memory processes seem to play a role, especially response selection processes and ACC-basal ganglia networks seem to be the driving force in mediating parallel conflict

  12. Analgesic Effects Mediated by Muscarinic Receptors: Mechanisms and Pharmacological Approaches.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Federica; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a research field on great clinical relevance and social impactful. It is associated to a variety of pathological events causing un altered excitability of peripheral nerves derived by tissue damage depending on physical, biological and chemical injury. In the last years much attention has been paid in the identification of novel molecules involved in mediating pain sensation useful as therapeutic tools for the development of new analgesic drugs. Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed both in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is known that muscarinic agonists cause analgesic effects via spinal and supraspinal mechanisms. Considering that the analgesia induced by cholinergic agonists is comparable to that observed with morphine, the identification of receptor subtypes involved and the identification of the muscarinic ligands capable of selectively activate these receptors, is of considerable interest for potential therapeutic application. In the present review we describe the role of muscarinic receptors in mediating central and peripheral pain and the mechanisms downstream these receptors responsible of the modulation of nociceptive stimuli. Moreover the therapeutic perspectives and the identification of potential drugs binding muscarinic receptors involved in pain modulation will also be discussed.

  13. Atenolol Reduces Leishmania major-Induced Hyperalgesia and TNF-α Without Affecting IL-1β or Keratinocyte Derived Chemokines (KC)

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Marc C.; Merckbawi, Rana; Salman, Sara; Mobasheri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Infection with a high dose of the intracellular parasitic protozoan Leishmania major induces a sustained hyperalgesia in susceptible BALB/c mice accompanied by up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has been shown to reduce this hyperalgesia (despite increased levels of IL-6) and the levels of IL-1β during and after the treatment period. These findings favor the cytokine cascade leading to the production of sympathetic amines (involving TNF-α and KC) over prostaglandins (involving IL-lβ and IL-6) as the final mediators of hyperalgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily treatment with the β-blockers atenolol on L. major-induced inflammation in mice with respect to hyperalgesia as well as the levels of TNF-α and KC (the analog of IL-8 in mice). Our data demonstrates that atenolol is able to reduce the L. major induced sustained peripheral hyperalgesia, which does not seem to involve a direct role for neither IL-lβ nor KC. Moreover, our results show that TNF-α may play a pivotal and direct role in sensitizing the peripheral nerve endings (nociceptors) since its level was reduced during the period of atenolol treatment, which correlates well with the reduction of the observed peripheral, but not central, hyperalgesia. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the cytokine cascade leading to hyperalgesia and may lead to the development of new and more efficient medications for many types of pain. PMID:26913003

  14. Experimental hypoglycemia is a human model of stress-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Adler, Gail K; Bonyhay, Istvan; Freeman, Roy

    2012-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is a physiological stress that leads to the release of stress hormones, such as catecholamines and glucocorticoids, and proinflammatory cytokines. These factors, in euglycemic animal models, are associated with stress-induced hyperalgesia. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether experimental hypoglycemia in humans would lead to a hyperalgesic state. In 2 separate 3-day admissions separated by 1 to 3 months, healthy study participants were exposed to two 2-hour euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps or two 2-hour hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Thermal quantitative sensory testing and thermal pain assessments were measured the day before and the day after euglycemia or hypoglycemia. In contrast to prior euglycemia exposure, prior hypoglycemia exposure resulted in enhanced pain sensitivity to hot and cold stimuli as well as enhanced temporal summation to repeated heat-pain stimuli. These findings suggest that prior exposure to hypoglycemia causes a state of enhanced pain sensitivity that is consistent with stress-induced hyperalgesia. This human model may provide a framework for hypothesis testing and targeted, mechanism-based pharmacological interventions to delineate the molecular basis of hyperalgesia and pain susceptibility.

  15. Sildenafil Treatment Eliminates Pruritogenesis and Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats with Portacaval Shunts.

    PubMed

    Belghiti, Majedeline; Agusti, Ana; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2017-03-01

    Pruritus is a common symptom in chronic liver diseases, which may also alter thermal sensitivity. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear and treatments are not satisfactory. Portal-systemic shunting has been proposed to alter thermal sensitivity in cirrhotics. Inflammation-induced enhanced activity of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) may contribute to pruritus and thermal hyperalgesia. Sildenafil reduces neuroinflammation in portacaval shunt (PCS) rats. The aims were to assess whether: (1) PCS rats show enhanced scratching or thermal sensitivity; (2) TRPV1 activity is enhanced in PCS rats; (3) treatment with sildenafil reduces TRPV1 activation, scratching and thermal hyperalgesia. Rats were treated with sildenafil beginning 3 weeks after surgery. The number of scratches performed were counted. Thermal hyperalgesia was analyzed using the Hargreaves' Plantar Test. TRPV1 activation by measuring the increase in Ca(2+) induced by capsaicin in dorsal root ganglia neurons. PCS rats show enhanced scratching behavior, reaching 66 ± 5 scratches/h (p < 0.01) at 21 days after surgery, while controls show 37 ± 2 scratches/h. PCS rats show thermal hyperalgesia. Paw withdrawal latency was reduced (p < 0.05) to 10 ± 1 s compared to controls (21 ± 2 s). Capsaicin-induced calcium increase was higher in dorsal root ganglia cultures from PCS rats, indicating TRPV1functional increase. PCS rats show enhanced scratching behavior and thermal sensitivity and are a good model to study these alterations in chronic liver diseases. Enhanced sensitivity and activity of TRPV1 channel underlies these alterations. Treatment with sildenafil reduces TRPV1 channel sensitivity and activity and normalizes scratching behavior and thermal sensitivity.

  16. Down-regulation of PPARα in the spinal cord contributes to augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, Q; Zhao, L; Li, D; Fu, Z; Liang, L

    2014-10-10

    Obesity is associated with augmented peripheral inflammation and pain sensitivity in response to inflammatory stimulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence has shown that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in the central nervous system controls peripheral inflammation and pain. We hypothesized that obesity might down-regulate PPARα in the spinal cord, leading to enhanced peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 12weeks developed metabolic disorder and displayed significantly decreased spinal PPARα expression and activity. Interestingly, intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the PPARα activator palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in HF-fed rats for 2weeks normalized spinal PPARα expression and activity without altering metabolic parameters. HF-fed rats were more sensitive to stimulation of the inflamed paw, and exhibited more severe paw edema following carrageenan injection, whereas HF-fed rats receiving ICV PEA had similar pain sensitivity and paw edema to LF-fed rats. No difference in the expression of inflammatory mediators or nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity was observed at baseline among groups. Carrageenan induced decreased PPARα expression and activity, increased spinal cord inflammatory mediator expression and NF-κB activity in both LF-and HF-fed rats. However, the increase was more pronounced in HF-fed rats and corrected by PEA. Intrathecal injection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PPARα in HF-fed rats completely abolished PEA effects on peripheral pain sensitivity and paw edema. These findings suggest that diet-induced obesity causes down-regulation of spinal PPARα, which facilitates the susceptibility to peripheral inflammatory challenge by increasing inflammatory response in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity.

  17. Regionally selective activation of ERK and JNK in morphine paradoxical hyperalgesia: a step toward improving opioid pain therapy.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla; Galeotti, Nicoletta

    2014-11-01

    In addition to analgesia, opioid agonists may increase pain sensitivity under different conditions varying dose and administration pattern. While opioid hyperalgesia induced by tolerance and withdrawal is largely studied, little is known on the mechanisms underlying ultra-low dose morphine hyperalgesia. This pronociceptive response appears to play an opposing role in morphine analgesia and might have clinical relevance. Ultra-low dose morphine elicited thermal hyperalgesia through activation of μ opioid receptors. To elucidate the intracellular mechanism of morphine nociceptive behaviour, we investigated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), crucial pathways in pain hypersensitivity. The catalytic activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), upstream modulators and transcription factors was investigated in the mouse periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), thalamus and prefrontal cortex by western blotting. Ultra-low dose morphine intensively increased pERK1 contents in the PAG and cortex and, to a lesser extent, increased cortical ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation. No involvement of p38 was detected. Morphine exposure also increased phosphorylation of cortical c-Jun whereas levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) remained unmodified. Blockade of protein kinase C (PKC) prevented increases in phosphorylation showing a PKC-dependent mechanism of activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of PKC, ERK, and JNK activity prevented morphine hyperalgesia. No modulation of MAPK and transcription factors' activity was detected in the thalamus. These results support the concept that selective activation of ERK and JNK on descending pathways plays an important role in ultra-low dose morphine hyperalgesia. The modulation of these signalling processes might improve pain management with opiate analgesics.

  18. [Tc1-mediated contact sensitivity reaction, its mechanism and regulation].

    PubMed

    Zemelka-Wiącek, Magdalena; Szczepanik, Marian

    2014-07-04

    The contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS) to haptens is a classic example of cell-mediated immune response. In the effector phase, two stages can be distinguished: an early component, that appears only 2 hours after subsequent contact with the hapten, and the late component that develops approximately 24 hours later which is mediated by TCRαβ+ cells. The effector lymphocytes may be CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells or CD8+ T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells, which depends on the employed hapten and/or mice strain. NKT lymphocytes play the crucial role in the CHS initiation, by supporting B1 cells in the antigen-specific IgM antibodies production. The development of an early component is essential for the recruitment of T effector (Teff) cells to the side of hapten deposition and for the complete expansion of inflammatory reaction. The CHS reaction is under T regulatory (Treg) cells control, both in the induction phase as well as in the effector phase. A new view of a negative regulation of the Tc1 mediated CHS response is based on the suppression induced by epicutaneous (EC) application of protein antigen. The DNP-BSA skin application, on a gauze patch, leads to a state of immunosuppression. This maneuver results in rising the population of Treg cells with TCRαβ+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype. The mechanism of suppression requires direct contact between Treg cells and Teff cells and the participation of CTLA-4 molecule is also necessary. The described method of evoking immune tolerance via EC immunization may contribute to elaborate a new method of allergic contact dermatitis therapy. This is because of its effectiveness, ease of induction and non-invasive protein antigen application.

  19. The degree of acute descending control of spinal nociception in an area of primary hyperalgesia is dependent on the peripheral domain of afferent input.

    PubMed

    Drake, Robert A R; Hulse, Richard P; Lumb, Bridget M; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2014-08-15

    Descending controls of spinal nociceptive processing play a critical role in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Acute peripheral nociceptor sensitization drives spinal sensitization and activates spino-supraspinal-spinal loops leading to descending inhibitory and facilitatory controls of spinal neuronal activity that further modify the extent and degree of the pain state. The afferent inputs from hairy and glabrous skin are distinct with respect to both the profile of primary afferent classes and the degree of their peripheral sensitization. It is not known whether these differences in afferent input differentially engage descending control systems to different extents or in different ways. Injection of complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in inflammation and swelling of hairy hind foot skin in rats, a transient thermal hyperalgesia lasting <2 h, and longlasting primary mechanical hyperalgesia (≥7 days). Much longer lasting thermal hyperalgesia was apparent in glabrous skin (1 h to >72 h). In hairy skin, transient hyperalgesia was associated with sensitization of withdrawal reflexes to thermal activation of either A- or C-nociceptors. The transience of the hyperalgesia was attributable to a rapidly engaged descending inhibitory noradrenergic mechanism, which affected withdrawal responses to both A- and C-nociceptor activation and this could be reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine (α-2-adrenoceptor antagonist). In glabrous skin, yohimbine had no effect on an equivalent thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia. We conclude that acute inflammation and peripheral nociceptor sensitization in hind foot hairy skin, but not glabrous skin, rapidly activates a descending inhibitory noradrenergic system. This may result from differences in the engagement of descending control systems following sensitization of different primary afferent classes that innervate glabrous and hairy skin.

  20. IL-1beta in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis contributes to extra-territorial allodynia/hyperalgesia following a trigeminal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kouji; Watanabe, Mineo; Suekawa, Yohei; Ito, Goshi; Inubushi, Toshihiro; Hirose, Naoto; Murasaki, Kyoko; Hiyama, Shinji; Uchida, Takashi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2011-05-01

    It has been reported that the whisker pad (WP) area, which is innervated by the second branch of the trigeminal nerve, shows allodynia/hyperalgesia following transection of the mental nerve (MN: the third branch of the trigeminal nerve). However, the mechanisms of this extra-territorial pain induction still remain unclear. Glia and cytokines are known to facilitate perception of noxious input, raising a possibility that these non-neuronal elements are involved in the induction and spread of allodynia/hyperalgesia at non-injured skin territory. One day after MN transection, tactile allodynia/hyperalgesia developed on the ipsilateral WP area, which is in the non-injured skin territory. The tactile allodynia/hyperalgesia lasted for more than 56 days. In response to MN transection, astrocytes and microglia appeared to be in an activated state, and interleukin (IL)-1beta was up-regulated in astrocytes in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Allodynia/hyperalgesia at WP area induced by MN transection was attenuated dose-dependently by IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra (i.t., 0.05, 0.5, and 5 pg/rat). Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-Li) neurons were observed in the Vc after non-noxious mechanical stimulation of the WP area in the rats with MN transection. Administration of IL-1ra also attenuated the number of Fos-Li neurons dose-dependently. Administration of a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors MK-801 (i.t., 5 μg/rat) reversed allodynia/hyperalgesia. IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) was localized in Fos- and phospho NR1-immunoreactive neurons. These results suggest that IL-1beta in the Vc plays an important role in the development of extra-territorial tactile allodynia/hyperalgesia after MN transection.

  1. A possible mechanism in DHEA-mediated protection against osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Jun; Tang, Lu-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Xin-Die; Ding, Qian-Hai; Wu, Li-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its ester form, DHEA-S, are the most abundant steroids in human plasma. Our previous studies showed that DHEA protects against osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this paper was to explore the possible mechanisms that underlie DHEA-mediated protection against OA. We tested the expression of β-catenin, it was increased significantly in OA. Rabbit cartilage was treated with various concentrations of DHEA in both IL-1β-induced rabbit chondrocytes and in rabbit cartilage from the anterior cruciate ligament transaction-induced OA model. We found DHEA decreased the expression of β-catenin. Then we further activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by β-catenin transfection and inactivated it by the inhibitor Dickkopf1 in chondrocytes to reveal its role in the pathogenesis of OA. It turns out the protective effect of DHEA was significantly decreased when Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated, while inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhanced the effects of DHEA. Therefore, we hypothesize that DHEA probably exerted its chondroprotective effect by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DHEA-mediated protection against OA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, K N

    2009-05-01

    The mechanisms of tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate were investigated with the CBS-QB3 method. Either the protonation of peroxynitrite or a reaction with carbon dioxide gives a reactive peroxide intermediate. Peroxynitrous acid-mediated nitration of phenol occurs via unimolecular decomposition to give nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals. Nitrosoperoxycarbonate also undergoes unimolecular decomposition to give carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. The reactions of tyrosine with the hydroxyl or carbonate radicals give a phenoxy radical intermediate. The reaction of the nitrogen dioxide with this radical intermediate followed by tautomerization gives nitrated tyrosine in both cases. According to CBS-QB3 calculations, the rate-limiting step for the nitration of phenol is the decomposition of peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate.

  3. Quantification of Grain Boundary Mediated Plasticity Mechanisms in Nanocrystalline Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarino, Jason F.

    Nanocrystalline metals have been a topic of great discussion over recent years due to their exceptional strengths and novel grain boundary-mediated deformation mechanisms. Their microstructures are known to evolve through dynamic processes such as grain boundary migration and grain rotation, but how the collective interaction of these mechanisms alter the microstructure on a larger scale is not completely understood. In this thesis, we present coupled atomistic modeling and experimental tasks that aim to understand how the grain structure, grain boundaries, and associated grain boundary network change during nanocrystalline plasticity. Due to the complex three-dimensional nature of these mechanisms and the limited spatial and temporal resolution of current in-situ experimental techniques, we turn to atomistic modeling to help understand the dynamics by which these mechanisms unfold. In order to provide a quantitative analysis of this behavior, we develop a tool which fully characterizes nanocrystalline microstructures in atomistic models and subsequently tracks their evolution during molecular dynamics simulations. We then use this algorithm to quantitatively track grain structure and boundary network evolution in plastically deformed nanocrystalline Al, finding that higher testing temperature and smaller average grain size results in increased evolution of grain structure with evidence of larger scale changes to the grain boundary network also taking place. This prompts us to extend our analysis technique to include full characterization of grain boundary networks and rigorous topographical feature identification. We then employ this tool on simulations of Al subject to monotonic tension, cycling loading, and simple annealing, and find that each case results in different evolution of the grain boundary network. Finally, our computational work is complemented synergistically by experimental analyses which track surface microstructure evolution during sliding wear

  4. Alendronate inhibits hyperalgesia and suppresses neuropeptide markers of pain in a mouse model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yohei; Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Kato, Sho; Nakagawa, Taro; Iino, Takahiro; Sudo, Akihiro

    2017-07-01

    Chronic back pain is one of the most important complications of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal pain associated with osteoporosis and to examine the inhibitory effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on pain in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The mechanism of osteoporotic pain in OVX mice was evaluated through an examination of pain-related behavior, as well as immunohistochemical findings. In addition, the effects of alendronate (ALN), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, on these parameters were assessed. 8-week-old female ddY mice were ovariectomized and assigned to 3 groups: SHAM-operated mice treated with vehicle (SHAM; n = 8); OVX mice treated with vehicle (OVX-V; n = 8); and OVX mice treated with ALN (OVX-ALN; n = 8). Starting immediately after surgery, vehicle or 40 μg/kg ALN was injected subcutaneously twice a week for 4 weeks. The bilateral distal femoral metaphyses and proximal tibial metaphyses were analyzed three-dimensionally by μCT. Mechanical sensitivity was tested using von Frey filaments. Transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressions in L3-5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were examined immunohistochemically. Ovariectomy induced bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia in hindlimbs with upregulation of TRPV1 and CGRP expressions in DRG neurons innervating hindlimbs. ALN prevented bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia in ovariectomized mouse hindlimbs, and it suppressed upregulation of pain markers. ALN prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia in hindlimbs, and it suppressed TRPV1 and CGRP expressions in DRG neurons. The results suggest that bone resorption with upregulation of TRPV1 and CGRP expressions is one of the causes of postmenopausal osteoporotic pain. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Minireview: Mechanisms of Growth Hormone-Mediated Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health. PMID:24825400

  6. Continuing to illuminate the mechanisms underlying UV-mediated melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Ryan W; Liu-Smith, Feng; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-09-05

    The incidence of melanoma is one of the fastest growing of all tumor types in the United States and the number of cases worldwide has doubled in the past 30 years. Melanoma, which arises from melanocytes, is an extremely aggressive tumor that invades the vascular and lymphatic systems to establish tumors elsewhere in the body. Melanoma is a particularly resilient cancer and systemic therapy approaches have achieved minimal success against metastatic melanoma resulting in only a few FDA-approved treatments with limited benefit. Leading treatments offer minimal efficacy with response rates generally under 15% in the long term with no clear effect on melanoma-related mortality. Even the recent success of the specific BRAF mutant inhibitor vemurafenib has been tempered somewhat since acquired resistance is rapidly observed. Thus, understanding the mechanism(s) of melanoma carcinogenesis is paramount to combating this deadly disease. Not only for the treatment of melanoma but, ultimately, for prevention. In this report, we will summarize our work to date regarding the characterization of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-mediated melanomagenesis and highlight several promising avenues of ongoing research.

  7. Minireview: mechanisms of growth hormone-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Chia, Dennis J

    2014-07-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health.

  8. Possible mechanism of polycation liposome (PCL)-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mayu; Matsuura, Mituso; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Kosaka, Jun; Nango, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2004-01-28

    A novel gene transfer system utilizing polycation liposomes (PCLs), obtained by modifying liposomes with cetyl polyethylenimine (PEI), was previously developed (Gene Ther. 7 (2002) 1148). PCLs show notable transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity. However, the mechanism of PCL-mediated gene transfer is still unclear. In this study, we examined the intracellular trafficking of PCL-DNA complexes by using HT1080 cells, fluorescent probe-labeled materials, and confocal laser scan microscopy. We found that the PCL-DNA complexes were taken up into cells by the endosomal pathway, since both cellular uptake of the complex and gene expression were blocked by wortmannin, an inhibitor of this pathway. We also observed that the plasmid DNA and cetyl PEI complex became detached from the PCL lipids and was preferentially transferred into the nucleus in the form of the complex, whereas the PCL lipids remained in the cytoplasmic area, possibly in the endosomes. In fact, nigericin, which dissipates the pH gradient across the endosomal membrane, inhibited the detachment of lipids from the PCL-DNA complex and subsequent gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate the following mechanism for gene transfer by PCLs: PCLs effectively transfer DNA to endosomes and release cetyl PEI-DNA complexes into the cytosol. Furthermore, cetyl PEI also contributes to gene entry into the nucleus.

  9. Identifying immune mechanisms mediating the hypertension during preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Denise C.; Harmon, Ashlyn C.; Amaral, Lorena M.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Faulkner, Jessica L.; Wallace, Kedra

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-associated disorder that affects 5–8% of pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hallmark characteristics of PE are new onset hypertension after 20 wk gestation with or without proteinuria, chronic immune activation, fetal growth restriction, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the development of PE are poorly understood. Recent data from studies of both clinical and animal models demonstrate an imbalance in the subpopulations of CD4+ T cells and a role for these cells as mediators of inflammation and hypertension during pregnancy. Specifically, it has been proposed that the imbalance between two CD4+ T cell subtypes, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T-helper 17 cells (Th17s), is involved in the pathophysiology of PE. Studies from our laboratory highlighting how this imbalance contributes to vasoactive factors, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension during pregnancy will be discussed in this review. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight hypertensive mechanisms stimulated by inflammatory factors in response to placental ischemia, thereby elucidating a role PMID:27097659

  10. Tumor-evoked hyperalgesia and sensitization of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in a murine model of cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Khasabov, Sergey G.; Hamamoto, Darryl T.; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Simone, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Pain associated with cancer, particularly when tumors metastasize to bone, is often severe and debilitating. Better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cancer pain will likely lead to the development of more effective treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in response properties of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons following implantation of fibrosarcoma cells into and around the calcaneus bone, an established model of cancer pain. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings were made from wide dynamic range (WDR) and high threshold (HT) dorsal horn neurons in mice with tumor-evoked hyperalgesia and control mice. WDR and HT neurons were examined for ongoing activity and responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli applied to the plantar surface of the hind paw. Behavioral experiments showed that mice exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli applied to their tumor-bearing hind paw. WDR, but not HT, nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in tumor-bearing mice exhibited sensitization to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli and may contribute to tumor-evoked hyperalgesia. Specifically, the proportion of WDR neurons that exhibited ongoing activity and their evoked discharge rates were greater in tumor-bearing than in control mice. In addition, WDR neurons exhibited lower response thresholds for mechanical and heat stimuli, and increased responses to suprathreshold mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Our findings show that sensitization of WDR neurons contribute to cancer pain and support the notion that the mechanisms underlying cancer pain differ from those that contribute to inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:17935703

  11. 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), a main metabolite of serotonin, is responsible for complete Freund's adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytrptamine, 5-HT) in the modulation of pain has been widely studied. Previous work led to the hypothesis that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), a main metabolite of serotonin, might by itself influence pain thresholds. Results In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HIAA in inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paw of mice. Wild-type mice were compared to mice deficient of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT-/- mice) using behavioral tests for hyperalgesia and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine tissue levels of 5-HIAA. Wild-type mice reproducibly developed thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema for 5 days after CFA injection. 5-HTT-/- mice treated with CFA had reduced thermal hyperalgesia on day 1 after CFA injection and normal responses to heat thereafter. The 5-HIAA levels in spinal cord and sciatic nerve as measured with HPLC were lower in 5-HTT-/- mice than in wild-type mice after CFA injection. Pretreatment of wild-type mice with intraperitoneal injection of para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, resulted in depletion of the 5-HIAA content in spinal cord and sciatic nerve and decrease in thermal hyperalgesia in CFA injected mice. The application of exogenous 5-HIAA resulted in potentiation of thermal hyperalgesia induced by CFA in 5-HTT-/- mice and in wild-type mice pretreated with p-CPA, but not in wild-type mice without p-CPA pretreatment. Further, methysergide, a broad-spectrum serotonin receptor antagonist, had no effect on 5-HIAA-induced potentiation of thermal hyperalgesia in CFA-treated wild-type mice. Conclusion Taken together, the present results suggest that 5-HIAA plays an important role in modulating peripheral thermal hyperalgesia in CFA induced inflammation, probably via a non-serotonin receptor mechanism. PMID:21447193

  12. Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors reduces hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weisi; Taylor, Bradley K

    2015-05-19

    Clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis have yielded mixed results, possibly due to psychotropic side effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that, a CB2-specific agonist (JWH-133) would decrease hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Four weeks after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we found that intrathecal administration of JWH-133 (10-100μg) dose-dependently reduced both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity without producing signs of sedation or ataxia. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of JWH-133 could be dose-dependently prevented by intrathecal co-administration of the CB2 antagonist, AM-630 (1-3μg). Our results suggest that JWH-133 acts at CB2 receptors, most likely within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress the hypersensitivity associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These are the first pre-clinical studies to directly promote CB2 as a promising target for the treatment of central pain in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ARID1B-mediated disorders: Mutations and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joe C. H.; White, Susan M; Lockhart, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the gene encoding AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) were recently associated with multiple syndromes characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability, in addition to nonsyndromic intellectual disability. While the majority of ARID1B mutations identified to date are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. ARID1B is a DNA-binding subunit of the Brahma-associated factor chromatin remodelling complexes, which play a key role in the regulation of gene activity. The function of remodelling complexes can be regulated by their subunit composition, and there is some evidence that ARID1B is a component of the neuron-specific chromatin remodelling complex. This complex is involved in the regulation of stem/progenitor cells exiting the cell cycle and differentiating into postmitotic neurons. Recent research has indicated that alterations in the cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals. This review describes studies linking ARID1B to neurodevelopmental disorders and it summarizes the function of ARID1B to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying ARID1B-mediated disorders. In conclusion, ARID1B is likely to play a key role in neurodevelopment and reduced levels of wild-type protein compromise normal brain development. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which impaired neural development contributes to the intellectual disability and speech impairment that are consistently observed in individuals with ARID1B haploinsufficiency. PMID:25674384

  14. Mediators and mechanisms of relaxation in rabbit urethral smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, Kristian; Ny, Lars; Persson, Katarina; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Electrophysiological and mechanical experiments were performed to investigate whether the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation of rabbit urethral smooth muscle is associated with a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. In addition, a possible role for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and carbon monoxide (CO) as relaxant agents in rabbit urethra was investigated. Immunohistochemical experiments were performed to characterize the NO-synthase (NOS) and VIP innervation. Possible target cells for NO were studied by using antisera against cyclic GMP. The cyclic GMP-immunoreactivity was investigated on tissues pretreated with 1 mM IBMX, 0.1 mM zaprinast and 1 mM sodium nitroprusside. Intracellular recordings of the membrane potential in the circular smooth muscle layer revealed two types of spontaneous depolarizations, slow waves with a duration of 3–4 s and an amplitude of 30–40 mV, and faster (0.5–1 s), more irregular depolarizations with an amplitude of 5–15 mV. The resting membrane potential was 39±1 mV (n=12). Application of NO (30 μM), CO (30 μM) or VIP (1 μM) did not change the resting membrane potential. Both NO (1–100 μM) and VIP (1 nM–1 μM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations amounting to 87±4% and 97±2% (n=6), respectively. The relaxant effect of CO (1–30 μM) amounted to 27±4% (n=5) at the highest concentration used. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed a rich supply of NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the smooth muscle layers. Numerous spinous cyclic GMP-immunoreactive cells were found interspersed between the smooth muscle bundles, mainly localized in the outer layer. These cells had long processes forming a network surrounding the smooth muscle bundles. VIP-immunoreactivity was sparse in comparison to NOS-immunoreactive nerves. The rich supply of NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres supports the view that NO is an important NANC-mediator in the rabbit urethra. In contrast to several

  15. A novel p38 MAPK docking groove-targeted compound is a potent inhibitor of inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Willemen, Hanneke L.D.M.; Campos, Pedro M.; Lucas, Elisa; Morreale, Antonio; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Agut, Juan; González, Florenci V.; Ramos, Paula; Heijnen, Cobi; Mayor, Federico; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Murga, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 is an important mediator of inflammation and of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We recently described that docking-groove dependent interactions are important for p38 MAPK-mediated signal transduction. Thus, virtual screening was performed to identify putative docking groove-targeted p38 MAPK inhibitors. Several compounds of the benzooxadiazol family were identified with low micromolar inhibitory activity both in a p38 MAPK activity assay, and in THP-1 human monocytes acting as inhibitors of LPS-induced TNFα secretion. Positions 2 and 5 in the phenyl ring are essential for the described inhibitory activity with a chloride in position 5 and a methyl-group in position 2 yielding the best results with an IC50 of 1.8 μM (FGA-19 compound). Notably, FGA-19 exerted a potent and long-lasting analgesic effect in vivo when tested in a mouse model of inflammatory hyperalgesia. A single intrathecal injection of FGA-19 completely resolved hyperalgesia, being ten times as potent and displaying longer lasting effects than the established p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063. FGA-19 also reversed persistent pain in a model of post-inflammatory hyperalgesia (in LysM-GRK2+/− mice). These potent in vivo effects put forward p38 MAPK docking-site targeted inhibitors as a potential novel strategy for the treatment of inflammatory pain. PMID:24517375

  16. The impact of intra-operative sufentanil dosing on post-operative pain, hyperalgesia and morphine consumption after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Fechner, J; Ihmsen, H; Schüttler, J; Jeleazcov, C

    2013-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether opioids when used for intra-operative analgesia may enhance post-operative pain. We studied the effect of two different intra-operative dosings of sufentanil on post-operative morphine consumption, pain and hyperalgesia after cardiac anaesthesia. Forty-two male patients (age: 48-74 years) undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomized to one of two groups receiving total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and a target controlled infusion of sufentanil with a target of 0.4 ng/mL (group SL, n = 20) or 0.8 ng/mL (group SH, n = 22) plasma concentration. Post-operative morphine requirement in the first 48 h was assessed using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Pain rating during deep inspiration, and the extent of primary and secondary hyperalgesia near the sternotomy wound were assessed. The post-operative morphine requirements in the first 48 h were 0.68 ± 0.21 mg/kg in group SL and 0.96 ± 0.44 mg/kg in group SH (p < 0.05). In group SL, pain during deep inspiration was significantly lower on the first post-operative day (p < 0.05). Primary hyperalgesia had its maximum on the second and third post-operative day, without a difference between the two groups. The extent of secondary mechanical pinprick hyperalgesia was not different between the groups. Intra-operative dosing of sufentanil significantly influenced post-operative morphine consumption, pain and hyperalgesia. For cardiac anaesthesia in combination with propofol, a sufentanil target concentration of 0.4 ng/mL may be preferable. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  17. Inflammation-induced hyperalgesia: effects of timing, dosage, and negative affect on somatic pain sensitivity in human experimental endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Maluck, Janina; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Engler, Harald; Jäger, Marcus; Spreitzer, Ingo; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation-induced pain amplification and hypersensitivity play a role in the pathophysiology of numerous clinical conditions. Experimental endotoxemia has recently been implemented as model to analyze immune-mediated processes in human pain. In this study, we aimed to analyze dose- and time-dependent effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on clinically-relevant pain models for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain as well as the interaction among LPS-induced changes in inflammatory markers, pain sensitivity and negative affect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy male subjects received an intravenous injection of either a moderate dose of LPS (0.8 ng/kg Escherichiacoli), low-dose LPS (0.4 ng/kg), or saline (placebo control group). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS), and cold pain sensitivity (CP) were assessed before and 1, 3, and 6h post injection to assess time-dependent LPS effects on pain sensitivity. Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and state anxiety were repeatedly measured before, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6h after injection of LPS or placebo. LPS administration induced a systemic immune activation, reflected by significant increases in cytokine levels, body temperature, and negative mood with pronounced effects to the higher LPS dose. Significant decreases of PPTs were observed only 3h after injection of the moderate dose of LPS (0.8 ng/kg). MPS and CP were not affected by LPS-induced immune activation. Correlation analyses revealed that decreased PPTs were associated with peak IL-6 increases and negative mood. Our results revealed widespread increases in musculoskeletal pain sensitivity in response to a moderate dose of LPS (0.8 ng/kg), which correlate both with changes in IL-6 and negative mood. These data extend and refine existing knowledge about immune mechanisms mediating hyperalgesia with implications for the pathophysiology of chronic pain and neuropsychiatric conditions. Copyright

  18. Calsequestrin-Mediated Mechanism for Cellular Calcium Transient Alternans

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Weiss, James N.; Karma, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transient alternans (CTA) has a recognized role in arrhythmogenesis, but its origin is not yet fully understood. Recent models of CTA are based on a steep relationship between calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and its calcium load before release. This mechanism alone, however, does not explain recent observations of CTA without diastolic SR calcium content alternations. In addition, nanoscopic imaging of calcium dynamics has revealed that the elementary calcium release units of the SR can become refractory independently of their local calcium content. Here we show using a new physiologically detailed mathematical model of calcium cycling that luminal gating of the calcium release channels (RyRs) mediated by the luminal buffer calsequestrin (CSQN) can cause CTA independently of the steepness of the release-load relationship. In this complementary mechanism, CTA is caused by a beat-to-beat alternation in the number of refractory RyR channels and can occur with or without diastolic SR calcium content alternans depending on pacing conditions and uptake dynamics. The model has unique features, in that it treats a realistic number of spatially distributed and diffusively coupled dyads, each one with a realistic number of RyR channels, and that luminal CSQN buffering and gating is incorporated based on experimental data that characterizes the effect of the conformational state of CSQN on its buffering properties. In addition to reproducing observed features of CTA, this multiscale model is able to describe recent experiments in which CSQN expression levels were genetically altered as well as to reproduce nanoscopic measurements of spark restitution properties. The ability to link microscopic properties of the calcium release units to whole cell behavior makes this model a powerful tool to investigate the arrhythmogenic role of abnormal calcium handling in many pathological settings. PMID:18676655

  19. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is responsible for approximately 40,000 congenital infections in the United States each year. Congenital CMV disease frequently produces serious neurodevelopmental disability, as well as vision impairment and sensorineural hearing loss. Development of a CMV vaccine is therefore considered to be a major public health priority. The mechanisms by which CMV injures the fetus are complex and likely include a combination of direct fetal injury induced by pathologic virally-encoded gene products, an inability of the maternal immune response to control infection, and the direct impact of infection on placental function. CMV encodes gene products that function, both at the RNA and the protein level, to interfere with many cellular processes. These include gene products that modify the cell cycle; interfere with apoptosis; induce an inflammatory response; mediate vascular injury; induce site-specific breakage of chromosomes; promote oncogenesis; dysregulate cellular proliferation; and facilitate evasion of host immune responses. This minireview summarizes current concepts regarding these aspects of the molecular virology of CMV and the potential pathogenic impact of viral gene expression on the developing fetus. Areas for potential development of novel therapeutic intervention are suggested for improving the outcome of this disabling congenital infection. PMID:21827434

  20. Coffee, glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance: physiological mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies show coffee consumption to be correlated to large risk reductions in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Such correlations are seen with decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, and occur regardless of gender, method of brewing, or geography. They also exist despite clear evidence showing that caffeine causes acute postprandial hyperglycemia and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity. As the beneficial effects of coffee consumption exist for both decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee, a component of coffee other than caffeine must be responsible. This review examines the specific coffee compounds responsible for coffee's effects on T2D, and their potential physiological mechanisms of action. Being plant-derived, coffee contains many beneficial compounds found in fruits and vegetables, including antioxidants. In fact, coffee is the largest source of dietary antioxidants in industrialized nations. When green coffee is roasted at high temperatures, Maillard reactions create a number of unique compounds. Roasting causes a portion of the antioxidant, chlorogenic acid, to be transformed into quinides, compounds known to alter blood glucose levels. Coffee consumption may also mediate levels of gut peptides (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1), hormones intimately involved in the regulation of satiety and insulin secretion. Finally, coffee may have prebiotic-like properties, altering gut flora and ultimately digestion. In summary, it is evident that a better understanding of the role of coffee in the development and prevention of T2D has the potential to uncover novel therapeutic targets and nutraceutical formulations for the disease.

  1. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  2. Molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Biocca, Silvia; Iacovelli, Federico; Matarazzo, Sara; Vindigni, Giulia; Oteri, Francesco; Desideri, Alessandro; Falconi, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Statins are largely used in clinics in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases for their effect on lowering circulating cholesterol. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1), the primary receptor for ox-LDL, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. We have recently shown that chronic exposure of cells to lovastatin disrupts LOX-1 receptor cluster distribution in plasma membranes, leading to a marked loss of LOX-1 function. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition and we demonstrate that all tested statins are able to displace the binding of fluorescent ox-LDL to LOX-1 by a direct interaction with LOX-1 receptors in a cell-based binding assay. Molecular docking simulations confirm the interaction and indicate that statins completely fill the hydrophobic tunnel that crosses the C-type lectin-like (CTLD) recognition domain of LOX-1. Classical molecular dynamics simulation technique applied to the LOX-1 CTLD, considered in the entire receptor structure with or without a statin ligand inside the tunnel, indicates that the presence of a ligand largely increases the dimer stability. Electrophoretic separation and western blot confirm that different statins binding stabilize the dimer assembly of LOX-1 receptors in vivo. The simulative and experimental results allow us to propose a CTLD clamp motion, which enables the receptor-substrate coupling. These findings reveal a novel and significant functional effect of statins.

  3. Statistical mechanics of DNA-mediated colloidal aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.

    2006-10-01

    We present a statistical mechanical model of aggregation in colloidal systems with DNA-mediated interactions. We obtain a general result for the two-particle binding energy in terms of the hybridization free energy ΔG of DNA and two model-dependent properties: the average number of available DNA bridges ⟨N⟩ and the effective DNA concentration ceff . We calculate these parameters for a particular DNA bridging scheme. The fraction of all the n -mers, including the infinite aggregate, are shown to be universal functions of a single parameter directly related to the two-particle binding energy. We explicitly take into account the partial ergodicity of the problem resulting from the slow DNA binding-unbinding dynamics, and introduce the concept of angular localization of DNA linkers. In this way, we obtain a direct link between DNA thermodynamics and the global aggregation and melting properties in DNA-colloidal systems. The results of the theory are shown to be in quantitative agreement with two recent experiments with particles of micron and nanometer size.

  4. Evolution, mechanisms, and applications of intein-mediated protein splicing.

    PubMed

    Perler, Francine B; Allewell, Norma M

    2014-05-23

    Intein-mediated protein splicing raises questions and creates opportunities in many scientific areas. Evolutionary biologists question whether inteins are primordial enzymes or simply selfish elements, whereas biochemists seek to understand how inteins work. Synthetic chemists exploit inteins in the semisynthesis of proteins with or without nonribosomal modifications, whereas biotechnologists use modified inteins in an ever increasing variety of applications. The four minireviews in this series explore these themes. The first minireview focuses on the evolution and biological function of inteins, whereas the second describes the mechanisms that underlie the remarkable ability of inteins to perform complex sets of choreographed enzymatic reactions. The third explores the relationship between the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of inteins and their biochemical capabilities. The fourth describes intein applications that have moved beyond simple technology development to utilizing inteins in more sophisticated applications, such as biosensors for identifying ligands of human hormone receptors or improved methods of biofuel and plant-based sugar production. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Neuropeptide Y in the rostral ventromedial medulla reverses inflammatory and nerve injury hyperalgesia in rats via non-selective excitation of local neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Daniel R.; Roeder, Zachary; Elkhatib, Rania; Heinricher, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain reflects not only sensitization of the ascending nociceptive pathways, but also changes in descending modulation. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key structure in a well-studied descending pathway, and contains two classes of modulatory neurons, the ON-cells and the OFF-cells. Disinhibition of OFF-cells depresses nociception; increased ON-cell activity facilitates nociception. Multiple lines of evidence show that sensitization of ON-cells contributes to chronic pain, and reversing or blocking this sensitization is of interest as a treatment of persistent pain. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting via the Y1 receptor has been shown to attenuate hypersensitivity in nerve-injured animals without affecting normal nociception when microinjected into the RVM, but the neural basis for this effect was unknown. We hypothesized that behavioral anti-hyperalgesia was due to selective inhibition of ON-cells by NPY at the Y1 receptor. To explore the possibility of Y1 selectivity on ON-cells, we stained for the NPY-Y1 receptor in the RVM, and found it broadly expressed on both serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons. In subsequent behavioral experiments, NPY microinjected into the RVM in lightly anesthetized animals reversed signs of mechanical hyperalgesia following either nerve injury or chronic hindpaw inflammation. Unexpectedly, rather than decreasing ON-cell activity, NPY increased spontaneous activity of both ON- and OFF-cells without altering noxious-evoked changes in firing. Based on these results, we conclude that the anti-hyperalgesic effects of NPY in the RVM are not explained by selective inhibition of ON-cells, but rather by increased spontaneous activity of OFF-cells. Although ON-cells undoubtedly facilitate nociception and contribute to hypersensitivity, the present results highlight the importance of parallel OFF-cell mediated descending inhibition in limiting the expression of chronic pain. PMID:24792711

  6. Inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by intrathecal administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 in rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan-Shan; Zeng, Yin-Ming; Wang, Jun-Ke; Yan, Rong; Nie, Xin; Cao, Jun-Li

    2005-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to explore the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters in the neuropathic pain. On the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats 4 doses (5, 10, 20, 40 microg in group N5, N10, N20, N40, respectively) of specific gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 or normal saline (in group NS) were intrathecally administered before sciatic nerve ligation (pre-treatment) or at the third day after ligation (post-treatment). The paw withdrawl latency (PWL) from a noxious thermal stimulus and paw withdrawl mechanical threshold (PWMT) of von Frey filament was used as measure of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia respectively. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of NO-711 significantly suppressed thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia in CCI rats (P<0.05, P<0.01), the inhibitory effect lasted for 2 h (N40 group) and 4 h (N20 group) respectively. NO-711 inhibited thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI in a dose-dependent manner. Intrathecal pretreatment with different doses of NO-711 delayed the occurrence of thermal hyperalgesia, but could not delay the emergence of allodynia induced by CCI. This study indicates that gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter inhibitor has anti-thermal hyperalgesia and anti-tactile allodynia effects in neuropathic rats.

  7. The effects of opioid receptor antagonists on electroacupuncture-produced anti-allodynia/hyperalgesia in rats with paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianze; Zhang, Yu; Li, Aihui; Xin, Jiajia; Lao, Lixing; Ren, Ke; Berman, Brian M.; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Rui-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Research supports the effectiveness of acupuncture for conditions such as chronic low back and knee pain. In a five-patient pilot study the modality also improved the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Using an established rat model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia that has not been studied in an animal model. We hypothesize that EA would relieve the paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, which was assessed 30 minutes after EA using von Frey filaments. Beginning on day 13, the response frequency to von Frey filaments (4-15 g) was significantly increased in paclitaxel-injected rats compared to those injected with vehicle. EA at 10Hz significantly (p<0.05) decreased response frequency at 4-15 g compared to sham EA; EA at 100Hz only decreased response frequency at 15 g stimulation. Compared to sham EA plus vehicle, EA at 10Hz plus either a μ, δ, or κ opioid receptor antagonist did not significantly decrease mechanical response frequency, indicating that all three antagonists blocked EA inhibition of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Since we previously demonstrated that μ and δ but not κ opioid receptors affect EA anti-hyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain model, these data show that EA inhibits pain through different opioid receptors under varying conditions. Our data indicate that EA at 10Hz inhibits mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia more potently than does EA at 100Hz. Thus, EA significantly inhibits paclitaxel-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia through spinal opioid receptors, and EA may be a useful complementary treatment for neuropathic pain patients. PMID:21872220

  8. A comprehensive review of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Marion; Silverman, Sanford M; Hansen, Hans; Patel, Vikram B; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2011-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. The condition is characterized by a paradoxical response whereby a patient receiving opioids for the treatment of pain could actually become more sensitive to certain painful stimuli. The type of pain experienced might be the same as the underlying pain or might be different from the original underlying pain. OIH appears to be a distinct, definable, and characteristic phenomenon that could explain loss of opioid efficacy in some patients. Findings of the clinical prevalence of OIH are not available. However, several observational, cross-sectional, and prospective controlled trials have examined the expression and potential clinical significance of OIH in humans. Most studies have been conducted using several distinct cohorts and methodologies utilizing former opioid addicts on methadone maintenance therapy, perioperative exposure to opioids in patients undergoing surgery, and healthy human volunteers after acute opioid exposure using human experimental pain testing. The precise molecular mechanism of OIH, while not yet understood, varies substantially in the basic science literature, as well as clinical medicine. It is generally thought to result from neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) that lead to sensitization of pronociceptive pathways. While there are many proposed mechanisms for OIH, 5 mechanisms involving the central glutaminergic system, spinal dynorphins, descending facilitation, genetic mechanisms, and decreased reuptake and enhanced nociceptive response have been described as the important mechanisms. Of these, the central glutaminergic system is considered the most common possibility. Another is the hypothesis that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in OIH include activation, inhibition of the glutamate transporter system, facilitation of calcium regulated intracellular protein kinase C, and cross

  9. Loss of neurons in rostral ventromedial medulla that express neurokinin-1 receptors decreases the development of hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Khasabov, S G; Simone, D A

    2013-10-10

    It is well known that neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are involved in descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. It has been shown that activation of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1Rs) in the RVM, which are presumably located on pain facilitating ON cells, produces hyperalgesia whereas blockade of NK-1Rs attenuates hyperalgesia. To obtain a better understanding of the functions of NK-1R expressing neurons in the RVM, we selectively ablated these neurons by injecting the stable analog of substance P (SP), Sar(9),Met(O2)(11)-Substance P, conjugated to the ribosomal toxin saporin (SSP-SAP) into the RVM. Rats received injections of SSP-SAP (1 μM) or an equal volume of 1 μM of saporin conjugated to artificial peptide (Blank-SAP). Stereological analysis of NK-1R- and NeuN-labeled neurons in the RVM was determined 21-24 days after treatment. Withdrawal responses to mechanical and heat stimuli applied to the plantar hindpaw were determined 5-28 days after treatment. Withdrawal responses were also determined before and after intraplantar injection of capsaicin (acute hyperalgesia) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (prolonged hyperalgesia). The proportion of NK-1R-labeled neurons in the RVM was 8.8 ± 1.3% in naïve rats and 8.1 ± 0.8% in rats treated with Blank-SAP. However, injection of SSP-SAP into the RVM resulted in a 90% decrease in NK-1R-labeled neurons. SSP-SAP did not alter withdrawal responses to mechanical or heat stimuli under normal conditions, and did not alter analgesia produced by morphine administered into the RVM. In contrast, the duration of nocifensive behaviors produced by capsaicin and mechanical and heat hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin and CFA were decreased in rats pretreated with SSP-SAP as compared to those that received Blank-SAP. These data support our earlier studies using NK-1R antagonists in the RVM and demonstrate that RVM neurons that possess the NK-1R do not play a significant role in

  10. Loss of Neurons in Rostral Ventromedial Medulla that Express Neurokinin-1 Receptors Decrease the Development of Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khasabov, Sergey G.; Simone, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are involved in descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. It has been shown that activation of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1R) in the RVM, which are presumably located on pain facilitating ON cells, produces hyperalgesia whereas blockade of NK-1Rs attenuates hyperalgesia. To obtain a better understanding of the functions of NK-1R expressing neurons in the RVM, we selectively ablated these neurons by injecting the stable analog of substance P (SP), Sar9, Met(O2)11-Substance P, conjugated to the ribosomal toxin saporin (SSP-SAP) into the RVM. Rats received injections of SSP-SAP (1 μM) or an equal volume of 1 μM of saporin conjugated to artificial peptide (Blank-SAP). Stereological analysis of NK-1R- and NeuN-labeled neurons in the RVM was determined 21–24 days after treatment. Withdrawal responses to mechanical and heat stimuli applied to the plantar hindpaw were determined 5–28 days after treatment. Withdrawal responses were also determined before and after intraplantar injection of capsaicin (acute hyperalgesia) or complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (prolonged hyperalgesia). The proportion of NK-1R-labeled neurons in the RVM was 8.8 ± 1.3% in naïve rats and 8.1 ± 0.8% in rats treated with Blank-SAP. However, injection of SSP-SAP into the RVM resulted in a 90% decrease in NK-1R-labeled neurons. SSP-SAP did not alter withdrawal responses to mechanical or heat stimuli under normal conditions, and did not alter analgesia produced by morphine administered into the RVM. In contrast, the duration of nocifensive behaviors produced by capsaicin and mechanical and heat hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin and CFA were decreased in rats pretreated with SSP-SAP as compared to those that received Blank-SAP. These data support our earlier studies using NK-1R antagonists in the RVM and demonstrate that RVM neurons that possess the NK-1R do not play a significant role in

  11. Pain referral and regional deep tissue hyperalgesia in experimental human hip pain models.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masashi; Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Hip disorder patients typically present with extensive pain referral and hyperalgesia. To better understand underlying mechanisms, an experimental hip pain model was established in which pain referrals and hyperalgesia could be studied under standardized conditions. In 16 healthy subjects, pain was induced by hypertonic saline injection into the gluteus medius tendon (GMT), adductor longus tendon (ALT), or gluteus medius muscle (GMM). Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects mapped the pain distribution. Before, during, and after injections, passive hip joint pain provocation tests were completed, together with quantitative sensory testing as follows: pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), cuff algometry pain thresholds (cuff PPTs), cutaneous pin-prick sensitivity, and thermal pain thresholds. Hypertonic saline injected into the GMT resulted in higher VAS scores than hypertonic injections into the ALT and GMM (P<.05). Referred pain areas spread to larger parts of the leg after GMT and GMM injections compared with more regionalized pain pattern after ALT injections (P<.05). PPTs at the injection site were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into GMT and GMM compared with baseline, ALT injections, and isotonic saline. Cuff PPTs from the thigh were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into the ALT compared with baseline, GMT injections, and isotonic saline (P<.05). More subjects had positive joint pain provocation tests after hypertonic compared with isotonic saline injections (P<.05), indicating that this provocation test also assessed hyperalgesia in extra-articular soft tissues. The experimental models may open for better understanding of pain mechanisms associated with painful hip disorders.

  12. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon; Mørk, Arne; Holm, René; Savic, Rada; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-05-01

    Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration of a range of gabapentin doses (oral and intravenous). The plasma/brain ECF concentration-time profiles of gabapentin were adequately described with a two-compartment plasma model with saturable intestinal absorption rate (K m  = 44.1 mg/kg, V max  = 41.9 mg/h∙kg) and dose-dependent oral bioavailability linked to brain ECF concentration through a transit compartment. Brain ECF concentration was directly linked to a sigmoid E max function describing reversal of hyperalgesia (EC 50, plasma  = 16.7 μg/mL, EC 50, brain  = 3.3 μg/mL). The proposed semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model provides further knowledge into the understanding of gabapentin's non-linear pharmacokinetics and the link between plasma/brain disposition and anti-hyperalgesic effects. The model suggests that intestinal absorption is the primary source of non-linearity and that the investigated rat model provides reasonable predictions of clinically effective plasma concentrations for gabapentin.

  13. Hyperalgesia and sensitization of dorsal horn neurons following activation of NK-1 receptors in the rostral ventromedial medulla.

    PubMed

    Khasabov, Sergey G; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Giesler, Glenn J; Simone, Donald A

    2017-08-09

    Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) project to the spinal cord and are involved in descending modulation of pain. Several studies have shown that activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors in the RVM produces hyperalgesia, although underlying mechanisms are not clear. In parallel studies, we compared behavioral measures of hyperalgesia to electrophysiological responses of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons produced by activation of NK-1 receptors in the RVM. Injection of the selective NK-1 receptor agonist, Sar9,Met(O2)(11)-Substance P (SSP) into the RVM produced dose-dependent mechanical and heat hyperalgesia that was blocked by co-administration of the selective NK-1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060. In electrophysiological studies, responses evoked by mechanical and heat stimuli were obtained from identified high threshold (HT) and wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons. Injection of SSP into the RVM enhanced responses of WDR neurons, including identified neurons that project to the parabrachial area, to mechanical and heat stimuli. Since intraplantar injection of capsaicin produces robust hyperalgesia and sensitization of nociceptive spinal neurons, we examined whether this sensitization was dependent on NK-1 receptors in the RVM. Pretreatment with L-733,060 into the RVM blocked the sensitization of dorsal horn neurons produced by capsaicin. C-Fos labeling was used to determine the spatial distribution of dorsal horn neurons that were sensitized by NK-1 receptor activation in the RVM. Consistent with our electrophysiological results, administration of SSP into the RVM increased pinch-evoked c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn. It is suggested that targeting this descending pathway may be effective in reducing persistent pain. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  14. Resveratrol attenuates inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neurons associated with hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kenta; Takehana, Shiori; Shibuya, Eri; Matsuzawa, Nichiwa; Hidaka, Shiori; Kanai, Yurie; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a component of red wine, has been reported to decrease prostaglandin E2 production by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-2 cascade and to modulate various voltage-dependent ion channels, suggesting that resveratrol could attenuate inflammatory hyperalgesia. However, the effects of resveratrol on inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in vivo remain to be determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether daily systemic administration of resveratrol to rats attenuates the inflammation-induced hyperexcitability of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons associated with hyperalgesia. Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the whisker pad. The threshold of escape from mechanical stimulation applied to whisker pad in inflamed rats was significantly lower than in control rats. The decreased mechanical threshold in inflamed rats was restored to control levels by daily systemic administration of resveratrol (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The mean discharge frequency of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons to both nonnoxious and noxious mechanical stimuli in inflamed rats was significantly decreased after resveratrol administration. In addition, the increased mean spontaneous discharge of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide-dynamic range neurons in inflamed rats was significantly decreased after resveratrol administration. Similarly, resveratrol significantly diminished noxious pinch-evoked mean after discharge frequency and occurrence in inflamed rats. Finally, resveratrol restored the expanded mean size of the receptive field in inflamed rats to control levels. These results suggest that chronic administration of resveratrol attenuates inflammation-induced mechanical inflammatory hyperalgesia and that this effect is due primarily to the suppression of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis wide dynamic range neuron hyperexcitability via inhibition of

  15. Visceral hyperalgesia caused by peptide YY deletion and Y2 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed M.; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Farzi, Aitak; Reichmann, Florian; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Altered levels of colonic peptide YY (PYY) have been reported in patients suffering from functional and inflammatory bowel disorders. While the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y receptors in the regulation of nociception is well established, the physiological role of PYY in somatic and visceral pain is poorly understood. In this work, the role of PYY in pain sensitivity was evaluated using PYY knockout (PYY(−/−)) mice and Y2 receptor ligands. PYY(−/−) mice were more sensitive to somatic thermal pain compared to wild type (WT) mice. Visceral pain was assessed by evaluating pain-related behaviors, mouse grimace scale (MGS) and referred hyperalgesia after intrarectal administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 1 or 2%) or its vehicle, peanut oil. The pain-related behaviors induced by AITC were significantly exaggerated by PYY deletion, whereas the MGS readout and the referred hyperalgesia were not significantly affected. The Y2 receptor antagonist, BII0246, increased pain-related behaviors in response to intrarectal AITC compared to vehicle treatment while the Y2 receptor agonist, PYY(3–36), did not have a significant effect. These results indicate that endogenous PYY has a hypoalgesic effect on somatic thermal and visceral chemical pain. The effect on visceral pain seems to be mediated by peripheral Y2 receptors. PMID:28106168

  16. TRPV1 function is modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation: insights into the molecular mechanism of nociception.

    PubMed

    Jendryke, Thomas; Prochazkova, Michaela; Hall, Bradford E; Nordmann, Grégory C; Schladt, Moritz; Milenkovic, Vladimir M; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Wetzel, Christian H

    2016-02-23

    TRPV1 is a polymodally activated cation channel acting as key receptor in nociceptive neurons. Its function is strongly affected by kinase-mediated phosphorylation leading to hyperalgesia and allodynia. We present behavioral and molecular data indicating that TRPV1 is strongly modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation at position threonine-407(mouse)/T406(rat). Increasing or decreasing Cdk5 activity in genetically engineered mice has severe consequences on TRPV1-mediated pain perception leading to altered capsaicin consumption and sensitivity to heat. To understand the molecular and structural/functional consequences of TRPV1 phosphorylation, we generated various rTRPV1T406 receptor variants to mimic phosphorylated or dephosphorylated receptor protein. We performed detailed functional characterization by means of electrophysiological whole-cell and single-channel recordings as well as Ca(2+)-imaging and challenged recombinant rTRPV1 receptors with capsaicin, low pH, or heat. We found that position T406 is critical for the function of TRPV1 by modulating ligand-sensitivity, activation, and desensitization kinetics as well as voltage-dependence. Based on high resolution structures of TRPV1, we discuss T406 being involved in the molecular transition pathway, its phosphorylation leading to a conformational change and influencing the gating of the receptor. Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of T406 can be regarded as an important molecular switch modulating TRPV1-related behavior and pain sensitivity.

  17. TRPV1 function is modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation: insights into the molecular mechanism of nociception

    PubMed Central

    Jendryke, Thomas; Prochazkova, Michaela; Hall, Bradford E.; Nordmann, Grégory C.; Schladt, Moritz; Milenkovic, Vladimir M.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Wetzel, Christian H.

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is a polymodally activated cation channel acting as key receptor in nociceptive neurons. Its function is strongly affected by kinase-mediated phosphorylation leading to hyperalgesia and allodynia. We present behavioral and molecular data indicating that TRPV1 is strongly modulated by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation at position threonine-407(mouse)/T406(rat). Increasing or decreasing Cdk5 activity in genetically engineered mice has severe consequences on TRPV1-mediated pain perception leading to altered capsaicin consumption and sensitivity to heat. To understand the molecular and structural/functional consequences of TRPV1 phosphorylation, we generated various rTRPV1T406 receptor variants to mimic phosphorylated or dephosphorylated receptor protein. We performed detailed functional characterization by means of electrophysiological whole-cell and single-channel recordings as well as Ca2+-imaging and challenged recombinant rTRPV1 receptors with capsaicin, low pH, or heat. We found that position T406 is critical for the function of TRPV1 by modulating ligand-sensitivity, activation, and desensitization kinetics as well as voltage-dependence. Based on high resolution structures of TRPV1, we discuss T406 being involved in the molecular transition pathway, its phosphorylation leading to a conformational change and influencing the gating of the receptor. Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of T406 can be regarded as an important molecular switch modulating TRPV1-related behavior and pain sensitivity. PMID:26902776

  18. Bilateral hand/wrist heat and cold hyperalgesia, but not hypoesthesia, in unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Padua, Luca; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate bilaterally warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds over the hand/wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 25 women with strictly unilateral CTS (mean 42 +/- 10 years), and 20 healthy matched women (mean 41 +/- 8 years) were recruited. Warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence in a blinded design. Self-reported measures included both clinical pain history (intensity, location and area) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. No significant differences between groups for both warm and cold detection thresholds in either carpal tunnel or thenar eminence (P > 0.5) were found. Further, significant differences between groups, but not between sides, for both heat and cold pain thresholds in both the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence were found (all P < 0.001). Heat pain thresholds (P < 0.01) were negatively correlated, whereas cold pain thresholds (P < 0.001) were positively correlated with hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms. Our findings revealed bilateral thermal hyperalgesia (lower heat pain and reduced cold pain thresholds) but not hypoesthesia (normal warm/cold detection thresholds) in patients with strictly unilateral CTS when compared to controls. We suggest that bilateral heat and cold hyperalgesia may reflect impairments in central nociceptive processing in patients with unilateral CTS. The bilateral thermal hyperalgesia associated with pain intensity and duration of pain history supports a role of generalized sensitization mechanisms in the initiation, maintenance and spread of pain in CTS.

  19. Metamizole (dipyrone) effects on sevoflurane requirements and postoperative hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Daniel; Benito, Javier; Largo, Carlota; Polo, Gonzalo; Canfrán, Susana; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio Alvarez

    2016-09-30

    Unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), metamizole has poor anti-inflammatory effects; and is suitable for models where analgesia, but not anti-inflammatory effects, is desirable. Like opioids, these drugs produce perioperative analgesia while reducing anaesthetic requirements, but it remains unclear whether they may develop tolerance or hyperalgesia, and thus decrease in analgesic efficacy. The aim was to determine whether tolerance or hyperalgesia to metamizole occurred in rats, and whether the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was affected. In a randomized, prospective, controlled study, male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were administered metamizole (300 mg/kg, day 4). Previously, the following treatments were provided: daily metamizole for four days (0-3), morphine (10 mg/kg; positive control, day 0 only) or saline (negative control). The main outcome measures were mechanical (MNT) and warm thermal (WNT) nociceptive quantitative sensory thresholds. The baseline sevoflurane MAC and the reduction produced by the treatments were also determined. The mean (SD) baseline MAC [2.4(0.2)%vol] was decreased by morphine and metamizole by 45(11)% and 33(7)% (P = 0.000, both), respectively. Baseline MNT [35.4(4.5) g] and WNT [13.2(2.4) s] were decreased by morphine and metamizole: MNT reduction of 22(6)% (P = 0.000) and 22(7)% (P = 0.001), respectively and WNT reduction of 34(14)% (P = 0.000) and 24(13)% (P = 0.001). The baseline MAC on day 4 was neither modified by treatments nor the MAC reduction produced by metamizole (days 0 and 4; P > 0.05). In conclusion, repeated metamizole administration may produce hyperalgesia, although it may not modify its anaesthetic sparing effect. The clinical relevance of this effect in painful research models requiring prolonged analgesic therapy warrants further investigation.

  20. Tramadol-induced hyperalgesia and its prevention by ketamine in rats: A randomised experimental study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana; Aguado, Delia; Benito, Javier; García-Fernández, Javier; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2015-10-01

    Opioid analgesia not only reduces inhalational anaesthetic requirements but may also induce delayed hyperalgesia, with potential effects on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhalational anaesthetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of tramadol-induced hyperalgesia and the associated changes in MAC, and whether ketamine prevents both processes. A randomised, experimental study. Experimental Surgery Unit, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Thirty-nine adult male Wistar rats. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) were determined up to 21 days after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of tramadol (50 mg kg) with or without ketamine (10 mg kg), or 0.9% saline. The MNT and the MAC of sevoflurane were also assessed in a second experiment before, early (30 min) and 7 days after drug administration with the same treatments. The MAC and MNT were evaluated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was employed to determine differences between treatments and times on MAC and MNT. Tramadol, alone or combined with ketamine, produced an early increase in MNT. However, tramadol given alone decreased MNT from day 1 up to 3 weeks, which was associated with an increase in the MAC of sevoflurane (P < 0.05; day 7). Ketamine administration prevented both the reduction in MNT and the increase in MAC (P > 0.05). Tramadol-induced hyperalgesia in the rat lasted for several weeks and was associated with an increase in the MAC of sevoflurane. Prior administration of ketamine blocked both phenomena.

  1. The effect of the sex of a model on nocebo hyperalgesia induced by social observational learning.

    PubMed

    Swider, Karolina; Bąbel, Przemysław

    2013-08-01

    Research shows that placebo analgesia can be induced through social observational learning. Our aim was to replicate and extend this result by studying the effect of the sex of both the model and the subject on the magnitude of placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning. Four experimental (1 through 4) and 2 control (5 and 6) groups were observed: groups 1, 3, and 5 were female; groups 2, 4, and 6 were male. All subjects received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by green and red lights. Before receiving pain stimuli, groups 1 and 4 observed a female model and groups 2 and 3 a male model; both models simulated responses to pain stimuli preceded by green lights as less painful than those preceded by red lights. Groups 1 through 4 also rated pain stimuli preceded by green lights as less painful. Further investigation revealed that in fact subjects in experimental groups rated red-associated stimuli as more painful than subjects from control groups who did not observe a model before receiving the same pain stimuli, indicating that nocebo hyperalgesia rather than placebo analgesia was induced. Empathy traits predicted the magnitude of nocebo hyperalgesia. Regardless of the sex of the subject, nocebo hyperalgesia was greater after the male model was observed. The results show that social observational learning is a mechanism that produces placebo effects. They also indicate that the sex of the model plays an important role in this process. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces hyperalgesia and decreases activation of spinal glial cells in mice with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hideaki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Watanabe, Shuji; Takeura, Naoto; Sugita, Daisuke; Shimada, Seiichiro; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2014-09-01

    Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, its effectiveness and mechanism of action in reducing neuropathic pain remain uncertain. We investigated the effects of early TENS (starting from the day after surgery) in mice with neuropathic pain, on hyperalgesia, glial cell activation, pain transmission neuron sensitization, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Following nerve injury, TENS and behavioral tests were performed every day. Immunohistochemical, immunoblot, and flow cytometric analysis of the lumbar spinal cord were performed after 8 days. Early TENS reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and decreased the activation of microglia and astrocytes (P<0.05). In contrast, the application of TENS at 1 week (TENS-1w) or 2 weeks (TENS-2w) after injury was ineffective in reducing hyperalgesia (mechanical and thermal) or activation of microglia and astrocytes. Early TENS decreased p-p38 within microglia (P<0.05), the expression levels of protein kinase C (PKC-γ), and phosphorylated anti-phospho-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons (P<0.05), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and proinflammatory cytokines, and increased the expression levels of opioid receptors (P<0.05). The results suggested that the application of early TENS relieved hyperalgesia in our mouse model of neuropathic pain by inhibiting glial activation, MAP kinase activation, PKC-γ, and p-CREB expression, and proinflammatory cytokines expression, as well as maintenance of spinal opioid receptors. The findings indicate that TENS treatment is more effective when applied as early after nerve injury as possible.

  3. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms for p53-mediated differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chylicki, K; Ehinger, M; Svedberg, H; Gullberg, U

    2000-11-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein can induce both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we and others have shown previously that p53 is a potent mediator of differentiation. For example, expression of ptsp53, a temperature-inducible form of p53, induces differentiation of leukemic monoblastic U-937 cells. The functions of p53 have for long been believed to be dependent on the transactivating capacity of p53. However, recent data show that both p53-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis can be induced independently of p53-mediated transcriptional activation, indicating alternative pathways for p53-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The bcl-2 proto-oncogene contributes to the development of certain malignancies, probably by inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl-2 has been shown to inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis as well as p53-mediated transcriptional activation. Asking whether Bcl-2 would interfere with the p53-mediated differentiation of U-937 cells, we stably transfected bcl-2 to U-937 cells inducibly expressing p53. Although the established Bcl-2-expressing clones were resistant to p53-mediated apoptosis, we did not observe any interference of Bcl-2 with the p53-mediated differentiation, suggesting separable pathways for p53 in mediating apoptosis and differentiation of U-937 cells. Neither did expression of Bcl-2 interfere with p53-induced expression of endogenous p21, suggesting that p53-induced differentiation might be dependent on the transcriptional activity of p53. To further investigate whether the p53-mediated differentiation of U-937 cells depends on the transcriptional activity of p53, we overexpressed transactivation-deficient p53, a transcriptionally inactive p53 mutant in these cells. However, in contrast to the effects of wild-type p53, expression of trans-activation-deficient p53 did neither induce signs of apoptosis nor of differentiation in U-937 cells. Our results indicate that the transcriptional activity of p53 is essential

  4. Intrathecal PKA-selective siRNA treatment blocks sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumati, S; Roeske, W R; Largent-Milnes, T M; Vanderah, T W; Varga, E V

    2011-07-15

    Sustained morphine treatment has been shown to produce paradoxical pain sensitization (opioid-induced hyperalgesia) and also causes increase in spinal pain neurotransmitter, such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), concentration in experimental animals. Studies have also shown that cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a major role in the regulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter (such as CGRP and substance P) synthesis and release. We have previously shown that in cultured primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons sustained in vitro opioid agonist treatment upregulates cAMP levels (adenylyl cyclase (AC) superactivation) and augments basal and capsaicin evoked CGRP release in a PKA dependent manner. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo role of PKA in sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization. Our data indicate that selective knock-down of spinal PKA activity by intrathecal (i.th.) pretreatment of rats with a PKA-selective small interference RNA (siRNA) mixture significantly attenuates sustained morphine-mediated augmentation of spinal CGRP immunoreactivity, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and antinociceptive tolerance. The present findings indicate that sustained morphine-mediated activation of spinal cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling may play an important role in opioid induced hyperalgesia.

  5. Leishmania (L). amazonensis induces hyperalgesia in balb/c mice: Contribution of endogenous spinal cord TNFα and NFκB activation.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Sergio M; Fattori, Victor; Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W; Miranda-Sapla, Milena M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Pavanelli, Wander R; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-02-17

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of the leishmaniasis in humans. Ulcerative painless skin lesions are predominant clinical features of CL. Wider data indicate pain accompanies human leishmaniasis, out with areas of painless ulcerative lesions per se. In rodents, Leishmania (L.) major infection induces nociceptive behaviors that correlate with peripheral cytokine levels. However, the role of the spinal cord in pain processing after Leishmania infection has not been investigated. Balb/c mice received intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of Leishmania (L). amazonensis and hyperalgesia, edema, parasitism, and spinal cord TNFα, TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA expression, and NFκB activation were evaluated. The effects of intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine, TNFα, TNFα inhibitors (etanercept and adalimumab) and NFκB inhibitor (PDTC) were investigated. The present study demonstrates that Leishmania (L.) amazonensis infection in balb/c mice induces chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in an opioid-sensitive manner. Spinal cord TNFα mRNA expression increased in a time-dependent manner, peaking between 30 and 40 days after infection. At the peak of TNFα mRNA expression (day 30), there was a concomitant increase in TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA expression. TNFα i.t. injection enhanced L. (L.) amazonensis-induced hyperalgesia. Corroborating a role for TNFα in L. (L.) amazonensis-induced hyperalgesia, i.t. treatment with the TNFα inhibitors, etanercept and adalimumab inhibited the hyperalgesia. L. (L.) amazonensis also induced spinal cord activation of NFκB, and PDTC (given i.t.), also inhibited L. (L.) amazonensis-induced hyperalgesia, and spinal cord TNFα, TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, L. (L.) amazonensis-induced spinal cord activation of NFκB was also inhibited by etanercept and adalimumab as well as PDTC i.t.

  6. Molecular adsorption at particle surfaces: a PM toxicity mediation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Michaela; Brown, Leslie; Trought, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    surfactant was added at a fixed concentration lower than physiological lung lavage concentrations to ensure the lipid remained in suspension during experimentation ex situ. For dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) combinations with particles, visible particle agglomeration occurred within 1 h. Marked changes in the size distribution of the immersed particles were observed, compared to a phosphate buffer control. Differences in particle agglomeration and particle settling were observed between M120, R330, and R400. Reduction of DPPC occurred in a surface- and size-dependent manner. This indicates that surface adsorption was responsible for the observed agglomeration and the gross reductions in phospholipid concentrations. Combination of particles with fibrinogen and albumin revealed little agglomeration/precipitation at the protein concentrations chosen. However, surfactant protein (SP-D) was completely eliminated from suspension upon combination with all three-particle types. This reaction between SP-D particles was therefore concluded to be independent of surface chemistry. Further investigation as to whether this is size- or surface-area-dependent is recommended. The biological implication is that molecular adsorption at nonbiological particulate matter (PM) surfaces in BALF may mediate the toxicity of PM via one or both of these mechanisms, as in the case of biological particles.

  7. SHANK3 Deficiency Impairs Heat Hyperalgesia and TRPV1 Signaling in Primary Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingjian; Kim, Yong Ho; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Di; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Bey, Alexandra L; Lay, Mark; Chang, Wonseok; Berta, Temugin; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-12-21

    Abnormal pain sensitivity is commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and affects the life quality of ASD individuals. SHANK3 deficiency was implicated in ASD and pain dysregulation. Here, we report functional expression of SHANK3 in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and spinal cord presynaptic terminals. Homozygous and heterozygous Shank3 complete knockout (Δe4-22) results in impaired heat hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Specific deletion of Shank3 in Nav1.8-expressing sensory neurons also impairs heat hyperalgesia in homozygous and heterozygous mice. SHANK3 interacts with transient receptor potential subtype V1 (TRPV1) via Proline-rich region and regulates TRPV1 surface expression. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, inward currents in DRG neurons, and synaptic currents in spinal cord neurons are all reduced after Shank3 haploinsufficiency. Finally, partial knockdown of SHANK3 expression in human DRG neurons abrogates TRPV1 function. Our findings reveal a peripheral mechanism of SHANK3, which may underlie pain deficits in SHANK3-related ASDs.

  8. The quassinoid isobrucein B reduces inflammatory hyperalgesia and cytokine production by post-transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rangel L; Lopes, Alexandre H; França, Rafael O; Vieira, Sílvio M; Silva, Ellen C C; Amorim, Rodrigo C N; Cunha, Fernando Q; Pohlit, Adrian M; Cunha, Thiago M

    2015-02-27

    Isobrucein B (1) is a quassinoid isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei. Herein we investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effects of this quassinoid. Isobrucein B (1) (0.5-5 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced hyperalgesia was associated with reduction in both neutrophil migration and pronociceptive cytokine production. Pretreatment with 1 inhibited in vitro production/release of cytokines TNF, IL-1β, and KC/CXCL1 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. To investigate its molecular mechanism, RAW 264.7 macrophages with a luciferase reporter gene controlled by the NF-κB promoter were used (RAW 264.7-Luc). Quassinoid 1 reduced the luminescence emission by RAW 264.7-Luc stimulated by different compounds. Unexpectedly, NF-κB translocation to macrophage nuclei was not inhibited by 1 when evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, quassinoid 1 did not change the levels of TNF mRNA transcription in stimulated macrophages, suggesting post-transcriptional modulation. In addition, constitutive expression of luciferase in RAW 264.7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid containing a universal promoter was inhibited by 1. Thus, isobrucein B (1) displays anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activities by nonselective post-transcriptional modulation, resulting in decreased production/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil migration.

  9. Classical conditioning without verbal suggestions elicits placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bąbel, Przemysław; Bajcar, Elżbieta A; Adamczyk, Wacław; Kicman, Paweł; Lisińska, Natalia; Świder, Karolina; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among classical conditioning, expectancy, and fear in placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. A total of 42 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, nocebo, and control. They received 96 electrical stimuli, preceded by either orange or blue lights. A hidden conditioning procedure, in which participants were not informed about the meaning of coloured lights, was performed in the placebo and nocebo groups. Light of one colour was paired with pain stimuli of moderate intensity (control stimuli), and light of the other colour was paired with either nonpainful stimuli (in the placebo group) or painful stimuli of high intensity (in the nocebo group). In the control group, both colour lights were followed by control stimuli of moderate intensity without any conditioning procedure. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, and fear. In the testing phase, when both of the coloured lights were followed by identical moderate pain stimuli, we found a significant analgesic effect in the placebo group, and a significant hyperalgesic effect in the nocebo group. Neither expectancy nor fear ratings predicted placebo analgesia or nocebo hyperalgesia. It appears that a hidden conditioning procedure, without any explicit verbal suggestions, elicits placebo and nocebo effects, however we found no evidence that these effects are predicted by either expectancy or fear. These results suggest that classical conditioning may be a distinct mechanism for placebo and nocebo effects.

  10. Classical conditioning without verbal suggestions elicits placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Bajcar, Elżbieta A.; Adamczyk, Wacław; Kicman, Paweł; Lisińska, Natalia; Świder, Karolina; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among classical conditioning, expectancy, and fear in placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. A total of 42 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, nocebo, and control. They received 96 electrical stimuli, preceded by either orange or blue lights. A hidden conditioning procedure, in which participants were not informed about the meaning of coloured lights, was performed in the placebo and nocebo groups. Light of one colour was paired with pain stimuli of moderate intensity (control stimuli), and light of the other colour was paired with either nonpainful stimuli (in the placebo group) or painful stimuli of high intensity (in the nocebo group). In the control group, both colour lights were followed by control stimuli of moderate intensity without any conditioning procedure. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, and fear. In the testing phase, when both of the coloured lights were followed by identical moderate pain stimuli, we found a significant analgesic effect in the placebo group, and a significant hyperalgesic effect in the nocebo group. Neither expectancy nor fear ratings predicted placebo analgesia or nocebo hyperalgesia. It appears that a hidden conditioning procedure, without any explicit verbal suggestions, elicits placebo and nocebo effects, however we found no evidence that these effects are predicted by either expectancy or fear. These results suggest that classical conditioning may be a distinct mechanism for placebo and nocebo effects. PMID:28750001

  11. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  12. The C-terminus of murine S100A9 protein inhibits hyperalgesia induced by the agonist peptide of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)

    PubMed Central

    Dale, C S; Cenac, N; Britto, L R G; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L; Vergnolle, N; Giorgi, R

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: S100A9 protein induces anti-nociception in rodents, in different experimental models of inflammatory pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of a fragment of the C-terminus of S100A9 (mS100A9p), on the hyperalgesia induced by serine proteases, through the activation of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Experimental approach: Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and trypsin) was measured in rats submitted to the paw pressure or plantar tests, and Egr-1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in rat spinal cord dorsal horn. Calcium flux in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), which naturally express PAR2, in Kirsten virus-transformed kidney cells, transfected (KNRK-PAR2) or not (KNRK) with PAR2, and in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) was measured by fluorimetric methods. Key results: mS100A9p inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia induced by trypsin, without modifying its enzymatic activity. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by SLIGRL-NH2 were inhibited by mS100A9p. SLIGRL-NH2 enhanced Egr-1 expression, a marker of nociceptor activation, and this effect was inhibited by concomitant treatment with mS100A9p. mS100A9p inhibited calcium mobilization in DRG neurons in response to the PAR2 agonists trypsin and SLIGRL-NH2, but also in response to capsaicin and bradykinin, suggesting a direct effect of mS100A9 on sensory neurons. No effect on the calcium flux induced by trypsin or SLIGRL in HEK cells or KNRK-PAR2 cells was observed. Conclusions and implications: These data demonstrate that mS100A9p interferes with mechanisms involved in nociception and hyperalgesia and modulates, possibly directly on sensory neurons, the PAR2-induced nociceptive signal. PMID:16967049

  13. Vibration-mediated Kondo transport in molecular junctions: conductance evolution during mechanical stretching

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmilevitch, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary The vibration-mediated Kondo effect attracted considerable theoretical interest during the last decade. However, due to lack of extensive experimental demonstrations, the fine details of the phenomenon were not addressed. Here, we analyze the evolution of vibration-mediated Kondo effect in molecular junctions during mechanical stretching. The described analysis reveals the different contributions of Kondo and inelastic transport. PMID:26734532

  14. Nostalgia-Evoked Inspiration: Mediating Mechanisms and Motivational Implications.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Effects of Different Electroacupuncture Scheduling Regimens on Murine Bone Tumor-Induced Hyperalgesia: Sex Differences and Role of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Smeester, Branden A.; Al-Gizawiy, Mona; Beitz, Alvin J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) is able to reduce hyperalgesia in rodent models of persistent pain, but very little is known about the analgesic effects and potential sex differences of different EA treatment regimens. In the present study, we examined the effects of five different EA treatments on tumor-induced hyperalgesia in male and female mice. EA applied to the ST-36 acupoint either twice weekly (EA-2X/3) beginning on postimplantation day (PID) 3 or prophylactically three times prior to implantation produced the most robust and longest lasting antinociceptive effects. EA treatment given once per week beginning at PID 7 only produced an antinociceptive effect in female animals. The analgesic effect of EA-2X/3 began earlier in males, but lasted longer in females indicating sex differences in EA. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 elicits a marked decrease in tumor-associated inflammation as evidenced by a significant reduction in tumor-associated neutrophils at PID 7. Moreover, EA-2X/3 produced a significant reduction in tumor-associated PGE2 as measured in microperfusate samples. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EA-2X/3 treatment reduces tumor-induced hyperalgesia, which is associated with a decrease in tumor-associated inflammation and PGE2 concentration at the tumor site suggesting possible mechanisms by which EA reduces tumor nociception. PMID:23320035

  16. Hyperalgesia and increased sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration induced by opioids in the rat: a randomised experimental study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana; Aguado, Delia; Benito, Javier; García-Fernández, Javier; Segura, Ignacio A Gómez de

    2015-04-01

    Perioperative opioids reduce inhalational anaesthetic requirements. The initial hypoalgesia may, however, be followed by a rebound hyperalgesia. To determine whether prior opioid administration influences inhalational anaesthetic requirements, which might be associated with opioid-induced hyperalgesia. A prospective, randomised, experimental study. Experimental Surgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Seventy-nine adult male Wistar rats. Sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) were assessed at baseline and 7 days later following opioid treatment with remifentanil 120 μg  kg-1  h-1, buprenorphine 150 μg kg-1, methadone 8 mg  kg-1 or morphine 10 mg  kg-1 The duration of the effect of remifentanil on MAC and MNT was evaluated in addition to the preventive effect of ketamine 10 mg  kg-1 on remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. The effect of different opioid treatments on MAC and MNT was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All studied opioids produced an immediate reduction in sevoflurane MAC, followed by an increase (16%) in baseline MAC 7 days later (P < 0.05), although the immediate MAC reduction produced by these opioids at that time was not different. Remifentanil produced a decrease in MNT (P < 0.05), which was associated with an increase in the MAC (P < 0.05) that persisted at 21 days. The effect of remifentanil on MNT and MAC was blocked by ketamine. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia was associated with an increase in the MAC in normal rats who had not undergone surgery. Both effects lasted 21 days and were prevented by ketamine.

  17. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanisms from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    well as mechanisms associated with prostate cancer growth and expansion, we may be able to develop therapies that prolong lives. Understanding the...and G. A. Coetzee. 2004. Androgen receptor signaling: mechanism of interleukin-6 inhibition. Cancer Res. 64:2619–2626. 19. Jia, L., and G. A. Coetzee...the prostate specific antigen locus: steroidal and non-steroidal mechanisms . Mol. Cancer Res. 1:385–392. 21. Johnstone, R. W. 2002. Histone

  18. Mechanisms mediating cholinergic antral circular smooth muscle contraction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wrzos, Helena F; Tandon, Tarun; Ouyang, Ann

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathway (s) mediating rat antral circular smooth muscle contractile responses to the cholinomimetic agent, bethanechol and the subtypes of muscarinic receptors mediating the cholinergic contraction. METHODS: Circular smooth muscle strips from the antrum of Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted in muscle baths in Krebs buffer. Isometric tension was recorded. Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained for (+)-cis-dioxolane (cD), a nonspecific muscarinic agonist, at 10-8-10-4 mol/L, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-7 mol/L). Results were normalized to cross sectional area. A repeat concentration-response curve was obtained after incubation of the muscle for 90 min with antagonists for M1 (pirenzepine), M2 (methoctramine) and M3 (darifenacin) muscarinic receptor subtypes. The sensitivity to PTX was tested by the ip injection of 100 mg/kg of PTX 5 d before the experiment. The antral circular smooth muscles were removed from PTX-treated and non-treated rats as strips and dispersed smooth muscle cells to identify whether PTX-linked pathway mediated the contractility to bethanechol. RESULTS: A dose-dependent contractile response observed with bethanechol, was not affected by TTX. The pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin decreased the contraction induced by bethanechol. Lack of calcium as well as the presence of the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, also inhibited the cholinergic contraction, with a reduction in response from 2.5 ± 0.4 g/mm2 to 1.2 ± 0.4 g/mm2 (P < 0.05). The dose-response curves were shifted to the right by muscarinic antagonists in the following order of affinity: darifenacin (M3) > methocramine (M2) > pirenzepine (M1). CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors-dependent contraction of rat antral circular smooth muscles was linked to the signal transduction pathway(s) involving pertussis-toxin sensitive GTP-binding proteins and to extracellular calcium via L-type voltage gated calcium channels. The

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Lipophilic Agents Following Preexposure: Non-Cytochrome P-450 Mediated Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    FOLLOWING PREEXPOSUR G - AFOSR-87- 185 U’) NON -CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MECHAN’ICS PE - 61102F (NJ . AUTHOKS) PR - 2312 N TA - A5 Dr Lawrence R Curtis, Dr...Z39- I*. PHARMACOKINETICS OF LIPOPHILIC AGENTS FOLLOWING PREEXPOSURE: NON -CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MECHANISMS Air Force Grant No. 87-0185 Hillary M...amounts located in non -hepatic tissues. These studies showed that, despite the differences in PDR, the systems involved respond in a dose related manner

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF-kappaB Signal Transduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-04

    Ph.D. Department ofPathology Member ~~~ Name of Candidate: Felicia Langel Doctor ofPhilosophy Degree 4 April 2004 Title of Dissertation: " Molecular ...The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: " Molecular mechanisms of BcllO-mediated NF-KB...34 /" Molecular and Cell Biology Program Uniformed Services University of the copyright owner. i Abstract Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF

  1. Critical role for Epac1 in inflammatory pain controlled by GRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Epac1.

    PubMed

    Singhmar, Pooja; Huo, XiaoJiao; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Berciano, Susana Rojo; Baameur, Faiza; Mei, Fang C; Zhu, Yingmin; Cheng, Xiaodong; Hawke, David; Mayor, Federico; Murga, Cristina; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2016-03-15

    cAMP signaling plays a key role in regulating pain sensitivity. Here, we uncover a previously unidentified molecular mechanism in which direct phosphorylation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) by G protein kinase 2 (GRK2) suppresses Epac1-to-Rap1 signaling, thereby inhibiting persistent inflammatory pain. Epac1(-/-) mice are protected against inflammatory hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model. Moreover, the Epac-specific inhibitor ESI-09 inhibits established CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without affecting normal mechanical sensitivity. At the mechanistic level, CFA increased activity of the Epac target Rap1 in dorsal root ganglia of WT, but not of Epac1(-/-), mice. Using sensory neuron-specific overexpression of GRK2 or its kinase-dead mutant in vivo, we demonstrate that GRK2 inhibits CFA-induced hyperalgesia in a kinase activity-dependent manner. In vitro, GRK2 inhibits Epac1-to-Rap1 signaling by phosphorylation of Epac1 at Ser-108 in the Disheveled/Egl-10/pleckstrin domain. This phosphorylation event inhibits agonist-induced translocation of Epac1 to the plasma membrane, thereby reducing Rap1 activation. Finally, we show that GRK2 inhibits Epac1-mediated sensitization of the mechanosensor Piezo2 and that Piezo2 contributes to inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia. Collectively, these findings identify a key role of Epac1 in chronic inflammatory pain and a molecular mechanism for controlling Epac1 activity and chronic pain through phosphorylation of Epac1 at Ser-108. Importantly, using the Epac inhibitor ESI-09, we validate Epac1 as a potential therapeutic target for chronic pain.

  2. Critical role for Epac1 in inflammatory pain controlled by GRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Epac1

    PubMed Central

    Singhmar, Pooja; Huo, XiaoJiao; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Berciano, Susana Rojo; Baameur, Faiza; Mei, Fang C.; Zhu, Yingmin; Cheng, Xiaodong; Hawke, David; Mayor, Federico; Murga, Cristina; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    cAMP signaling plays a key role in regulating pain sensitivity. Here, we uncover a previously unidentified molecular mechanism in which direct phosphorylation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) by G protein kinase 2 (GRK2) suppresses Epac1-to-Rap1 signaling, thereby inhibiting persistent inflammatory pain. Epac1−/− mice are protected against inflammatory hyperalgesia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) model. Moreover, the Epac-specific inhibitor ESI-09 inhibits established CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without affecting normal mechanical sensitivity. At the mechanistic level, CFA increased activity of the Epac target Rap1 in dorsal root ganglia of WT, but not of Epac1−/−, mice. Using sensory neuron-specific overexpression of GRK2 or its kinase-dead mutant in vivo, we demonstrate that GRK2 inhibits CFA-induced hyperalgesia in a kinase activity-dependent manner. In vitro, GRK2 inhibits Epac1-to-Rap1 signaling by phosphorylation of Epac1 at Ser-108 in the Disheveled/Egl-10/pleckstrin domain. This phosphorylation event inhibits agonist-induced translocation of Epac1 to the plasma membrane, thereby reducing Rap1 activation. Finally, we show that GRK2 inhibits Epac1-mediated sensitization of the mechanosensor Piezo2 and that Piezo2 contributes to inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia. Collectively, these findings identify a key role of Epac1 in chronic inflammatory pain and a molecular mechanism for controlling Epac1 activity and chronic pain through phosphorylation of Epac1 at Ser-108. Importantly, using the Epac inhibitor ESI-09, we validate Epac1 as a potential therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:26929333

  3. Hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by repeated opioid exposure: maintenance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2017-07-01

    We previously developed a model of opioid-induced neuroplasticity in the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that could contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, type II hyperalgesic priming. Repeated administration of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, such as DAMGO, at the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor, induces long-lasting plasticity expressed, prototypically as opioid-induced hyperalgesia and prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of type II priming. Opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, induced hyperalgesia in DAMGO-primed paws. When repeatedly injected, naloxone-induced hyperalgesia, and hyperalgesic priming, supporting the suggestion that maintenance of priming involves changes in MOR signaling. However, the knockdown of MOR with oligodeoxynucleotide antisense did not reverse priming. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase, which are involved in the Src signaling pathway, previously implicated in type II priming, also inhibited the expression, but not maintenance of priming. However, when Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors were coadministered, type II priming was reversed, in male rats. A second model of priming, latent sensitization, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant was also reversed, in males. In females, the inhibitor combination was only able to inhibit the expression and maintenance of DAMGO-induced priming when knockdown of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) in the nociceptor was performed. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of DAMGO-induced type II priming, and latent sensitization is mediated by an interaction between, Src and MAP kinases, which in females is GPR30 dependent.

  4. Vacancy Mediated Mechanism of Nitrogen Substitution in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Sadanadan, Bindu; Rao, Apparao M.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen substitution reaction in a graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes of different diameter are investigated using the generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics method. The formation of a vacancy in curved graphene sheet or a carbon nanotube is found to cause a curvature dependent local reconstruction of the surface. Our simulations and analysis show that vacancy mediated N substitution (rather than N chemisorption) is favored on the surface of nanotubes with diameter larger than 8 nm. This predicted value of the critical minimum diameter for N incorporation is confirmed by experimental results presented.

  5. Unravelling mechanisms of p53-mediated tumour suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bieging, Kathryn T.; Mello, Stephano Spano; Attardi, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    p53 is a crucial tumour suppressor that responds to diverse stress signals by orchestrating specific cellular responses, including transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, which are all processes associated with tumour suppression. However, recent studies have challenged the relative importance of these canonical cellular responses for p53-mediated tumour suppression and have highlighted roles for p53 in modulating other cellular processes, including metabolism, stem cell maintenance, invasion and metastasis, as well as communication within the tumour microenvironment. In this Opinion article, we discuss the roles of classical p53 functions, as well as emerging p53-regulated processes, in tumour suppression. PMID:24739573

  6. Hydrogen-rich saline prevents remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits MnSOD nitration via regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Shu, R; Wang, H; Yu, Y; Wang, C; Yang, M; Wang, M; Wang, G

    2014-11-07

    Remifentanil administration may subsequently cause paradoxical hyperalgesia in animals and humans, but mechanisms remain unclear. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) nitration and inactivation caused by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in the induction and maintenance of central neuropathic pain. Hydrogen which selectively removes superoxide has gained much attention in recent years. In this study, we investigated antinociceptive effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on remifentanil-induced postsurgical hyperalgesia in a rat model of incisional pain. HRS was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before remifentanil infusion (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1) for 60 min). A selective NR2B antagonist Ro25-6981 was used to investigate whether antihypernociception of HRS is associated with NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Nociception was evaluated by the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold and thermal latency respectively. Then we assessed MnSOD, NR2A and NR2B in spinal cord dorsal horn via Western blot and immunohistochemistry after nociceptive tests. Here, we found that the analgesic effect of remifentanil was followed by long-term hyperalgesia lasting at least postoperative 7 days, which was accompanied with increase in NR2B expression and trafficking from cytoplasm to surface and MnSOD nitration in dorsal horn. Pretreatment with HRS (10 ml/kg) significantly attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, blocked NR2B trafficking and MnSOD nitration in dorsal horn after remifentanil infusion. Ro25-6981 not 5 μg but 10 and 50 μg dosage-dependently attenuated hyperalgesia, and inhibited MnSOD nitration. Hyperalgesia and MnSOD nitration were attenuated after the combination of HRS (2.5 ml/kg) and Ro25-6981 (5 μg). In conclusion, HRS (10 ml/kg) might reverse remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia, through regulating NR2B-containing NMDAR trafficking to control MnSOD nitration and enhance MnSOD activity.

  7. Mechanisms Mediating the Perception of Complex Acoustic Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-26

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP auditory perception, complex sounds , pitch 19...governing the perception of complex sounds . The main topics studied were: (1) Pitch averaging mechanisms for repetition pitch; .(2) spectral and...research program has dealt with the mechanisms and principles governing the perception of complex sounds . The main topics studied were: k’) Pitch averaging

  8. Statistical grand rounds: understanding the mechanism: mediation analysis in randomized and nonrandomized studies.

    PubMed

    Mascha, Edward J; Dalton, Jarrod E; Kurz, Andrea; Saager, Leif

    2013-10-01

    In comparative clinical studies, a common goal is to assess whether an exposure, or intervention, affects the outcome of interest. However, just as important is to understand the mechanism(s) for how the intervention affects outcome. For example, if preoperative anemia was shown to increase the risk of postoperative complications by 15%, it would be important to quantify how much of that effect was due to patients receiving intraoperative transfusions. Mediation analysis attempts to quantify how much, if any, of the effect of an intervention on outcome goes though prespecified mediator, or "mechanism" variable(s), that is, variables sitting on the causal pathway between exposure and outcome. Effects of an exposure on outcome can thus be divided into direct and indirect, or mediated, effects. Mediation is claimed when 2 conditions are true: the exposure affects the mediator and the mediator (adjusting for the exposure) affects the outcome. Understanding how an intervention affects outcome can validate or invalidate one's original hypothesis and also facilitate further research to modify the responsible factors, and thus improve patient outcome. We discuss the proper design and analysis of studies investigating mediation, including the importance of distinguishing mediator variables from confounding variables, the challenge of identifying potential mediators when the exposure is chronic versus acute, and the requirements for claiming mediation. Simple designs are considered, as well as those containing multiple mediators, multiple outcomes, and mixed data types. Methods are illustrated with data collected by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) and utilized in a companion paper which assessed the effects of preoperative anemic status on postoperative outcomes.

  9. Inhibition of the high affinity choline transporter enhances hyperalgesia in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Chen, Lei; Yu, Baoping

    2017-06-17

    The mechanisms underlying chronic and persistent pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) are not completely understood. The cholinergic system is one of the major neural pathways of the pancreas. Meanwhile, this system plays an important role in chronic pain. We hypothesized that the high affinity choline transporter CHT1, which is a main determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, is involved in regulating pain associated with CP. CP was induced by intraductal injection of 2% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pathological examination was used to evaluate the inflammation of pancreas and hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring the number of withdrawal events evoked by application of the von Frey filaments. CHT1 expression in pancreas-specific dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was assessed through immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also intraperitoneally injected the rats with hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, a specific inhibitor of CHT1). Then we observed its effects on the visceral hyperalgesia induced by CP, and on the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the DRGs through using an acetylcholine/acetylcholinesterase assay kit. Signs of CP were observed 21 days after TNBS injection. Rats subjected to TNBS infusions had increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the abdomen. CHT1-immunoreactive cells were increased in the DRGs from rats with CP compared to naive or sham rats. Western blots indicated that CHT1 expression was significantly up-regulated in TNBS-treated rats when compared to naive or sham-operated rats at all time points following surgery. In the TNBS group, CHT1 expression was higher on day 28 than on day 7 or day 14, but there was no statistical difference in CHT1 expression on day 28 vs. day 21. Treatment with HC-3 (60 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg, or 100 μg/kg) markedly enhanced the mechanical hyperalgesia and reduced ACh levels in a dose-dependent manner in rats with CP. We report for the first time that CHT1 may be involved

  10. Chemically Mediated Mechanical Expansion of the Pollen Tube Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique R.; Hotton, Scott; Dumais, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of plant cells is tantamount to the shaping of the stiff cell wall that surrounds them. To this end, these cells integrate two concomitant processes: 1), deposition of new material into the existing wall, and 2), mechanical deformation of this material by the turgor pressure. However, due to uncertainty regarding the mechanisms that coordinate these processes, existing models typically adopt a limiting case in which either one or the other dictates morphogenesis. In this report, we formulate a simple mechanism in pollen tubes by which deposition causes turnover of cell wall cross-links, thereby facilitating mechanical deformation. Accordingly, deposition and mechanics are coupled and are both integral aspects of the morphogenetic process. Among the key experimental qualifications of this model are: its ability to precisely reproduce the morphologies of pollen tubes; its prediction of the growth oscillations exhibited by rapidly growing pollen tubes; and its prediction of the observed phase relationships between variables such as wall thickness, cell morphology, and growth rate within oscillatory cells. In short, the model captures the rich phenomenology of pollen tube morphogenesis and has implications for other plant cell types. PMID:22004737

  11. Mechanisms of uric acid crystal-mediated autoinflammation.

    PubMed

    Martinon, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Gout is an arthritis characterized by elevated uric acid in the bloodstream. In this condition, crystals of uric acid are formed and accumulate in the synovial fluids. Crystal deposition leads to acute inflammation, which is associated with the spontaneous resolution of the disease. Recent studies have led to significant advances in the understanding of the basic biology of crystal-mediated inflammation. Uric acid has been identified as a danger signal that triggers a cytosolic sensor, the inflammasome. This signaling platform is required for the activation of interleukin-1, a cytokine that is critical to the initiation of acute inflammation in gout. Importantly, both molecular and pathological evidence support the notion that gout is a prototypical member of the growing family of autoinflammatory diseases. This review discusses the role of the inflammasome in gout and the emerging new therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling inflammation in crystal arthritis.

  12. Genetic Mechanisms in Apc-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Mari; Ohene-Baah, Nana Yaw; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Bronson, Roderick Terry; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Many components of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway also play critical roles in mammary tumor development, yet the role of the tumor suppressor gene APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) in breast oncongenesis is unclear. To better understand the role of Apc in mammary tumorigenesis, we introduced conditional Apc mutations specifically into two different mammary epithelial populations using K14-cre and WAP-cre transgenic mice that express Cre-recombinase in mammary progenitor cells and lactating luminal cells, respectively. Only the K14-cre–mediated Apc heterozygosity developed mammary adenocarcinomas demonstrating histological heterogeneity, suggesting the multilineage progenitor cell origin of these tumors. These tumors harbored truncation mutation in a defined region in the remaining wild-type allele of Apc that would retain some down-regulating activity of β-catenin signaling. Activating mutations at codons 12 and 61 of either H-Ras or K-Ras were also found in a subset of these tumors. Expression profiles of acinar-type mammary tumors from K14-cre; ApcCKO/+ mice showed luminal epithelial gene expression pattern, and clustering analysis demonstrated more correlation to MMTV-neu model than to MMTV-Wnt1. In contrast, neither WAP-cre–induced Apc heterozygous nor homozygous mutations resulted in predisposition to mammary tumorigenesis, although WAP-cre–mediated Apc deficiency resulted in severe squamous metaplasia of mammary glands. Collectively, our results suggest that not only the epithelial origin but also a certain Apc mutations are selected to achieve a specific level of β-catenin signaling optimal for mammary tumor development and explain partially the colon- but not mammary-specific tumor development in patients that carry germline mutations in APC. PMID:19197353

  13. A cascade of cytokines mediates mechanical inflammatory hypernociception in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, T. M.; Verri, W. A.; Silva, J. S.; Poole, S.; Cunha, F. Q.; Ferreira, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    The hypernociceptive effects of cytokines [TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and IL-1β] and their participation in carrageenan (Cg)-induced inflammatory hypernociception in mice were investigated. Nociceptor sensitization (hypernociception) was quantified with an electronic version of the von Frey filament test in WT and TNF receptor type 1 knockout mice (TNF-R1–/–). TNF-α-induced hypernociception was abolished in TNF-R1–/– mice, partially inhibited by pretreatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) or indomethacin and unaffected by Ab against KC (AbKC) or guanethidine. IL-1ra and indomethacin pretreatment strongly inhibited the hypernociception induced by IL-1β, which was not altered by AbKC or guanethidine or by knocking out TNF-R1. KC-induced hypernociception was abolished by AbKC, inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin plus guanethidine, and partially inhibited by IL-1ra, indomethacin, or guanethidine. In contrast, KC-induced hypernociception was not altered by knocking out TNF-R1. Cg-induced hypernociception was abolished by administration of indomethacin plus guanethidine, diminished in TNF-R1–/– mice, and partially inhibited in WT mice pretreated with AbKC, IL-1ra, indomethacin, or guanethidine. TNF-α, KC, and IL-1β concentrations were elevated in the skin of Cg-injected paws. The TNF-α and KC concentrations rose concomitantly and peaked before that of IL-1β. In mice, the cytokine cascade begins with the release of TNF-α (acting on TNF-R1 receptor) and KC, which stimulate the release of IL-1β. As in rats, the final mediators of this cascade were prostaglandins released by IL-1β and sympathetic amines released by KC. These results extend to mice the concept that the release of primary mediators responsible for hypernociception is preceded by a cascade of cytokines. PMID:15665080

  14. Chirality-Mediated Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide Hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Taraban, Marc B.; Feng, Yue; Hammouda, Boualem; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2012-10-29

    The origin and the effects of homochirality in the biological world continuously stimulate numerous hypotheses and much debate. This work attempts to look at the biohomochirality issue from a different angle - the mechanical properties of the bulk biomaterial and their relation to nanoscale structures. Using a pair of oppositely charged peptides that co-assemble into hydrogels, we systematically investigated the effect of chirality on the mechanical properties of these hydrogels through different combinations of syndiotactic and isotactic peptides. It was found that homochirality confers mechanical advantage, resulting in a higher elastic modulus and strain yield value. Yet, heterochirality confers kinetic advantage, resulting in faster gelation. Structurally, both homochiral and heterochiral hydrogels are made of fibers interconnected by lappet-like webs, but the homochiral peptide fibers are thicker and denser. These results highlight the possible role of biohomochirality in the evolution and/or natural selection of biomaterials.

  15. Kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors contribute to orofacial heat hyperalgesia induced by infraorbital nerve constriction injury in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Ana Paula; Schroeder, Samilla Driessen; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias; Calixto, João Batista; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Rae, Giles Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Mechanisms coupled to kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors have been implicated in sensory changes associated to various models of neuropathy. The current study aimed to investigate if kinins also participate in orofacial thermal hyperalgesia induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION), a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain which displays persistent hypersensitivity to orofacial sensory stimulation, in rats and mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35g) or Wistar rats (200-250g; n=6-10 per group in both cases) underwent CION or sham surgery and were submitted repeatedly to application of heat ( approximately 50 degrees C) to the ipsilateral or contralateral snout, delivered by a heat source placed 1cm from the vibrissal pad. Decreases in latency to display head withdrawal or vigorous snout flicking were considered indicative of heat hyperalgesia. CION caused long-lasting heat hyperalgesia which started on Day 2 after surgery in both species and lasted up to Day 17 in mice and Day 10 in rats. Administration of DALBK or HOE-140 (peptidic B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists, respectively; each at 3nmol in 10microl) onto the exposed infraorbital nerve of mice at the moment of surgery delayed the development of the thermal hyperalgesia. Systemic treatment on Day 5 (mice) or Day 4 (rats) with Des-Arg(9), Leu(8)-Bradykinin (DALBK, B(1) receptor antagonist, 0.1-1micromol/kg, i.p.) or HOE-140 (B(2) receptor antagonist, 0.001-1micromol/kg, i.p.) transiently reduced heat hyperalgesia in both species. Due to the peptidic nature of DALBK and HOE-140, it is likely that their effects reported herein resulted from blockade of peripheral kinin receptors. Thus, mechanisms operated by kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors, contribute to orofacial heat hyperalgesia induced by CION in both mice and rats. Perhaps kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor antagonists might constitute effective preventive and curative treatments for orofacial thermal hyperalgesia induced by nerve injury.

  16. Mechanism for Hypocretin-mediated sleep-to-wake transitions.

    PubMed

    Carter, Matthew E; Brill, Julia; Bonnavion, Patricia; Huguenard, John R; Huerta, Ramon; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-09-25

    Current models of sleep/wake regulation posit that Hypocretin (Hcrt)-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus promote and stabilize wakefulness by projecting to subcortical arousal centers. However, the critical downstream effectors of Hcrt neurons are unknown. Here we use optogenetic, pharmacological, and computational tools to investigate the functional connectivity between Hcrt neurons and downstream noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We found that photoinhibiting LC neurons during Hcrt stimulation blocked Hcrt-mediated sleep-to-wake transitions. In contrast, when LC neurons were optically stimulated to increase membrane excitability, concomitant photostimulation of Hcrt neurons significantly increased the probability of sleep-to-wake transitions compared with Hcrt stimulation alone. We also built a conductance-based computational model of Hcrt-LC circuitry that recapitulates our behavioral results using LC neurons as the main effectors of Hcrt signaling. These results establish the Hcrt-LC connection as a critical integrator-effector circuit that regulates NREM sleep/wake behavior during the inactive period. This coupling of distinct neuronal systems can be generalized to other hypothalamic integrator nuclei with downstream effector/output populations in the brain.

  17. Signaling mechanisms that mediate invasion in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, L; Marchiani, S; Muratori, M; Carloni, V; Forti, G; Baldi, E

    2004-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have a less malignant phenotype characterized by reduced migration and invasion. We investigated whether the presence of the androgen receptor could affect EGFR-mediated signaling by evaluating autotransphosphorylation of the receptor as well as activation of the downstream signaling pathway PI3K/AKT. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated a reduction of EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in PC3-AR cells. In addition, EGF-stimulated PI3K activity, a key signaling pathway for invasion of these cells, was decreased in PC3-AR cells and further reduced by treatment with R1881, indicating decreased functionality of EGFR. Our results suggest that the expression of androgen receptors by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR autophosphorylation and signaling leading to invasion in response to EGF. We used the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the EGFR gefitinib (also known as Iressa or ZD1839) to further investigate the role of EGFR in the invasion and growth of PC cells. We demonstrate that in the androgen-insensitive cell lines PC3 and DU145 this compound was able to decrease in vitro invasion of Matrigel by inhibiting EGFR autotransphosphorylation and subsequent PI3K activation. Gefitinib may be useful in the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer to limit not only the proliferation but also the invasion of these tumors.

  18. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition.

  19. Mechanism of Human Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Marburg Virus

    PubMed Central

    Flyak, Andrew I.; Ilinykh, Philipp A.; Murin, Charles D.; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L.; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Slaughter, James C.; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Ward, Andrew B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of Antibody-GP complexes reveals that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. PMID:25723164

  20. [Molecular mechanisms underlying cell adhesion--molecules mediating lymphocyte migration].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, M

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play crucial roles in a variety of in vivo responses such as development of various tissues in embryos and also in the body defence mechanism in the postnatal period. Defects in adhesion molecules thus result in various pathological disorders. Recent investigation has identified a large number of novel adhesion molecules, particularly those involved in the extravasation of leukocytes including lymphocytes. However, there still appears to be a substantial number of unidentified adhesion molecules. In addition, signal transduction as well as regulatory mechanisms of adhesion molecules remain not fully explored. I will herein describe general characteristics of adhesion molecules and also discuss issues that need to be urgently resolved in the field of cell adhesion.

  1. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanism from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    is a fundamental and an increasingly central aspect of transcriptional control in higher eukaryotic cells , and we therefore hypothesized that (i) the...regions (ARORs) in PCa cells . Our work suggests that only some ARORs function under the given physiological conditions, utilizing diverse mechanisms. This...exemplify the AR-dependence of ablation-resistant PCa cells . First, disruption of AR expression by a specific antibody or ribozyme inhibited

  2. DNA-mediated anisotropic mechanical reinforcement of a virus

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, C.; Carreira, A.; Schaap, I. A. T.; Serena, P. A.; Gómez-Herrero, J.; Mateu, M. G.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we provide evidence of a mechanism to reinforce the strength of an icosahedral virus by using its genomic DNA as a structural element. The mechanical properties of individual empty capsids and DNA-containing virions of the minute virus of mice are investigated by using atomic force microscopy. The stiffness of the empty capsid is found to be isotropic. Remarkably, the presence of the DNA inside the virion leads to an anisotropic reinforcement of the virus stiffness by ≈3%, 40%, and 140% along the fivefold, threefold, and twofold symmetry axes, respectively. A finite element model of the virus indicates that this anisotropic mechanical reinforcement is due to DNA stretches bound to 60 concavities of the capsid. These results, together with evidence of biologically relevant conformational rearrangements of the capsid around pores located at the fivefold symmetry axes, suggest that the bound DNA may reinforce the overall stiffness of the viral particle without canceling the conformational changes needed for its infectivity. PMID:16945903

  3. Electroacupuncture attenuates visceral hyperalgesia and inhibits the enhanced excitability of colon specific sensory neurons in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xu, G-Y; Winston, J H; Chen, J D Z

    2009-12-01

    The causes of irritable bowel syndrome remain elusive and there are few effective treatments for pain in this syndrome. Electroacupunture (EA) is used extensively for treatment of various painful conditions including chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH). However, mechanism of its analgesic effect remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate effect of EA on colon specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats with CVH. CVH was induced by intracolonic injection of acetic acid (AA) in 10-day-old rats. Electromyography and patch clamp recordings were performed at age of 8-10 weeks. Colon DRG neurons were labelled by injection of DiI into the colon wall. EA was given at ST36 in both hindlimbs. As adults, neonatal AA-injected rats displayed an increased sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) and an enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons. EA treatment for 40 min significantly attenuated the nociceptive responses to CRD in these rats; this attenuation was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone. EA treatment for 40 min per day for 5 days produced a prolonged analgesic effect and normalized the enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons. Furthermore, in vitro application of [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly(5)-Ol] enkephalin (DAMGO) suppressed the enhanced excitability of colon neurons from rats with CVH. These findings suggest that EA produced-visceral analgesia, which might be mediated in a large part by endogenous opioids pathways, is associated with reversal of the enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons in rats with CVH.

  4. Venlafaxine Attenuates Heat Hyperalgesia Independent of Adenosine or Opioid System in a Rat Model of Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mesdaghinia, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Primarily opioidergic and adenosine mechanisms are considered to be involved in the antinociceptive effects of antidepressants. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of acute venlafaxine administration in alleviating symptoms of neuropathic pain and the role of endogenous adenosine and opioid systems in this effect of venlafaxine. We have evaluated the effect of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonist and naloxone as an antagonist of opioid receptors on the antinociceptive effects of venlafaxine. Chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve resulted in thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical and cold allodynia in the rats. Animals were received on the 7th day after surgery, when the model had been fully established, venlafaxine (20 and 40 mg/Kg i.p.), or venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg) in combination with caffeine (5 mg/Kg i.p.) or naloxone (1 mg/Kg s.c.). Rats were tested for thermal reaction latencies, mechanical and cold allodynia 45 min after drug injection. Acute venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg i.p.) administration consistently decreased the thermal hyperalgesia and this effect was not blocked by concomitant caffeine or naloxone administration. There was no effect by either drug or the drug combination on the tactile and cold allodynia. The results of this study indicate that venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg i.p.) is effective in alleviating thermal hyperalgesia and this effect is independent through manipulation of adenosine or opioid system. This observation demonstrates that venlafaxine, which is a mixed inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake, differs from the other antidepressants in the mechanism of its antinociception action. PMID:26330872

  5. Caloric restriction as a mechanism mediating resistance to environmental disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frame, L T; Hart, R W; Leakey, J E

    1998-01-01

    It has been observed that susceptibility to many degenerative diseases increases concurrently with industrialization and rising living standards. Although epidemiologic studies suggest that specific environmental and dietary factors may be important, caloric intake alone (as reflected in body size) may account for much of the differential risk observed among diverse human populations. It has been suggested from animal studies that caloric intake may be the primary effector for many hormonal, metabolic, physiologic, and behavioral responses that coordinate reproductive strategy to apparent availability of food. When caloric intake is excessive, particularly at critical developmental stages, physiologic priorities are set for body growth and fecundity rather than for endurance and longevity. The converse occurs during periods of famine, thus increasing the probability that sufficient individuals survive to restore the population when conditions improve. Calorically restricted rodents have significantly longer reproductive and total life spans than their ad libitum-fed controls and exhibit a spectrum of biochemical and physiologic alterations that characterize their adaptation to reduced intake. These include reduced stature, hypercorticism in the absence of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, increased metabolic efficiency, decreased mitogenic response coupled with increased rates of apoptosis, reduced inflammatory response, induction of stress proteins and DNA repair enzymes, altered drug-metabolizing enzyme expression, and modified cell-mediated immune function. The overall profile of these changes is one of improved defense against environmental stress. This has been suggested as the mechanistic basis for the protective effects of low body weight on radiation and chemically induced cancers in experimental animals. It may also explain the significantly higher thresholds of acute toxicity observed when calorically restricted rodents are exposed to certain

  6. Sigma-1 receptor-mediated increase in spinal p38 MAPK phosphorylation leads to the induction of mechanical allodynia in mice and neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Young; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kang, Suk-Yun; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-09-01

    The direct activation of the spinal sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) produces mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in mice. In addition, the blockade of the spinal Sig-1R prevents the induction of MA, but not TH in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether the increase in spinal p38 MAPK phosphorylation (p-p38 MAPK) mediates Sig-1R-induced MA or TH in mice and the induction of MA in neuropathic rats. MA and TH were evaluated using von Frey filaments and a hot-plate apparatus, respectively. Neuropathic pain was produced by CCI of the right sciatic nerve in rats. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the changes of p-p38 MAPK expression in the spinal cord. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of PRE084, a selective Sig-1R agonist, into naïve mice time-dependently increased the expression of p-p38 MAPK, which was blocked by pretreatment with BD1047, a Sig-1R antagonist. I.t. pretreatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor also dose-dependently inhibited PRE084-induced MA, whereas TH induction was not affected. In CCI rats, i.t. injection of BD1047 during the induction phase (postoperative days 0 to 5) reduced the CCI-induced increase in p-p38 MAPK. In addition, i.t. SB203580 treatment during the induction phase also suppressed the development of CCI-induced MA, but not TH. Conversely, i.t. SB203580 treatment during the maintenance phase (postoperative days 15 to 20) had no effect on CCI-induced MA or TH. These results demonstrate that the increase in spinal p-p38 MAPK is closely associated with the induction of Sig-1R mediated MA, but not TH. Sigma-1 receptor modulation of p-p38 MAPK also plays an important role in the induction, but not the maintenance, of MA in neuropathic pain.

  7. Candidate Genes and Mechanisms for 2-Methoxyestradiol-Mediated Vasoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Barchiesi, Federica; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zaugg, Michael; Ogunshola, Omolara O; Wright, Matthew; Meyer, Markus; Rosselli, Marinella; Schaufelberger, Sara; Gillespie, Delbert G; Jackson, Edwin K; Dubey, Raghvendra K

    2010-01-01

    Methoxyestradiol (2-ME; estradiol metabolite) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and protects against atherosclerosis and vascular injury; however, the mechanisms by which 2-ME induces these actions remain obscure. To assess the impact of 2-ME on biochemical pathways regulating VSMC biology, we employed high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to identify differentially expressed genes in cultured human female aortic VSMCs treated with 2-ME acutely (4hrs) or long-term (30hrs). Both single gene analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed 2-ME-induced down-regulation of genes involved in mitotic spindle assembly and function in VSMCs. Also GSEA analysis identified effects of 2-ME on genes regulating cell-cycle progression, cell migration/adhesion, vasorelaxation, inflammation and cholesterol metabolism. Transcriptional changes were associated with changes in protein expression including inhibition of cyclin-D1, cyclin-B1, cdk6, cdk4, tubulin polymerization and cholesterol and steroid synthesis and up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-1. Microarray data suggested that 2-ME may activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in VSMCs, and 2-ME has structural similarities with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist). However, our finding of weak activation and lack of binding of 2-ME to PPARs suggests that 2-ME may modulate PPAR-associated genes via indirect mechanisms, potentially involving COX-2. Indeed the anti-mitogenic effects of 2-ME at concentrations that do not inhibit tubulin polymerization were blocked by the PPAR antagonist GW9662 and COX-2 inhibitor NS398. Finally, we demonstrated that 2-ME inhibited hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Identification of candidate genes that are positively or negatively regulated by 2-ME provides important leads to investigate and better understand the mechanisms by which 2-ME induces its vasoprotective actions. PMID:20921434

  8. Mechanical allodynia.

    PubMed

    Lolignier, Stéphane; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Wood, John N

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical allodynia (other pain) is a painful sensation caused by innocuous stimuli like light touch. Unlike inflammatory hyperalgesia that has a protective role, allodynia has no obvious biological utility. Allodynia is associated with nerve damage in conditions such as diabetes, and is likely to become an increasing clinical problem. Unfortunately, the mechanistic basis of this enhanced sensitivity is incompletely understood. In this review, we describe evidence for the involvement of candidate mechanosensitive channels such as Piezo2 and their role in allodynia, as well as the peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms that have also been implicated in this form of pain. Specific treatments that block allodynia could be very useful if the cell and molecular basis of the condition could be determined. There are many potential mechanisms underlying this condition ranging from alterations in mechanotransduction and sensory neuron excitability to the actions of inflammatory mediators and wiring changes in the CNS. As with other pain conditions, it is likely that the range of redundant mechanisms that cause allodynia will make therapeutic intervention problematic.

  9. Morphogenesis of protrusions from confined lipid bilayers mediated by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Marino; Staykova, Margarita; Rahimi, Mohammad; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-02-01

    Biological membranes adopt a wide range of shapes that structure and give functionality to cells, compartmentalizing the cytosol, forming organelles, or regulating their area. The formation, stabilization, and remodeling of these structures is generally attributed to localized forces or to biochemical processes (insertion of proteins, active compositional regulation). Noting that in the crowded intra and extra-cellular environments membranes are highly constrained, we explore to what extent can mechanics explain the shape of protrusions out of confined membranes. For this purpose, we developed an in-vitro system coupling a lipid bilayer to the strain-controlled deformation of an elastic sheet (Staykova et al, PNAS 108, 2011). We show that upon contracting the elastic support, tubular or spherical protrusions grow out of the adhered membrane, which can be reversibly controlled with strain and osmolarity without resorting to localized forces or chemical alterations of the bilayer. The morphologies produced by our minimal system are ubiquitous in cells, suggesting mechanics may be a simple and generic organizing principle. We can understand most of our observations in terms of a phase diagram accounting for elasticity, adhesion, and the limited amount of area and volume available.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR-mediated microbial immunity.

    PubMed

    Gasiunas, Giedrius; Sinkunas, Tomas; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) infect bacteria in order to replicate and burst out of the host, killing the cell, when reproduction is completed. Thus, from a bacterial perspective, phages pose a persistent lethal threat to bacterial populations. Not surprisingly, bacteria evolved multiple defense barriers to interfere with nearly every step of phage life cycles. Phages respond to this selection pressure by counter-evolving their genomes to evade bacterial resistance. The antagonistic interaction between bacteria and rapidly diversifying viruses promotes the evolution and dissemination of bacteriophage-resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Recently, an adaptive microbial immune system, named clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and which provides acquired immunity against viruses and plasmids, has been identified. Unlike the restriction–modification anti-phage barrier that subjects to cleavage any foreign DNA lacking a protective methyl-tag in the target site, the CRISPR–Cas systems are invader-specific, adaptive, and heritable. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of interference/immunity provided by different CRISPR–Cas systems.

  11. Vitamin B complex attenuated heat hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve constriction in rats and reduced capsaicin in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Reis, Renata C; Bressan, Elisangela; Reeh, Peter W; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2015-09-05

    Vitamins of the B complex attenuate some neuropathic pain sensory aspects in various animal models and in patients, but the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. Herein it was investigated if the treatment with a vitamin B complex (VBC) reduces heat hyperalgesia in rats submitted to infraorbital nerve constriction and the possibility that TRPV1 receptors represent a target for B vitamins. In the present study, the VBC refers to a combination of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 at low- (18, 18 and 1.8mg/kg, respectively) or high- (180, 180 and 18mg/kg, respectively) doses. Acute treatment of rats with either the low- or the high-doses combination reduced heat hyperalgesia after nerve injury, but the high-doses combination resulted in a long-lasting effect. Repeated treatment with the low-dose combination reduced heat hyperalgesia on day four after nerve injury and showed a synergist effect with a single injection of carbamazepine (3 or 10mg/kg), which per se failed to modify the heat threshold. In naïve rats, acute treatment with the high-dose of VBC or B1 and B12 vitamins independently reduced heat hyperalgesia evoked by capsaicin (3µg into the upper lip). Moreover, the VBC, as well as, each one of the B vitamins independently reduced the capsaicin-induced calcium responses in HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with the human TRPV1 channels. Altogether, these results indicate that B vitamins can be useful to control heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain and that modulation of TRPV1 receptors may contribute to their anti-hyperalgesic effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Repeated 100 Hz TENS for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Hyperalgesia and Suppression of Spinal Release of Substance P in Monoarthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Tian, Jin-Bin; Luo, Fei; Jiang, Yu-Hui; Deng, Zu-Guo; Xiong, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jin-Shu

    2007-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to be an effective measure for pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal intensity and interval of repeated 100 Hz TENS for the treatment of chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia in a monoarthritic pain model of the rat, and to assess the changes of the spinal substance P (SP) release in response to TENS treatment. A reliable, reproducible chronic monoarthritic pain model was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at single ankle joint. The efficacy of 100 Hz TENS treatments with different frequencies and intensities was compared. In the acute period (within 3 weeks) of monoarthritis, twice-a-week schedule of TENS reduced the swelling of the inflamed ankle significantly. In the stable period (4–9 weeks), however, once-a-week schedule produced a significantly better therapeutic effect on both inflammation and arthritic hyperalgesia than that of twice- or five-times-a-week schedule. Using three levels of intensity of TENS, we found that the weaker (1-1-2 mA) stimulation produced significantly better therapeutic effects. Repeated TENS produced a reduction of SP content in spinal perfusate in parallel with the progressive reduction of the arthritic pain scores. Our results suggest that (i) consecutive TENS treatments produced cumulative effect for chronic hyperalgesia, (ii) for chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia, a weaker intensity and more sparsely arranged treatment schedule may produce better therapeutic effect and (iii) a decrease in SP release may serve as one of the possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of multiple TENS treatments on chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:17342243

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy attenuates neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats and idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia in patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, N; Niu, J-Y; Liu, W-T; Sun, Y-Y; Liu, S; Lv, Y; Dong, H-L; Song, X-J; Xiong, L-Z

    2012-09-01

    Neuropathic pain after nerve injury is severe and intractable, and current drug and non-drug therapies offer very limited pain relief. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2) has been clinically used for protection of the nervous system after acute injury. We investigated whether HBO 2 treatment could prevent and/or attenuate neuropathic pain in animals and in patients. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and neurochemical alterations of neuropathic pain were analysed in male, adult, Sprague-Dawley rats with sciatic nerve injury. Clinical trials were conducted in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Repetitive HBO 2 treatment [a combination of pressure at 3 atmosphere absolute (ATA) and pure oxygen] greatly inhibited behavioural signs of neuropathic pain manifested as thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Such an HBO 2 treatment also inhibited nerve injury-induced induction of c-Fos and activation of astrocytes and increased phosphorylation of NR2B receptor and the subsequent Ca 2+-dependent signals in rats. Neither high pressure (up to 3 ATA) nor pure oxygen alone resulted in analgesic effect. In clinical trials, one course of HBO 2 therapy (10 consecutive days) produced a rapid-onset, dose-dependent and long-lasting analgesic effects evidenced by the decreased doses of carbamazepine required for keeping patient pain at a minimum and decreased scores of visual analogue scales, which was used for patient's self-evaluation. These findings support that HBO 2 therapy is an effective approach for treating neuropathic pain in both animals and human beings and suggest that neural protection, anti-inflammation and inhibition of nerve injury-induced altered neural activity may contribute to the analgesic effect of HBO 2 therapy. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  14. Effect of painless diabetic neuropathy on pressure pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) after acute foot trauma.

    PubMed

    Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A; Koller, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). A case-control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II(®)). In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15-25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15-20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to 'pull away' from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking.

  15. Effect of painless diabetic neuropathy on pressure pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) after acute foot trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A.; Koller, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). Design and methods A case–control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II®). Results In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15–25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15–20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Conclusion Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to ‘pull away’ from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking. PMID:25397867

  16. Taurine replacement attenuates hyperalgesia and abnormal calcium signaling in sensory neurons of STZ-D rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Obrosova, Irina G; Abatan, Omorodola; Tian, Dequan; Larkin, Dennis; Stuenkel, Edward L; Stevens, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of painful diabetic neuropathy is poorly understood, but may result from neuronal hyperexcitability secondary to alterations of Ca2+ signaling in sensory neurons. The naturally occurring amino acid taurine functions as an osmolyte, antioxidant, Ca2+ modulator, inhibitory neurotransmitter, and analgesic such that its depletion in diabetes may predispose one to neuronal hyperexcitability and pain. This study reports the effects of taurine replacement on hyperalgesia and sensory neuron Ca2+ homeostasis in streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ-D) rats. Nondiabetic and STZ-D rats were treated with a 2% taurine-supplemented diet for 6-12 wk. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were determined by measuring hindpaw withdrawal latency to radiant heat and the withdrawal threshold to the von Frey anesthesiometer. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling was explored in neurons from L4-L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), using fura 2 fluorescence. Taurine replacement of diabetic rats attenuated deficits of nerve conduction and prevented reductions of mechanical and thermal withdrawal threshold and latency, respectively. In small DRG sensory neurons from diabetic rats, recovery of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to KCl was slowed and 73% corrected by taurine. The amplitudes of caffeine and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i transients were decreased by 47 and 27% (P < 0.05), respectively, in diabetic rat DRG sensory neurons and corrected by 74 and 93% (P < 0.05), respectively, by taurine replacement. These data indicate that taurine is important in the regulation of neuronal Ca2+ signaling and that taurine deficiency may predispose one to nerve hyperexcitability and pain, complicating diabetes.

  17. Diffuse traumatic brain injury induces prolonged immune dysregulation and potentiates hyperalgesia following a peripheral immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Ellis, Gavin I; Harrison, Jordan L; Bachstetter, Adam D; Corder, Gregory F; Van Eldik, Linda J; Taylor, Bradley K; Marti, Francesc; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Nociceptive and neuropathic pain occurs as part of the disease process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Central and peripheral inflammation, a major secondary injury process initiated by the traumatic brain injury event, has been implicated in the potentiation of peripheral nociceptive pain. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response to diffuse traumatic brain injury potentiates persistent pain through prolonged immune dysregulation. To test this, adult, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury or to sham procedure. One cohort of mice was analyzed for inflammation-related cytokine levels in cortical biopsies and serum along an acute time course. In a second cohort, peripheral inflammation was induced seven days after surgery/injury with an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. This was followed by measurement of mechanical hyperalgesia, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 immunohistochemical analysis of neuroinflammation in the brain, and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell differentiation in mucosal lymph. Traumatic brain injury increased interleukin-6 and chemokine ligand 1 levels in the cortex and serum that peaked within 1-9 h and then resolved. Intraplantar carrageenan produced mechanical hyperalgesia that was potentiated by traumatic brain injury. Further, mucosal T cells from brain-injured mice showed a distinct deficiency in the ability to differentiate into inflammation-suppressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). We conclude that traumatic brain injury increased the inflammatory pain associated with cutaneous inflammation by contributing to systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells are immune suppressors and failure of T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells leads to unregulated cytokine production which may contribute to the potentiation of peripheral pain through the excitation of peripheral sensory neurons. In addition, regulatory T cells are identified as a potential target for

  18. Molecular mechanisms of ETS transcription factor mediated tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Adwitiya; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors is critical for development, differentiation, proliferation and also has a role in apoptosis and tissue remodeling. Changes in expression of ETS proteins therefore have a significant impact on normal physiology of the cell. Transcriptional consequences of ETS protein deregulation by overexpression, gene fusion, and modulation by RAS/MAPK signaling are linked to alterations in normal cell functions, and lead to unlimited increased proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Existing data show that ETS proteins control pathways in epithelial cells as well as stromal compartments, and the crosstalk between the two is essential for normal development and cancer. In this review we have focused on ETS factors with a known contribution in cancer development. Instead of focusing on a prototype, we address cancer associated ETS proteins and have highlighted the diverse mechanisms by which they affect carcinogenesis. Finally, we discuss strategies for ETS factor targeting as a potential means for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24066765

  19. Sensory and circuit mechanisms mediating lower urinary tract reflexes.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Zachary C; Grill, Warren M

    2016-10-01

    Neural control of continence and micturition is distributed over a network of interconnected reflexes. These reflexes integrate sensory information from the bladder and urethra and are modulated by descending influences to produce different physiological outcomes based on the information arriving from peripheral afferents. Therefore, the mode of activation of primary afferents is essential in understanding the action of spinal reflex pathways in the lower urinary tract. We present an overview of sensory mechanisms in the bladder and urethra focusing on their spinal integration, identify the cardinal spinal reflexes responsible for continence and micturition, and describe how their functional role is controlled via peripheral afferent activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of ETS transcription factor-mediated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kar, Adwitiya; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors is critical for development, differentiation, proliferation and also has a role in apoptosis and tissue remodeling. Changes in expression of ETS proteins therefore have a significant impact on normal physiology of the cell. Transcriptional consequences of ETS protein deregulation by overexpression, gene fusion, and modulation by RAS/MAPK signaling are linked to alterations in normal cell functions, and lead to unlimited increased proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Existing data show that ETS proteins control pathways in epithelial cells as well as stromal compartments, and the crosstalk between the two is essential for normal development and cancer. In this review, we have focused on ETS factors with a known contribution in cancer development. Instead of focusing on a prototype, we address cancer associated ETS proteins and have highlighted the diverse mechanisms by which they affect carcinogenesis. Finally, we discuss strategies for ETS factor targeting as a potential means for cancer therapeutics.

  1. Mechanisms of abscisic acid-mediated control of stomatal aperture.

    PubMed

    Munemasa, Shintaro; Hauser, Felix; Park, Jiyoung; Waadt, Rainer; Brandt, Benjamin; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-12-01

    Drought stress triggers an increase in the level of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which initiates a signaling cascade to close stomata and reduce water loss. Recent studies have revealed that guard cells control cytosolic ABA concentration through the concerted actions of biosynthesis, catabolism as well as transport across membranes. Substantial progress has been made at understanding the molecular mechanisms of how the ABA signaling core module controls the activity of anion channels and thereby stomatal aperture. In this review, we focus on our current mechanistic understanding of ABA signaling in guard cells including the role of the second messenger Ca(2+) as well as crosstalk with biotic stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanically Induced Actin-mediated Rocketing of Phagosomes

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Anderson, Kurt I.; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Actin polymerization can be induced in Dictyostelium by compressing the cells to bring phagosomes filled with large particles into contact with the plasma membrane. Asymmetric actin assembly results in rocketing movement of the phagosomes. We show that the compression-induced assembly of actin at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane involves the Arp2/3 complex. We also identify two other proteins associated with the mechanically induced actin assembly. The class I myosin MyoB accumulates at the plasma membrane–phagosome interface early during the initiation of the response, and coronin is recruited as the actin filaments are disassembling. The forces generated by rocketing phagosomes are sufficient to push the entire microtubule apparatus forward and to dislocate the nucleus. PMID:16971511

  3. Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: regulatory mechanisms and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Alberto E.; Curti, Sebastian; Hoge, Gregory; Cachope, Roger; Flores, Carmen E.; Rash, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The term synapse applies to cellular specializations that articulate the processing of information within neural circuits by providing a mechanism for the transfer of information between two different neurons. There are two main modalities of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of the properties and modifiability of chemical transmission, less is still known regarding the plastic properties of electrical synapses, whose structural correlate is the gap junction. A wealth of data indicates that, rather than passive intercellular channels, electrical synapses are more dynamic and modifiable than was generally perceived. This article will discuss the factors determining the strength of electrical transmission and review current evidence demonstrating its dynamic properties. Like their chemical counterparts, electrical synapses can also be plastic and modifiable. PMID:22659675

  4. GABAergic transmission in rat pontine reticular formation regulates the induction phase of anesthesia and modulates hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Nemanis, Kriste; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) contributes to the regulation of sleep, anesthesia and pain. The role of PnO γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in modulating these states remains incompletely understood. The present study used time to loss and time to resumption of righting response (LoRR and RoRR) as surrogate measures of loss and resumption of consciousness. This study tested three hypotheses: (i) pharmacologically manipulating GABA levels in rat PnO alters LoRR, RoRR and nociception; (ii) propofol decreases GABA levels in the PnO; and (iii) inhibiting GABA synthesis in the PnO blocks hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. Administering a GABA synthesis inhibitor [3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)] or a GABA uptake inhibitor [nipecotic acid (NPA)] into rat PnO significantly altered LoRR caused by propofol. 3-MPA significantly decreased LoRR for propofol (-18%). NPA significantly increased LoRR during administration of propofol (36%). Neither 3-MPA nor NPA altered RoRR following cessation of propofol or isoflurane delivery. The finding that LoRR was decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA is consistent with measures showing that extracellular GABA levels in the PnO were decreased (41%) by propofol. Thermal nociception was significantly decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA, and 3-MPA blocked the hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. The results demonstrate that GABA levels in the PnO regulate the time for loss of consciousness caused by propofol, extend the concept that anesthetic induction and emergence are not inverse processes, and suggest that GABAergic transmission in the PnO mediates hyperalgesia caused by sleep loss.

  5. Intra-cerebral and intra-nasal melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist blocks withdrawal hyperalgesia in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Impastato, Renata A; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-24

    Humans diagnosed with alcohol use disorder are more sensitive to painful stimuli during withdrawal, which suggests that excessive alcohol drinking worsens pain outcomes. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit increases in nociceptive sensitivity during withdrawal. Data from animal models suggest that brain melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) mediate alcohol drinking and nociception. Here we tested: (1) the effect of alcohol dependence on thermal nociception in rats, and (2) the ability of acute alcohol and (3) MC4R antagonists to reverse hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats. Rats were trained to self-administer operant alcohol and were tested for baseline thermal nociception. Half of the rats were made dependent on alcohol, then all rats were cannulated in the lateral ventricle. We tested the effects of acute alcohol drinking, acute fixed-dose alcohol, intra-ventricular agouti-related protein (endogenous MC4R antagonist), intra-ventricular HS014 (synthetic MC4R antagonist) and intra-nasal HS014 on hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats, relative to non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit thermal hyperalgesia that is abolished by alcohol drinking, bolus alcohol and intra-ventricular and intra-nasal MC4R antagonists. These manipulations did not affect thermal nociception in non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls, suggesting that alcohol dependence produces neuroadaptations in brain MC4R systems. These results suggest that brain MC4R systems may be an effective therapeutic target for reducing nociception in the alcohol-dependent organism.

  6. GABAergic Transmission in Rat Pontine Reticular Formation Regulates the Induction Phase of Anesthesia and Modulates Hyperalgesia Caused by Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Nemanis, Kriste; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) contributes to the regulation of sleep, anesthesia, and pain. The role of PnO GABA in modulating these states remains incompletely understood. The present study used time to Loss and time to Resumption of Righting Response (LoRR and RoRR) as surrogate measures of loss and resumption of consciousness. This study tested three hypotheses: (1) pharmacologically manipulating GABA levels in rat PnO alters LoRR, RoRR, and nociception; (2) propofol decreases GABA levels in the PnO; and (3) inhibiting GABA synthesis in the PnO blocks hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. Administering a GABA synthesis inhibitor (3-MPA) or a GABA uptake inhibitor (NPA) into rat PnO significantly altered LoRR caused by propofol. 3-MPA significantly decreased LoRR for propofol (−18%). NPA significantly increased LoRR during administration of propofol (36%). Neither 3-MPA nor NPA altered RoRR following cessation of propofol or isoflurane delivery. The finding that LoRR was decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA is consistent with measures showing that extracellular GABA levels in the PnO were decreased (41%) by propofol. Thermal nociception was significantly decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA, and 3-MPA blocked the hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. The results demonstrate that GABA levels in the PnO regulate the time for loss of consciousness caused by propofol, extend the concept that anesthetic induction and emergence are not inverse processes, and suggest that GABAergic transmission in the PnO mediates hyperalgesia caused by sleep loss. PMID:24674578

  7. Successful treatment of hydromorphone-induced neurotoxicity and hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Keun Sam; Carson, Shawn; Glassman, David; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2004-10-01

    There has been an increase in opioid consumption world wide in the last decade. There has also been a disturbing increase in the number of reports of neuroexcitatory opioid-related side effects observed in patients receiving large doses of systemically administered morphine and its structural analogue, hydromorphone. It is now becoming clearer that patients receiving long-term opioid therapy can develop unexpected pain. We describe an interesting case of successful management of hydromorphone-induced neurotoxicity and hyperalgesia produced by short-term therapy with rapidly escalating doses of systemic hydromorphone.

  8. Fas and its ligand in a general mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Hanabuchi, S; Koyanagi, M; Kawasaki, A; Shinohara, N; Matsuzawa, A; Nishimura, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Yonehara, S; Yagita, H; Okumura, K

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we estimated the involvement of apoptosis-inducing Fas molecule on the target cells and its ligand on the effector cells. When redirected by ConA or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, a CD4+ T-cell clone, BK1, could lyse the target cells expressing wild-type Fas molecule but not those expressing death signaling-deficient mutants. This indicates the involvement of Fas-mediated signal transduction in the target cell lysis by BK1. Anti-CD3-activated but not resting BK1 expressed Fas ligand as detected by binding of a soluble Fas-Ig fusion protein, and the BK1-mediated cytotoxicity was blocked by the addition of Fas-Ig, implicating the inducible Fas ligand in the BK1 cytotoxicity. Ability to exert the Fas-mediated cytotoxicity was not confined to BK1, but splenic CD4+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD8+ T cells could also exert the Fas-dependent target cell lysis. This indicates that the Fas-mediated target cell lytic pathway can be generally involved in the T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells prepared from gld/gld mice did not mediate the Fas-mediated cytotoxicity, indicating defective expression of functional Fas ligand in gld mice. PMID:7515183

  9. δ-Opioid receptor agonists inhibit migraine-related hyperalgesia, aversive state and cortical spreading depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Amynah A; Smith, Monique L; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Charles, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Migraine is an extraordinarily common brain disorder for which treatment options continue to be limited. Agonists that activate the δ-opioid receptor may be promising for the treatment of migraine as they are highly effective for the treatment of chronic rather than acute pain, do not induce hyperalgesia, have low abuse potential and have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of δ-opioid receptor agonists for migraine by characterizing their effects in mouse migraine models. Experimental Approach Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed in mice treated with acute and chronic doses of nitroglycerin (NTG), a known human migraine trigger. Conditioned place aversion to NTG was also measured as a model of migraine-associated negative affect. In addition, we assessed evoked cortical spreading depression (CSD), an established model of migraine aura, in a thinned skull preparation. Key Results NTG evoked acute and chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice, as well as conditioned place aversion. Three different δ-opioid receptor agonists, SNC80, ARM390 and JNJ20788560, significantly reduced NTG-evoked hyperalgesia. SNC80 also abolished NTG-induced conditioned place aversion, suggesting that δ-opioid receptor activation may also alleviate the negative emotional state associated with migraine. We also found that SNC80 significantly attenuated CSD, a model that is considered predictive of migraine preventive therapies. Conclusions and Implications These data show that δ-opioid receptor agonists modulate multiple basic mechanisms associated with migraine, indicating that δ-opioid receptors are a promising therapeutic target for this disorder. PMID:24467301

  10. Self-reported sleep duration associated with distraction analgesia, hyperemia, and secondary hyperalgesia in the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Bounds, Sara C.; Simango, Mpepera B.; Witmer, Kenneth R.; Campbell, James N.; Edwards, Robert R.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Smith, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Although sleep deprivation is known to heighten pain sensitivity, the mechanisms by which sleep modifies nociception are largely unknown. Few studies of sleep-pain interactions have utilized quantitative sensory testing models that implicate specific underlying physiologic mechanisms. One possibility, which is beginning to receive attention, is that differences in sleep may alter the analgesic effects of distraction. We utilized the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model to examine whether self-reported habitual sleep duration is associated with distraction analgesia, the degree of secondary hyperalgesia and skin flare, markers implicating both central and peripheral processes that heighten pain. Twenty-eight healthy participants completed three experimental sessions in a randomized within subjects design. In the pain only condition, pain was induced for approximately 70-minutes via application of heat and capsaicin to the dorsum of the non-dominant hand. Verbal pain ratings were obtained at regular intervals. In the distraction condition, identical procedures were followed, but during heat-capsaicin pain, subjects played a series of video games. The third session involved assessing performance on the video games (no capsaicin). Participants indicated their normal self-reported habitual sleep duration over the past month. Individuals who slept less than 6.5 hours/night in the month prior to the study experienced significantly less behavioral analgesia, increased skin flare and augmented secondary hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that reduced sleep time is associated with diminished analgesic benefits from distraction and/or individuals obtaining less sleep have a reduced ability to disengage from pain-related sensations. The secondary hyperalgesia finding may implicate central involvement, whereas enhanced skin flare response suggests that sleep duration may also impact peripheral inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:21194997

  11. The relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia: mediating role of defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Khajavi, Zeinab

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of ego defense mechanisms on the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia. Four hundred and forty-three Iranian high school students (213 boys, 230 girls) participated in this study. Participants completed Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), and Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (FTAS-20). Results showed a significant negative correlation between secure attachment style and alexithymia, while avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles showed significant positive associations with alexithymia. Regression analysis indicated that defense mechanisms have a mediating role between attachment styles and alexithymia. It can be concluded that a mediation role of ego defense mechanisms on the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia was partial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of Gadographene-Mediated Proton Spin Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Andy H.; Duch, Matthew C.; Parigi, Giacomo; Rotz, Matthew W.; Manus, Lisa M.; Mastarone, Daniel J.; Dam, Kevin T.; Gits, Colton C.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Hersam, Mark C.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Gd(III) associated with carbon nanomaterials relaxes water proton spins at an effectiveness that approaches or exceeds the theoretical limit for a single bound water molecule. These Gd(III)-labeled materials represent a potential breakthrough in sensitivity for Gd(III)-based contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. A gadographene library encompassing GdCl3, two different Gd(III)-complexes, graphene oxide (GO), and graphene suspended by two different surfactants and subjected to varying degrees of sonication was prepared and characterized for their relaxometric properties. Gadographene was found to perform comparably to other Gd(III)-carbon nanomaterials; its longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) relaxivity is modulated between 12–85 mM−1s−1 and 24–115 mM−1s−1, respectively, depending on the Gd(III)-carbon backbone combination. The unusually large relaxivity and its variance can be understood under the modified Florence model incorporating the Lipari-Szabo approach. Changes in hydration number (q), water residence time (τM), molecular tumbling rate (τR), and local motion (τfast) sufficiently explain most of the measured relaxivities. Furthermore, results implicated the coupling between graphene and Gd(III) as a minor contributor to proton spin relaxation. PMID:24298299

  13. Mechanisms underlying heterologous skin scaffold-mediated tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Kallyne K. O.; Moraes, Andréia R.; Miranda, Aline C.; Greco, Rebecca; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Greco, Karin V.; Oliani, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of two newly developed porcine skin scaffolds was assessed after 3, 14, 21 and 90 days of implantation in rats. Both scaffolds showed absence of cells, preservation of ECM and mechanical properties comparable to non-decellularised skin before implantation. Host cell infiltration was much prominent on both scaffolds when compared to Permacol (surgical control). At day 3, the grafts were surrounded by polymorphonuclear cells, which were replaced by a notable number of IL-6-positive cells at day 14. Simultaneously, the number of pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage was enhanced. Interestingly, a predominant pro-remodeling M2 response, with newly formed vessels, myofibroblasts activation and a shift on the type of collagen expression was sequentially delayed (around 21 days). The gene expression of some trophic factors involved in tissue remodeling was congruent with the cellular events. Our findings suggested that the responsiveness of macrophages after non-crosslinked skin scaffolds implantation seemed to intimately affect various cell responses and molecular events; and this range of mutually reinforcing actions was predictive of a positive tissue remodeling that was essential for the long-standing success of the implants. Furthermore, our study indicates that non-crosslinked biologic scaffold implantation is biocompatible to the host tissue and somehow underlying molecular events involved in tissue repair. PMID:27725772

  14. Toxin-mediated gene regulatory mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Otto, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The dangerous human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus relies heavily on toxins to cause disease, but toxin production can put a strong burden on the bacteria’s energy balance. Thus, controlling the synthesis of proteins solely needed in times of toxin production represents a way for the bacteria to avoid wasting energy. One hypothetical manner to accomplish this sort of regulation is by gene regulatory functions of the toxins themselves. There have been several reports about gene regulation by toxins in S. aureus, but these were never verified on the molecular level. In our study published in MBio [Joo et al., 7(5). pii: e01579-16], we show that phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), important peptide toxins of S. aureus, release a repressor from the promoter of the operon encoding the toxin export system, thereby enabling toxin secretion. This study describes the first molecular regulatory mechanism exerted by an S. aureus toxin, setting a paradigmatic example of how S. aureus toxins may influence cell functions to adjust them to times of toxin production.

  15. Mechanisms Mediating Pediatric Severe Asthma and Potential Novel Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Martin Alonso, Aldara; Saglani, Sejal

    2017-01-01

    Although a rare disease, severe therapy-resistant asthma in children is a cause of significant morbidity and results in utilization of approximately 50% of health-care resources for asthma. Improving control for children with severe asthma is, therefore, an urgent unmet clinical need. As a group, children with severe asthma have severe and multiple allergies, steroid resistant airway eosinophilia, and significant structural changes of the airway wall (airway remodeling). Omalizumab is currently the only add-on therapy that is licensed for use in children with severe asthma. However, limitations of its use include ineligibility for approximately one-third of patients because of serum IgE levels outside the recommended range and lack of clinical efficacy in a further one-third. Pediatric severe asthma is thus markedly heterogeneous, but our current understanding of the different mechanisms underpinning various phenotypes is very limited. We know that there are distinctions between the factors that drive pediatric and adult disease since pediatric disease develops in the context of a maturing immune system and during lung growth and development. This review summarizes the current data that give insight into the pathophysiology of pediatric severe asthma and will highlight potential targets for novel therapies. It is apparent that in order to identify novel treatments for pediatric severe asthma, the challenge of undertaking mechanistic studies using age appropriate experimental models and airway samples from children needs to be accepted to allow a targeted approach of personalized medicine to be achieved. PMID:28725641

  16. Coherence of mechanical oscillators mediated by coupling to different baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, Daniel; Jasnow, David

    2017-07-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of two mechanical oscillators with general linear couplings to two uncorrelated thermal baths at temperatures T1 and T2, respectively. We obtain the complete solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin equations, which reveal a coherent mixing among the normal modes of the oscillators as a consequence of their off-diagonal couplings to the baths. Unique renormalization aspects resulting from this mixing are discussed. Diagonal and off-diagonal (coherence) correlation functions are obtained analytically in the case of strictly Ohmic baths with different couplings in the strong- and weak-coupling regimes. An asymptotic nonequilibrium stationary state emerges for which we obtain the complete expressions for the correlations and coherence. Remarkably, the coherence survives in the high-temperature, classical limit for T1≠T2 . This is a consequence of the coherence being determined by the difference of the bath correlation functions. In the case of vanishing detuning between the oscillator normal modes both coupling to one and the same bath, the coherence retains memory of the initial conditions at long times. An out-of-equilibrium setup with small detuning and large | T1-T2| produces nonvanishing steady-state coherence in the high-temperature limit of the baths.

  17. Cellular mechanisms of estradiol-mediated masculinization of the brain.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2008-04-01

    The sexual differentiation of reproductive physiology and behavior in the rodent brain is largely determined by estradiol aromatized from testicular androgens. The cellular mechanisms by which estradiol masculinizes the brain are beginning to emerge and revealing novel features of brain development that are highly region-specific. In the preoptic area, the major site controlling male sexual behavior, estradiol increases the level of the COX-2 enzyme and its product, prostaglandin E2 which promotes dendritic spine synaptogenesis. In the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the major site controlling female reproductive behavior, estradiol promotes glutamate release from synaptic terminals, activating NMDA receptors and the MAP kinase pathway. In the arcuate nucleus, a major regulator of anterior pituitary function, estradiol increases GABA synthesis, altering the morphology of neighboring astrocytes and reducing formation of dendritic spines synapses. Glutamate, GABA and the importance of neuronal-astrocytic cross-talk are emerging as common aspects of masculinization. Advances are also being made in the mechanistic basis of female brain development, although the challenges are far greater.

  18. Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeublin, Nicole M.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schrand, Amanda M.; Miller, John M.; Hutchison, Jim; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2011-02-01

    Recently gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have shown promising biological and military applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, little is known about their biocompatibility in the event that they come into contact with a biological system. In the present study, we have investigated whether modulating the surface charge of 1.5 nm Au NPs induced changes in cellular morphology, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium levels, DNA damage-related gene expression, and of p53 and caspase-3 expression levels after exposure in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The evaluation of three different Au NPs (positively charged, neutral, and negatively charged) showed that cell morphology was disrupted by all three NPs and that they demonstrated a dose-dependent toxicity; the charged Au NPs displayed toxicity as low as 10 µg ml-1 and the neutral at 25 µg ml-1. Furthermore, there was significant mitochondrial stress (decreases in MMP and intracellular Ca2+ levels) following exposure to the charged Au NPs, but not the neutral Au NPs. In addition to the differences observed in the MMP and Ca2+ levels, up or down regulation of DNA damage related gene expression suggested a differential cell death mechanism based on whether or not the Au NPs were charged or neutral. Additionally, increased nuclear localization of p53 and caspase-3 expression was observed in cells exposed to the charged Au NPs, while the neutral Au NPs caused an increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 expression. In conclusion, these results indicate that surface charge is a major determinant of how Au NPs impact cellular processes, with the charged NPs inducing cell death through apoptosis and neutral NPs leading to necrosis.Recently gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have shown promising biological and military applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, little is known about their biocompatibility in the

  19. Central Mechanisms Mediating Thrombospondin-4-induced Pain States.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Yu, Yanhui Peter; Zhou, Chun-Yi; Li, Kang-Wu; Wang, Dongqing; Chang, Eric; Kim, Doo-Sik; Vo, Benjamin; Zhang, Xia; Gong, Nian; Sharp, Kelli; Steward, Oswald; Vitko, Iuliia; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Eroglu, Cagla; Barres, Ben; Zaucke, Frank; Feng, Guoping; Luo, Z David

    2016-06-17

    Peripheral nerve injury induces increased expression of thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia that contributes to neuropathic pain states through unknown mechanisms. Here, we test the hypothesis that TSP4 activates its receptor, the voltage-gated calcium channel Cavα2δ1 subunit (Cavα2δ1), on sensory afferent terminals in dorsal spinal cord to promote excitatory synaptogenesis and central sensitization that contribute to neuropathic pain states. We show that there is a direct molecular interaction between TSP4 and Cavα2δ1 in the spinal cord in vivo and that TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes lead to increased behavioral sensitivities to stimuli. In dorsal spinal cord, TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes lead to increased frequency of miniature and amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents in second-order neurons as well as increased VGlut2- and PSD95-positive puncta, indicative of increased excitatory synapses. Blockade of TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes with Cavα2δ1 ligand gabapentin or genetic Cavα2δ1 knockdown blocks TSP4 induced nociception and its pathological correlates. Conversely, TSP4 antibodies or genetic ablation blocks nociception and changes in synaptic transmission in mice overexpressing Cavα2δ1 Importantly, TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent processes also lead to similar behavioral and pathological changes in a neuropathic pain model of peripheral nerve injury. Thus, a TSP4/Cavα2δ1-dependent pathway activated by TSP4 or peripheral nerve injury promotes exaggerated presynaptic excitatory input and evoked sensory neuron hyperexcitability and excitatory synaptogenesis, which together lead to central sensitization and pain state development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Benzoxazinone-Mediated Triazine Degradation: A Proposed Reaction Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Willett, C D; Lerch, R N; Lin, C-H; Goyne, K W; Leigh, N D; Roberts, C A

    2016-06-22

    The role of benzoxazinones (Bx, 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one) in triazine resistance in plants has been studied for over half a century. In this research, fundamental parameters of the reaction between DIBOA-Glc (2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) and atrazine (ATR, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) were examined. Through a series of experiments employing a variety of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, the DIBOA-Glc/ATR reaction was characterized in terms of reactant and product kinetics, stoichiometry, identification of a reaction intermediate, and reaction products formed. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the reaction mechanism proceeds via nucleophilic attack of the hydroxamic acid moiety of DIBOA-Glc at the C-2 position of the triazine ring to form hydroxyatrazine (HA, 2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), with associated degradation of DIBOA-Glc. Degradation of reactants followed first-order kinetics with a noncatalytic role of DIBOA-Glc. A reaction intermediate was identified as a DIBOA-Glc-HA conjugate, indicating a 1:1 DIBOA-Glc:ATR stoichiometry. Reaction products included HA and Cl(-), but definitive identification of DIBOA-Glc reaction product(s) was not attained. With these reaction parameters elucidated, DIBOA-Glc can be evaluated in terms of its potential for a myriad of applications, including its use to address the problem of widespread ATR contamination of soil and water resources.

  1. Putative mechanisms mediating tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jyoti; Miller, Lee M; Pitt, Mark A; Shahin, Antoine J

    2015-03-01

    Audiovisual (AV) speech perception is robust to temporal asynchronies between visual and auditory stimuli. We investigated the neural mechanisms that facilitate tolerance for audiovisual stimulus onset asynchrony (AVOA) with EEG. Individuals were presented with AV words that were asynchronous in onsets of voice and mouth movement and judged whether they were synchronous or not. Behaviorally, individuals tolerated (perceived as synchronous) longer AVOAs when mouth movement preceded the speech (V-A) stimuli than when the speech preceded mouth movement (A-V). Neurophysiologically, the P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), time-locked to sound onsets and known to arise in and surrounding the primary auditory cortex (PAC), were smaller for the in-sync than the out-of-sync percepts. Spectral power of oscillatory activity in the beta band (14-30 Hz) following the AEPs was larger during the in-sync than out-of-sync perception for both A-V and V-A conditions. However, alpha power (8-14 Hz), also following AEPs, was larger for the in-sync than out-of-sync percepts only in the V-A condition. These results demonstrate that AVOA tolerance is enhanced by inhibiting low-level auditory activity (e.g., AEPs representing generators in and surrounding PAC) that code for acoustic onsets. By reducing sensitivity to acoustic onsets, visual-to-auditory onset mapping is weakened, allowing for greater AVOA tolerance. In contrast, beta and alpha results suggest the involvement of higher-level neural processes that may code for language cues (phonetic, lexical), selective attention, and binding of AV percepts, allowing for wider neural windows of temporal integration, i.e., greater AVOA tolerance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Gabapentin reduces allodynia and hyperalgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy rats by decreasing expression level of Nav1.7 and p-ERK1/2 in DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Long; Yang, Jan-Ping; Zhang, Ji-Ru; Li, Rui-Qin; Wang, Jing; Jan, Jin-Jin; Zhuang, Qing

    2013-02-01

    It has been confirmed that gabapentin (GBP) induced a inhibition of the voltage-gated persistent sodium current in chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The persistent sodium current is found in excitable DRG neurons of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rats where it is mediated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive sodium channels. Recently, many groups have used models of neurological disorder to explore the mechanism of GBP in neuropathic pain. There is no evidence, however, to explain the particular mechanism of GBP, including its analgesic actions in PDN rats. These issues were addressed in the present study. Using behavioral testing, we found that diabetes leads to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and these effects were reversed by a continuous GBP injection. To investigate the mechanism of GBP's reduction in neural excitability, we systematically analyzed the expression of Nav1.7 and p-ERK1/2 and tested the effect of GBP on these proteins. Diabetes significantly increased the excitability of DRG neurons and the expression of Nav1.7 and p-ERK1/2, and GBP significantly inhibited these changes. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of GBP on the expression of Nav1.7 and p-ERK1/2 might be one of the analgesic mechanisms of action of GBP. This may partially explain the antinociceptive action of GBP in the PDN rats.

  3. The mechanism of OTUB1-mediated inhibition of ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Reuven; Zhang, Xiangbin; Wang, Tao; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2013-04-08

    Histones are ubiquitinated in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), promoting recruitment of repair proteins to chromatin. UBC13 (also known as UBE2N) is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that heterodimerizes with UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1) and synthesizes K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63Ub) chains at DSB sites in concert with the ubiquitin ligase (E3), RNF168 (ref. 3). K63Ub synthesis is regulated in a non-canonical manner by the deubiquitinating enzyme, OTUB1 (OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding protein 1), which binds preferentially to the UBC13-Ub thiolester. Residues amino-terminal to the OTU domain, which had been implicated in ubiquitin binding, are required for binding to UBC13-Ub and inhibition of K63Ub synthesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies elucidating how OTUB1 inhibits UBC13 and other E2 enzymes. We unexpectedly find that OTUB1 binding to UBC13-Ub is allosterically regulated by free ubiquitin, which binds to a second site in OTUB1 and increases its affinity for UBC13-Ub, while at the same time disrupting interactions with UEV1A in a manner that depends on the OTUB1 N terminus. Crystal structures of an OTUB1-UBC13 complex and of OTUB1 bound to ubiquitin aldehyde and a chemical UBC13-Ub conjugate show that binding of free ubiquitin to OTUB1 triggers conformational changes in the OTU domain and formation of a ubiquitin-binding helix in the N terminus, thus promoting binding of the conjugated donor ubiquitin in UBC13-Ub to OTUB1. The donor ubiquitin thus cannot interact with the E2 enzyme, which has been shown to be important for ubiquitin transfer. The N-terminal helix of OTUB1 is positioned to interfere with UEV1A binding to UBC13, as well as with attack on the thiolester by an acceptor ubiquitin, thereby inhibiting K63Ub synthesis. OTUB1 binding also occludes the RING E3 binding site on UBC13, thus providing a further component of inhibition. The general features of the inhibition mechanism explain how OTUB1

  4. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alleviates remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Yao, Yusheng; Wu, Yihuan; Dai, Dongsheng; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we verified the hypothesis that TEAS can alleviate remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) I-IIpatients, aged 18-60 year, scheduled for thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to TEAS or sham groups. TEAS consisted of 30 min of stimulation (6-9 mA, 2/10 Hz) on the Hegu (LI4) and Neiguan (PC6) before anesthesia. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane adjusted to bispectral index (40-60) and target remifentanil 5.0 ng/ml. Mechanical pain thresholds were assessed using electronic von Frey. The primary outcome was mechanical pain thresholds. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain scores, the time to first rescue analgesic, cumulative number of rescue analgesia, and side effects, including postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), dizziness and shivering in 24 h postoperatively. Results: Baseline mechanical pain thresholds were similar between the groups. The analysis revealed the decrease in mechanical threshold was greater in the sham group than the TEAS group (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain scores and cumulative number of rescue analgesia were lower in the TEAS group (P < 0.05). In addition, TEAS group patients reduced the incidence of PONV and shivering. Conclusion: Preoperative TEAS can attenuate remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:26131165

  5. MMPs initiate Schwann cell-mediated MBP degradation and mechanical nociception after nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Kato, Kinshi; Dolkas, Jennifer; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) emerge as modulators of neuropathic pain. Because myelin protects Aβ afferents from ectopic hyperexcitability and nociception from innocuous mechanical stimuli (or mechanical allodynia), we analyzed the role of MMPs in the development of mechanical allodynia through myelin protein degradation after rat and MMP-9−/− mouse L5 spinal nerve crush (L5 SNC). MMPs were shown to promote selective degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP), with MMP-9 regulating initial Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing after L5 SNC. Acute and long-term therapy with GM6001 (broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor) protected from injury-induced MBP degradation, caspase-mediated apoptosis, macrophage infiltration in the spinal nerve and inhibited astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. The effect of GM6001 therapy on attenuation of mechanical allodynia was robust, immediate and sustained through the course of L5 SNC. In conclusion, MMPs mediate the initiation and maintenance of mechanical nociception through Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing and support of neuroinflammation. PMID:18817874

  6. The adaptor protein GULP promotes Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis through a clathrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Chelsea S; Scheib, Jami L; Ma, Zhong; Dang, Rajan P; Schafer, Johanna M; Hickman, Francis E; Brodsky, Frances M; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Carter, Bruce D

    2014-06-15

    During the development of the peripheral nervous system, the large number of apoptotic neurons generated are phagocytosed by glial precursor cells. This clearance is mediated, in part, through the mammalian engulfment receptor Jedi-1. However, the mechanisms by which Jedi-1 mediates phagocytosis are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Jedi-1 associates with GULP, the mammalian homologue of CED-6, an adaptor protein required for phagocytosis mediated by the nematode engulfment receptor CED-1. Silencing GULP or mutating the NPXY motif in Jedi-1, which is required for GULP binding, prevents Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis. How GULP promotes engulfment is not known. Of interest, we find that Jedi-1-induced phagocytosis requires GULP binding to clathrin heavy chain (CHC). During engulfment, CHC is tyrosine phosphorylated, which is required for Jedi-mediated engulfment. Both phosphoclathrin and actin accumulate around engulfed microspheres. Furthermore, knockdown of CHC in HeLa cells prevents Jedi-1-mediated engulfment of microspheres, and knockdown in glial precursors prevents the engulfment of apoptotic neurons. Taken together, these results reveal that Jedi-1 signals through recruitment of GULP, which promotes phagocytosis through a noncanonical phosphoclathrin-dependent mechanism. © 2014 Sullivan et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Nitric oxide synthase modulates CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through cytokine regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Boettger, Michael K; Reif, Andreas; Schmitt, Angelika; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia

    2010-03-02

    Although it has been largely demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a key enzyme for nitric oxide (NO) production, modulates inflammatory pain, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clarified. Here we asked whether cytokines, which have well-described roles in inflammatory pain, are downstream targets of NO in inflammatory pain and which of the isoforms of NOS are involved in this process. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with 7-nitroindazole sodium salt (7-NINA, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor), aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor), L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor), but not L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine (L-NIO, a selective endothelial NOS inhibitor), significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed a significant increase of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS gene expression, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression in plantar skin, following CFA. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitors prevented the CFA-induced increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta. The increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was augmented in mice pretreated with 7-NINA or L-NAME, but reduced in mice receiving AG or L-NIO. NNOS-, iNOS- or eNOS-knockout (KO) mice had lower gene expression of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10 following CFA, overall corroborating the inhibitor data. These findings lead us to propose that inhibition of NOS modulates inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia by regulating cytokine expression.

  8. Downregulation of the spinal NMDA receptor NR2B subunit during electro-acupuncture relief of chronic visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongping; Zhang, Yuhua; Qi, Debo; Li, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of spinal NR2B, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit, in the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia was investigated. Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced using an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model in rats. Graded colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli at strengths of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were applied, and behavioral tests were performed to measure the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in response to the CRD stimuli and assess the severity of the visceral hyperalgesia. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model (model) group, EA-treated IBS rats (EA) group and sham EA-treated IBS rats (sham EA) group. For the EA treatment, electric stimuli were applied through needles inserted into two acupoints [Zu-san-li (ST-36) and Shang-ju-xu (ST-37)] in both hind limbs, while the sham EA treatment consisted of only the insertion of needles into these same acupoints without an application of electric stimuli. Our results showed that AWR scores of the model group responding to CRD stimuli of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were significantly increased. These increased scores subsequently decreased following EA treatment (P < 0.05) compared with those for the other groups. The expression of NR2B in the superficial laminae (SDH, laminae I and II), nucleus proprius (NP, laminae III and IV), neck of the dorsal horn (NECK, laminae V and VI) and central canal region (lamina X) at thoracolumbar (T13-L2) and lumbosacral (L6-S2) segmental level significantly increased in the model group versus the control group (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased after EA treatment (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in neither AWR scores nor expression of the NR2B subunit in these spinal regions after the sham EA treatment. These results confirm that EA can relieve chronic visceral hyperalgesia in IBS model rats and suggest that such an effect is possibly mediated through the

  9. The lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the hyperalgesic effects of negative cognitions in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Berna, Chantal; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M.; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Gollub, Randy L.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    While high levels of negative affect and cognitions have been associated in chronic pain conditions with greater pain sensitivity, the neural mechanisms mediating the hyperalgesic effect of psychological factors in patients with pain disorders are largely unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that 1) catastrophizing modulates brain responses to pain anticipation, and that 2) anticipatory brain activity mediates the hyperalgesic effect of different levels of catastrophizing, in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we scanned the brains of 31 FM patients exposed to visual cues anticipating the onset of moderately intense deep-tissue pain stimuli. Our results indicated the existence of a negative association between catastrophizing and pain-anticipatory brain activity, including in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC). A bootstrapped mediation analysis revealed that pain-anticipatory activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC) mediates the association between catastrophizing and pain sensitivity. These findings highlight the role of IPFC in the pathophysiology of FM related hyperalgesia, and suggest that deficits in the recruitment of pain-inhibitory brain circuitry during pain-anticipatory periods may play an important contributory role in the association between various degrees of widespread hyperalgesia in FM and levels of catastrophizing, a well validated measure of negative cognitions and psychological distress. Perspective This article highlights the presence of alterations in pain-anticipatory brain activity in FM. These findings provide the rationale for the development of psychological or neurofeedback-based techniques aimed at modifying patients' negative affect and cognitions towards pain. PMID:25937162

  10. Evaluation of the third-party mediation mechanism for medical disputes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min

    2011-09-01

    Medical disputes have been increasing in recent years in China, which cause growing tension between doctors and patients. In many locations, it has started as a practice of exploring diversified dispute settlement methods. Great importance has been attached to the non-lawsuit model through third-party mediation, which might have been led by professional organizations, insurance companies, People's Mediation Committees, or three-level governmental authorities. Those have contributed to a rapid effective resolution of medical disputes. However, there are some deficiencies that need to be addressed and fixed up, thus calling for improvement, such as the lack of a sustainable supporting mechanism, unclear legal status of the mediation institutions and mediation agreements, patching up a quarrel by only compensation.

  11. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongchao; Sun, Wanchun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Christie, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth's crust and in soils, it has not yet been listed among the essential elements for higher plants. However, the beneficial role of Si in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively mitigate various abiotic stresses such as manganese, aluminum and heavy metal toxicities, and salinity, drought, chilling and freezing stresses. However, mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses remain poorly understood. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants include: (1) stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, (2) complexation or co-precipitation of toxic metal ions with Si, (3) immobilization of toxic metal ions in growth media, (4) uptake processes, and (5) compartmentation of metal ions within plants. Future research needs for Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses are also discussed.

  12. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages—early a