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Sample records for mediator-assisted simultaneous probing

  1. Mediator-assisted simultaneous probing of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox activity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spégel, Christer; Kostesha, Natalie; Lindahl, Sofia; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This work describes an electron transfer mediator-assisted amperometric flow injection method for assessing redox enzyme activity in different subcellular compartments of the phosphoglucose isomerase deletion mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EBY44. The method is demonstrated using the ferricyanide-menadione double mediator system to study the effect of dicoumarol, an inhibitor of cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidoreductases and an uncoupler of the electron transport chain. Evaluation of the role of NAD(P)H-producing pathways in mediating biological effects is facilitated by introducing either fructose or glucose as the carbon source, yielding either NADH or NADPH through the glycolytic or pentose phosphate pathway, respectively. Respiratory noncompetent cells show greater inhibition of cytosolic menadione-reducing enzymes when NADH rather than NADPH is produced. Spectrophotometric in vitro assays show no difference between the cofactors. Respiratory competent cells show cytosolic inhibition only when NADPH is produced, whereas production of NADH reveals uncoupling at low dicoumarol concentrations and inhibition of complexes III and IV at higher concentrations. Spectrophotometric assays only indicate the presence of cytosolic inhibition regardless of the reduced cofactor used. This article shows the applicability of the amperometric method and emphasizes the significance of determining biological effects of chemicals in living cells.

  2. An approach to directly probe simultaneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipreos, Edward T.; Balachandran, Riju S.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of special relativity derives from the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz transformation implies differential simultaneity and light speed isotropy. Experiments to probe differential simultaneity should be able to distinguish the Lorentz transformation from a kinematically-similar alternate transformation that predicts absolute simultaneity, the absolute Lorentz transformation. Here, we describe how published optical tests of light speed isotropy/anisotropy cannot distinguish between the two transformations. We show that the shared equations of the two transformations, from the perspective of the “stationary” observer, are sufficient to predict null results in optical resonator experiments and in tests of frequency changes in one-way light paths. In an influential 1910 exposition on differential simultaneity, Comstock described how a “stationary” observer would observe different clock readings for spatially-separated “moving” clocks. The difference in clock readings is an integral aspect of differential simultaneity. We derive the equation for the difference in clock readings and show that it is equivalent to the Sagnac correction that describes light speed anisotropies in satellite communications. We describe an experimental strategy that can measure the differences in spatially-separated clock times to allow a direct probe of the nature of simultaneity.

  3. New Dual Fluorescent Probe for Simultaneous Biothiol and Phosphate Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Resa, Sandra; Orte, Angel; Miguel, Delia; Paredes, Jose M; Puente-Muñoz, Virginia; Salto, Rafael; Giron, Maria D; Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Cuerva, Juan M; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M; Crovetto, Luis

    2015-10-12

    The simultaneous detection of relevant metabolites in living organisms by using one molecule introduces an approach to understanding the relationships between these metabolites in healthy and deregulated cells. Fluorescent probes of low toxicity are remarkable tools for this type of analysis of biological systems in vivo. As a proof of concept, different naturally occurring compounds, such as biothiols and phosphate anions, were the focus for this work. The 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfinate (DNBS) derivative of 9-[1-(4-tert-butyl-2-methoxyphenyl)]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (Granada Green; GG) were designed and synthesized. This new sulfinyl xanthene derivative can act as a dual sensor for the aforementioned analytes simultaneously. The mechanism of action of this derivative implies thiolysis of the sulfinyl group of the weakly fluorescent DNBS-GG by biological thiols at near-neutral pH values, thus releasing the fluorescent GG moiety, which simultaneously responds to phosphate anions through its fluorescence-decay time. The new dual probe was tested in solution by using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and intracellularly by using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in human epithelioid cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cells.

  4. First simultaneous measurements of Reynolds stress with ball-pen and Langmuir probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Ondrej; Adamek, Jiri; Seidl, Jakub; Devitre, Alexis; Sos, Miroslav; Vondracek, Petr; Bilkova, Petra; Hron, Martin

    2017-06-01

    A new multi-pin probe head was installed and tested at the COMPASS tokamak. The probe head consists of several ball-pen and Langmuir probes in similar geometric configurations, which enables fast, simultaneous measurements of the radial and poloidal electric field components from differences of plasma or floating potentials using appropriately positioned ball-pen or Langmuir probes, respectively. The fast measurements of the radial electric field are compared with other methods of measuring selected frequency components of the radial electric field. The radial profiles of the Reynolds stress calculated from correlations of electric field fluctuations obtained by either probe type are compared along with their spectral composition. Lower Reynolds stress values are found for Langmuir probes in comparison to ball-pen probes due to negative contributions from higher frequency fluctuations possibly associated with electron temperature fluctuations.

  5. Using Amino-Labeled Nucleotide Probes for Simultaneous Single Molecule RNA-DNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using amino-labeled oligonucleotide probes, we established a simple, robust and low-noise method for simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization, a highly useful tool to study the large pool of long non-coding RNAs being identified in the current research. With probes either chemically or biologically synthesized, we demonstrate that the method can be applied to study a wide range of RNA and DNA targets at the single-cell and single-molecule level in cellular contexts. PMID:25226542

  6. Recommendations for the design of interference probes for the simultaneous measurement of turbulent concentration and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewes, Alaïs; Mydlarski, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    The present work focuses on the design and optimization of a thermal-anemometry-based interference probe used to simultaneously measure concentration and velocity at relatively high temporal and spatial resolutions in turbulent flows. Although a small number of similar measurements have been successfully performed, little work has been undertaken to investigate the design of such specialized probes, in which one hot-wire sensor is operated downstream of, and micrometers from, a second one. To this end, experiments performed in the non-buoyant region of a helium-air jet were undertaken to study the effects of overheat ratios, wire separation distances, wire diameters, and wire materials on the performance of interference probes. They revealed that accurate concentration and velocity measurements require that an interference probe have two wires of differing diameters with a small separation, of about 10 μm, between the wires. Furthermore, the upstream wire should be operated at a high overheat ratio and the downstream wire at a low one. An optimal design for an interference probe is presented, and measurements made in a turbulent jet are used to benchmark its accuracy. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grant 217184).

  7. Simultaneous in vivo recording of local brain temperature and electrophysiological signals with a novel neural probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Z.; Csernai, M.; Kocsis, K.; Horváth, Á. C.; Pongrácz, A.; Barthó, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. Approach. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, which records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site. The feasibility of the simultaneous functionality is presented in in vivo studies. The probe was tested in the thalamus of anesthetized mice while manipulating the core temperature of the animals. Main results. We obtained multiunit and local field recordings along with measurement of local brain temperature with accuracy of 0.14 °C. Brain temperature generally followed core body temperature, but also showed superimposed fluctuations corresponding to epochs of increased local neural activity. With the application of higher currents, we increased the local temperature by several degrees without observable tissue damage between 34-39 °C. Significance. The proposed multifunctional tool is envisioned to broaden our knowledge on the role of the thermal modulation of neuronal activity in both cortical and deeper brain regions.

  8. Simultaneous Measurement of Air Temperature and Humidity Based on Sound Velocity and Attenuation Using Ultrasonic Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motegi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an acoustic technique for air temperature and humidity measurement in moist air is described. The previous ultrasonic probe can enable the estimation of temperature from sound velocity in dry air by making use of the relationship between sound velocity and temperature. However, temperature measurement using the previous ultrasonic probe is not suitable in moist air because sound velocity also depends on humidity, and the temperature estimated from the sound velocity measured in moist air must be adjusted. Moreover, a method of humidity measurement by using only an ultrasonic probe has not been established. Thus, we focus on sound attenuation, which depends on temperature and humidity. Our proposed technique utilizes two parameters, sound velocity and attenuation, and can measure both temperature and humidity simultaneously. The acoustic technique for temperature and humidity measurement has the advantages that instantaneous temperature and humidity can be measured, and the measurement is not affected by thermal radiation because air itself is used as a sensing element. As an experiment, temperature and humidity are measured in a chamber, and compared with the reference values. The experimental results indicate the achievement of a practical temperature measurement accuracy of within +/-0.5 K in moist air, of which the temperature is 293-308 K and relative humidity (RH) is 50-90% RH, and the simultaneous measurement of temperature and humidity.

  9. Simultaneous poloidal measurements using new magnetically driven reciprocating probes in COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejarnac, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Dimitrova, M.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saragosti-Chausy, C.; Tamain, P.; the COMPASS Team

    2016-03-01

    Particles and heat transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks is not yet fully understood. COMPASS is a small-size tokamakp where the edge plasma is well diagnosed in view of studying the competition between the parallel and the cross-field transport in the SOL. In order to better characterize SOL dynamics, in particular the poloidal asymmetry of the main parameters' radial profiles, two new in-situ magnetically driven reciprocating manipulators have been recently installed in COMPASS. These manipulators, the so-called pecker probes, are two additional poloidal measurement points to the existing two (vertical and horizontal) reciprocating manipulators. The pecker probes are located at the low field side of COMPASS at ±47.5o with respect to the outer mid-plane and are equipped with identical tunnel probe heads, providing simultaneous measurements of the ion saturation current density Jsat, the electron temperature Te and the parallel Mach number M// with high temporal resolution. In this paper, a detailed description of the pecker probe system in COMPASS is described and first measurements are presented.

  10. Probing interactions of thermal Sr Rydberg atoms using simultaneous optical and ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Ryan K.; Bounds, Alistair D.; Huillery, Paul; Keegan, Niamh C.; Faoro, Riccardo; Bridge, Elizabeth M.; Weatherill, Kevin J.; Jones, Matthew P. A.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for probing interaction effects in a thermal beam of strontium atoms using simultaneous measurements of Rydberg EIT and spontaneously created ions or electrons. We present a Doppler-averaged optical Bloch equation model that reproduces the optical signals and allows us to connect the optical coherences and the populations. We use this to determine that the spontaneous ionization process in our system occurs due to collisions between Rydberg and ground state atoms in the EIT regime. We measure the cross section of this process to be 0.6+/- 0.2 {σ }{geo}, where {σ }{geo} is the geometrical cross section of the Rydberg atom. This result adds complementary insight to a range of recent studies of interacting thermal Rydberg ensembles.

  11. Simultaneous detection of DNA from 10 food allergens by ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Alexandra; Demmel, Anja; Hupfer, Christine; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-04-01

    The simultaneous detection of DNA from different allergenic food ingredients by a ligation-dependent probe amplification (LPA) system is described. The approach allows detection of several targets in a one-tube assay. Synthetic oligonucleotides were designed to detect DNA from peanuts, cashews, pecans, pistachios, hazelnuts, sesame seeds, macadamia nuts, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts. The specificity of the system was tested with DNA from more than 50 plant and animal species. The sensitivity of the method was suitable to detect allergenic ingredients in the low mg kg(-1) range. The limit of detection (LOD) for single allergens in different food matrices was 5 mg kg(-1). The novel analytical strategy represents a useful tool for the surveillance of established legislation on food allergens within the European Union.

  12. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  13. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  14. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  15. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  16. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  17. Multifunctional magnetic-optical nanoparticle probes for simultaneous detection, separation, and thermal ablation of multiple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chungang; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles possessing magnetization and near-infrared (NIR) absorption have warranted interest due to their significant applications in magnetic resonance imaging, diagnosis, bioseparation, target delivery, and NIR photothermal ablation. Herein, the site-selective assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto the ends or ends and sides of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (ARs) to create multifunctional nanorods decorated with varying numbers of magnetic particles is described for the first time. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles are designated as Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod)-Fe(3)O(4) nanodumbbells and Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike constructs with tunable optical and magnetic properties, respectively. These hybrid nanomaterials can be used for multiplex detection and separation because of their tunable magnetic and plasmonic functionality. More specifically, Fe(3)O(4)-Au(rod) necklacelike probes of different ARs are utilized for simultaneous optical detection based on their plasmon properties, magnetic separation, and photokilling of multiple pathogens from a single sample at one time. The combined functionalities of the synthesized probes will open up many exciting opportunities in dual imaging for targeted delivery and photothermal therapy.

  18. Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. J.; Everdell, N. L.; Enfield, L. C.; Gibson, A. P.; Worley, Alan; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2009-04-01

    We present a novel probe design which enables simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging to be performed in a manner which is easy to apply, allows for optimum co-registration of the two forms of data and maximizes the number of sensors which can be applied to a given area. Our probe design is evaluated using a dual-modality, tissue-mimicking phantom and by performing a simple functional activation study of the human motor cortex. We successfully acquired NIR optical and EEG data simultaneously for both our phantom and our human motor cortex experiments, clearly demonstrating the effectiveness and suitability of our 'opto-electrode'.

  19. Simultaneous Pi2 observations by the Van Allen Probes inside and outside the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamry, E.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Choi, J.; Hyun, K.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Huang, J.

    2015-06-01

    Plasmaspheric virtual resonance (PVR) model has been proposed as one of source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Since PVR-associated Pi2 pulsations are not localized inside the plasmasphere, simultaneous multipoint observations inside and outside the plasmasphere require to test the PVR model. Until now, however, there are few studies using simultaneous multisatellite observations inside and outside the plasmasphere for understanding the radial structure of Pi2 pulsation. In this study, we focus on the Pi2 event observed at low-latitude Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) ground station in South Korea in the postmidnight sector (magnetic local time (MLT) = 3.0) for the interval from 1730 to 1900 UT on 12 March 2013. By using electron density derived from the frequency of the upper hybrid waves detected at Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A) and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B), the plasmapause is identified. At the time of the Pi2 event, VAP-A was outside the plasmasphere near midnight (00:55 MLT and L =˜ 6), while VAP-B was inside the plasmasphere in the postmidnight sector (02:15 MLT and L =˜ 5). VAP-B observed oscillations in the compressional magnetic field component (Bz) and the dawn-to-dusk electric field component (Ey), having high coherence with the BOH Pi2 pulsation in the H component. The H-Bz and H-Ey cross phases at VAP-B inside the plasmasphere were near -180° and -90°, respectively. These phase relationships among Bz, Ey, and H are consistent with a radially standing oscillation of the fundamental mode reported in previous studies. At VAP-A outside the plasmasphere, Bz oscillations were highly correlated with BOH Pi2 pulsations with ˜-180° phase delay, and the H-Ey cross phase is near -90°. From these two-satellite observations, we suggest that the fundamental PVR mode is directly detected by VAP-A and VAP-B.

  20. Probing Photothermal Effects on Optically Trapped Gold Nanorods by Simultaneous Plasmon Spectroscopy and Brownian Dynamics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrén, Daniel; Shao, Lei; Odebo Länk, Nils; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Johansson, Peter; Käll, Mikael

    2017-09-20

    Plasmonic gold nanorods are prime candidates for a variety of biomedical, spectroscopy, data storage, and sensing applications. It was recently shown that gold nanorods optically trapped by a focused circularly polarized laser beam can function as extremely efficient nanoscopic rotary motors. The system holds promise for applications ranging from nanofluidic flow control and nanorobotics to biomolecular actuation and analysis. However, to fully exploit this potential, one needs to be able to control and understand heating effects associated with laser trapping. We investigated photothermal heating of individual rotating gold nanorods by simultaneously probing their localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum and rotational Brownian dynamics over extended periods of time. The data reveal an extremely slow nanoparticle reshaping process, involving migration of the order of a few hundred atoms per minute, for moderate laser powers and a trapping wavelength close to plasmon resonance. The plasmon spectroscopy and Brownian analysis allows for separate temperature estimates based on the refractive index and the viscosity of the water surrounding a trapped nanorod. We show that both measurements yield similar effective temperatures, which correspond to the actual temperature at a distance of the order 10-15 nm from the particle surface. Our results shed light on photothermal processes on the nanoscale and will be useful in evaluating the applicability and performance of nanorod motors and optically heated nanoparticles for a variety of applications.

  1. Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Schering, Alexander; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The need remains great for early diagnosis of diseases. The special structure of the eye provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive light-based imaging of fundus vasculature. To detect endothelial injury at the early and reversible stage of adhesion molecule up-regulation, we generated novel imaging agents that target two distinct types of endothelial molecules, a mediator of rolling, P-selectin, and one that mediates firm adhesion, ICAM-1. Interactions of these double-conjugated fluorescent microspheres (MSs) in retinal or choroidal microvasculature were visualized in live animals by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The new imaging agents showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of endothelial injury than singly conjugated MSs (rPSGL-1- or α-ICAM-1-conjugated), both in terms of rolling (P<0.01) and firm adhesion (P<0.01). The rolling flux of α-ICAM-1-conjugated MSs did not differ in EIU animals, whereas double-conjugated MSs showed significantly higher rolling flux (P<0.01), revealing that ICAM-1 in vivo supports rolling, once MS interaction with the endothelium is initiated. Double-conjugated MSs specifically detected firmly adhering leukocytes (P<0.01), allowing in vivo quantification of immune response. Antiinflammatory treatment with dexamethasone led to reduced leukocyte accumulation (P<0.01) as well as MS interaction (P<0.01), which suggests that treatment success and resolution of inflammation is quantitatively reflected with this molecular imaging approach. This work introduces novel imaging agents for noninvasive detection of endothelial injury in vivo. Our approach may be developed further to diagnose human disease at a much earlier stage than currently possible.—Sun, D., Nakao, S., Xie, F., Zandi, S., Schering, A., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers. PMID:20103715

  2. A nine-electrode probe for simultaneous measurement of all terms in the ideal radial Ohm's law

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Jiahe; Wang, Zhehui

    2006-10-15

    A Nine-Electrode Probe (NEP) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of all terms in the ideal Ohm's law E+UxB=0 in the radial (r) direction in cylindrical geometry, where E is the electric field, U is the plasma flow velocity, and B is the magnetic field. The probe consists of two pairs of directional Langmuir probes ('Mach' probes) to measure the axial (z) and azimuthal ({theta}) plasma flows, two pairs of floating Langmuir probes at different radial positions to measure the radial electric field, and two B-dot coils to measure the axial and azimuthal magnetic field. The measurement is performed in the Flowing Magnetized Plasma (FMP) experiment. Two flow patterns are identified in the FMP experiment by the NEP. The peak-to-peak values of radial electric field fluctuation is 1.5-4 times of the mean values. Comparisons of UxBvertical bar{sub r} and E{sub r} show that E{sub r}+ UxBvertical bar{sub r} is not zero within some periods of discharge. This deviation suggests non-ideal effects in Ohm's law can not be neglected.

  3. Simultaneous absolute and differential operation of eddy current bobbin probes for heat exchanger tube inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.P.; Smith, S.P.; Sharp, F.L.

    2000-05-01

    Here the authors try to dissolve some commonly held misconceptions about the operation of eddy current probes used for inspecting heat exchanger tubes. With the help of computer model results, the authors demonstrate that, for optimized operation, absolute/differential probes should be operated with coil current flowing in phase with another. This month's feature should be of interest to researchers as well as for NDT field personnel.

  4. High-resolution melting analysis using unlabeled probe and amplicon scanning simultaneously detects several lactase persistence variants.

    PubMed

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Vestergaard, Else M; Ladefoged, Søren A; Nissen, Peter H

    2010-12-01

    Lactase persistence and thereby tolerance to lactose is a common trait in people of Northern European descent. It is linked to the LCT -13910C>T variant located in intron 13 of the MCM6 gene 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene. In people of African and Middle Eastern descent, lactase persistence can be associated with other variants nearby the -13910C>T variant, limiting the use of the -13910C>T-based SNP analysis, e.g. TaqMan assays for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Using high-resolution melting analysis, we identified five samples that were heterozygous for the -13915T>G variant among 78 patients genotyped as -13910C/C by a TaqMan assay. All samples originated from patients of probable Middle Eastern descent. In order to detect the -13910 and -13915 variants simultaneously, we developed a new high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis assay based on unlabeled probe genotyping and simultaneous amplicon scanning analysis. By using this assay we were able to distinguish the -13910 and -13915 genotypes clearly. Furthermore, we identified two rare variants, the -13907C>G and -13913T>C. With this method, based on an inexpensive unlabeled probe, it is possible to simultaneously detect the -13910C>T and -13915T>G variants in addition to rarer variants surrounding the -13910 site. This new method may contribute to improve the diagnostic performance of the genetic analysis for lactose intolerance.

  5. Design and optimization of a miniaturized imaging probe for simultaneous endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, Simon; Vilches, Sergio; Blattmann, Marc; Ataman, Caglar; Zappe, Hans

    2017-02-01

    A highly-integrated MEMS-based bimodal probe design with integrated piezoelectric fiber scanner for simul- taneous endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is presented. The two modalities rely on spectrally-separated optical paths that run partially in parallel through a micro-optical bench system, which has dimensions of only 13 x 2 x 3mm3 (l x w x h). An integrated tubular piezoelectric fiber scanner is used to perform en face scanning required for three dimensional OCT measurements. This scanning engine has an outer diameter of 0.9mm and a length of 9mm, and features custom fabricated 10 μm thick polyimide flexible interconnect lines to address the four piezoelectric electrodes. As a platform combining a full-field and a scanning imaging modality, the developed probe design constitutes a blue print for a wide range of multi-modal endoscopic imaging probes.

  6. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  7. A multichannel neural probe with embedded microfluidic channels for simultaneous in vivo neural recording and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjoo J; Son, Yoojin; Kim, Jeongyeon; Lee, C Justin; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-03-21

    Multi-functional neural probes integrated with various stimulation modalities are becoming essential tools in neuroscience to study the brain more effectively. In this paper, we present a new multi-functional neural probe that allows chemical stimulation through drug delivery and simultaneous recording of individual neuron signals through a microelectrode array. By embedding microchannels in silicon using a proposed glass reflow process, we successfully fabricated 40 μm thick silicon neural probes suitable for small animal experiments. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirms that impedance of iridium microelectrodes is low enough (<1 MΩ at 1 kHz) to measure neural signals. Flow rate characterization in a 0.9% w/v agarose gel shows the capability to deliver a small volume of drugs (<1 μl) at a controlled flow rate. We demonstrate the viability and potential of this new probe by conducting in vivo experiments on mice. Because of the proposed compact structure, both action potentials of individual neurons and local field potentials (LFP) at the thalamus region of a mouse brain were successfully detected with a noise level of ~30 μVpp. Furthermore, we successfully induced absence seizure by injecting seizure-inducing drugs (baclofen) at a local target region and observed distinctive changes in neural signal patterns. Specifically, spike-wave discharge (SWD), which is an indicative signal pattern of absence seizure, was successfully recorded. These signals were also directly compared to SWD detected after inducing absence seizure through direct injection of baclofen through the abdomen. This work demonstrates the potential of our multi-functional neural probes for use in effective investigation of brain functions and disorders by using widely available mouse models.

  8. Microwave-assisted asymmetric organocatalysis. A probe for nonthermal microwave effects and the concept of simultaneous cooling.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Masood; Stiasni, Nikola; Barbieri, Vera; Kappe, C Oliver

    2007-02-16

    A series of five known asymmetric organocatalytic reactions was re-evaluated at elevated temperatures applying both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating in order to probe the existence of specific or nonthermal microwave effects. All transformations were conducted in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using fiber-optic probes. In addition, the concept of simultaneous external cooling while irradiating with microwave power was also applied in all of the studied cases. This method allows a higher level of microwave power to be administered to the reaction mixture and, therefore, enhances any potential microwave effects while continuously removing heat. For all of the five studied (S)-proline-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich- and aldol-type reactions, the observed rate enhancements were a consequence of the increased temperatures attained by microwave dielectric heating and were not related to the presence of the microwave field. In all cases, in contrast to previous literature reports, the results obtained either with microwave irradiation or with microwave irradiation with simultaneous cooling could be reproduced by conventional heating at the same reaction temperature and time in an oil bath. No evidence for specific or nonthermal microwave effects was obtained.

  9. Microsurgical laser Doppler probe for simultaneous intraoperative monitoring of cochlear blood flow and electrocochleography from the round window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiy, Lidet; Telischi, Fred; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Manns, Fabrice; Saettele, Ralph; Morawski, Krzysztof; Ozdamar, Ozcan; Borgos, John; Delgado, Rafael; Miskiel, Edward; Yavuz, Erdem

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this project is the development of a microsurgical laser Doppler (LD) probe that simultaneously monitors blood flow and Electrocochleography (ECochG) from the round window of the ear. The device will prevent neurosensory hearing loss during acoustic neuroma surgery by preventing damage to the internal auditory nerve and to the cochlear blood flow supply. A commercially available 0.5 mm diameter Laser-Doppler velocimetry probe (LaserFlo, Vasamedics) was modified to integrate an ECochG electrode. A tube for suction and irrigation was incorporated into a sheath of the probe shaft, to facilitate cleaning of the round window (RW) and allow drug delivery to the round window membrane. The prototype microprobe was calibrated on a single vessel model and tested in vivo in a rabbit model. Preliminary results indicate that the microprobe was able to measure changes in cochlear blood flow (CBF) and ECochG potentials from the round window of rabbits in vivo. The microprobe is suitable for monitoring cochlear blood flow and auditory cochlear potentials during human surgery.

  10. Colloidal gold-McAb probe-based rapid immunoassay strip for simultaneous detection of fumonisins in maize.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jingjing; Sun, Yaning; Li, Qingmei; Wang, Fangyu; Teng, Man; Yang, Yanyan; Deng, Ruiguang; Hu, Xiaofei

    2017-05-01

    Fumonisins are a kind of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for simultaneous detection of fumonisin B1 , B2 and B3 (FB1 , FB2 and FB3 ) in maize based on colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody (McAb) against FB1 probe. The anti-FB1 McAb (2E11-H3) was produced through immunisation and cell fusion, and identified as high affinity, specificity and sensitivity. The cross-reaction ratios with fumonisin B2 and B3 were accordingly 385% and 72.4%, while none with other analogues. The colloid gold-labelled anti-FB1 McAb probe was successfully prepared and used for establishing the immunochromatographic strip. The test strip showed high sensitivity and specificity, the IC50 for FB1 was 58.08 ng mL(-1) , LOD was 11.24 ng mL(-1) , calculated from standard curve. Moreover, the test strip exhibited high cross-reactivity with FB2 and FB3 , and could be applied to the simultaneous detection of FBs (FB1 :FB2 :FB3 = 12:4:1) in maize sample with high accuracy and precision. The average recoveries of FBs in maize ranged from 90.42% to 95.29%, and CVs were 1.25-3.77%. The results of the test strip for FBs samples showed good correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The immunochromatographic test strip could be employed in the rapid simultaneous detection of FB1 , FB2 and FB3 in maize samples on-site. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Simultaneous topographic and amperometric membrane mapping using an AFM probe integrated biosensor.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza Elena; Csaki, Andrea; Urban, Matthias; Nietzsche, Sandor; Biskup, Christoph; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2011-02-15

    The investigation of the plasma membrane with intercorrelated multiparameter techniques is a prerequisite for understanding its function. Presented here, is a simultaneous electrochemical and topographic study of the cell membrane using a miniaturized amperometric enzymatic biosensor. The fabrication of this biosensor is also reported. The biosensor combines a scanning force microscopy (AFM) gold-coated cantilever and an enzymatic transducer layer of peroxidases (PODs). When these enzymes are brought in contact with the substrate, the specific redox reaction produces an electric current. The intensity of this current is detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. For sensor characterization, hydroquinone-2-carboxylic acid (HQ) is selected as an intrinsic source of H(2)O(2). HQ has been electrochemically regenerated by the reduction of antraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ). The biosensor reaches the steady state value of the current intensity in 1 ± 0.2s. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiplex hydrolysis probe real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Cao, Jingyuan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Bi, Shengli

    2014-05-30

    Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, multiplex real-time PCR has been increasingly used for a variety of viral nucleic acid detections and has proven to be superior to traditional methods. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide; both HAV and HEV infection are a main public health problem. In the present study, a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using hydrolysis probes was developed for simultaneously detecting HAV and HEV. This novel detection system proved specific to the target viruses, to be highly sensitive and to be applicable to clinical sera samples, making it useful for rapid, accurate and feasible identification of HAV and HEV.

  13. Multiplex Hydrolysis Probe Real-Time PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feng; Cao, Jingyuan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Bi, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Detection of hepatitis viral infections has traditionally relied on the circulating antibody test using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, multiplex real-time PCR has been increasingly used for a variety of viral nucleic acid detections and has proven to be superior to traditional methods. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the major causes of acute hepatitis worldwide; both HAV and HEV infection are a main public health problem. In the present study, a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using hydrolysis probes was developed for simultaneously detecting HAV and HEV. This novel detection system proved specific to the target viruses, to be highly sensitive and to be applicable to clinical sera samples, making it useful for rapid, accurate and feasible identification of HAV and HEV. PMID:24886818

  14. Simultaneously measured signals in scanning probe microscopy with a needle sensor: Frequency shift and tunneling current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Voigtländer, Bert

    2010-03-01

    We present combined noncontact scanning force microscopy and tunneling current images of a platinum(111) surface obtained by means of a 1 MHz quartz needle sensor. The low-frequency circuit of the tunneling current was combined with a high-frequency signal of the quartz resonator enabling full electrical operation of the sensor. The frequency shift and the tunneling current were detected simultaneously, while the feedback control loop of the topography signal was fed using one of them. In both cases, the free signal that was not connected to the feedback loop reveals proportional-integral controller errorlike behavior, which is governed by the time derivative of the topography signal. A procedure is proposed for determining the mechanical oscillation amplitude by utilizing the tunneling current also including the average tip-sample work function.

  15. Simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems and radical reactions in cells by nitroxyl biradical as probe.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoko; Koshiishi, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a novel probe for the simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems (electron transport chain) and one-electron oxidizing systems (free radical reactions) in cells by electron chemical detection was developed. Six-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl; TEMPO series) are sensitive to one-electron redox systems, generating the hydroxylamine form [TEMPO(H)] via one-electron reduction, and the secondary amine form [TEMPO(N)] via one-electron oxidation in the presence of thiols. In contrast, the sensitivities of five-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl; PROXYL series) to the one-electron redox systems are comparatively low. The electron chemical detector can detect 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), TEMPO(H) and PROXYL but not TEMPO(N). Therefore, nitroxyl biradical, TEMPO-PROXYL, as a probe for the evaluation of one-electron redox systems was employed. TEMPO-PROXYL was synthesized by the conjunction of 4-amino-TEMPO with 3-carboxyl-PROXYL via the conventional dicyclohexyl carbodiimide reaction. TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were simultaneously quantified by HPLC with Coularray detection. Calibration curves for the quantification of TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were linear in the range from 80 nm to 80 μm, and the lowest quantification limit of each molecule was estimated to be <80 nm. The relative standard deviations at 0.8 and 80 μm were within 10% (n = 5). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Temperature-sensitive europium(III) probes and their use for simultaneous luminescent sensing of temperature and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Sergey M; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2006-07-15

    Highly photostable and strongly luminescent europium(III) beta-diketonate complexes are presented that can act as new probes for optical sensing of temperature. They can be excited with the light of a 405-nm LED and possess strong brightnesses. The decay times of the probes contained in a poly(vinyl methyl ketone) film and in poly(tert-butyl styrene) microparticles are highly temperature-dependent between 0 and 70 degrees C. The temperature-sensitive microparticles were dispersed, along with oxygen-sensitive microbeads consisting of a palladium porphyrin oxygen indicator in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), in a thin layer of a hydrogel to give a dually sensing material which is excitable by a single light source. The two emissions can be separated by appropriate optical filters. The response to oxygen and temperature is described by 3D plots, and unbiased values can be obtained for temperature and oxygen, respectively, from the two luminescence signals if refined in an iteration step. The sensing scheme is intended for use in temperature-compensated sensing of oxygen, in contactless sensing of oxygen and temperature in (micro)biological and medical applications, in high-resolution oxygen profiling, and for simultaneous imaging of air pressure and temperature in wind tunnels.

  17. First results from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beam interactions in a long scalelength plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. D.; MacKinnon, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Berger, R. L.; Campbell, K.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Suter, L. J.; Williams, E. A.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattered light from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beams incident on a long scalelength ignition-like plasma. These experiments are important for both determining backscattering physics mechanisms and for evaluating laser power loss expected in planned ignition experiments. The plasma is formed using 18 kJ of 351 nm light from the Omega laser in a 1 ns pulse incident on a gas-filled balloon target. The two probe beams, which are delayed 0.5 ns relative to the plasma forming beams, are separated by 42^rc, have vacuum intensity of <= 7 × 10^14 W/cm^2 and may or may not intersect in the plasma. Self-Thomson scattered light from the 527 nm beam is used to determine the plasma temperatures. We find that in a CH plasma, beam intersection leads to about a factor of 2 increase in the SRS from the 351 nm beam compared to no intersection. Beam intersection does not change the SBS backscattering level studied with a CO2 plasma. We describe the experimental results and simulations using the LASNEX hydrodynamic code and the pF3D laser-plasma wave propagation code. Work performed under the auspicies of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number W--7405--ENG--48.

  18. Dextromethorphan and caffeine as probes for simultaneous determination of debrisoquin-oxidation and N-acetylation phenotypes in children.

    PubMed

    Evans, W E; Relling, M V; Petros, W P; Meyer, W H; Mirro, J; Crom, W R

    1989-05-01

    The feasibility and reliability of simultaneously determining debrisoquin oxidation and N-acetylation phenotypes was assessed in children with use of two innocuous substrate probes given by mouth, 30 mg dextromethorphan (Pertussin ES) and 25 to 46 mg caffeine (Coca-Cola beverage). Twenty-six children and adolescents (aged 3 to 21 years) were studied three times, once with each substrate given alone and once with the two substrates given together. Urine was collected for 4 hours, and the molar urinary metabolic ratios for dextromethorphan:dextrorphan and for two caffeine metabolites (AFMU:1X) were determined by HPLC ultraviolet assays. The urinary metabolic ratios for both substrates were not significantly different when the substrates were given alone compared with when they were given together. There also was no difference in either the oxidation or acetylation phenotype assignments when the two substrates were given alone and when they were given together. No adverse effects were observed. We conclude that dextromethorphan and caffeine can be given together to simultaneously determine oxidation and acetylation phenotypes and can thereby provide an innocuous, noninvasive method for the assessment of polymorphic drug metabolism in various pediatric populations.

  19. Ultrasensitive nanogold probe-based immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of total aflatoxins in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daohong; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2011-02-15

    An ultrasensitive immunochromatographic (IC) assay for simultaneous detection of total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was developed to meet the requirement for rapidly monitoring aflatoxins in agro-products. The assay was based on a competitive format and its sensitivity was improved by using a novel criterion to screen the optimal amount of monoclonal antibody (MAb) labeled to nanogold particles. The visual detection limits (VDLs) for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in peanut matrix were 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.25 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those of published literatures. The results of IC assay were in good agreement with those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts, demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed assay in real samples. This qualitative test based on the visual evaluation of results did not require any equipment. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first report of qualitative detection for total aflatoxins by immunochromatographic assay.

  20. Identifying and applying a highly selective probe to simultaneously determine the O-glucuronidation activity of human UGT1A3 and UGT1A4

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Liang, Si-Cheng; Wang, Chao; Ge, Guang-Bo; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Glucuronidation mediated by uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase is an important detoxification pathway. However, identifying a selective probe of UDP- glucuronosyltransferase is complicated because of the significant overlapping substrate specificity displayed by the enzyme. In this paper, desacetylcinobufagin (DACB) 3-O- and 16-O-glucuronidation were found to be isoform-specific probe reactions for UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, respectively. DACB was well characterized as a probe for simultaneously determining the catalytic activities of O-glucuronidation mediated by UGT1A3 and UGT1A4 from various enzyme sources, through a sensitive analysis method. PMID:25884245

  1. Simultaneous folding of alternative RNA structures with mutual constraints: an application to next-generation sequencing-based RNA structure probing.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cuncong; Zhang, Shaojie

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology have significantly promoted high-throughput experimental probing of RNA secondary structures. The resulting enzymatic or chemical probing information is then incorporated into a minimum free energy folding algorithm to predict more accurate RNA secondary structures. A drawback of this approach is that it does not consider the presence of alternative RNA structures. In addition, the alternative RNA structures may contaminate experimental probing information of each other and direct the minimum free-energy folding to a wrong direction. In this article, we present a combinatorial solution for this problem, where two alternative structures can be folded simultaneously given the experimental probing information regarding the mixture of these two alternative structures. We have tested our algorithm with artificially generated mixture probing data on adenine riboswitch and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch. The experimental results show that our algorithm can successfully recover the ON and OFF structures of these riboswitches.

  2. Bimodal thrombus imaging: simultaneous PET/MR imaging with a fibrin-targeted dual PET/MR probe--feasibility study in rat model.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Ritika; Catana, Ciprian; Ay, Ilknur; Benner, Thomas; Sorensen, A Gregory; Caravan, Peter

    2011-03-01

    To image thrombus by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) simultaneously in a rat arterial thrombus model with a dual PET/MR probe. Animal studies were approved by the institutional animal use committee. A dual PET/MR probe was synthesized by means of partial exchange of gadolinium for copper 64 ((64)Cu) in the fibrin-targeted MR probe EP-2104R. A preformed 25-mm thrombus was injected into the right internal carotid artery of a rat. Imaging was performed with a clinical 3.0-T MR imager with an MR-compatible human PET imager. Rats (n = 5) were imaged prior to and after systemic administration of the dual probe by using simultaneous PET/MR. The organ distribution of (64)Cu and gadolinium was determined ex vivo (n = 8), 2 hours after injection by using well counting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Signal intensity ratios (SIRs) between the thrombus-containing and contralateral vessel were computed from PET images and MR data before and after probe administration. The dual probe was synthesized with greater than 98% radiochemical purity. Thrombus enhancement was observed in all five animals at both MR (SIR([postprobe])/SIR([preprobe]) = 1.71 ± 0.35, P = .0053) and PET (SIR = 1.85 ± 0.48, P = .0087) after injection of the dual PET/MR probe. Ex vivo analysis at 2 hours after injection showed the highest (64)Cu and gadolinium concentrations, after the excretory organs (kidney and liver), to be in the thrombus. A fibrin-targeted dual PET/MR probe enables simultaneous, direct MR and PET imaging of thrombus. © RSNA, 2010.

  3. Simultaneous electrochemical immunoassay of three liver cancer biomarkers using distinguishable redox probes as signal tags and gold nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes as signal enhancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Chai, Yaqin; Song, Zhongju; Zhuo, Ying; Su, Huilan; Liu, Siming; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Ruo

    2012-01-14

    A novel strategy for simultaneous determination of three liver cancer biomarkers based on three redox labels with distinct voltammetric peaks was described. Gold nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes were used as carriers to immobilize redox probes labeled antibodies and to amplify the signals. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Simultaneous hydrogen and heavier element isotopic ratio images with a scanning submicron ion probe and mass resolved polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Slodzian, Georges; Wu, Ting-Di; Bardin, Noémie; Duprat, Jean; Engrand, Cécile; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    In situ microanalysis of solid samples is often performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with a submicron ion probe. The destructive nature of the method makes it mandatory to prevent information loss by using instruments combining efficient collection of secondary ions and a mass spectrometer with parallel detection capabilities. The NanoSIMS meets those requirements with a magnetic spectrometer but its mass selectivity has to be improved for accessing opportunities expected from polyatomic secondary ions. We show here that it is possible to perform D/H ratio measurement images using 12CD-/12CH-, 16OD-/16OH-, or 12C2D-/12C2H- ratios. These polyatomic species allow simultaneous recording of D/H ratios and isotopic compositions of heavier elements like 15N/14N (via 12C15N-/12C14N-) and they provide a powerful tool to select the phase of interest (e.g., mineral versus organics). We present high mass resolution spectra and an example of isotopic imaging where D/H ratios were obtained via the 12C2D-/12C2H- ratio with 12C2D- free from neighboring mass interferences. Using an advanced mass resolution protocol, a "conventional" mass resolving power of 25,000 can be achieved. Those results open many perspectives for isotopic imaging at a fine scale in biology, material science, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry.

  5. Simultaneous Identification of 13 Foodborne Pathogens by Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism Coupled with Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Its Application in Foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Chung, Boram; Chang, Jin-Hee; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Park, Beom-Young; Oh, Sang Suk; Oh, Mi-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) coupled with stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was developed to identify 13 species of foodborne pathogens simultaneously. Species-specific MLPA probes were designed for nine of these species. These probes were targeted to the groEL, glyA, MMS, tuf, inv, ipaH, nuc, vvh, and 16S rRNA genes, which corresponded to Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica, respectively. MLPA probes that had been previously developed by our laboratory were used for the other four species (Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes). The CE-SSCP method was optimized to identify all 13 foodborne microbes simultaneously in a single electrogram, in which 50-500 pg genomic DNA was detected per microbe. Twelve species were detected from animal-derived food samples (specifically, milk and sliced ham) that had been artificially inoculated with 12 of the foodborne pathogens, excluding V. vulnificus, which is not usually associated with animal foods. The method developed here could be used as an early warning system for outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with animal-derived foods in the food industry.

  6. Simultaneous use of camera and probe diagnostics to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of multiple underlying instabilities during the route to plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, S. C. Tynan, G. R.; Brandt, C.; Cui, L.; Gosselin, J. J.; Light, A.

    2014-11-15

    We use multiple-tip Langmuir probes and fast imaging to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of underlying instabilities during the controlled route to fully-developed plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized helicon plasma device. Langmuir probes measure radial profiles of electron temperature, plasma density and potential; from which we compute linear growth rates of instabilities, cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, Reynold's stress, particle flux, vorticity, time-delay estimated velocity, etc. Fast imaging complements the 1D probe measurements by providing temporally and spatially resolved 2D details of plasma structures associated with the instabilities. We find that three radially separated plasma instabilities exist simultaneously. Density gradient driven resistive drift waves propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction separate the plasma into an edge region dominated by strong, velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and a central core region which shows coherent Rayleigh-Taylor modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. The simultaneous, complementary use of both probes and camera was crucial to identify the instabilities and understand the details of the very rich plasma dynamics.

  7. Fluorescence melting curve analysis using self-quenching dual-labeled peptide nucleic acid probes for simultaneously identifying multiple DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong Jin; Kim, Youngjoo; Lee, Seung Yong; Hong, Ji Young; Kim, Gi Won; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2015-09-01

    Previous fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) used intercalating dyes, and this method has restricted application. Therefore, FMCA methods such as probe-based FMCA and molecular beacons were studied. However, the usual dual-labeled probes do not possess adequate fluorescence quenching ability and sufficient specificity, and molecular beacons with the necessary stem structures are hard to design. Therefore, we have developed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based FMCA method. PNA oligonucleotide can have a much higher melting temperature (Tm) value than DNA. Therefore, short PNA probes can have adequate Tm values for FMCA, and short probes can have higher specificity and accuracy in FMCA. Moreover, dual-labeled PNA probes have self-quenching ability via single-strand base stacking, which makes PNA more favorable. In addition, this method can facilitate simultaneous identification of multiple DNA templates. In conventional real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), one fluorescence channel can identify only one DNA template. However, this method uses two fluorescence channels to detect three types of DNA. Experiments were performed with one to three different DNA sequences mixed in a single tube. This method can be used to identify multiple DNA sequences in a single tube with high specificity and high clarity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for simultaneous luminescence sensing of two species using optical probes of different decay time, and its application to an enzymatic reaction at varying temperature.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Stefan; Stich, Matthias I J; Schäferling, Michael; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2009-02-01

    Chemical sensing, imaging and microscopy based on the use of fluorescent probes has so far been limited almost exclusively to the detection of a single parameter at a time. We present a scheme that can overcome this limitation by enabling optical sensing of two parameter simultaneously and even at identical excitation and emission wavelengths of two probes provided (a) their decay times are different enough to enable two time windows to be recorded, and (b) the emission of the shorter-lived probe decays to below the detectable limit while that of the other still can be measured. We refer to this new scheme as the dual lifetime determination (DLD) method and show that it can be widely varied by appropriate choice of probes and experimental settings. DLD is demonstrated to work by sensing oxygen and temperature independently from each other by making use of two probes, one for oxygen (a platinum porphyrin dissolved in polystyrene), and one for temperature [a europium complex dissolved in poly(vinyl methylketone)]. DLD was applied to monitor the consumption of oxygen in the glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of glucose at varying temperatures. The scheme is expected to have further applications in cellular assays and biophysical imaging.

  9. Simultaneous electrochemical immunoassay using graphene-Au grafted recombinant apoferritin-encoded metallic labels as signal tags and dual-template magnetic molecular imprinted polymer as capture probes.

    PubMed

    Wang, De; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Li, Tianhua; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Su, Xiurong; Jiang, Shan

    2015-03-15

    A novel electrochemical multiplexed immunoassay was designed for simultaneous determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using recombinant apoferritin-encoded metallic nanoparticles (rApo-M) as labels and dual-template magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as capture probes. The labels were prepared by loading recombinant apoferritin (r-Apo) and separately immobilize primary antibodies (anti-AFP and anti-CEA) via Au nanoparticles of in site growth on graphene (G). The capture probes were synthesized by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and using AFP and CEA as the template proteins, which were used to enrich the targets simultaneously. After a sandwich-type immunoreaction, the labels were captured to the surface of MMIPs. The subsequent electrochemical stripping analysis of the metal components from the immunocomplex provide a means for quantification of targets based on the peak currents of Cd and Pb. Experimental results showed the immunoassay enabled the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.001-5ngmL(-1). And the detection limits of AFP and CEA were 0.3 and 0.35pgmL(-1) (S/N=3), respectively. These results suggested that the proposed multiplexed immunoassay would be applied for clinical screening of other biomarkers.

  10. Using direct numerical simulation to analyze and improve hot-wire probe sensor and array configurations for simultaneous measurement of the velocity vector and the velocity gradient tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukoslavčević, Petar V.; Wallace, James M.

    2013-11-01

    Multi-sensor, hot-wire probes of various configurations have been used for 25 years to simultaneously measure the velocity vector and the velocity gradient tensor in turbulent flows. This is the same period in which direct numerical simulations (DNS) were carried out to investigate these flows. Using the first DNS of a turbulent boundary layer, Moin and Spalart ["Contributions of numerical simulation data bases to the physics, modeling and measurement of turbulence," NASA Technical Memorandum 100022 (1987)] examined, virtually, the performance of a two-sensor X-array probe with the sensors idealized as points in the numerical grid. Subsequently, several investigators have used DNS for similar studies. In this paper we use a highly resolved minimal channel flow DNS, following Jiménez and Moin ["The minimal flow unit in near-wall turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 225, 213 (1991)], to study the performance of an 11-sensor probe. Our previous studies of this type have indicated that, on balance, a probe of the design described here may provide the most accurate measurements of many of the statistics formed from the velocity vector and the velocity gradient tensor (rms and skewness values of the velocity and vorticity components as well as the Reynolds shear stress and the dissipation and production rates). The results of the present study show that, indeed, the sensor and array configurations of a probe of this design are considerably better than previous designs that have been used, and they are likely to give reasonably satisfactory results for such measurements with a real probe in a real bounded flow.

  11. Simultaneous release of sulfide with Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in marine harbour sediment measured using a combined metal/sulfide DGT probe.

    PubMed

    Naylor, C; Davison, W; Motelica-Heino, M; Van Den Berg, G A; Van Der Heijdt, L M

    2004-07-26

    The technique of DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films) was further developed to allow simultaneous measurement of sulfide and trace metals at the same location in sediment. The new combined DGT probe consisted of a layer of gel impregnated with AgI, overlain by (1) a layer of gel containing Chelex, (2) a layer of gel and (3) a filter membrane. Diffusion of sulfide was controlled by layers (1) to (3), while diffusion of metals was controlled by layers (2) and (3). The Chelex gel trapped metals that were measured after elution with acid. The AgI gel trapped sulfide through the formation of Ag2S. This was then measured densitometrically as the colour changed from pale yellow to grey. Experiments demonstrated that concentrations of metal or sulfide measured by the combined device were no different to the concentrations measured by more conventional devices. The presence of Chelex in the gel did not impede the diffusion of sulfide. Deployment of a combined probe in marine sediment revealed simultaneous remobilisation of metals and sulfide at the same location. Solubility calculations indicated that some precipitation of amorphous FeS was probably occurring at the maxima in sulfide concentrations. There was general undersaturation with respect to NiS, but ZnS was supersaturated at all locations. There appeared to be localised active zones of organic matter decomposition, where reduction of manganese oxides, iron oxides and sulfate occurred simultaneously. Mass balance calculations indicated that Ni could not be supplied by release from decomposing organic matter. Manganese oxides were the most likely source, but supply from reductive dissolution of iron oxides could not be entirely discounted. Supply from either Fe or Mn oxides could account for the Zn maxima. Application of the newly developed combined probe provides new information that helps understanding of the complex nature of trace metal and sulfur chemistry in sediments.

  12. Probing charge and energy transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface of semiconductor nanostructures with simultaneous photocurrent-optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongqian; Acharya, Krishna; Galande, Charudatta; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mohite, Aditya; Dattelbaum, Andrew; Hollingsworth, Jennifer; Htoon, Han; Los Alamos Natioal Lab Team; Rice Univerisity Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Understanding and control of charge and energy transfer (CT & ET) processes happening at the donor-acceptor interface of colloidal semiconductor nanostructures play a critical role in defining the performance of many exploratory photo-voltaic devices. Ultrafast dynamics of CT and ET processes in semiconductor nanostrucutres can be investigated effectively by time and energy resolved PL spectroscopy. However a full understanding on impact of these process on device performance demand direct correlation of these dynamical measurements with photocurrent measurements that probe the separation and transport of charges. To this end we develop simultaneous optical and electrical characterization approaches capable of performing scanning photocurrent microscopy and various single nanostructure optical spectroscopies (e.g. photoluminescence (PL), Raman, time resolved PL) simultaneously. We will present application of this technique on various donor/acceptor interfaces including graphene oxide/CdSe nanowire and TiO2 nanocrystals/CdSe nanowire interfaces.

  13. Simultaneous use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Núñez, Virginia; Galo-Hooker, Evelyn; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Duque, Ricardo E; Ruiz-Arguelles, Alejandro; Garcés-Eisele, Javier

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this work was to simultaneously use multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay and flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis (FPA) to detect aneuploidy in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. MLPA assay and propidium iodide FPA were used to test samples from 53 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia referred to our laboratory for immunophenotyping. Results were compared by nonparametric statistics. The combined use of both methods significantly increased the rate of detection of aneuploidy as compared to that obtained by each method alone. The limitations of one method are somehow countervailed by the other and vice versa. MPLA and FPA yield different yet complementary information concerning aneuploidy in acute leukemia. The simultaneous use of both methods might be recommended in the clinical setting. © 2017 Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Investigating local and long-range neuronal network dynamics by simultaneous optogenetics, reverse microdialysis and silicon probe recordings in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hannah; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Çarçak, Nihan; Onat, Filiz; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Lambert, Régis; Leresche, Nathalie; Crunelli, Vincenzo; David, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Background The advent of optogenetics has given neuroscientists the opportunity to excite or inhibit neuronal population activity with high temporal resolution and cellular selectivity. Thus, when combined with recordings of neuronal ensemble activity in freely moving animals optogenetics can provide an unprecedented snapshot of the contribution of neuronal assemblies to (patho)physiological conditions in vivo. Still, the combination of optogenetic and silicone probe (or tetrode) recordings does not allow investigation of the role played by voltage- and transmitter-gated channels of the opsin-transfected neurons and/or other adjacent neurons in controlling neuronal activity. New method and results We demonstrate that optogenetics and silicone probe recordings can be combined with intracerebral reverse microdialysis for the long-term delivery of neuroactive drugs around the optic fiber and silicone probe. In particular, we show the effect of antagonists of T-type Ca2+ channels, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and metabotropic glutamate receptors on silicone probe-recorded activity of the local opsin-transfected neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus, and demonstrate the changes that the block of these thalamic channels/receptors brings about in the network dynamics of distant somatotopic cortical neuronal ensembles. Comparison with existing methods This is the first demonstration of successfully combining optogenetics and neuronal ensemble recordings with reverse microdialysis. This combination of techniques overcomes some of the disadvantages that are associated with the use of intracerebral injection of a drug-containing solution at the site of laser activation. Conclusions The combination of reverse microdialysis, silicone probe recordings and optogenetics can unravel the short and long-term effects of specific transmitter- and voltage-gated channels on laser-modulated firing at the site of optogenetic stimulation and the actions that

  15. Investigating local and long-range neuronal network dynamics by simultaneous optogenetics, reverse microdialysis and silicon probe recordings in vivo.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Hannah; Schmiedt, Joscha T; Carçak, Nihan; Onat, Filiz; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Lambert, Régis; Leresche, Nathalie; Crunelli, Vincenzo; David, Francois

    2014-09-30

    The advent of optogenetics has given neuroscientists the opportunity to excite or inhibit neuronal population activity with high temporal resolution and cellular selectivity. Thus, when combined with recordings of neuronal ensemble activity in freely moving animals optogenetics can provide an unprecedented snapshot of the contribution of neuronal assemblies to (patho)physiological conditions in vivo. Still, the combination of optogenetic and silicone probe (or tetrode) recordings does not allow investigation of the role played by voltage- and transmitter-gated channels of the opsin-transfected neurons and/or other adjacent neurons in controlling neuronal activity. We demonstrate that optogenetics and silicone probe recordings can be combined with intracerebral reverse microdialysis for the long-term delivery of neuroactive drugs around the optic fiber and silicone probe. In particular, we show the effect of antagonists of T-type Ca(2+) channels, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and metabotropic glutamate receptors on silicone probe-recorded activity of the local opsin-transfected neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus, and demonstrate the changes that the block of these thalamic channels/receptors brings about in the network dynamics of distant somatotopic cortical neuronal ensembles. This is the first demonstration of successfully combining optogenetics and neuronal ensemble recordings with reverse microdialysis. This combination of techniques overcomes some of the disadvantages that are associated with the use of intracerebral injection of a drug-containing solution at the site of laser activation. The combination of reverse microdialysis, silicone probe recordings and optogenetics can unravel the short and long-term effects of specific transmitter- and voltage-gated channels on laser-modulated firing at the site of optogenetic stimulation and the actions that these manipulations exert on distant neuronal populations. Copyright © 2014

  16. Time-domain reflectometry: Simultaneous measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity with a single probe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, F.N.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Rawlins, D.S.; Rhoades, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two parallel metallic rods were used as a wave guide to measure the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of soils having different electrical conductivities but the same water content. Measurements showed that the two parameters were sufficiently independent to permit simultaneous determinations of water content and bulk electrical conductivity.

  17. Lidar Probing of the Mesosphere: Simultaneous Observations of Sporadic Sodium and Iron Formations, Calcium Ion Layers, Neutral Temperature and Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Timothy J.; Qian, Jun; Scherrer, Daniel R.; Senft, Daniel C.; Pfenninger, W. Matthew; Papen, George C.; Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoritic ablation in the upper atmosphere is the commonly accepted source of the mesospheric metals between 80 and 105 km. The vertical and temporal behavior of some of these metals can be probed with high accuracy and resolution using resonance fluorescence lidar techniques. Of considerable interest in recent years has been the sporadic and rapid formation of thin, dense enhancements in these metallic layers. Since late Mar. 1991, the UIUC CEDAR lidar system, located at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory, has been routinely operating at the Fe resonance line of 372 nm in order to probe the mesospheric Fe layer. In Nov. 1991, the capability to investigate mesospheric Ca(+) at the resonance line of 393.4 nm was added. The lidar's eximer-pumped dye laser uses Exciton QUI laser dye dissolved in p-dioxane, which can lase at both the Fe and Ca(+) frequencies. Various aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  18. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS quantification of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 probe substrates and their metabolites in DBS and plasma.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, Marija; Déglon, Julien; Samer, Caroline; Walder, Bernhard; Desmeules, Jules; Staub, Christian; Daali, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe substrates and their Phase I metabolites in DBS and plasma. P-gp (fexofenadine) and CYP-specific substrates (caffeine for CYP1A2, bupropion for CYP2B6, flurbiprofen for CYP2C9, omeprazole for CYP2C19, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6 and midazolam for CYP3A4) and their metabolites were extracted from DBS (10 µl) using methanol. Analytes were separated on a reversed-phase LC column followed by SRM detection within a 6 min run time. The method was fully validated over the expected clinical concentration range for all substances tested, in both DBS and plasma. The method has been successfully applied to a PK study where healthy male volunteers received a low dose cocktail of the here described P-gp and CYP probes. Good correlation was observed between capillary DBS and venous plasma drug concentrations. Due to its low-invasiveness, simple sample collection and minimal sample preparation, DBS represents a suitable method to simultaneously monitor in vivo activities of P-gp and CYP.

  19. Simultaneous Monitoring of Soil Water Content and Salinity with a Low-Cost Capacitance-Resistance Probe

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, Elia; Berti, Antonio; Teatini, Pietro; Morari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Capacitance and resistivity sensors can be used to continuously monitor soil volumetric water content (θ) and pore-water electrical conductivity (ECp) with non-destructive methods. However, dielectric readings of capacitance sensors operating at low frequencies are normally biased by high soil electrical conductivity. A procedure to calibrate capacitance-resistance probes in saline conditions was implemented in contrasting soils. A low-cost capacitance-resistance probe (ECH2O-5TE, 70 MHz, Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA, USA) was used in five soils at four water contents (i.e., from dry conditions to saturation) and four salinity levels of the wetting solution (0, 5, 10, and 15 dS·m−1). θ was accurately predicted as a function of the dielectric constant, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), texture and organic carbon content, even in high salinity conditions. Four models to estimate pore-water electrical conductivity were tested and a set of empirical predicting functions were identified to estimate the model parameters based on easily available soil properties (e.g., texture, soil organic matter). The four models were reformulated to estimate ECp as a function of ECa, dielectric readings, and soil characteristics, improving their performances with respect to the original model formulation. Low-cost capacitance-resistance probes, if properly calibrated, can be effectively used to monitor water and solute dynamics in saline soils. PMID:23250279

  20. The influence of the arrangements of multi-sensor probe arrays on the accuracy of simultaneously measured velocity and velocity gradient-based statistics in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukoslavčević, P. V.; Wallace, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    A highly resolved turbulent channel flow direct numerical simulation (DNS) with Re τ = 200 has been used to investigate the influence of the arrangements of the arrays (array configurations), within the sensing area of a multi-array hot-wire probe on the measurement accuracy of velocity and velocity gradient-based statistics. To eliminate all effects related to the sensor response and array characteristics (such as sensor dimensions, overheat ratio, thermal cross talk, number and orientations of the sensors and uniqueness range) so that this study could be focused solely on the effects of the array configurations (positions and separations), a concept of a perfect array was introduced, that is, one that can exactly and simultaneously measure all three velocity components at its center. The velocity component values, measured by these perfect arrays, are simply the DNS values computed at these points. Using these velocity components, the velocity and velocity gradient-based statistics were calculated assuming a linear velocity variation over the probes' sensing areas. The calculated values are compared to the DNS values for various array arrangements to study the influence of these arrangements on the measurement accuracy. Typical array configurations that previously have been used for physical probes were tested. It is demonstrated that the array arrangements strongly influence the accuracy of some of the velocity and velocity gradient-based statistics and that no single configuration exists, for a given spatial resolution, which gives the best accuracy for all of the statistics characterizing a turbulent shear flow.

  1. Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, Trichur Ramaswamy

    2009-08-10

    Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase alone, while in mediator assisted reactions, dye breakdown was initiated from oxidation of carbinol form of the dye. Benzaldehyde and N,N-dimethyl aniline were the major end products. With Acid Violet 17, laccase carried out N-deethylation and in mediator assisted reactions, oxidation of the carbinol form of the dye occurred resulting in formation of formyl benzene sulfonic acid, carboxy benzene sulfonic acid and benzene sulfonic acid. Toxicity analysis revealed that Basic Green 4 was toxic and treatment with laccase/mediators resulted in 80-100% detoxification. The treatment of the textile dye solution using laccase and 2,2'-azino-di-(-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was demonstrated in an enzyme membrane reactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 6h, the process was operated for a period of 15 days with nearly 95% decolorization, 10% reduction in flux and 70% recovery of active ABTS.

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent CYP3A inhibition using a CYP3A probe substrates cocktail.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of therapeutic drugs such as midazolam, nifedipine, testosterone and triazolam. It is involved in 40% of all cases of P450-mediated metabolism of marketed drugs. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the CYP3A-mediated drug interaction potential of new chemical entities (NCEs). In the past, one P450 isoform-specific probe substrate has been used at a time to evaluate the degree of inhibition of P450 isoforms by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, CYP3A enzymes have been shown to have a multi-substrate binding site. Therefore, multiple CYP3A substrates should be used to evaluate precisely the drug interaction potential of NCEs with the enzyme CYP3A. In this study, a method of screening NCEs for their potential to inhibit by CYP3A enzyme activity was developed. It involves the employment of a CYP3A substrate cocktail (including midazolam, testosterone and nifedipine). The concentration of each CYP3A probe substrate in vitro was optimized (0.1 μm for midazolam, 2 μm for testosterone and 2 μm for nifedipine) to minimize mutual drug interactions among probe substrates. The method was validated by comparing inhibition data obtained from the incubation of CYP3A with each individual substrate with data from incubation with a cocktail of all three substrates. The CYP3A inhibition profiles from the substrate cocktail approach were similar to those from the individual substrates approach. This new method could be an effective tool for the robust and accurate screening of the CYP3A inhibition potential of NCEs in drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous pharmacokinetics evaluation of human cytochrome P450 probes, caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam, in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Toda, Akiko; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes (caffeine, racemic warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam) composite, after single intravenous and oral administrations at doses of 0.20 and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively, to four male common marmosets were investigated. 2. The plasma concentrations of caffeine and warfarin decreased slowly in a monophasic manner but those of omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam decreased extensively after intravenous and oral administrations, in a manner that approximated those as reported for pharmacokinetics in humans. 3. Bioavailabilities were ∼100% for caffeine and warfarin, but <25% for omeprazole and metoprolol. Bioavailability of midazolam was 4% in marmosets, presumably because of contribution of marmoset P450 3A4 expressed in small intestine and liver, with a high catalytic efficiency for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation as evident in the recombinant system. 4. These results suggest that common marmosets, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 probe substrates, could be an experimental model for humans and that marmoset P450s have functional characteristics that differ from those of human and/or cynomolgus monkey P450s in some aspects, indicating their importance in modeling in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies in marmosets and of further studies.

  4. Establishment of a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneously quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Hongpin; Zeng, Yongbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Liu, Can; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-11-01

    Establishment of a simple, rapid and economical method for quantification and genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is of great importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. We hereby aim to develop a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes. Conserved primers and TaqMan probes for genotype B and non-B genotypes were designed. The linear range, detection sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the method were assessed. 539 serum samples from HBV-infected patients were assayed, and the results were compared with commercial HBV quantification and HBV genotyping kits. The detection sensitivity of the two-probe real-time PCR was 500IU/ml; the linear range was 10(3)-10(9)IU/ml, and the intra-assay CVs and inter-assay CVs were between 0.84% and 2.80%. No cross-reaction was observed between genotypes B and non-B. Of the 539 detected samples, 509 samples were HBV DNA positive. The results showed that 54.0% (275/509) of the samples were genotype B, 39.5% (201/509) were genotype non-B and 6.5% (33/509) were mixed genotype. The coincidence rate between the method and a commercial HBV DNA genotyping kit was 95.9% (488/509, kappa=0.923, P<0.01). In addition, high correlation (R(2)=0.94, P<0.05) and good consistency between our assay and a commercial HBV DNA qPCR kit were achieved. A novel two-probe real-time PCR method for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes was established. The assay was sensitive, specific and reproducible which can be applied to areas prevalent with HBV genotypes B and C, especially in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth of block copolymer stabilized metal nanoparticles probed simultaneously by in situ XAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nayak, C; Bhattacharyya, D; Jha, S N; Sahoo, N K

    2016-01-01

    The growth of Au and Pt nanoparticles from their respective chloride precursors using block copolymer-based reducers has been studied by simultaneous in situ measurement of XAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy at the energy-dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 SRS at RRCAT, Indore, India. While the XANES spectra of the precursor give real-time information on the reduction process, the EXAFS spectra reveal the structure of the clusters formed at the intermediate stages of growth. The growth kinetics of both types of nanoparticles are found to be almost similar and are found to follow three stages, though the first stage of nucleation takes place earlier in the case of Au than in the case of Pt nanoparticles due to the difference in the reduction potential of the respective precursors. The first two stages of the growth of Au and Pt nanoparticles as obtained by in situ XAS measurements could be corroborated by simultaneous in situ measurement of UV-Vis spectroscopy also.

  6. Simultaneously probing two ultrafast condensed-phase molecular symmetry breaking events by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Yu, Pengyun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping

    2013-08-05

    In condensed phases, a highly symmetric gas-phase molecule lowers its symmetry under perturbation of the solvent, which is vital to a variety of structural chemistry related processes. However, the dynamical aspects of solvent-mediated symmetry-breaking events remain largely unknown. Herein, direct evidence for two types of solvent-mediated symmetry-breaking events that coexist on the picosecond timescale in a highly symmetric anion, namely, hexacyanocobaltate, is presented: 1) an equilibrium symmetry-breaking event in which a solvent-bound species having lowered symmetry undergoes a population exchange reaction with the symmetry-retaining species; 2) a dynamic symmetry-breaking event that is composed of many dynamic population-exchange reactions under fluctuating solvent interactions. Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy is used to simultaneously observe and dynamically characterize these two events. This work opens a new window into molecular symmetry and structural dynamics under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions.

  7. Evaluation of a Probe-Based PCR-ELISA System for Simultaneous Semi Quantitative Detection and Genotyping of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Infection in Clinical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Talkhabifard, Majid; Javid, Naeme; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Ghaemi, Amir; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common opportunistic pathogen that causes serious complications in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns. In this study, PCR-ELISA was optimized for semi-quantitative detection of infection in clinical specimens and simultaneous genotyping of glycoprotein B for 4 major genotypes, due to its significance. During DIG-labeling PCR, a pair of primers amplifies a fragment of variable region of the glycoprotein B encoding sequence. Under optimized conditions, labeled Target amplicons hybridize to biotinated specific probes and are detected in an ELISA system. PCR-ELISA system showed specific performance with detection limit of approximately 100 copies of CMV DNA. The linear correlation was observed between the PCR-ELISA results (OD) and logarithmic scale of CMV (r=0.979). Repeatability of PCR-ELISA detection system for intra-assay and inter-assay was evaluated for negative and positive samples. In optimized conditions of hybridization, differentiation between genotypes of glycoprotein B was feasible using genotype-specific probes in PCR-ELISA genotyping system. In comparison with sequencing method, genotyping system was confirmed with kappa index of 1. PCR-ELISA is proposed as an applicable and reliable technique for semi-quantitative diagnosis and typing of the infection. This technique is flexible to apply in a variety of molecular fields.

  8. Development of a PET/OMRI combined system for simultaneous imaging of positron and free radical probes for small animals.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Motonao; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has high sensitivity for imaging radioactive tracer distributions in subjects. However, it is not possible to image free radical distribution in a subject by PET. Since free radicals are quite reactive, they are related to many diseases, including but not limited to cancer, inflammation, strokes, and heart disease. The Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) is so far the only method that images free radical distribution in vivo. By combining PET and OMRI, a new hybrid imaging modality might be developed that can simultaneously image the radioactive tracer and free radical distributions. For this purpose, the authors developed a PET/OMRI combined system for small animals. The developed PET/OMRI system used an optical fiber-based PET system combined with a permanent magnet-based OMRI system. The optical fiber-based PET system uses flexible optical fiber bundles. Eight optical fiber-based block detectors were arranged in a 56 mm diameter ring to form a PET system. The LGSO blocks were located inside the field-of-view (FOV) of the OMRI, and the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes were positioned behind the OMRI to minimize the interference between the PET and the OMRI. The OMRI system used a 0.0165 T permanent magnet. The system has an electron spin resonance coil to enhance the MRI signal using the Overhauser effect to image the free radical in the FOV of the PET/OMRI system. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the optical fiber-based PET system were 1.2 mm FWHM and 1.2% at the central FOV, respectively. The OMRI system imaged the distribution of a nitroxyl radical (NXR) solution. The interference between PET and OMRI was small. Simultaneous imaging of the positron radiotracer and the NXR solution was successfully conducted with the developed PET/OMRI system for phantom and small animal studies. The authors developed a PET/OMRI combined system with the potential to provide interesting new results in

  9. Simultaneous electrochemical detection of cervical cancer markers using reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine as electrode materials and distinguishable redox probes as labels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Guo, Aiping; Guo, Zhankui; Xie, Lili; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2014-04-15

    A novel, highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay was proposed for the simultaneous determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Using an electrochemical analysis technique, two well-separated peaks were generated by neutral red and thionine, making the simultaneous detection of the two analytes on the electrode possible. Reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine (rGO-TEPA), containing more amino groups, was of benefit to immobilize the primary antibody (Ab1) through an amidation reaction. Au@mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was synthesized and incubated with two secondary antibodies (Ab2) and different redox probes (neutral red and thionine) to fabricate the electrochemical immunosensor label intending to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor. The immunosensor was prepared with a sandwich structure based on the peak current change of neutral red and thionine before and after the antigen-antibody reaction. The results showed that the immunosensor had a wide linear range, low detection limit, good reproducibility and stability. The method has been applied to the analysis of serum samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Simultaneous diagnosis of Cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Melero, Mar; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Bellière, Edwige Nina; Crespo, Jose Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-26

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) RT-PCR assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). In this assay, two PCR primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available Universal Probe Library (UPL) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. RT-PCR is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV), and the other set detects the least virulent and least common strain, pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). Sensitivity analysis using dilute samples containing purified DMV, PMV and PWMV showed that viral RNA detection limits in this UPL RT-PCR assay were lower than in a conventional RT-PCR assay. Our method gave no amplification signal with field samples positive for viruses related and unrelated to CeMV, such as phocine distemper virus (PDV). The reliability and robustness of the UPL RT-PCR assay were verified using tissue samples previously analyzed by conventional methods, as well as a panel of clinical samples suspected of containing CeMV. Using the UPL RT-PCR assay, we were able to associate DMV with a mass stranding of striped dolphins in the Spanish Mediterranean in 2011 with greater reliability than was possible with a conventional RT-PCR method. These results suggest that this UPL RT-PCR method is more sensitive and specific than the conventional approach, and that it may be an affordable and rapid test for routine diagnosis of three CeMV strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A gold nanocluster-based fluorescent probe for simultaneous pH and temperature sensing and its application to cellular imaging and logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun-Tse; Shanmugam, Chandirasekar; Tseng, Wei-Bin; Hiseh, Ming-Mu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-05-01

    Metal nanocluster-based nanomaterials for the simultaneous determination of temperature and pH variations in micro-environments are still a challenge. In this study, we develop a dual-emission fluorescent probe consisting of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as temperature- and pH-responsive fluorescence signals. Under single wavelength excitation the FITC/BSA-AuNCs exhibited well-separated dual emission bands at 525 and 670 nm. When FITC was used as a reference fluorophore, FITC/BSA-AuNCs showed a good linear response over the temperature range 1-71 °C and offered temperature-independent spectral shifts, temperature accuracy, activation energy, and reusability. The possible mechanism for high temperature-induced fluorescence quenching of FITC/BSA-AuNCs could be attributed to a weakening of the Au-S bond, thereby lowering the charge transfer from BSA to AuNCs. Additionally, the pH- and temperature-responsive properties of FITC/BSA-AuNCs allow simultaneous temperature sensing from 21 to 41 °C (at intervals of 5 °C) and pH from 6.0 to 8.0 (at intervals of 0.5 pH unit), facilitating the construction of two-input AND logic gates. Three-input AND logic gates were also designed using temperature, pH, and trypsin as inputs. The practicality of using FITC/BSA-AuNCs to determine the temperature and pH changes in HeLa cells is also validated.Metal nanocluster-based nanomaterials for the simultaneous determination of temperature and pH variations in micro-environments are still a challenge. In this study, we develop a dual-emission fluorescent probe consisting of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as temperature- and pH-responsive fluorescence signals. Under single wavelength excitation the FITC/BSA-AuNCs exhibited well-separated dual emission bands at 525 and 670 nm. When FITC was used as a reference fluorophore, FITC/BSA-AuNCs showed a

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in Rice Seed Using a Padlock Probe-Based Assay.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Xu, Rui; Liu, Fengquan; Hu, Baishi; Walcott, R R

    2014-10-01

    Based on 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence data, two padlock probes (PLPs), P-Xoo and P-Xoc, were designed and tested to detect Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, respectively. These PLPs were combined with dot-blot hybridization to detect X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola individually in rice seed. Using this technique, a detection sensitivity of 1 pg of X. oryzae pv. oryzae genomic DNA was observed. The technique also facilitated the detection of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seedlots with 2% artificially infested seed. With regards to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola a detection threshold of 1 pg genomic DNA was observed and the pathogen was successful detected in rice seedlots with 0.2% artificially infested seed. The PLP assays detected X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in 39.3% (13 of 33) and 21.3% (10 of 47) of naturally infested commercial rice seedlots, respectively. In contrast, conventional polymerase chain reaction using OSF1/OSR1 and XoocF/XoocR primers sets detected X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in 9.1% (3 of 33) and 8.5% (4 of 47) of the same rice seedlots, respectively. We also detected both pathogens simultaneously in two seedlots, which successfully proved that PLPs (P-Xoo and P-Xoc) combined with reverse dotblot hybridization can be used to simultaneously detect multiple pathogens in naturally infested commercial rice seedlots. This approach has the potential to be an important tool for detecting multiple pathogens in seed and thereby preventing the spread of important pathogens.

  13. A simple and rapid genotyping assay for simultaneous detection of two ADRB2 allelic variants using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sábato, M Fernanda; Irani, Anne-Marie; Bukaveckas, Bonny L; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Wilkinson, David S; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    Allelic variants at codons 16 and 27 of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have shown clinical and pharmacological implications in asthma, hypertension, ischemic heart failure, diabetes, obesity, and cystic fibrosis. We have developed a simultaneous genotyping assay for the c.46A>G and c.79C>G allelic variants using hybridization probes and melting curve analysis. The assay was optimized on a panel of 30 DNA samples of known ADRB2 genotype as determined by sequencing with 100% concordance between the two techniques. Melting temperature (Tm) ranges for the different genotypes were obtained using data from three independent experiments. Single peaks for p.Arg16Arg (Tm = 57.76 degrees C +/- 0.10 degrees C) and p.Gly16Gly (Tm = 66.73 degrees C +/- 0.18 degrees C) and two melting peaks for p.Arg16Gly were obtained. Similarly, single peaks for p.Gln27Gln (Tm = 53.98 degrees C +/- 0.19 degrees C) and p.Glu27Glu (Tm = 64.93 degrees C +/- 0.16 degrees C) and two peaks for p.Gln27Glu were detected. Independent operators easily assigned genotypes in a sample set of 385 asthmatic patients. Haplotype and allele frequencies were in concordance with previously published data: Arg allele frequencies in children/adults were 0.34/0.30 in Caucasians and 0.45/0.52 in African Americans, and Gln allele frequencies were 0.58/0.52 in Caucasians and 0.82/0.84 in African Americans. Thus, the ADRB2 genotyping assay represents a highly reliable and rapid technique for routine clinical use in the simultaneous detection of ADRB2 variants.

  14. High-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of five drugs and their cytochrome P450-specific probe metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Suk; Park, Su-Jin; Shinde, Dhananjay D; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-05-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with electrospray ionization was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of five probe drugs and their metabolites in human plasma for assessing the in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP). CYP isoform specific substrates and their metabolites of CYP1A2 (caffeine), CYP2C9 (losartan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan) and CYP3A (midazolam) were all simultaneously analyzed using LC-MS/MS after administration of a mixture of five drugs (i.e., a "cocktail approach") to healthy volunteers. The assay uses propranolol as an internal standard; dual liquid extraction; a Xbridge MS C(18) (100 mm × 2.1mm, 3.5 μm) column; a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (7/3→3/7); mass spectrometric detection in positive ion mode. The method was validated from 5 to 500 ng/mL for caffeine and paraxanthine, 0.1-40 ng/mL for losartan and EXP3174, 0.05-20 ng/mL for omeprazole and 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 0.008-0.8 ng/mL for dextromethorphan and dextrorphan, 0.01-1.0 ng/mL for midazolam, and 0.04-4 ng/mL for 1'-hydroxymidazolam. The intra- and inter-day precision over the concentration ranges for all analytes were lower than 12.5% and 13.8% (relative standard deviation, %RSD), and accuracy was between 86.5% and 108.4% and between 87.0% and 107.0%, respectively. This highly sensitive and quantitative method allowed a pharmacokinetic study in subjects receiving doses 10-100 times lower than typical therapeutic doses.

  15. Scaffolding rehabilitation behaviour using a voice-mediated assistive technology for cognition.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian; Moran, Kate; Gillespie, Alex

    2010-08-01

    A variety of cognitive deficits can lead to difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences and thus, disability in the performance of routine and rehabilitation behaviours. Interventions to date involve increasing support or providing behavioural training. Assistive technologies for cognition have the potential to augment cognitive capacity thus enabling the performance of behavioural sequences. Guide is an assistive technology for cognition that scaffolds task performance by providing verbal prompts and responding to verbal feedback. Guide was used to provide verbal support and guidance for eight amputees (mean age 64), with cognitive impairment of vascular origin, putting on their prosthetic limbs. Participants were referred to the research due to problems learning the correct behavioural sequence. The research used repeated trials with random assignment to intervention and baseline conditions. The voice-mediated assistive technology for cognition resulted in a significant reduction of safety critical errors and omitted steps. Discussion focuses upon the relation between voice-mediated cognitive support for memory and executive function, and suggestions are made for future research.

  16. Simultaneous assessment of phase chemistry, phase abundance and bulk chemistry with statistical electron probe micro-analyses: Application to cement clinkers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, William; Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-15

    According to recent developments in cement clinker engineering, the optimization of chemical substitutions in the main clinker phases offers a promising approach to improve both reactivity and grindability of clinkers. Thus, monitoring the chemistry of the phases may become part of the quality control at the cement plants, along with the usual measurements of the abundance of the mineralogical phases (quantitative X-ray diffraction) and the bulk chemistry (X-ray fluorescence). This paper presents a new method to assess these three complementary quantities with a single experiment. The method is based on electron microprobe spot analyses, performed over a grid located on a representative surface of the sample and interpreted with advanced statistical tools. This paper describes the method and the experimental program performed on industrial clinkers to establish the accuracy in comparison to conventional methods. -- Highlights: •A new method of clinker characterization •Combination of electron probe technique with cluster analysis •Simultaneous assessment of phase abundance, composition and bulk chemistry •Experimental validation performed on industrial clinkers.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of the parallel and perpendicular ion temperature with a pinhole probe in the scrape-off-layer of the tokamak ISTTOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.

    2012-03-01

    A pinhole probe (PHP) for the simultaneous measurement of the parallel, T∥, and perpendicular, T⊥, ion temperature has been designed and tested in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma of the tokamak ISTTOK. The PHP consists of a tunnel immersed into the plasma parallel to magnetic field and an ion collector. One end of the tunnel is covered with a thin foil that has a pinhole sampling ions from the plasma. The other end of the tunnel (close to the negatively biased collector) is covered with a fine-mesh screen. The possibility of performing an analytical description of the PHP current-to-voltage characteristics obtained on the collector when biasing the tunnel simplifies the interpretation of the results. The PHP operation has been previously tested in T∥, T⊥ measurements in low temperature weekly magnetized plasma [H. Mase, T. Honzava, and G. Miyamoto, J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 5171 (1978)], 10.1063/1.324412. In this paper, the PHP operation in the SOL of the tokamak ISTTOK is described, and the first results of T∥ and T⊥ measurements are presented. The obtained results demonstrate strong (˜30%) variation of T∥ and T⊥ on a time scale of 0.5 ms, and general predominance of T∥ > T⊥ anisotropy (T∥mean/T⊥mean ˜ 1.5) during plasma shot.

  18. Differences in the neurochemical and behavioural profiles of lisdexamfetamine methylphenidate and modafinil revealed by simultaneous dual-probe microdialysis and locomotor activity measurements in freely-moving rats.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Helen L; Kulkarni, Rajiv S; Gosden, Jane; Brammer, Richard J; Hackett, David; Heal, David J

    2014-03-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a novel prodrug approved in North America, Europe and Brazil for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It undergoes rate-limited hydrolysis by red blood cells to yield d-amphetamine. Following our previous work comparing lisdexamfetamine with d-amphetamine, the neurochemical and behavioural profiles of lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate and modafinil were compared by dual-probe microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of conscious rats with simultaneous locomotor activity measurement. We employed pharmacologically equivalent doses of all compounds and those that spanned the therapeutically relevant and psychostimulant range. Lisdexamfetamine (0.5, 1.5, 4.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine base, per os (po)), methylphenidate (3, 10, 30 mg/kg base, po) and modafinil (100, 300, 600 mg/kg base, po) increased efflux of dopamine and noradrenaline in PFC, and dopamine in striatum. Only lisdexamfetamine increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) efflux in PFC and striatum. Lisdexamfetamine had larger and more sustained effects on catecholaminergic neurotransmission than methylphenidate or modafinil. Linear correlations were observed between striatal dopamine efflux and locomotor activity for lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate, but not modafinil. Regression slopes revealed greater increases in extracellular dopamine could be elicited without producing locomotor activation by lisdexamfetamine than methylphenidate. These results are consistent with clinical findings showing that lisdexamfetamine is an effective ADHD medication with prolonged duration of action and good separation between its therapeutic actions and stimulant side-effects.

  19. Fast Magic-Angle Spinning Three-Dimensional NMR Experiment for Simultaneously Probing H-H and N-H Proximities in Solids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G N Manjunatha; Malon, Michal; Marsh, Andrew; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Brown, Steven P

    2016-12-06

    A fast magic-angle spinning (MAS, 70 kHz) solid-state NMR experiment is presented that combines (1)H Double-Quantum (DQ) and (14)N-(1)H HMQC (Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Coherence) pulse-sequence elements, so as to simultaneously probe H-H and N-H proximities in molecular solids. The proposed experiment can be employed in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) versions: first, a 2D (14)N HMQC-filtered (1)H-DQ experiment provides specific DQ-SQ correlation peaks for proton pairs that are in close proximities to the nitrogen sites, thereby achieving spectral filtration. Second, a proton-detected three-dimensional (3D) (1)H(DQ)-(14)N(SQ)-(1)H(SQ) experiment correlates (1)H(DQ)-(1)H(SQ) chemical shifts with (14)N shifts such that longer range N···H-H correlations are observed between protons and nitrogen atoms with internuclear NH distances exceeding 3 Å. Both 2D and 3D versions of the proposed experiment are demonstrated for an amino acid hydrochloride salt, l-histidine·HCl·H2O, and a DNA nucleoside, guanosine·2H2O. In the latter case, the achieved spectral filtration ensures that DQ cross peaks are only observed for guanine NH and CH8 (1)H resonances and not ribose and water (1)H resonances, thus providing insight into the changes in the solid-state structure of this hydrate that occur over time; significant changes are observed in the NH and NH2(1)H chemical shifts as compared to the freshly recrystallized sample previously studied by Reddy et al., Cryst. Growth Des. 2015, 15, 5945.

  20. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    We propose to continue our successful investigations into simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in planetary nebulae using primarily far-IR broadband images and spatially-resolved spectroscopic data cubes obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory to enhance our understanding of the circumstellar environments. This research originally started as the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - an open time 1 program of the Herschel Space Observatory - in which 11 high-excitation PNs were observed to study the nebular energetics that involves very hot X-ray emitting plasma to very cold dust grains, whose density ranges over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and temperature ranges over 7 orders of magnitude. The HerPlaNS data include broadband maps, IFU spectral data cubes, and bolometer array spectral data cubes covering 50 to 670 microns. Because of the sheer volume and complexity of the data set, the original funding was exhausted almost exclusively to the initial data reduction and not much to the subsequent science analysis. However, we managed to perform a nearly full science analysis for one target, NGC 6781, for which the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbonrich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. We also demonstrated that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics would yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allowed to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 with a standard deviation of 110. The analysis also yielded estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 0.004 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates

  1. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  2. A novel colorimetric and fluorescent probe for simultaneous detection of SO3(2-)/HSO3(-) and HSO4(-) by different emission channels and its bioimaging in living cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Yin, Guoxing; Niu, Tingting; Yin, Peng; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Chen, Haimin; Zeng, Ying; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2018-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe (E)-3-ethyl-2-(4-hydroxystyryl)-1,1-di-methyl-1H-benzo-[e]indolium iodide (probe EDB) based on benzo[e]indolium was synthesized, which provided the simultaneous detection of SO3(2-)/HSO3(-) and HSO4(-) ion with different emission channels. Based on the principle of ion-induced rotation-displaced H-aggregates, when treated with NaHSO4, a fluorescence enhancement at 580nm was observed with the excitation wavelength at 420nm. While, in the advantage of the nucleophilic addition of SO3(2-) to the vinyl group, strong fluorescence was obtained at 455nm when treated with Na2SO3 with the excitation wavelength at 320nm, along with obvious color change by naked eyes. So the probe could be applied to sense SO3(2-)/HSO3(-) and HSO4(-) ion via different excited and emission channels simultaneously. The probe was also applicable for fluorescence imagings of bisulfite and hydrosulfate in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Human Rhino- and Enteroviruses in Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR with Locked Nucleic Acid Probes

    PubMed Central

    Österback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5′ noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting. PMID:24048533

  4. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of human rhino- and enteroviruses in clinical specimens by real-time PCR with locked nucleic Acid probes.

    PubMed

    Osterback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2013-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5' noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

  5. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  6. Electrochemically oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode as a probe for simultaneous determination of dopamine and doxorubicin in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Esmaeel; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    A facile and effective approach of fabricating oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode (OMWCNT/GCE) is herein reported. The OMWCNT/GCE was prepared by electrochemical oxidation method in basic media (0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution) and used as a sensor for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and doxorubicin (DOX). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used for characterization and performance study of the OMWCNT/GCE. The modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties toward the oxidation of DA and DOX. Peaks potential difference of 240 mV between DA and DOX was large enough to determine DA and DOX individually and simultaneously. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used for the simultaneous determination of DA and DOX in their binary mixture. Under the optimum conditions, the linear concentration dependences of SW peak current responses were observed for DA and DOX in the concentration ranges of 0.03-55 μmol L(-1) and 0.04-90 μmol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 8.5 × 10(-3) μmol L(-1), and 9.4 × 10(-3) μmol L(-1) for DA and DOX, respectively. The analytical utility of OMWCNT/GCE was also successfully demonstrated for the simultaneous determination of DA and DOX in human blood serum and urine samples. Graphical Abstract Fabrication of new oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of dopamine and doxorubicin.

  7. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-01

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  8. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-15

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  9. Design of Selenium-Based Chiral Chemical Probes for Simultaneous Enantio- and Chemosensing of Chiral Carboxylic Acids with Remote Stereogenic Centers by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shyshkanov, Sergey A; Orlov, Nikolai V

    2016-10-17

    Selenium-based enantiopure chiral chemical probes have been designed in a modular way starting from available amino alcohols. The probes developed were found to be efficient in chemoselective interaction with carboxylic functions of chiral substrates leading to diastereomeric amide formation and in sensing α-, β-, and remote (up to seven bonds away from the carboxylic group) chiral centers by using (77) Se NMR spectroscopy. As a result, it was possible to determine the enantiomeric ratio of structurally diverse individual chiral acids including polyfunctional compounds and drugs with high accuracy. An approach to analyzing the crude reaction mixtures has been successfully developed by using bifunctional selenium- and fluorine-containing chiral probes. More importantly, it was revealed that, based on the (77) Se NMR data obtained, it is possible to obtain primary information about the location and nature of the substituents at the chiral center (chemo- and enantiosensing), which can simplify the structural elucidation of complex compounds. The derivatization procedure takes as little as 5 min and can be performed directly in an NMR tube followed by NMR measurements without any isolation and purification steps.

  10. A single fluorescent probe enables clearly discriminating and simultaneously imaging liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered microdomains in plasma membrane of living cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Minggang; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yuming; Zhang, Ruoyao; Feng, Ruiqing; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Lifang; Li, Xuechen; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Jing Zhi; He, Xiuquan

    2017-03-01

    Liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) microdomains in plasma membrane play different yet essential roles in various bioactivities. However, discrimination of the two microdomains in living cells is difficult, due to the similarity in their constituents and structures. Up to now, polarity sensitive probes are the only tool for imaging the two microdomains, but their small difference between emission spectra in the two microdomains (less than 50 nm) limited their application in living cells. In this work, we first presented an aggregation/monomer type of fluorescent probe (2,7-9E-BHVC12) with much larger separation in emission wavelength (up to 100 nm), for dual-color visualizing the two membrane microdomains in living cells. The probe can form red-emissive aggregates and yellow-emissive monomers when induced by Lo and Ld microdomains, respectively, and thus enables clear visualization of the two membrane microdomains in living cells with dual colors, and thus high-fidelity images of substructures of plasma membrane have been obtained. According to the images of three kinds of normal cells and three kinds of cancer cells stained with 2,7-9E-BHVC12, significant difference in plasma membrane microstructure of cancer cells was found. In terms of 2,7-9E-BHVC12, normal cells were mainly consisted of either Lo or Ld microdomains all over their membranes, while cancer cells all clearly display coexistence of Lo and Ld membrane microdomains. Therefore, 2,7-9E-BHVC12 can serve as a powerful tool for studies of membrane microdomains, and the different results of normal and cancer cells would also deepen our understanding in cancer science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous spatial and angular positioning of plane specular samples by a novel double beam triangulation probe with full auto-compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makai, Janos P.

    2016-02-01

    The positioning of a plane specular sample to be measured or processed is an important requirement in many fields of research and industry. Where a sample is to be processed either by electromagnetic waves or a particle beam of higher numerical aperture the irradiance or the particle number over unit area is position and angle dependent. Where optical properties of a sample are to be measured, such as in spectrophotometry, these parameters can depend on the angle of incidence and on the value of the irradiance, i.e. on the angular and spatial position of the sample. In some cases parameters of many samples have to be compared among each other or to those of a standard, this also requires the highly accurate positioning of each sample to the same position. This paper describes a method that is suitable for high accuracy alignment of specular plane samples both angularly and spatially. It applies a double beam triangulation probe, where the second beam serves not only as a reference beam to compensate for any changes of the transmitting media and that of the laser but also doubles the sensitivity of the probe. The method does not compete with interferometric methods, it is required only in special applications, but provides an absolute uncertainty for spatial positioning in the sub-micrometer range and an angular one in the 0.0003° range. Furthermore, the accuracy is tunable by the parameters of the setup.

  12. Multipressure and Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    Aerodynamic probe is a small cylinder tube holding a network of tiny tubes leading to various ports. Six parameters are recorded simultaneously with little interference with aerodynamic flow. Two tubes connected by a hot-wire tungsten probe sense steady and fluctuating components of total and static pressures; the feedbacks from these tubes are input into differential-pressure sensors to measure fluctuating components of the pressures. Data are recorded by instruments at the back end of the probe.

  13. Simultaneous three-dimensional velocity and mixing measurements by use of laser Doppler velocimetry and fluorescence probes in a water tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Wing, David J.; Henderson, Uleses C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A water tunnel investigation was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of a laser-based instrument that can measure velocity and fluorescence intensity simultaneously. Fluorescence intensity of an excited fluorescent dye is directly related to concentration level and is used to indicate the extent of mixing in flow. This instrument is a three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in combination with a fluorometer for measuring fluorescence intensity variations. This capability allows simultaneous flow measurements of the three orthogonal velocity components and mixing within the same region. Two different flows which were generated by two models were studied: a generic nonaxisymmetric nozzle propulsion simulation model with an auxiliary internal water source that generated a jet flow and an axisymmetric forebody model with a circular sector strake that generated a vortex flow. The off-body flow fields around these models were investigated in the Langley 16- by 24-Inch Water Tunnel. The experimental results were used to calculate 17 quantities that included mean and fluctuating velocities, Reynolds stresses, mean and fluctuating dye fluorescence intensities (proportional to concentration), and fluctuating velocity and dye concentration correlations. An uncertainty analysis was performed to establish confidence levels in the experimental results. In general, uncertainties in mean velocities varied between 1 and 7 percent of free-stream velocity; uncertainties in fluctuating velocities varied between 1 and 5 percent of reference values. The results show characteristics that are unique to each type of flow.

  14. Simultaneous probing of phase transformations in Ni-Ti thin film shape memory alloy by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Silva, R.J.C.

    2013-02-15

    Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) thin film shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been widely projected as novel materials which can be utilized in microdevices. Characterization of their physical properties and its correlation with phase transformations has been a challenging issue. In the present study, X-ray beam diffraction has been utilized to obtain the structural information at different temperatures while cooling. Simultaneously, electrical resistivity (ER) was measured in the phase transformation temperature range. The variation of ER and integral area of the individual diffraction peaks of the different phases as a function of temperature have been compared. A mismatch between the conventional interpretation of ER variation and the results of the XRD data has been clearly identified. - Highlights: ► Phase transformation characterization of Ni–Ti thin film SMA has been carried out. ► Simultaneous monitoring of the XRD and ER with temperature is performed. ► The variation of ER and integral area of the diffraction peaks have been compared. ► A shift of the transformation temperatures obtained by two techniques is discussed.

  15. A fiber optic probe coupled low-cost CMOS-camera-based system for simultaneous measurement of oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin, and blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Myeongsu; Phillips, Zephaniah; Mai, Phuong M.; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Kim, Jae G.

    2015-07-01

    Appropriate oxygen supply and blood flow are important in coordination of body functions and maintaining a life. To measure both oxygen supply and blood flow simultaneously, we developed a system that combined near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA). Our system is more cost effective and compact than such combined systems as diffuse correlation spectroscopy(DCS)-NIRS or DCS flow oximeter, and also offers the same quantitative information. In this article, we present the configuration of DSCA-NIRS and preliminary data from an arm cuff occlusion and a repeated gripping exercise. With further investigation, we believe that DSCA-NIRS can be a useful tool for the field of neuroscience, muscle physiology and metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

  16. A probe-free four-tube real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of twelve enteric viruses and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Niu, Peihua; Hong, Yanying; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Jingyun; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    We aim to develop a multiplex real-time PCR assay to detect the most common pathogens causing community outbreaks of diarrhea. Four reaction systems of fluorescence dye-based real-time PCR assay were performed to amplify genes of norovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Shigella spp. PCR products of each pathogen were identified by characteristic peaks in melting curves. The assay was able to achieve detection limit of 50 copies/reaction for each individual virus target, and 140-500CFU/mL for each individual bacterium target. A total of 122 clinical specimens from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea were used to evaluate the assay. The clinical sensitivity was very similar to that of reference methods. Norovirus genogroup II revealed the highest detectable rate (45/122, 36.9%). Coinfection was found in 28 out of 122 (23%) clinical specimens. This assay proved to be a cost-effective, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of enteric viruses and bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A duplex qPCR for the simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes using LNA probes.

    PubMed

    Nitecki, S S; Teape, N; Carney, B F; Slater, J W; Brück, W M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a duplex qPCR assay was developed for the needs of the Irish fish industry to screen for the two major food-borne pathogens of fish, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The assay can claim positive or negative results for two pathogens in one go in only 20 h including 16 h universal pre-enrichment and compared to traditional ISO approved plate culture methods the labour and the cost involved in testing of one sample is reduced to minimum. The highly specific genomic areas targeted for PCR amplification in the assay are the hly gene for listeriolysin O (LLO) of L. monocytogenes and the stx gene for Shiga-like toxin expressed by E. coli O157:H7. The detection limit of the assay is consistent with the consumer protection limits of 1 pg genomic DNA or 1 CFU 25 g(-1) fish meat (with enrichment) allowing the test to be considered as a substitute to standard plate culture methods. The study highlights a novel duplex qPCR for Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 that could be used as an alternative to plate-based ISO or singleplex PCR methods while minimizing the costs. The assay uses rapid DNA extraction methods and locked nucleic acid probes. Sensitivity and specificity are 100 and 98·95% respectively. The potential for quantitative rage of the assay is 10(8) -10(1) CFU ml(-1) . © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  19. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  20. A new molecular approach to help conclude drowning as a cause of death: simultaneous detection of eight bacterioplankton species using real-time PCR assays with TaqMan probes.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Taketo; Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Nishida, Sho; Imamura, Nahoko; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2012-10-10

    We developed a novel tool for concluding drowning as a cause of death. We designed nine primer pairs to detect representative freshwater or marine bacterioplankton (aquatic bacteria) and then used real-time PCR with TaqMan probes to rapidly and specifically detect them. We previously cultured the genus Aeromonas, which is a representative freshwater bacterial species, in blood samples from 94% of victims who drowned in freshwater and the genera Vibrio and/or Photobacterium that are representative marine bacteria in 88% of victims who drowned in seawater. Based on these results, we simultaneously detected eight species of bacterioplankton (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida; Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus; Photobacterium damselae, P. leiognathi, P. phosphoreum) using three sets of triplex real-time PCR assays and TaqMan probes labelled with fluorophores (FAM, NED, Cy5). We assayed 266 specimens (109 blood, 157 tissues) from 43 victims, including 32 who had drowned in rivers, ditches, wells, sea or around estuaries. All lung samples of these 32 victims were TaqMan PCR-positive including the lung periphery into which water does not readily enter postmortem. On the other hand, findings in blood and/or closed organs (kidney or liver) were PCR-positive in 84% of the drowned victims (except for those who drowned in baths) although the conventional test detected diatoms in closed organs in only 44% of the victims. Thus, the results of the PCR assay reinforced those of diatom tests when only a few diatoms were detectable in organs due to the low density of diatoms in the water where they were found. Multiplex TaqMan PCR assays for bacterioplankton were rapid, less laborious and high-throughput as well as sensitive and specific. Therefore, these assays would be useful for routine forensic screening tests to estimate the amount and type of aspirated water.

  1. High-throughput cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition screening via cassette probe-dosing strategy. I. Development of direct injection/on-line guard cartridge extraction/tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous detection of CYP probe substrates and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bu, H Z; Magis, L; Knuth, K; Teitelbaum, P

    2000-01-01

    A highly efficient direct injection/on-line guard cartridge extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (DI-GCE/MS/MS) method utilizing electrospray polarity switching was developed for the simultaneous detection of probe substrates and marker metabolites of seven human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes: CYP1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1. Microsomal incubations were terminated with formic acid, centrifuged, and the resulting supernatants were injected for analysis by DI-GCE/MS/MS. This method employed an extremely short C(18) cartridge (4 mm in length) which allowed rapid cleanup of sample matrices while retaining the analytes an appropriate time (2. 0-2.2 min). From 1.5 to 2.7 min the effluent was directed to the mass spectrometer for detection otherwise diverted to waste. As a result of the efficient on-line extraction, matrix (e.g., salts and proteins) suppression was minimized. In addition, no visible source contamination was observed and system performance (chromatographic and mass spectrometric) did not significantly deteriorate after 500 consecutive injections. Electrospray polarity switching was strategically executed on a Micromass Quattro II mass spectrometer by establishing dummy ion transitions to protect the analytes from the interference of the overwhelming noise which was unavoidable for the first transition scanned following each polarity switch. This unique strategy led to the simultaneous detection of seven CYP probe substrates and seven corresponding marker metabolites (12 by positive mode and 2 by negative mode).

  2. Simultaneous detection of Legionella species and L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae and L. micdadei using conserved primers and multiple probes in a multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kristen E; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Benitez, Alvaro J; Brown, Ellen W; Diaz, Maureen H; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-07-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe respiratory disease that is estimated to cause between 8,000 and 18,000 hospitalizations each year, though the exact burden is unknown due to under-utilization of diagnostic testing. Although Legionella pneumophila is the most common species detected in clinical cases (80-90%), other species have also been reported to cause disease. However, little is known about Legionnaires' disease caused by these non-pneumophila species. We designed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of all Legionella spp. and simultaneous specific identification of four clinically-relevant Legionella species, L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae, and L. micdadei, using 5'-hydrolysis probe real-time PCR. The analytical sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid from each target species was ≤50fg per reaction. We demonstrated the utility of this assay in spiked human sputum specimens. This assay could serve as a tool for understanding the scope and impact of non-pneumophila Legionella species in human disease.

  3. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  4. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  5. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  6. Droplet monitoring probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, J. R.; Thys, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    A droplet monitoring system is disclosed for analysis of mixed-phase fluid flow in development of gas turbines. The system uses a probe comprising two electrical wires spaced a known distance apart and connected at one end to means for establishing a dc potential between the wires. A drop in the fluid stream momentarily contacting both wires simultaneously causes and electrical signal which is amplified, detected and counted.

  7. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  8. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  9. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  10. Pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy: Principle of operation and resolution limits

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, J.; Graupner, T.; Milde, P. Raupach, R.; Zerweck-Trogisch, U.; Eng, L. M.

    2015-10-21

    Knowledge on surface potential dynamics is crucial for understanding the performance of modern-type nanoscale devices. We describe an electrical pump-probe approach in Kelvin-probe force microscopy that enables a quantitative measurement of dynamic surface potentials at nanosecond-time and nanometer-length scales. Also, we investigate the performance of pump-probe Kelvin-probe force microscopy with respect to the relevant experimental parameters. We exemplify a measurement on an organic field effect transistor that verifies the undisturbed functionality of our pump-probe approach in terms of simultaneous and quantitative mapping of topographic and electronic information at a high lateral and temporal resolution.

  11. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-01-03

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  13. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  14. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): with the aim of the drug interactions probing.

    PubMed

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-25

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  15. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V.; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducing Escherichia coli strain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx. PMID:26824939

  16. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Jürgen A; Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducingEscherichia colistrain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx.

  17. ISIS/EPI-Lo: A New Instrument for Measuring keV to MeV Ions and Electrons with Simultaneous Half-Sky Coverage on NASA's Solar Probe Plus Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Cooper, S.; Crew, A. B.; Dupont, A.; Hayes, J.; Hoffer, E.; Nelson, K.; Parker, C.; Schlemm, C., II; Seifert, H.; Stokes, M.; Angold, N. G.; McComas, D. J.; Weidner, S.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) Mission's Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) is a suite of two energetic particle instruments, EPI-Lo and EPI-Hi, covering lower ( 10 keV-100 MeV) and higher ( 1-100 MeV/nuc) energies, respectively. The ISIS team will investigate the origins, acceleration, and transport of energetic particles in the corona and inner heliosphere during the planned 7-year, 24-orbit mission, with a perihelion initially of 0.16 AU (36 Solar radii; RS), the three final orbits reaching 0.044 AU (9.9 RS). EPI-Lo has a novel approach to obtaining large angular coverage, well-suited to 3-axis stabilized spacecraft such as SPP, by densely sampling its 2π steradian field of view with 80 apertures organized in eight matching, 10-aperture wedges. Each wedge relies primarily on time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer techniques, employing thin secondary-electron-emitting foils, microchannel plates, and solid state detectors (SSDs), to measure ions from 50 keV - 15 MeV and electrons from 50-500 keV. Signal attenuation, absorbers, TOF-only measurements, and SSD-only techniques are used to extend this energy range higher and lower. In 2015 and 2016 we made measurements with engineering units and flight-spare EPI-Lo wedges at accelerators and with radioactive sources; in addition to presenting the instrument design, we will report the results from these tests to characterize the instrument's measurement performance.

  18. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, E. K.; Şavklıyıldız, İ.; Biçer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Zhong, Z.; Tsakalakos, T.

    2013-06-01

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 °C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 °C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 °C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm3. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 °C and 905 °C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 °C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains (ɛ) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are ɛ(112) = 0.05% and ɛ(211) = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths (β) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 °C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {β(112)/β(211)} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 °C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the superposition of mass fluxes due to Fickian diffusion, thermodiffusion (Soret effect), and electromigration, which in turn are a consequence of a superposition of chemical

  19. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the

  20. Atmospheric trident production for probing new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We propose to use atmospheric neutrinos as a powerful probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model via neutrino trident production. The final state with double muon tracks simultaneously produced from the same vertex is a distinctive signal at large Cherenkov detectors. We calculate the expected event numbers of trident production in the Standard Model. To illustrate the potential of this process to probe new physics we obtain the sensitivity on new vector/scalar bosons with coupling to muon and tau neutrinos.

  1. Simultaneous sampling technique for two spectral sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, Olin, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described that uses a bundle of fiber optics to simultaneously sample a dye laser and a spectral lamp. By the use of a real-time display with this technique, the two signals can be superimposed, and the effect of any spectral adjustments can be immediately accessed. In the NASA's CARS system used for combustion diagnostics, the dye laser mixes with a simultaneously pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm to probe the vibrational levels of nitrogen. An illustration of the oscilloscopic display of the system is presented.

  2. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  3. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  4. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  5. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  6. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  7. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  8. Theory of a cylindrical probe in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laframboise, J. G.; Rubinstein, J.

    1976-01-01

    A theory is presented for a cylindrical electrostatic probe in a collisionless plasma in the case where the probe axis is inclined at an angle to a uniform magnetic field. The theory is applicable to electron collection, and under more restrictive conditions, to ion collection. For a probe at space potential, the theory is exact in the limit where probe radius is much less than Debye length. At attracting probe potentials, the theory yields an upper bound and an adiabatic limit for current collection. At repelling probe potentials, it provides a lower bound. The theory is valid if the ratios of probe radius to Debye length and probe radius to mean gyroradius are not simultaneously large enough to produce extrema in the probe sheath potential. The numerical current calculations are based on the approximation that particle orbits are helices near the probe, together with the use of kinetic theory to relate velocity distributions near the probe to those far from it. Probe characteristics are presented for inclination angles from 0 to 90 deg and for probe-radius mean-gyroradius ratios from 0.1 to infinity. For an angle of 0 deg, the end-effect current is calculated separately.

  9. LOFAR as an ionospheric probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaussiran, T. L., II; Bust, G. S.; Garner, T. W.

    2004-12-01

    At the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR)(Planet. Space Sci. (2004) these proceedings) frequencies (HF/VHF), extraterrestrial radiation experiences substantial propagation delay as it passes through the ionosphere. The adaptive calibration technique to be employed by LOFAR will use signals from many known bright radio sources in the sky to estimate and remove the effects of this delay. This technique will operate along many simultaneous lines of sight for each of the stations. Measurements will be made on time scales of seconds or shorter, and with accuracies corresponding to path length variations of 1 cm or less. Tomographic techniques can be used to invert the thousands of changing and independent total electron content (TEC) measurements produced by LOFAR into three-dimensional electron density specifications above the array. These specifications will measure spatial and time scales significantly smaller and faster than anything currently available. These specifications will be used to investigate small-scale ionospheric irregularities, equatorial plasma structures, and ionospheric waves. In addition, LOFAR will improve the understanding of the solar drivers of the ionosphere by simultaneously measuring the solar radio bursts and the TEC. Finally, LOFAR, which will be situated to observed the galactic plane, will make continuous, high-resolution observations of the low-latitude ionosphere, an important but under-observed region. This paper will look at LOFAR as an ionospheric probe including comparisons to other ionospheric probes as well as possible methods of operation to optimize ionospheric measurements.

  10. Multiple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope with nanoscale positional recognition function

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Machida, Shinichi; Aono, Masakazu; Laurent, Olivier; Komatsubara, Takashi; Obori, Kenichi; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2010-07-15

    Over the past decade, multiple-scanning-probe microscope systems with independently controlled probes have been developed for nanoscale electrical measurements. We developed a quadruple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope (QSPTM) that can determine and control the probe position through scanning-probe imaging. The difficulty of operating multiple probes with submicrometer precision drastically increases with the number of probes. To solve problems such as determining the relative positions of the probes and avoiding of contact between the probes, we adopted sample-scanning methods to obtain four images simultaneously and developed an original control system for QSPTM operation with a function of automatic positional recognition. These improvements make the QSPTM a more practical and useful instrument since four images can now be reliably produced, and consequently the positioning of the four probes becomes easier owing to the reduced chance of accidental contact between the probes.

  11. Hot-wire probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulla, V.

    1976-01-01

    High-temperature platinum probe measures turbulence and Reynolds shear stresses in high-temperature compressible flows. Probe does not vibrate at high velocities and does not react like strain gage on warmup.

  12. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. PMID:26093843

  13. Doxorubicin-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) multifunctional, phosphor nanorods: a multi-modal, luminescent, magnetic probe for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging and an excellent pH-triggered anti-cancer drug delivery nanovehicle.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Preeti; Alam, Aftab; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-12-14

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoprobe based on highly monodispersed, optically and magnetically active, biocompatible, PEI-functionalized, highly crystalline β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods as an excellent multi-modal optical/magnetic imaging tool and a pH-triggered intracellular drug delivery nanovehicle. The static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of sharp emission peaks, with long lifetimes (∼3.5 milliseconds), suitable for optical imaging. The static magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature showed a strong paramagnetic signal (χ∼ 3.8 × 10(-5) emu g(-1) Oe(-1)). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements showed fair T1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.14 s(-1) mM(-1)) and magnetic resonance imaging gave enhanced T1-weighted MRI images with increased concentrations of β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) making them suitable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the amine-functionalized β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond linkages enabling them as a pH-triggered, site-specific drug delivery nanovehicle for DOX release inside tumor cells. A comparison between in vitro DOX release studies undertaken in normal physiological (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) environments showed an enhanced DOX dissociation (∼80%) at pH 5.0. The multifunctional material was also applied as an optical probe to confirm the conjugation of DOX and to monitor DOX release via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods exhibited a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their uptake by MCF-7 cells was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The comparative cellular uptakes of free DOX and DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd(3+)/Tb(3+) nanorods were studied in tumor microenvironment conditions (pH 6.5) using confocal imaging, which

  14. A Magnetoresistance Measuring Probe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The in line four point probe, commonly used for measuring the sheet resistance in a conductor, cannot measure the anisotropic ferromagnetic magnetoresistance. However, the addition of two contact points that are not collinear with the current contacts give the probe the ability to non-destructively measure the anistropic magnetoresistance. Keywords: Magnetoresistance; Anisotropic; Thin-Film; Permalloy; Four Point Probe; Anisotropic Resistance.

  15. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  16. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  17. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  18. Doxorubicin-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ multifunctional, phosphor nanorods: a multi-modal, luminescent, magnetic probe for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging and an excellent pH-triggered anti-cancer drug delivery nanovehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhye, Preeti; Alam, Aftab; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a multifunctional nanoprobe based on highly monodispersed, optically and magnetically active, biocompatible, PEI-functionalized, highly crystalline β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods as an excellent multi-modal optical/magnetic imaging tool and a pH-triggered intracellular drug delivery nanovehicle. The static and dynamic photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of sharp emission peaks, with long lifetimes (~3.5 milliseconds), suitable for optical imaging. The static magnetic susceptibility measurements at room temperature showed a strong paramagnetic signal (χ ~ 3.8 × 10-5 emu g-1 Oe-1). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements showed fair T1 relaxivity (r1 = 1.14 s-1 mM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging gave enhanced T1-weighted MRI images with increased concentrations of β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ making them suitable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to the amine-functionalized β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond linkages enabling them as a pH-triggered, site-specific drug delivery nanovehicle for DOX release inside tumor cells. A comparison between in vitro DOX release studies undertaken in normal physiological (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) environments showed an enhanced DOX dissociation (~80%) at pH 5.0. The multifunctional material was also applied as an optical probe to confirm the conjugation of DOX and to monitor DOX release via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods exhibited a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their uptake by MCF-7 cells was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The comparative cellular uptakes of free DOX and DOX-conjugated β-NaYF4:Gd3+/Tb3+ nanorods were studied in tumor microenvironment conditions (pH 6.5) using confocal imaging, which showed an increased uptake of DOX

  19. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  20. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  1. Evaluating Simultaneous Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Many integrals require two successive applications of integration by parts. During the process, another integral of similar type is often invoked. We propose a method which can integrate these two integrals simultaneously. All we need is to solve a linear system of equations.

  2. Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

  3. Evaluating Simultaneous Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Many integrals require two successive applications of integration by parts. During the process, another integral of similar type is often invoked. We propose a method which can integrate these two integrals simultaneously. All we need is to solve a linear system of equations.

  4. Rotary probe traversing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokenson, Gustave J.

    1985-04-01

    A simple mechanical device is presented which allows a probe to scan a plane in space without translating the probe support. The mechanism relies on the rotation of two shafts, one of which rotates the probe through space and the other controls the probe offset from the axis of rotation. The characteristic width of the area swept out is four times the characteristic width of the device. A simple ratcheting gear allows adjacent planes to be scanned for the purpose of obtaining gradients. Computerized control of the shafts rotations also allows noncircular domains to be scanned.

  5. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  6. Rocket exhaust probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a rocket exhaust probe for collecting particulates from a rocket exhaust plume. The probe comprises a tungsten nose tip, a tip holder, a probe body, and a tail section. Rocket exhaust gas enters the probe at the nose tip inlet and passes into a mixing chamber where the exhaust gas mixes with an inert cooling gas that cools and decelerates the exhaust gas. The mixture of exhaust gas and inert gas then passes into a diffusion chamber where it further cools and decelerates before passsing through a submicron particle collection filter.

  7. Miniature Flow-Direction/Pitot-Static Pressure Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Coombs, David S.; Eves, John W.; Price, Howard E.; Vasquez, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Precision flow-direction/pitot-static pressure probes, ranging from 0.035 to 0.090 inch (0.89 to 2.29 mm) in outside diameter, successfully fabricated and calibrated for use in Langley 20-inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Probes simultaneously measure flow direction and static and pitot pressures in flow fields about configurations in hypersonic flow at temperatures up to 500 degree F (260 degree C).

  8. Single-Tip Probe Senses Pressure Or Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Single-tip probe designed for use in supersonic wind tunnel switched to sense pressure or temperature measurements nearly simultaneous at that point. Includes small valve like valves used in bicycle and automotive tires, called "Schraeder valve". Tire valve opened or closed by push rod and solenoid. In open position, flow past thermocouple enables measurements of temperature. In closed position, flow blocked and pressure in probe backs up to pressure transducer.

  9. Dual pH/Activity Probes Expand the Cathepsin Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny

    2016-08-18

    In a recent issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Sanman et al. (2016) describe novel activity-based probes that simultaneously report cathepsin activity and pH. Using these bifunctional probes, the authors find that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium induces dynamic alterations in the pH of cathepsin-containing organelles in both infected and bystander cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Miniature Flow-Direction/Pitot-Static Pressure Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Coombs, David S.; Eves, John W.; Price, Howard E.; Vasquez, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Precision flow-direction/pitot-static pressure probes, ranging from 0.035 to 0.090 inch (0.89 to 2.29 mm) in outside diameter, successfully fabricated and calibrated for use in Langley 20-inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Probes simultaneously measure flow direction and static and pitot pressures in flow fields about configurations in hypersonic flow at temperatures up to 500 degree F (260 degree C).

  11. Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented. PMID:23742552

  12. Probing Skills for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beryl E.

    The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California at San Diego sponsors a workshop that teaches tutors to use five types of probing skills. The use of the skills is fundamental to the student learner's acquisition of complex relationships and problem solving skills. The five types of probes are:…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  14. Formative Assessment Probes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  15. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER

    DOEpatents

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1960-05-10

    A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks.

  16. [Simultaneous digestive tumors].

    PubMed

    Bourbon, L M

    2000-01-01

    Synchronous and metachronous gastrointestinal tumors are well know entities, describing malignant tumors placed in the same organ, at the time of initial diagnosis or during the follow-up control. I would like to present two cases of malignant tumors placed in different organs of the digestive tube, at the time of diagnosis, coining the name simultaneous for these entities, stating laboratory finding and signo-symptomatologic interpretation difficulties, and proposing endoscopic approach as a valid diagnostic method.

  17. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  18. Electron temperature probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    The electron temperature probe (ETP) was invented in Japan in 1970's. The probe measures the electron temperature accurately and the measurement is not influenced by the electrode contamination. The instrument has low weight, low data transmission bit rate and low power consumption. The probe has been deployed in many sounding rockets, Earth orbiting scientific satellites, and Mars exploration spacecraft in Japan. The probe has also been deployed in sounding rockets in West Germany, India, Canada, USA, and Brazil. The probe has also been deployed in Brazilian satellites, Korean satellites, and recently as a Taiwan satellite payload. The manuscript describes the principle of the ETP instrument, the system configuration, the mechanical interface with respect to the sensor location, the control timing between data processing units; some useful information, the interference with other instruments, and future improvements and tasks. Some useful information for conducting performance check after the instrument fabrication and before the flight deployment is also presented in Appendix A.

  19. Circumferential pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor); Fantl, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A probe for measuring circumferential pressure inside a body cavity is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, a urodynamic pressure measurement probe for evaluating human urinary sphincter function is disclosed. Along the length of the probe are disposed a multiplicity of deformable wall sensors which typically comprise support tube sections with flexible side wall areas. These are arranged along the length of the probe in two areas, one just proximal to the tip for the sensing of fluid pressure inside the bladder, and five in the sensing section which is positioned within the urethra at the point at which the urinary sphincter constricts to control the flow of urine. The remainder of the length of the probe comprises multiple rigid support tube sections interspersed with flexible support tube sections in the form of bellows to provide flexibility.

  20. Inflatable traversing probe seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An inflatable seal acts as a pressure-tight zipper to provide traversing capability for instrumentation rakes and probes. A specially designed probe segment with a teardrop cross-section in the vicinity of the inflatable seal minimizes leakage at the interface. The probe is able to travel through a lengthwise slot in a pressure vessel or wind tunnel section, while still maintaining pressure integrity. The design uses two commercially available inflatable seals, opposing each other, to cover the probe slot in a wind tunnel wall. Proof-of-concept tests were conducted at vessel pressures up to 30 psig, with seals inflated to 50 psig, showing no measurable leakage along the seal's length or around the probe teardrop cross-section. This seal concept can replace the existing technology of sliding face plate/O-ring systems in applications where lengthwise space is limited.

  1. Application of probe manipulator to repair probe cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Egashira, Mitsuru; Machida, Kazumichi; Urata, Atsuo

    2006-03-01

    We fabricated an apparatus for manipulation and welding of fine metal objects using a probe. The apparatus is composed of a work probe of a tungsten alloy needle, stages, a DC power supply, and an observation system. The work probe is held vertically above a gold substrate placed on stages to control the relative position against the work probe. The DC power supply is equipped to apply voltage of 0-10kV between the work probe and the substrate. One application of the apparatus is to repair probe cards. Thousands of contact probes (needles) are mounted on the printed circuit board (PCB) in the probe card. The contact probes are mounted one by one by the hands. Recently, an array of the contact probe on the PCB is produced by the LIGA process in response to narrower semiconductor pitch length. The problem is that there are no methods to repair a wrong contact probe. Whole of the contact probes should be a waste owing to one wrong contact probe. We propose to replace a wrong contact probe with a good one using our apparatus. Experiments to remove a contact probe by the apparatus is carried out using the specimen of a mimic probe card, where a cantilever type contact probes are arranged with a pitch of 25 micrometers. Removal of the wrong contact probe is carried out by a non-contact discharge and a contact discharge using the apparatus. High voltage of about 1-2kV is applied after the work probe is moved to above the target contact probe for the non-contact discharge. While high voltage of about10kV is applied after the work probe is positioned in contact with the target contact probe for the contact discharge. The target contact probe is removed by both methods, though the neighboring contact probes are damaged. The latter method is hopeful for removal for repair of the probe card.

  2. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  3. Evolving DNA motifs to predict GeneChip probe performance

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, WB; Harrison, AP

    2009-01-01

    Background Affymetrix High Density Oligonuclotide Arrays (HDONA) simultaneously measure expression of thousands of genes using millions of probes. We use correlations between measurements for the same gene across 6685 human tissue samples from NCBI's GEO database to indicated the quality of individual HG-U133A probes. Low correlation indicates a poor probe. Results Regular expressions can be automatically created from a Backus-Naur form (BNF) context-free grammar using strongly typed genetic programming. Conclusion The automatically produced motif is better at predicting poor DNA sequences than an existing human generated RE, suggesting runs of Cytosine and Guanine and mixtures should all be avoided. PMID:19298675

  4. Multiple-Fiber-Optic Probe For Light-Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans Singh; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-fiber-optical probe developed for use in measuring light scattered at various angles from specimens of materials. Designed for both static and dynamic light-scattering measurements of colloidal dispersions. Probe compact, rugged unit containing no moving parts and remains stationary during operation. Not restricted to operation in controlled, research-laboratory environment. Positioned inside or outside light-scattering chamber. Provides simultaneous measurements at small angular intervals over range of angles, made to include small scattering angles by orienting probe in appropriate direction.

  5. Probing cell mechanical properties with microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowat, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting flow on the micron-scale is emerging as a method to probe cell mechanical properties with 10-1000x advances in throughput over existing technologies. The mechanical properties of cells and the cell nucleus are implicated in a wide range of biological contexts: for example, the ability of white blood cells to deform is central to immune response; and malignant cells show decreased stiffness compared to benign cells. We recently developed a microfluidic device to probe cell and nucleus mechanical properties: cells are forced to deform through a narrow constrictions in response to an applied pressure; flowing cells through a series of constrictions enables us to probe the ability of hundreds of cells to deform and relax during flow. By tuning the constriction width so it is narrower than the width of the cell nucleus, we can specifically probe the effects of nuclear physical properties on whole cell deformability. We show that the nucleus is the rate-limiting step in cell passage: inducing a change in its shape to a multilobed structure results in cells that transit more quickly; increased levels of lamin A, a nuclear protein that is key for nuclear shape and mechanical stability, impairs the passage of cells through constrictions. We are currently developing a new class of microfluidic devices to simultaneously probe the deformability of hundreds of cell samples in parallel. Using the same soft lithography techniques, membranes are fabricated to have well-defined pore distribution, width, length, and tortuosity. We design the membranes to interface with a multiwell plate, enabling simultaneous measurement of hundreds of different samples. Given the wide spectrum of diseases where altered cell and nucleus mechanical properties are implicated, such a platform has great potential, for example, to screen cells based on their mechanical phenotype against a library of drugs.

  6. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. Graphical Abstract An image comparison between FLIm and Raman spectroscopy acquired with the bimodal probe onseveral tissue samples.

  7. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  8. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  9. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOEpatents

    Li, Alexander D. Q.; Wang, Wei

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  10. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  11. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  12. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Jupiter probe heatshield configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Binder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of initial probe heatshield shape on the total probe mass loss during Jovian entry is considered. Modification of the aerothermal environment and probe entry trajectory due to changing probe heatshield shape is included in a computerized technique designed for rapid assessment of the effect of probe initial shape on heatshield mass loss. Results obtained indicate the importance of trajectory and heating distribution coupling with probe shape and mass change.

  14. Nanoelectronic Coating Enabled Versatile Multifunctional Neural Probes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengtuo; Luan, Lan; Wei, Xiaoling; Zhu, Hanlin; Li, Xue; Lin, Shengqing; Siegel, Jennifer J; Chitwood, Raymond A; Xie, Chong

    2017-08-09

    Brain function can be best studied by simultaneous measurements and modulation of the multifaceted signaling at the cellular scale. Extensive efforts have been made to develop multifunctional neural probes, typically involving highly specialized fabrication processes. Here, we report a novel multifunctional neural probe platform realized by applying ultrathin nanoelectronic coating (NEC) on the surfaces of conventional microscale devices such as optical fibers and micropipettes. We fabricated the NECs by planar photolithography techniques using a substrate-less and multilayer design, which host arrays of individually addressed electrodes with an overall thickness below 1 μm. Guided by an analytic model and taking advantage of the surface tension, we precisely aligned and coated the NEC devices on the surfaces of these conventional microprobes and enabled electrical recording capabilities on par with the state-of-the-art neural electrodes. We further demonstrated optogenetic stimulation and controlled drug infusion with simultaneous, spatially resolved neural recording in a rodent model. This study provides a low-cost, versatile approach to construct multifunctional neural probes that can be applied to both fundamental and translational neuroscience.

  15. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Haugen, Gilbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  16. Simultaneous Immunization against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tchilian, Elma Z.; Ronan, Edward O.; de Lara, Catherine; Lee, Lian Ni; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Vordermeier, Martin H.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Beverley, Peter C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. Methods and Findings Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM) of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week) of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. Conclusions These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them. PMID:22110657

  17. Technology for Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Arnold, James; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul; Laub, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph describing technologies for entry probes is presented. The topics include: 1) Entry Phase; 2) Descent Phase; 3) Long duration atmospheric observations; 4) Survivability at high temperatures; and 5) Summary.

  18. Geological assessment probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-04-01

    A probe is described which can be installed in a side hole that extends from a bore hole in the Earth, to assess the permeability of the strata surrounding the borehole. The probe is elongated and has a plurality of seals spaced therealong and sealed to the walls of the side hole to form a plurality of chambers sealed from one another. A tracer fluid injector on the probe can inject a tracer fluid into one of the chambers, while a tracer fluid detector located in another chamber can detect the tracer fluid, to thereby sense the permeability of the strata surrounding the side hole. The probe can include a train of modules, with each module having an inflatable packer which is inflated by the difference between the borehole pressure and the strata pressure.

  19. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  20. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, Sara Smucker; Earleywine, Mitch

    2006-10-11

    Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  1. Note on Magnetism and Simultaneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    The paper on "Magnetism and Simultaneity" by Adler provides an excellent new thought experiment involving the lack of simultaneity in Einstein's special relativity. Adler uses the lack of simultaneity rather than the Lorentz contraction to derive the formula for the magnetic force on a moving charged particle. Advantages of his derivation are that…

  2. Note on Magnetism and Simultaneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    The paper on "Magnetism and Simultaneity" by Adler provides an excellent new thought experiment involving the lack of simultaneity in Einstein's special relativity. Adler uses the lack of simultaneity rather than the Lorentz contraction to derive the formula for the magnetic force on a moving charged particle. Advantages of his derivation are that…

  3. Cryogenic Optoelectronic Probe Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    capability is very important for a few on- going projects under DOD support. Selected Examples of Research Using COPS Example 1: sheet resistance measurement...donor concentration of this thin film contact material, we need to know the sheet resistance . As shown in Fig. 1, four electric probes are landed...voltage of 62.4 mV across probe 2 and 3. Therefore we can determine the sheet resistance by using Eq: = ( ) . This gives the sheet

  4. Outer planets probe testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Grote, M. G.; Edwards, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric entry Probe is being developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to conduct in situ scientific investigations of the outer planets' atmospheres. A full scale engineering model of an MDAC-E Probe configuration, was fabricated by NASA ARC. Proof-of-concept test validation of the structural and thermal design is being obtained at NASA ARC. The model was successfully tested for shock and dynamic loading and is currently in thermal vacuum testing.

  5. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  6. Simultaneous Quantum Duel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, Wagner F.; Huguenin, José A. O.; Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We quantize the classical game of simultaneous two-person duel. In this game, the players Alice and Bob, have a two level system, for example, a spin 1/2 particle, which models alive and dead states. Through physical considerations we write up the unitary operator which represents the classical action of firing, which quantum mechanically is represented by flipping the opponent's spin and test its classical limits. We study three representative special cases of such duel where players start the duel: both alive; in a Bell state; and when one of them has her skills decreasing along the duel. We also present a proposal of experimental realization of this quantum game using twin photons produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion.

  7. Simultaneous analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  8. Simultaneously cycled NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Parish, David M; Szyperski, Thomas

    2008-04-09

    Simultaneously cycled (SC) NMR was introduced and exemplified by implementing a set of 2-D [1H,1H] SC exclusive COSY (E.COSY) NMR experiments, that is, rf pulse flip-angle cycled (SFC), rf pulse phase cycled (SPC), and pulsed field gradient (PFG) strength cycled (SGC) E.COSY. Spatially selective 1H rf pulses were applied as composite pulses such that all steps of the respective cycles were affected simultaneously in different slices of the sample. This increased the data acquisition speed for an n-step cycle n-fold. A high intrinsic sensitivity was achieved by defining the cycles in a manner that the receiver phase remains constant for all steps of the cycle. Then, the signal resulting from applying the cycle corresponded to the sum of the signals from all steps of the cycle. Hence, the detected free induction decay did not have to be separated into the contributions arising from different slices, and read-out PFGs, which not only greatly reduce sensitivity but also negatively impact lineshapes in the direct dimension, were avoided. The current implementation of SFC E.COSY reached approximately 65% of the intrinsic sensitivity of the conventional phase cycled congener, making this experiment highly attractive whenever conventional data acquisition is sampling limited. Highly resolved SC E.COSY yielding accurate 3J-coupling values was recorded for the 416 Da plant alkaloid tomatidine within 80 min, that is, 12 times faster than with conventional phase cycled E.COSY. SC NMR is applicable for a large variety of NMR experiments and thus promises to be a valuable addition to the arsenal of approaches for tackling the NMR sampling problem to avoid sampling limited data acquisition.

  9. Electromagnetic treatment of the multipole resonance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2009-10-01

    We present an electromagnetic model of the ``multipole resonance probe'' (MRP)-- a diagnostic concept which enables the simultaneous determination of plasma density, electron temperature, and collision rate in low-pressure gas discharges. The MRP is a radio-frequency driven probe of particular spherical design. In an idealized version the probe consists of two dielectrically shielded, conducting hemispheres. Driven by a radio-frequency source, the hemispheres are powered symmetrically. An analysis of the absorption spectrum shows a multitude of resonances, which allows for an analytical evaluation of the measured signal. The signal provides information on the distribution of the plasma in the probe's vicinity, from which the values of electron density, electron temperature and collision rate can be inferred. In this contribution the MRP will be modeled electromagnetically. Based on a comparision between full electromagnetic and electrostatic treatment, we show that a previously presented electrostatic treatment [1] was well justified.[4pt] [1] M.Lapke et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051502 (2008)

  10. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  11. Continuously Tunable Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lucia R.; Wang, J. Sherry; Fang, John Z.; Reiser, Emily; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J.; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-01-01

    In silico designed nucleic acid probes and primers often fail to achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. Here, we present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity via the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, allowing independent and decoupled adjustment of hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieve near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy (0.03 kcal·mol−1 granularity). As applications, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content 0% – 100%), maximized signal difference for 11 pairs of single nucleotide variants, and performed tunable hybrid-capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (FFPE). PMID:26480474

  12. Huygens probe on target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected

  13. Magnetic Probe Construction using Thick-film Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Sakakibara, S.; Kubota, Y.; and Yamada, H.

    2001-02-02

    Thick-film technology has been successfully adapted for the design and fabrication of magnetic probes of a new type suitable for use in the simultaneous ultra-high vacuum and high-temperature environment of a nuclear fusion device. The maximum usable temperature is expected to be around 900 degrees C. This new probe has a specific sensitivity (coupling area per unit volume) an order of magnitude higher than a conventional coil. The new probe in one implementation is capable of simultaneously measuring magnetic field in three orthogonal directions about a single spatial point and in two frequency ranges. Low-frequency coils have a measured coupling area of 296-323 cm squared and a frequency response of about 300 kHz. High-frequency coils have a design coupling area of 12-15 cm squared.

  14. Optical fiber photoacoustic-photothermal probe.

    PubMed

    Beard, P C; Pérennès, F; Draguioti, E; Mills, T N

    1998-08-01

    We describe the operation of an all-optical probe that provides an alternative means of implementing photoacoustic and photothermal investigative techniques, particularly those used in biomedical applications. The probe is based on a transparent, acoustically and thermally sensitive Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor mounted at the end of an optical fiber. We demonstrate the ability of the system to make photoacoustic and photothermal measurements simultaneously and evaluate its photothermal response, using a nonscattering liquid target of known and adjustable absorption coefficient. The acoustic and thermal noise floors were 2 kPa and 6 x 10(-3) degrees C , respectively, obtained over a 25-MHz measurement bandwidth and 30 signal averages.

  15. Advantages of Using Soft Materials in Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Wang, Mary X.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-03-01

    Scanning probes based upon soft materials provide new capabilities and insights into the science of scanning probe lithography. Specifically, we have explored a cantilever-free architecture that consists of an array of sharp probes on an elastomeric film on a glass slide. This architecture allows every probe in an array to be in simultaneous, gentle contact with a surface, allowing one to perform lithography with millions of probes in parallel. Here, we describe three recent developments in cantilever-free scanning probe lithography that were enabled by the elastomeric material. 1) As the mechanical properties of elastomers can be readily tuned, it is possible to tailor the spring constant of the probes.1 2) The high coefficient of thermal expansion of elastomers means that local heating can be used to physically actuate individual probes allowing for arbitrary patterning.2 3) Solvents retained in the elastomer can mediate molecular printing and allow a user to pattern hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials in totally dry environments. 1D. J. Eichelsdoerfer, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 664 (2013). 2K. A. Brown, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 12921 (2013).

  16. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  17. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  18. Directional and enhanced spontaneous emission with a corrugated metal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongming; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Liu, Haitao; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-06-01

    A three-dimensional corrugated metal tapered probe with surface corrugated gratings at the tip apex is proposed and investigated theoretically, which leads to an obvious emission beaming effect of spontaneous emission from a single emitter near the probe. In contrast with conventional apertureless metal probes, where only the enhancement of an optical near-field is concerned, the corrugated probe is able to manipulate local excitation intensity and far-field emission direction simultaneously. The angular emission from a single dipole source, being placed close to the corrugated probe, falls into a cone with a maximum directivity angle of +/-11.6°, which improves the collection efficiency 25-fold. Such a probe simultaneously increases the localized field intensity to about twice as strong as the conventional bare tip. In addition, the radiation pattern is sensitive to the working wavelength and the dipole to tip-apex separation. These findings make a promising route to the development of plasmonic spontaneous emission manipulation based on corrugated tapered antenna--for instance, tip-enhanced spectroscopy, single-molecule sensing, and single-photon source .

  19. Titan atmospheric probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, B. L.

    1984-08-01

    Increased scientific interest in the structure and composition of Titan's atmosphere, clouds and surface have led to the study of mission options to the Saturnian system with the main goal of placing a probe into the atmosphere of the satellite. Two probe concepts have been studied by NASA: the first concept, a slightly modified Galileo probe capable of withstanding approximately 50 earth G during atmospheric entry heating and deceleration, would consist of a blunted 53 degree, 136-cm-diameter half-angle cone with a hemispherical afterbody, and a descent module containing scientific instruments and a parachute; the second concept, a system designed to provide in situ atmospheric measurements of Titan's organic haze layer, would consist of a probe using a 165-cm deployable graphite fabric decelerator, a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical descent module containing five instruments and a 2.5 m-diameter parachute and a 50-cm-radius spherical nose cap. Although the modified Galileo probe is feasible, its scientific drawback includes its inability to obtain in situ measurements above approximately 100 km.

  20. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  1. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  2. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  3. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  4. Pressure measuring probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a probe for measuring changes in pressure in a high velocity fluid stream over and adjacent to the surface of an object. The probe is formed of an exterior housing having a closed pressure chamber in which a piezoelectric pressure transducer is mounted. An open connector tube having a probe tip passes a portion of the fluid stream into the closed pressure chamber; any change of pressure within, which requires a settling-time to appear in the closed pressure chamber, is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the connector tube. A cooling chamber formed around the pressure chamber is connected to a source of cooling fluid by means of inlet and outlet tubes.

  5. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  6. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  7. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  8. Simultaneous blur contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Shernaaz M.; Webster, Michael A.; Taylor, John; Jaikumar, Jaikishan; Verma, Richa

    2001-06-01

    How well-focused an image appears can be strongly influenced by the surroundings context. A blurred surround can cause a central image to appear too sharp, while sharped surrounds can induce blur. We examined some spatial properties and stimulus selectivities of this 'simultaneous blur contrast.' Observers adjusted the focus of a central test image by a 2AFC staircase procedure that varied the slope of the image amplitude spectrum. The test were surrounded by 8 identical images with biased spectra, that were presented concurrently with the test for 0.5 sec on a uniform gray background. Contrast effects were comparable in magnitude for image sizes ranging from 1-deg to 4-deg in visual angle, but were stronger for test that were viwe4 in the periphery rather than fixated directly. Consistent biases were found for different types of grayscale images, including natural images, filtered noise, and simple edges. However, effects were weaker when surrounds and tests were drawn from different images, or differed in contrast-polarity or color, and thus do not depend on blur or on average spatial- frequency content per se. These induction effects may in part reflect a manifestation of selective contrast gain control

  9. Simultaneity in Emotional Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    Emotions are described as emergent states, which exist only to the extent that multiple affective reactions to the same object occur at the same time. Emotions are thus the confluence of thoughts, feelings, expressions, desires, and so on. They emerge as meta-cognitive representations of embodied affective reactions. Emotions may be initiated by low-level, automatic, unconscious affective reactions, which are then iteratively re-processed with ever greater cognitive involvement until they become elaborated into emotional states. Affective and emotional reactions act as information about the value of objects of judgment and of accessible cognitions and inclinations during tasks. They influence judgment and thought when they are experienced simultaneously with sensory data about the world. Affective influences thus depend on our inability to disentangle affective from descriptive perceptions. To the extent that affective reactions reflect different, incommensurate sources of value (e.g., utilitarian, moral, aesthetic), perceived persons or objects may be experienced as being transcendently good or evil. Experiments varying people's attributions for their affective experiences allow the separate roles of affective and descriptive information to be examined. However, it is the inability to parse everyday experience into its separate sources of evaluative and descriptive information that gives rise to a colourful and transcendent reality.

  10. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  11. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  12. The Phoenix Pluto Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunning, George R.; Spapperi, Jeff; Wilkinson, Jeffrey P.; Eldred, Jim; Labij, Dennis; Strinni, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    A design proposal for an unmanned probe to Pluto is presented. The topics covered include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion system; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communication; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  13. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  14. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  15. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  16. Experimenting with Temperature Probes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1989-01-01

    Presented are four activities which are designed to familiarize children with the multiple uses of computers and help them learn about heat and temperature using temperature probes. Included are the tempering effect of water, heat capacity, caloric content of foods, and weather. Hardware and software are discussed. (CW)

  17. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  18. Time-resolved detection probe for homogeneous nucleic acid analyses in one-step format.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Ville; Ylikoski, Alice; Raussi, Hanna-Mari; Ollikka, Pia; Hemmilä, Ilkka

    2007-02-01

    We report here an extension of homogeneous assays based on fluorescence intensity and lifetime measuring on DNA hybridization. A novel decay probe that allows simple one-step nucleic acid detection with subnanomolar sensitivity, and is suitable for closed-tube applications, is introduced. The decay probe uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a europium chelate donor and an organic fluorophore acceptor. The substantial change in the acceptor emission decay time on hybridization with the target sequence allows the direct separation of the hybridized and unhybridized probe populations in a time-resolved measurement. No additional sample manipulation or self-hybridization of the probes is required. The wavelength and decay time of a decay probe can be adjusted according to the selection of probe length and acceptor fluorophore, thereby making the probes applicable to multiplexed assays. Here we demonstrate the decay probe principle and decay probe-based, one-step, dual DNA assay using celiac disease-related target oligonucleotides (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) as model analytes. Decay probes showed specific response for their complementary DNA target and allowed good signal deconvolution based on simultaneous optical and temporal filtering. This technique potentially could be used to further increase the number of simultaneously detected DNA targets in a simple one-step homogeneous assay.

  19. Mechanosensitive membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan

    2015-04-13

    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on λ-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric

  20. A Demonstration of Simultaneous Electrochemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sotomayor-Martinez Barranco, Biaani; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Camacho-Zuniga, Claudia; Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Paired (simultaneous) electrochemical processes can increase energy savings in selected cases by using the reactions at both electrodes of an electrochemical cell to perform a desired process, as is the case in the commercially successful chlor-alkali process. In the demonstration described herein, simultaneous blue electrochemiluminescence (ECL)…

  1. Generating Multiple Calibrating Voltages Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutreix, Lionel J.

    1992-01-01

    Calibrating unit containing signal generator controlled by microprocessor puts out ac signals of known voltages on fifty channels simultaneously. Signals used to calibrate high-frequency tape recorder channels for multiple, ac-coupled strain gauges simultaneously. Calibrating voltage required on each tape channel determined by remote computer, and corresponding data and commands transmitted to microprocessor via modems.

  2. A Demonstration of Simultaneous Electrochemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sotomayor-Martinez Barranco, Biaani; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Camacho-Zuniga, Claudia; Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Paired (simultaneous) electrochemical processes can increase energy savings in selected cases by using the reactions at both electrodes of an electrochemical cell to perform a desired process, as is the case in the commercially successful chlor-alkali process. In the demonstration described herein, simultaneous blue electrochemiluminescence (ECL)…

  3. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  4. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  5. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  6. High-speed dual Langmuir probe.

    PubMed

    Lobbia, Robert B; Gallimore, Alec D

    2010-07-01

    In an effort to temporally resolve the electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential for turbulent plasma discharges, a unique high-speed dual Langmuir probe (HDLP) has been developed. A traditional single Langmuir probe of cylindrical geometry (exposed to the plasma) is swept simultaneously with a nearby capacitance and noise compensating null probe (fully insulated from the plasma) to enable bias sweep rates on a microsecond timescale. Traditional thin-sheath Langmuir probe theory is applied for interpretation of the collected probe data. Data at a sweep rate of 100 kHz are presented; however the developed system is capable of running at 1 MHz-near the upper limit of the applied electrostatic Langmuir probe theory for the investigated plasma conditions. Large sets (100,000 sweeps at each of 352 spatial locations) of contiguous turbulent plasma properties are collected using simple electronics for probe bias driving and current measurement attaining 80 dB signal-to-noise measurements with dc to 1 MHz bandwidth. Near- and far-field plume measurements with the HDLP system are performed downstream from a modern Hall effect thruster where the time-averaged plasma properties exhibit the approximate ranges: electron density n(e) from (1x10(15))-(5x10(16)) m(-3), electron temperature T(e) from 1 to 3.5 eV, and plasma potential V(p) from 5 to 15 V. The thruster discharge of 200 V (constant anode potential) and 2 A (average discharge current) displays strong, 2.2 A peak-to-peak, current oscillations at 19 kHz, characteristic of the thruster "breathing mode" ionization instability. Large amplitude discharge current fluctuations are typical for most Hall thrusters, yet the HDLP system reveals the presence of the same 19 kHz fluctuations in n(e)(t), T(e)(t), and V(p)(t) throughout the entire plume with peak-to-peak divided by mean plasma properties that average 94%. The propagation delays between the discharge current fluctuations and the corresponding plasma

  7. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  8. A quantum spin-probe molecular microscope.

    PubMed

    Perunicic, V S; Hill, C D; Hall, L T; Hollenberg, L C L

    2016-10-11

    Imaging the atomic structure of a single biomolecule is an important challenge in the physical biosciences. Whilst existing techniques all rely on averaging over large ensembles of molecules, the single-molecule realm remains unsolved. Here we present a protocol for 3D magnetic resonance imaging of a single molecule using a quantum spin probe acting simultaneously as the magnetic resonance sensor and source of magnetic field gradient. Signals corresponding to specific regions of the molecule's nuclear spin density are encoded on the quantum state of the probe, which is used to produce a 3D image of the molecular structure. Quantum simulations of the protocol applied to the rapamycin molecule (C51H79NO13) show that the hydrogen and carbon substructure can be imaged at the angstrom level using current spin-probe technology. With prospects for scaling to large molecules and/or fast dynamic conformation mapping using spin labels, this method provides a realistic pathway for single-molecule microscopy.

  9. A quantum spin-probe molecular microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunicic, V. S.; Hill, C. D.; Hall, L. T.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2016-10-01

    Imaging the atomic structure of a single biomolecule is an important challenge in the physical biosciences. Whilst existing techniques all rely on averaging over large ensembles of molecules, the single-molecule realm remains unsolved. Here we present a protocol for 3D magnetic resonance imaging of a single molecule using a quantum spin probe acting simultaneously as the magnetic resonance sensor and source of magnetic field gradient. Signals corresponding to specific regions of the molecule's nuclear spin density are encoded on the quantum state of the probe, which is used to produce a 3D image of the molecular structure. Quantum simulations of the protocol applied to the rapamycin molecule (C51H79NO13) show that the hydrogen and carbon substructure can be imaged at the angstrom level using current spin-probe technology. With prospects for scaling to large molecules and/or fast dynamic conformation mapping using spin labels, this method provides a realistic pathway for single-molecule microscopy.

  10. A quantum spin-probe molecular microscope

    PubMed Central

    Perunicic, V. S.; Hill, C. D.; Hall, L. T.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging the atomic structure of a single biomolecule is an important challenge in the physical biosciences. Whilst existing techniques all rely on averaging over large ensembles of molecules, the single-molecule realm remains unsolved. Here we present a protocol for 3D magnetic resonance imaging of a single molecule using a quantum spin probe acting simultaneously as the magnetic resonance sensor and source of magnetic field gradient. Signals corresponding to specific regions of the molecule's nuclear spin density are encoded on the quantum state of the probe, which is used to produce a 3D image of the molecular structure. Quantum simulations of the protocol applied to the rapamycin molecule (C51H79NO13) show that the hydrogen and carbon substructure can be imaged at the angstrom level using current spin-probe technology. With prospects for scaling to large molecules and/or fast dynamic conformation mapping using spin labels, this method provides a realistic pathway for single-molecule microscopy. PMID:27725630

  11. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  12. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  13. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Maxime; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Duvillaret, Lionel; Paupert, Alain; Lasserre, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We present pigtailed electro-optic probes that allow a simultaneous measurement of high frequency electric fields and temperature using a unique laser probe beam. This has been achieved by the development of a novel probe design associated with a fully automated servo-controlled optical bench, initially developed to stabilize the electric field sensor response. The developed electro-optic probes present a stable response in outdoors conditions over a time duration exceeding 1 h, a frequency bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 Vm(-1)Hz(-(1/2)), and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK.

  14. Experiments with probe masses

    PubMed Central

    Braginsky, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

  15. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  16. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  17. Experiments with probe masses.

    PubMed

    Braginsky, V B

    2007-03-06

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational "charges" on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented.

  18. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted from its transporter in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is lowered onto an assembly and test stand in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-13

    In the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers prepare to remove the soft shipping cover from the Gravity Probe B experiment. Immediate processing includes setting up mechanical and electrical ground support equipment, making necessary connections and conditioning the spacecraft battery. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-18

    In the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, workers conduct battery charge/discharge cycles as part of the battery conditioning process on Gravity Probe B. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment enters the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    A transporter carrying the Gravity Probe B experiment backs into the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    Enclosed in a canister, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft arrives on Vandenberg Air Force Base, headed for the spacecraft processing facility. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-11

    Workers in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base get ready to begin processing the Gravity Probe B experiment, including setting up mechanical and electrical ground support equipment, making necessary connections and conditioning the spacecraft battery. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    The Gravity Probe B experiment rests on an assembly and test stand in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-12

    At Vandenberg AFB, the canister enclosing the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft is removed from the transporter. Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-11

    Workers in the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base get ready to begin processing the Gravity Probe B experiment. Mechanical and electrical ground support equipment will be set up and necessary connections made with the spacecraft. Spacecraft battery conditioning will also begin. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Gravity Probe B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-18

    In the spacecraft processing facility on North Vandenberg Air Force Base, battery charge/discharge cycles are underway as part of the battery conditioning process on Gravity Probe B. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Subsurface Ice Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

  11. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V.

    1985-12-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  12. Low-coherence interferometric tip-clearance probe.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Andreas; Schlamp, Stefan; Rösgen, Thomas; Haffner, Ken

    2003-08-01

    We propose an all-fiber, self-calibrating, economical probe that is capable of near-real-time, single-port, simultaneous blade-to-blade tip-clearance measurements with submillimeter accuracy (typically < 100 microm, absolute) in the first stages of a gas turbine. Our probe relies on the interference between backreflected light from the blade tips during the 1-micros blade passage time and a frequency-shifted reference with variable time delay, making use of a low-coherence light source. A single optical fiber of arbitrary length connects the self-contained optics and electronics to the turbine.

  13. Flight experience with a pivoting traversing boundary-layer probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Brauns, D. A.; Cissell, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A pivoting traversing boundary layer probe was evaluated in flight on an F-104 airplane. The evaluation was performed at free stream Mach numbers from 0.8 to 2.0. The unit is described, and operating problems and their solutions are discussed. Conventional boundary layer profiles containing variations in flow angle within the viscous layer are shown for free stream Mach numbers of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.0. Although the unit was not optimized for size and weight, it successfully measured simultaneously flow angularity, probe height, and pitot pressure through the boundary layer.

  14. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  15. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  16. Probing pathways periodically.

    PubMed

    Elston, Timothy C

    2008-10-21

    Signal transduction pathways are used by cells to process and transmit information about their external surroundings. These systems are dynamic, interconnected molecular networks. Therefore, full characterization of their behavior requires a systems-level analysis. Investigations with temporally oscillating input signals probed the dynamic properties of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These studies shed light on how the network functions as a whole to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  17. Triaxial Probe Magnetic Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, Kimberly; Whittlesey, Albert; Narvaez, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The Triaxial Magnetic Moment Analysis software uses measured magnetic field test data to compute dipole and quadrupole moment information from a hardware element. It is used to support JPL projects needing magnetic control and an understanding of the spacecraft-generated magnetic fields. Evaluation of the magnetic moment of an object consists of three steps: acquisition, conditioning, and analysis. This version of existing software was extensively rewritten for easier data acquisition, data analysis, and report presentation, including immediate feedback to the test operator during data acquisition. While prior JPL computer codes provided the same data content, this program has a better graphic display including original data overlaid with reconstructed results to show goodness of fit accuracy and better appearance of the report graphic page. Data are acquired using three magnetometers and two rotations of the device under test. A clean acquisition user interface presents required numeric data and graphic summaries, and the analysis module yields the best fit (least squares) for the magnetic dipole and/or quadrupole moment of a device. The acquisition module allows the user to record multiple data sets, selecting the best data to analyze, and is repeated three times for each of the z-axial and y-axial rotations. In this update, the y-axial rotation starting position has been changed to an option, allowing either the x- or z-axis to point towards the magnetometer. The code has been rewritten to use three simultaneous axes of magnetic data (three probes), now using two "rotations" of the device under test rather than the previous three rotations, thus reducing handling activities on the device under test. The present version of the software gathers data in one-degree increments, which permits much better accuracy of the fit ted data than the coarser data acquisition of the prior software. The data-conditioning module provides a clean data set for the analysis module

  18. Lensed fiber probes designed as an alternative to bulk probes in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seon Young; Choi, Hae Young; Na, Jihoon; Choi, Woo June; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a compact all-fiber sampling probe for an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. By forming a focusing lens directly on the tip of an optical fiber, a compact sampling probe could be implemented. To simultaneously achieve a sufficiently long working distance and a good lateral resolution, we employed a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a coreless silica fiber (CSF) of the same diameters. A working distance of up to 1270 microm, a 3 dB distance range of 2210 microm, and a transverse resolution of 14.2 microm were achieved with the implemented PCF lensed fiber; these values are comparable to those obtainable with a conventional objective lens having an NA of 0.25 (10 x). The performance of the OCT system equipped with the proposed PCF lensed fiber is presented by showing the OCT images of a rat finger as a biological sample and a pearl as an in-depth sample.

  19. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  20. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  1. Probing dimensionality using a simplified 4-probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldby, Snorre B.; Evenstad, Otto M.; Cooil, Simon P.; Wells, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    4-probe electrical measurements have been in existence for many decades. One of the most useful aspects of the 4-probe method is that it is not only possible to find the resistivity of a sample (independently of the contact resistances), but that it is also possible to probe the dimensionality of the sample. In theory, this is straightforward to achieve by measuring the 4-probe resistance as a function of probe separation. In practice, it is challenging to move all four probes with sufficient precision over the necessary range. Here, we present an alternative approach. We demonstrate that the dimensionality of the conductive path within a sample can be directly probed using a modified 4-probe method in which an unconventional geometry is exploited; three of the probes are rigidly fixed, and the position of only one probe is changed. This allows 2D and 3D (and other) contributions the to resistivity to be readily disentangled. The required experimental instrumentation can be vastly simplified relative to traditional variable spacing 4-probe instruments.

  2. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  3. Comparative evaluation of probing depth and clinical attachment level using a manual probe and Florida probe

    PubMed Central

    Kour, Amandeep; Kumar, Ashish; Puri, Komal; Khatri, Manish; Bansal, Mansi; Gupta, Geeti

    2016-01-01

    Background: To compare and evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner efficacy and reproducibility of the first-generation manual (Williams) probe and the third-generation Florida probe in terms of measuring pocket probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Forty subjects/4000 sites were included in this comparative, cross-sectional study. Group- and site-wise categorizations were done. Based on gingival index, PD, and CAL, patients were divided into four groups, i.e., periodontally healthy, gingivitis, mild to moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis. Further, based on these parameters, a total of 4000 sites, with 1000 sites in each category randomly selected from these 40 patients, were taken. Full mouth PD and CAL measurements were recorded with two probes, by Examiner 1 and on Ramfjord teeth by Examiner 2. Results: Full mouth and Ramfjord teeth group- and site-wise PD obtained with the manual probe by both the examiners were statistically significantly deeper than that obtained with the Florida probe. The full mouth and Ramfjord teeth mean CAL measurement by Florida probe was higher as compared to manual probe in mild to moderate periodontitis group and sites, whereas in severe periodontitis group and sites, manual probe recorded higher CAL as compared to Florida probe. Conclusion: Mean PD and CAL measurements were deeper with the manual probe as compared to the Florida probe in all the groups and sites, except for the mild-moderate periodontitis group and sites where the CAL measurements with the manual probe were less than the Florida probe. Manual probe was more reproducible and showed less interexaminer variability as compared to the Florida probe. PMID:27563204

  4. Navigating conjugated polymer actuated neural probes in a brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Eugene D.; Kipke, Daryl; Smela, Elisabeth

    2012-04-01

    Neural probe insertion methods have a direct impact on the longevity of the device in the brain. Initial tissue and vascular damage caused by the probe entering the brain triggers a chronic tissue response that is known to attenuate neural recordings and ultimately encapsulate the probes. Smaller devices have been found to evoke reduced inflammatory response. One way to record from undamaged neural networks may be to position the electrode sites away from the probe. To investigate this approach, we are developing probes with controllably movable electrode projections, which would move outside of the zone that is damaged by the insertion of the larger probe. The objective of this study was to test the capability of conjugated polymer bilayer actuators to actuate neural electrode projections from a probe shank into a transparent brain phantom. Parylene neural probe devices, having five electrode projections with actuating segments and with varying widths (50 - 250 μm) and lengths (200 - 1000 μm) were fabricated. The electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) was used to bend or flatten the projections. The devices were inserted into the brain phantom using an electronic microdrive while simultaneously activating the actuators. Deflections were quantified based on video images. The electrode projections were successfully controlled to either remain flat or to actuate out-of-plane and into the brain phantom during insertion. The projection width had a significant effect on their ability to deflect within the phantom, with thinner probes deflecting but not the wider ones. Thus, small integrated conjugated polymer actuators may enable multiple neuro-experiments and applications not possible before.

  5. Dry fracture method for simultaneous measurement of in-situ stress state and material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Serata, S.; Oka, S.; Kikuchi, S.

    1996-04-01

    Based on the dry fracture principle, a computerized borehole probe has been developed to measure stress state and material properties, simultaneously. The probe is designed to obtain a series of measurements in a continuing sequence along a borehole length, without any interruptive measures, such as resetting packers, taking indentation of borehole wall, overcoming, etc. The new dry fracture probe for the single fracture method is designed to overcome the difficulties posed by its ancestor which was based on the double fracture method. The accuracy of the single fracture method is confirmed by a close agreement with the theory, FE modeling and laboratory testing.

  6. [Simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy, diverticulectomy].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Sokolov, A E; Guspanov, R I; Polegen'kiĭ, V V

    2014-01-01

    Presented clinical case demonstrates a combination of rare congenital abnormality - giant true diverticula of the bladder - and high-risk prostate cancer, as well as a successful result of simultaneous operation - a radical prostatectomy with diverticulectomy.

  7. Audio-visual simultaneity judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Guest, Steve; Shore, David I; Spence, Charles

    2005-04-01

    The relative spatiotemporal correspondence between sensory events affects multisensory integration across a variety of species; integration is maximal when stimuli in different sensory modalities are presented from approximately the same position at about the same time. In the present study, we investigated the influence of spatial and temporal factors on audio-visual simultaneity perception in humans. Participants made unspeeded simultaneous versus successive discrimination responses to pairs of auditory and visual stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies from either the same or different spatial positions using either the method of constant stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) or psychophysical staircases (Experiment 3). The participants in all three experiments were more likely to report the stimuli as being simultaneous when they originated from the same spatial position than when they came from different positions, demonstrating that the apparent perception of multisensory simultaneity is dependent on the relative spatial position from which stimuli are presented.

  8. Distance probes of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays. We note that these three elements together make a comprehensive DOE SN program, with a well- sequenced combination of R&D, construction, operations and analysis projects. The DOE SN researchers will be involved in several of these at any given time, since the precision SN cosmology measurement requires an in-depth understanding and use of SN data from all the redshift ranges simultaneously. A future Stage IV space-based SNe project would be the simplest way to match, at high redshift, these precision measurements of Type Ia supernovae at low redshift -measurements needed to provide the same systematics control over the entire redshift range from z ∼ 0.01 to z ∼ 2 . With modest investments in spectroscopic capabilities and a small fraction of mission time, WFIRST-AFTA could be upgraded [Editor's note: and has been upgraded in the current baseline; see Footnote2] to become this project, and would be complementary to the lensing programs of LSST/EUCLID. However, given the timescales and many difficulties of a space mission, there is now a need to explore vigorously a ground-based alternative to fill this important missing element in the DOE program. In particular, an R&D effort to explore the potential of novel ground-based techniques, combining near-IR technology with OH sky-line suppression, could make it possible to accomplish the precision measurements for SNe from SCP, DES, and LSST, complementing and strengthening these currently approved DOE projects.

  9. Development of Mackintosh Probe Extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Noor Khazanah A.; Kaamin, Masiri; Suwandi, Amir Khan; Sahat, Suhaila; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic probing is a continuous soil investigation technique, which is one of the simplest soil penetration test. It basically consist of repeatedly driving a metal tipped probe into the ground using a drop weight of fixed mass and travel. Testing was carried out continuously from ground level to the final penetration depth. Once the soil investigation work done, it is difficult to pull out the probe rod from the ground, due to strong soil structure grip against probe cone and prevent the probe rod out from the ground. Thus, in this case, a tool named Extracting Probe was created to assist in the process of retracting the probe rod from the ground. In addition, Extracting Probe also can reduce the time to extract the probe rod from the ground compare with the conventional method. At the same time, it also can reduce manpower cost because only one worker involve to handle this tool compare with conventional method used two or more workers. From experiment that have been done we found that the time difference between conventional tools and extracting probe is significant, average time difference is 155 minutes. In addition the extracting probe can reduce manpower usage, and also labour cost for operating the tool. With all these advantages makes this tool has the potential to be marketed.

  10. Probing electric and magnetic vacuum fluctuations with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tighineanu, P; Andersen, M L; Sørensen, A S; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2014-07-25

    The electromagnetic-vacuum-field fluctuations are intimately linked to the process of spontaneous emission of light. Atomic emitters cannot probe electric- and magnetic-field fluctuations simultaneously because electric and magnetic transitions correspond to different selection rules. In this Letter we show that semiconductor quantum dots are fundamentally different and are capable of mediating electric-dipole, magnetic-dipole, and electric-quadrupole transitions on a single electronic resonance. As a consequence, quantum dots can probe electric and magnetic fields simultaneously and can thus be applied for sensing the electromagnetic environment of complex photonic nanostructures. Our study opens the prospect of interfacing quantum dots with optical metamaterials for tailoring the electric and magnetic light-matter interaction at the single-emitter level.

  11. Massively Multiplexed Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Shim, Wooyoung; Boya, Radha; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Liu, Guoliang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-03-01

    Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography has emerged as a low-cost technique for rapidly patterning nanoscale materials. In this architecture, an array of probes is fabricated on a soft backing layer that provides mechanical compliance to each probe while an underlying hard surface maintains the structural integrity of the array. One drawback of this technique is that each probe in the array acts simultaneously and thus generates a copy of the same pattern. Here, we discuss recent efforts to incorporate heaters into these probe arrays so that when a given heater is activated, the thermal expansion of the elastomer actuates a single tip. We find thermal actuation to be powerful enough to actuate individual tips over 4 μm with minimal crosstalk, fast enough to actuate on relevant time scales (20 ms), and scalable by virtue of being electrically addressable. Furthermore, tuning the individual heaters allows for variability in the arrays to be compensated for precisely, resulting in high quality nanopatterning. The addition of tunable actuators transforms cantilever-free scanning probe lithography into a technique capable of true desktop nanofabrication.

  12. Fast reciprocating probe system on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, J. F.; Wan, B. N.; Xu, G. S.; Xiao, C. J.; Li, B.; Xu, C. S.; Yan, N.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Jiang, M.; Liu, P.

    2010-11-01

    A new fast reciprocating probe system (FRPS) has been built and installed on the outer midplane of the EAST tokamak to investigate the profiles of the boundary plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature. The system consists of a two-stage motion drive mechanism: slow motion and fast motion. The fast motion is powered by a servo motor, which drives the probe horizontally up to 50 cm to scan the edge region of the EAST tokamak. The maximum velocity achieved is 2 m/s. High velocity and flexible control of the fast motion are the remarkable features of this FRPS. A specially designed connector installed at the front end of the probe shaft makes it easy to install or replace the probe head on FRPS. During the latest experimental campaign in the spring of 2010, a probe head with seven tips, including two tips for a Mach probe, has been used. An example is given for simultaneous profile measurements of the plasma temperature, plasma density, and the plasma flow velocity.

  13. Fast reciprocating probe system on the EAST superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Chang, J F; Wan, B N; Xu, G S; Xiao, C J; Li, B; Xu, C S; Yan, N; Wang, L; Liu, S C; Jiang, M; Liu, P

    2010-11-01

    A new fast reciprocating probe system (FRPS) has been built and installed on the outer midplane of the EAST tokamak to investigate the profiles of the boundary plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature. The system consists of a two-stage motion drive mechanism: slow motion and fast motion. The fast motion is powered by a servo motor, which drives the probe horizontally up to 50 cm to scan the edge region of the EAST tokamak. The maximum velocity achieved is 2 m/s. High velocity and flexible control of the fast motion are the remarkable features of this FRPS. A specially designed connector installed at the front end of the probe shaft makes it easy to install or replace the probe head on FRPS. During the latest experimental campaign in the spring of 2010, a probe head with seven tips, including two tips for a Mach probe, has been used. An example is given for simultaneous profile measurements of the plasma temperature, plasma density, and the plasma flow velocity.

  14. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  15. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  16. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  17. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  18. Separate and Simultaneous Adjustment of Light Qualities in a Real Scene

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Sylvia C.; Heynderick, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects’ appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a “probe object” fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers able to interactively adjust the light properties on a “probe object” to its surrounding real scene? Image ambiguities can result in perceptual interactions between light properties. Such interactions formed a major problem for the “readability” of the illumination direction and diffuseness on a matte smooth spherical probe. We found that light direction and diffuseness judgments using a rough sphere as probe were slightly more accurate than when using a smooth sphere, due to the three-dimensional (3D) texture. We here extended the previous work by testing independent and simultaneous (i.e., the light field properties separated one by one or blended together) adjustments of light intensity, direction, and diffuseness using a rough probe. Independently inferred light intensities were close to the veridical values, and the simultaneously inferred light intensity interacted somewhat with the light direction and diffuseness. The independently inferred light directions showed no statistical difference with the simultaneously inferred directions. The light diffuseness inferences correlated with but contracted around medium veridical values. In summary, observers were able to adjust the basic light properties through both independent and simultaneous adjustments. The light intensity, direction, and diffuseness are well “readable” from our rough probe. Our method allows “tuning the light” (adjustment of its spatial distribution) in interfaces for lighting design or perception research. PMID:28203350

  19. Separate and Simultaneous Adjustment of Light Qualities in a Real Scene.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderick, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers able to interactively adjust the light properties on a "probe object" to its surrounding real scene? Image ambiguities can result in perceptual interactions between light properties. Such interactions formed a major problem for the "readability" of the illumination direction and diffuseness on a matte smooth spherical probe. We found that light direction and diffuseness judgments using a rough sphere as probe were slightly more accurate than when using a smooth sphere, due to the three-dimensional (3D) texture. We here extended the previous work by testing independent and simultaneous (i.e., the light field properties separated one by one or blended together) adjustments of light intensity, direction, and diffuseness using a rough probe. Independently inferred light intensities were close to the veridical values, and the simultaneously inferred light intensity interacted somewhat with the light direction and diffuseness. The independently inferred light directions showed no statistical difference with the simultaneously inferred directions. The light diffuseness inferences correlated with but contracted around medium veridical values. In summary, observers were able to adjust the basic light properties through both independent and simultaneous adjustments. The light intensity, direction, and diffuseness are well "readable" from our rough probe. Our method allows "tuning the light" (adjustment of its spatial distribution) in interfaces for lighting design or perception research.

  20. Effects of Error Correction during Assessment Probes on the Acquisition of Sight Words for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.; Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy designed to reduce the number of errors students make; however, research has shown a disparity in the number of errors students make during instructional versus probe trials. This study directly examined the effects of error correction versus no error correction during probe trials on the…

  1. Effects of Error Correction during Assessment Probes on the Acquisition of Sight Words for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy designed to reduce the number of errors students make; however, research has shown a disparity in the number of errors students make during instructional versus probe trials. This study directly examined the effects of error correction versus no error correction during probe trials on the…

  2. Effects of Error Correction during Assessment Probes on the Acquisition of Sight Words for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.; Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy designed to reduce the number of errors students make; however, research has shown a disparity in the number of errors students make during instructional versus probe trials. This study directly examined the effects of error correction versus no error correction during probe trials on the…

  3. Probing Impulsive Strain Propagation with X-Ray Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, D. A.; DeCamp, M. F.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Clarke, R.; Dufresne, E.; Hertlein, M.; Merlin, R.; Falcone, R.; Kapteyn, H.; Murnane, M. M.

    2001-04-02

    Pump-probe time-resolved x-ray diffraction of allowed and nearly forbidden reflections in InSb is used to follow the propagation of a coherent acoustic pulse generated by ultrafast laser excitation. The surface and bulk components of the strain could be simultaneously measured due to the large x-ray penetration depth. Comparison of the experimental data with dynamical diffraction simulations suggests that the conventional model for impulsively generated strain underestimates the partitioning of energy into coherent modes.

  4. Probing Impulsive Strain Propagation with X-Ray Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, D. A.; Decamp, M. F.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Clarke, R.; Dufresne, E.; Hertlein, M.; Merlin, R.; Falcone, R.; Kapteyn, H.; Murnane, M. M.; Larsson, J.; Missalla, Th.; Wark, J. S.

    2001-04-01

    Pump-probe time-resolved x-ray diffraction of allowed and nearly forbidden reflections in InSb is used to follow the propagation of a coherent acoustic pulse generated by ultrafast laser excitation. The surface and bulk components of the strain could be simultaneously measured due to the large x-ray penetration depth. Comparison of the experimental data with dynamical diffraction simulations suggests that the conventional model for impulsively generated strain underestimates the partitioning of energy into coherent modes.

  5. Probing access resistance of solid-state nanopores with a scanning-probe microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-06

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a scanning-probe microscope is developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning-probe tip is near a voltage-biased nanometer-scale pore (10–100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, the relative pore resistance increases due to the tip and ΔR/R0 is estimated as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R0 also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ≈10 nm, experiments show that ΔR/R0 depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst–Planck equations. Furthermore, the measurements show that ΔR/R0 goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally; they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip.

  6. Probing Access Resistance of Solid-state Nanopores with a Scanning Probe Microscope Tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-06

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a Scanning Probe Microscope has been developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning probe tip is near a voltage biased nanometer-scale pore (10-100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, we estimate the relative pore resistance increase due to the tip, ΔR/R(0), as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R(0) also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ~10 nm, our experiments show that ΔR/R(0) depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Furthermore, our measurements show that ΔR/R(0) goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally, they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip.

  7. A synopsis of PROBES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, J. J.; McRoy, C. P.

    The Processes and Resources of the Bering Sea Shelf (PROBES) project is a 6-year multi-institutional (University of Alaska, Florida State University, University of Washington, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Southwest Fisheries Center, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences) interdisciplinary study designed to understand the processes that contribute to the production of enormous numbers of animals (including crabs, fish, birds, mammals) in secondary and higher trophic levels in the vast Bering Sea continental shelf. The research plan is based on the hypothesis that the broad shallow shelf leads to an oceanographic structure of a semi-permanent front-interfront system in which phytoplankton primary production is coupled to a pelagic food web over the outer shelf and to a benthic food web in the middle shelf (see cover, this issue). The project has concentrated on the processes that control the survival of the early life history stages of the Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma Pallas) as an example of mass and energy transfer in the pelagic system. PROBES began in 1976 and is sponsored by the Division of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation.

  8. Scanning photoelectron microscopy using a pointed capillary probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, B. N.; Cherkun, A. P.; Aseyev, S. A.; Chekalin, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    The possibilities of a new type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for two different samples are experimentally demonstrated. The method is based on the use of a pointed capillary, which can simultaneously act as a 'classical' SPM probe and also as a controlled thin channel for transporting charged particles emitted by the surface to the detector. In the experiment, photoelectrons pass through a dielectric hollow cone probe with an aperture radius of 1 μm and detected by microchannel plates at different points of the investigated conducting surface irradiated by the second harmonic of a femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser. As a result, the sample's surface profile is visualised with a subwavelength spatial resolution. This method makes it possible to control spatially localised beams of electrons, ions, neutral atoms (molecules) and soft X-ray radiation, as well as opens a possibility for research in the field of nanoscale photodesorption of molecular ions.

  9. Micro-thermocouple probe for measurement of cellular thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Kakuta, N; Mabuchi, K; Yamada, Y

    2005-01-01

    We have produced micro-thermocouple probes for the measurement of cellular thermal responses. Cells generate heat with their metabolisms and more heat with reactions to a certain physical or chemical stimulation. Therefore, the analysis of the cellular thermal responses would provide new physiological information. However, a real-time thermal measurement technique on a target of a single cell has not been established. In this study, glass micropipettes, which are widely used in bioengineering and medicine, are used for the base of the thermocouple probes. Using microfabrication techniques, the junction of two different metal films is formed at the micropipette tip with a diameter of 1 μm. This probe can inject a chemical substance into a cell and to detect its subsequent temperature changes simultaneously.

  10. Inducing and Probing Attosecond-Time-Scale Electronic Wavefunction Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Much of the current interest in the field of ultrafast science focuses on the observation of attosecond dynamics of electronic wavepackets. These experiments typically require attosecond pulses either for pumping or probing such dynamics and/or are limited to observing electronic states embedded in the ionization continuum of atoms. Here, we present numerical evidence---based on solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for a 1-dimensional model atom---that a pump--probe scheme with two few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses provides interferometric access to sub-femtosecond electron wavepacket dynamics. Both continuum- and bound-state electronic wavepacket interference can be simultaneously observed by recording and analyzing time-delay dependent interferences in the ATI spectrum of an atom. Both dipole-allowed and forbidden electronic transition information can be extracted from the data, making this approach a versatile and comprehensive spectroscopic method for probing the bound electronic level structure of an atom.

  11. Multiparametric probing of microenvironment with solvatochromic fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Klymchenko, Andrey S; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2008-01-01

    We describe new methodology for multiparametric probing of weak non-covalent interactions in the medium based on response of environment-sensitive fluorescent dyes. The commonly used approach is based on correlation of one spectroscopic parameter (e.g. wavelength shift) with environment polarity, which describes a superposition of universal and specific (such as hydrogen bonding) interactions. In our approach, by using several independent spectroscopic parameters of a dye, we monitor simultaneously each individual type of the interactions. For deriving these extra parameters the selected dye should exist in several excited and/or ground states. In the present work, we applied 4'-(diethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone, which undergoes the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and thus exhibits an additional emission band belonging to an ESIPT product (tautomer) form of the dye. The spectroscopic characteristics of the excited normal and the tautomer states as well as of the ESIPT reaction of the dye are differently sensitive to the different types of interactions with microenvironment and therefore can be used for its multiparametric description. The new methodology allowed us to monitor simultaneously three fundamental physicochemical parameters of probe microenvironment: polarity, electronic polarizability and H-bond donor ability. The applications of this approach to binary solvent mixtures, reverse micelles, lipid bilayers and binding sites of proteins are presented and the limitations of this approach are discussed. We believe that the methodology of multiparametric probing will extend the capabilities of fluorescent probes as the tools in biomolecular and cellular research.

  12. Fixture For Calibrating Pressure Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Vasquez, Peter; Horsley, Lewis A.; Bowman, John T.; Zumbrun, Henry N.; Eves, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Fixture in form of specially designed clamshell housing enables in situ calibration of pressure transducer mounted in body of pressure probe in wind tunnel. Includes two metal half shells machined with necks and matching cavities, when put together, define larger neck and cavity accommodating probe. Probe secured to bottom half shell by use of clamp before installing top half shell: necessary to follow sequence to protect probe during assembly. Clamshell calibration fixture attached to pressure probe in few minutes, making it possible to calibrate pressure transducer at convenient times. Calibrations performed before and after wind-tunnel runs each day, between runs in event of delays or suspected malfunctions, and essentially any other time, without having to remove probe from wind tunnel.

  13. Fixture For Calibrating Pressure Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Vasquez, Peter; Horsley, Lewis A.; Bowman, John T.; Zumbrun, Henry N.; Eves, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Fixture in form of specially designed clamshell housing enables in situ calibration of pressure transducer mounted in body of pressure probe in wind tunnel. Includes two metal half shells machined with necks and matching cavities, when put together, define larger neck and cavity accommodating probe. Probe secured to bottom half shell by use of clamp before installing top half shell: necessary to follow sequence to protect probe during assembly. Clamshell calibration fixture attached to pressure probe in few minutes, making it possible to calibrate pressure transducer at convenient times. Calibrations performed before and after wind-tunnel runs each day, between runs in event of delays or suspected malfunctions, and essentially any other time, without having to remove probe from wind tunnel.

  14. Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Embed Core Content When Teaching a Potential Employment Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Terrell, Misty; Test, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to examine the effects of using a simultaneous prompting procedure to teach four secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities the employment task of caring for plants in a greenhouse. The instructor also embedded photosynthesis science content as nontargeted information…

  15. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  16. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay Procedures in Teaching State Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Kenneth David; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) procedures in teaching discrete social studies facts to 4 high school students with learning and behavior disorders using an adapted alternating treatments design nested within a multiple probe design. The results indicated…

  17. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay Procedures in Teaching State Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Kenneth David; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) procedures in teaching discrete social studies facts to 4 high school students with learning and behavior disorders using an adapted alternating treatments design nested within a multiple probe design. The results indicated…

  18. Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Embed Core Content When Teaching a Potential Employment Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Terrell, Misty; Test, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to examine the effects of using a simultaneous prompting procedure to teach four secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities the employment task of caring for plants in a greenhouse. The instructor also embedded photosynthesis science content as nontargeted information…

  19. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Story Writing to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.; Sanders, Ann

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the researchers evaluated the effects of simultaneous prompting and computer-assisted instruction on the story-writing responses of 3 males with autism, 7 to 10 ears of age. Classroom teachers conducted all probe and training sessions. The researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the…

  20. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  1. Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Kubo, O.; Shingaya, Y.; Higuchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Jiang, C. S.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Takami, K.; Aono, M.

    2012-04-03

    the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Kubo, Osamu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Higuchi, Seiji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Okuda, Taichi; Kuwahara, Yuji; Takami, Kazuhiro; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-04-03

    In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  3. A novel hyperspectral lifetime probe for autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Owen, D. M.; Galletly, N. P.; Anand, U.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; Stamp, G. W.; Anand, P.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-02-01

    The application of autofluorescence in non-invasive medical diagnostics could have great potential. Two major drawbacks inherent to this approach are low signal levels compared to those from exogenous fluorescent probes and complexity caused by the multiplicity of fluorescent biomolecules in tissue. Here we present a new optical system that is based on single channel detection via an optical fiber and can measure the fluorescence emission spectrum and fluorescence lifetime simultaneously for excitation wavelengths of 355 and 435nm. Single channel measurements integrate the signal normally available in an imaging setup and therefore have a better signal-tonoise ratio. Resolving both the fluorescence emission spectrum and fluorescence lifetime provides the opportunity to discriminate multiple fluorophores. This instrument is intended for NAD(P)H and flavin measurements for the dynamic monitoring of cellular metabolism and optical measurements of cancerous tissue. Initial results from a study of live cells and a clinical study of human skin lesions are presented.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Beggs, D. M.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale has advanced fields such as quantum optics, photovoltaics and telecommunications. These advances are driven by an improved understanding of the nanoscale behaviour of light, enabled by direct observations of the local electric fields near photonic nanostructures. With the advent of metamaterials that respond to the magnetic component of light, schemes have been developed to measure the nanoscale magnetic field. However, these structures interact not only with the magnetic field, but also with the electric field of light. Here, we demonstrate the essential simultaneous detection of both electric and magnetic fields with subwavelength resolution. By explaining our measurements through reciprocal considerations, we create a route towards designing probes sensitive to specific desired combinations of electric and magnetic field components. Simultaneous access to nanoscale electric and magnetic fields will pave the way for new designs of optical nanostructures and metamaterials.

  5. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; McCarty, Jerry E.; Haggard, Ricky A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  6. Nondestructive Test Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under the Aircraft Structural Integrity program, Langley Research Center invented a device to detect fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy plates. Krautkramer Branson obtained an exclusive license and commercialized a hand-held device, the "CrackFinder," an electromagnetic probe for nondestructive evaluation, used to scan aircraft skins for surface breaks. The technology involves an eddy current, which is an electrical current induced by an alternating magnetic field. The CrackFinder also employs an innovative self-nulling feature, where the device automatically recalibrates to zero so that each flaw detected produces a reading. Compared to conventional testing systems, the CrackFinder is affordable, small, simple to use, and needs no calibration.

  7. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  8. Simpson Probe Lab Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the fatigue processes of aerospace materials it is necessary to perform controlled experiments on the crack growth rates and number of fatigue cycles to failure under specific loading conditions. The photo shows an aluminum compact tension specimen installed in a hydraulic load frame. The load frame is used to apply well defined cyclic stresses to the sample under test. Also mounted on the load frame is the Langley developed automated fatigue crack tip tracing system. The system incorporates the Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe and a two-axis scanner in order to locate the position of the fatigue crack tip in the sample. The position of the crack tip is continuously updated as the fatigue process continues. The system is fully automated, with the ability to update loading parameters based on crack tip position while compiling a complete history of crack tip position versus fatigue cycles.

  9. Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  10. Advanced Langmuir Probe (LP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic response of the MK-2 version of the Langmuir probe amplifier was studied. The settling time of the step response is increased by: (1) stray node-to-ground capacitance at series connections between high value feedback resistors; and (2) input capacitance due to the input cable, FET switches, and input source follower. The stray node-to-ground capacitances can be reduced to tolerable levels by elevating the string of feedback resistors above the printing board. A new feedback network was considered, with promising results. The design uses resistances having much lower nominal values, thereby minimizing the effect of stray capacitances. Faster settling times can be achieved by using an operational amplifier having a higher gain-bandwidth product.

  11. Heat transfer probe

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  12. Small rocket tornado probe

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A (less than 1 lb.) paper rock tornado probe was developed and deployed in an attempt to measure the pressure, temperature, ionization, and electric field variations along a trajectory penetrating a tornado funnel. The requirements of weight and materials were set by federal regulations and a one-meter resolution at a penetration velocity of close to Mach 1 was desired. These requirements were achieved by telemetering a strain gage transducer for pressure, micro size thermister and electric field, and ionization sensors via a pulse time telemetry to a receiver on board an aircraft that digitizes a signal and presents it to a Z80 microcomputer for recording on mini-floppy disk. Recording rate was 2 ms for 8 channels of information that also includes telemetry rf field strength, magnetic field for orientation on the rocket, zero reference voltage for the sensor op amps as well as the previously mentioned items also. The absolute pressure was recorded. Tactically, over 120 h were flown in a Cessna 210 in April and May 1981, and one tornado was encountered. Four rockets were fired at this tornado, missed, and there were many equipment problems. The equipment needs to be hardened and engineered to a significant degree, but it is believed that the feasibility of the probe, tactics, and launch platform for future tornado work has been proven. The logistics of thunderstorm chasing from a remote base in New Mexico is a major difficulty and reliability of the equipment another. Over 50 dummy rockets have been fired to prove trajectories, stability, and photographic capability. Over 25 electronically equipped rockets have been fired to prove sensors transmission, breakaway connections, etc. The pressure recovery factor was calibrated in the Air Force Academy blow-down tunnel. There is a need for more refined engineering and more logistic support.

  13. Combined Impedance Probe and Langmuir Probe Studies of the Low-Latitude E Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Steigies, C. T.

    2008-01-01

    The EQUIS-2 sounding rocket and radar campaign, launched from Kwajalein Atoll in 2004, included a mission to study low-latitude irregularities and electrodynamics, led by NASA GSFC. This mission included two instrumented rockets launched into the nighttime E region (apogee near 120 km), which included comprehensive electrodynamics and neutral density instrumentation. These rockets carried the first of a new generation of impedance probes, that utilize a wide-band drive signal to simultaneously measure the impedance of an antenna in a plasma as a function of frequency from 7 kEIz to 4 MHz. at a rapid cadence. This technique promises to permit true plasma spectroscopy, and resulted in the identification of multiple plasma resonances and accurate measurements of the plasma density, even in the low density nighttime E region. We present analyses of the technique and resulting spectra, and show how these data may be combined with fixed-bias Langmuir Probe data to infer the temperature structure of the E region as well as providing accurate absolute calibrations for the very high time resolution fixed-bias probe data. The data is shown to agree well with data from ionosonde, the ALTAIR radar, and the Peruvian beacon experiment.

  14. Phase-change devices for simultaneous optical-electrical applications.

    PubMed

    Au, Yat-Yin; Bhaskaran, Harish; Wright, C David

    2017-08-29

    We present a viable pathway to the design and characterization of phase-change devices operating in a mixed-mode optical-electrical, or optoelectronic, manner. Such devices have potential applications ranging from novel displays to optically-gated switches to reconfigurable metamaterials-based devices. With this in mind, a purpose-built optoelectronics probe station capable of simultaneous optical-electrical excitation and simultaneous optical-electrical response measurement has been designed and constructed. Two prototype phase-change devices that might exploit simultaneous optical and electrical effects and/or require simultaneous optical and electrical characterisation, namely a mixed-mode cross-bar type structure and a microheater-based structure, have been designed, fabricated and characterized. The microheater-based approach was shown to be capable of successful thermally-induced cycling, between amorphous and crystalline states, of large-area phase-change devices, making it attractive for practicable pixel fabrication in phase-change display applications.

  15. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  16. Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...

  17. Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision.

    PubMed

    de Gracia, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sánchez-González, Álvaro; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-17

    To present and validate a prototype of an optical instrument that allows experimental simulation of pure bifocal vision. To evaluate the influence of different power additions on image contrast and visual acuity. The instrument provides the eye with two superimposed images, aligned and with the same magnification, but with different defocus states. Subjects looking through the instrument are able to experience pure simultaneous vision, with adjustable refractive correction and addition power. The instrument is used to investigate the impact of the amount of addition of an ideal bifocal simultaneous vision correction, both on image contrast and on visual performance. the instrument is validated through computer simulations of the letter contrast and by equivalent optical experiments with an artificial eye (camera). Visual acuity (VA) was measured in four subjects (AGE: 34.3 ± 3.4 years; spherical error: -2.1 ± 2.7 diopters [D]) for low and high contrast letters and different amounts of addition. The largest degradation in contrast and visual acuity (∼25%) occurred for additions around ±2 D, while additions of ±4 D produced lower degradation (14%). Low additions (1-2 D) result in lower VA than high additions (3-4 D). A simultaneous vision instrument is an excellent tool to simulate bifocal vision and to gain understanding of multifocal solutions for presbyopia. Simultaneous vision induces a pattern of visual performance degradation, which is well predicted by the degradation found in image quality. Neural effects, claimed to be crucial in the patients' tolerance of simultaneous vision, can be therefore compared with pure optical effects.

  18. Dynamic Force Sensing Using an Optically Trapped Probing System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanan; Cheng, Peng; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptive observer that is implemented to enable real-time dynamic force sensing and parameter estimation in an optically trapped probing system. According to the principle of separation of estimation and control, the design of this observer is independent of that of the feedback controller when operating within the linear range of the optical trap. Dynamic force sensing, probe steering/clamping, and Brownian motion control can, therefore, be developed separately and activated simultaneously. The adaptive observer utilizes the measured motion of the trapped probe and input control effort to recursively estimate the probe–sample interaction force in real time, along with the estimation of the probing system’s trapping bandwidth. This capability is very important to achieving accurate dynamic force sensing in a time-varying process, wherein the trapping dynamics is nonstationary due to local variations of the surrounding medium. The adaptive estimator utilizes the Kalman filter algorithm to compute the time-varying gain in real time and minimize the estimation error for force probing. A series of experiments are conducted to validate the design of and assess the performance of the adaptive observer. PMID:24382944

  19. Metrology for AGP - Astrometric Gravitation Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; et al.

    2015-08-01

    The Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) is a concept of space mission aimed at tests of Fundamental Physics in the Solar system, using Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphy techniques to implement differential astrometry among superposed stellar fields. The main goal is verification of the General Relativity (GR) and competing gravitation theories in the weak field of the Solar System by high precision measurement of the light deflection in the vicinity of the Sun at < 10-7 and of the main and minor planet dynamics at the microarcsec/year level. The AGP payload concept is based on a single main telescope (1.15 m diameter) implementing a multi-aperture Fizeau interferometer, for simultaneous observation of four regions close to the Solar limb and in opposition; coronagraphic techniques are applied on the elementary sub-apertures. The star displacement due to light deflection is derived by differential astrometry on images taken in different deflection conditions (e.g. ON and OFF). The instrument design is focused on systematic error control through multiple field simultaneous observation and calibration. The metrology system requirements related to the science goals are discussed, and the technical aspects of possible implementations are investigated. The potential benefit of auto-collimation and cophasing techniques derives from monitoring comparably large sections of the optical system common to the stellar beams. The performance at microarcsec level is verified by simulation.

  20. A diagnostic oligonucleotide microarray for simultaneous detection of grapevine viruses.

    PubMed

    Engel, Esteban A; Escobar, Paula F; Rojas, Luis A; Rivera, Paulina A; Fiore, Nicola; Valenzuela, Pablo D T

    2010-02-01

    At least 58 viruses have been reported to infect grapevines causing economic damage globally. Conventional detection strategies based on serological assays, biological indexing and RT-PCR targeting one or few viruses in each assay are widely used. Grapevines are prone to contain mixed infections of several viruses, making the use of these techniques time-consuming. A 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray able to detect simultaneously a broad spectrum of known viruses as well as new viruses by cross-hybridization to highly conserved probes is reported in the present study. The array contains 570 unique probes designed against highly conserved and species-specific regions of 44 plant viral genomes. In addition probes designed against plant housekeeping genes are also included. By using a random primed RT-PCR amplification strategy of grapevine double stranded RNA-enriched samples, viral agents were detected in single and mixed infections. The microarray accuracy to detect 10 grapevine viruses was compared with RT-PCR yielding consistent results. For this purpose, grapevine samples containing single or mixed infections of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-1, -2, -3, -4, -7, -9, Grapevine fanleaf virus, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Grapevine virus A, and Grapevine virus B were used. Genomic libraries containing complete viral genomes were also used as part of the validation process. The specific probe hybridization pattern obtained from each virus makes this approach a powerful tool for high throughput plant certification purposes and also for virus discovery if the new viral genomic sequences have partial similarity with the microarray probes. Three Closteroviridae members (Grapevine leafroll-associated virus -4, -7 and -9) were detected for the first time in Chilean grapevines using the microarray. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  2. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  3. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  4. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra Kumar, R. T.; Hassan, S. U.; Sardan Sukas, O.; Eichhorn, V.; Krohs, F.; Fatikow, S.; Boggild, P.

    2009-09-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 µm long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application.

  5. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips.

    PubMed

    Rajendra Kumar, R T; Hassan, S U; Sardan Sukas, O; Eichhorn, V; Krohs, F; Fatikow, S; Boggild, P

    2009-09-30

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 microm long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si(3)N(4) or SiO(2), fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application.

  6. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  7. Value of a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe) compared with that of culture for diagnosis of gonococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Vlaspolder, F; Mutsaers, J A; Blog, F; Notowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    The Gen-Probe PACE 2 system for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GP), which uses a chemiluminescently labeled DNA probe, was compared with conventional culture as the method of reference. A total of 1,750 specimens were collected from 496 females and 623 males visiting the outpatient clinic of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department of the Westeinde Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands, during the year 1991. The prevalences of gonorrhea culture-positive men and women were 14.9 and 7.7%, respectively. The overall positive rate was 8.7%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GP were 97.1, 99.1, 90.6, and 99.8%, respectively. A total of 12 of 13 patients with positive GP results and negative cultures may have had a gonococcal infection, a conclusion based on clinical symptoms, positive methylene blue smears, and high relative light unit ratios. The DNA probe test can be useful as a suitable screening and diagnostic test for gonorrheal infection in men and women. An advantage of using this DNA probe technique is that simultaneous testing for Chlamydia trachomatis of the same specimen is possible. We also examined whether (all) rRNA had disappeared after adequate treatment for gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection in 30 patients. None of those positive patients showed a positive result in the DNA probe assay after treatment.

  8. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  9. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  10. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2017-08-01

    Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP), selected by NASA for a funded Concept Study, is a wide-field high-energy transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. TAP’s main science goals, called out as Frontier Discovery areas in the 2010 Decadal Survey, are time-domain astrophysics and counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) detections. The mission instruments include unique imaging soft X-ray optics that allow ~500 deg2 FoV in each of four separate modules; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope based on single crystal silicon optics; a passively cooled, 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of ~8 small NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP will observe many events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, and high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts. Perhaps most exciting is TAP’s capability to observe X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes detected by LIGO/Virgo, and possibly X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  11. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  12. Active Dynamic Frictional Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    In biological systems there are a myriad of interactions occurring instantaneously and these interactions can vary drastically in the strength of the interaction, the speed at which this interaction occurs, and the duration of the interaction. When multiple interactions occur any of these factors can determine which particular interaction is dominant. However, currently it is extremely difficult to measure binding affinity, Kon, and Koff rates in a relatively high throughput manner. Here we propose a novel and versatile system that will be able to detect differences in binding affinity of wide range of transient interactions and will be able to extract the relevant time scales of these interactions. Our system will utilize ferromagnetic particles that can be easily functionalized with a receptor of interest and the substrate will be coated in the corresponding ligand. A rotating magnetic field will cause particles, henceforth referred to as rollers, to rotate and this rotational motion will be converted into translational motion via the effective frictional force induced by interaction that is being probed. By measuring the translation of the rollers to a baseline, where only hydrodynamic friction occurs, we can measure the relative strength of the interactions. We can also potentially measure kinetic information by changing the frequency at which the magnetic field rotates, since changing the frequency at which the bead rotates is akin to changing the time allowed for bond formation. We will measure a wide range of interaction including ionic, metal-ion coordination, IgG-Protein A complex, and biotin-streptavidin complex.

  13. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  14. Analytical investigation of the Brillouin interaction between multiple pulsed pump tones and probe waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher; Willner, Alan E.; Tur, Moshe

    2013-05-01

    We analytically investigate the case of the Brillouin interaction between probe waves propagating against two modulated pump waves. This investigation is motivated by the sweep-free BOTDA technique, where, to increase the BOTDR sensing speed, the Brillouin gain spectrum is simultaneously interrogated by many probe-pump pairs. It is shown both analytically and experimentally that the Brillouin interaction between a probe and its corresponding pump is negligibly affected by a neighboring pump only when the pump tones separation is much larger than the width of the Brillouin gain spectrum.

  15. Results of experimental tests and calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement probe

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Bussell, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    The surface neutron moisture probe has been tested both to demonstrate that is is able to operate in the expected in-tank temperature and gamma-ray fields and to provide detector responses to known moisture concentration materials. The probe will properly function in a simultaneous high temperature (80 degrees C) and high gamma radiation field (210 rad/hr)environment. Comparisons between computer model predicted and experimentally measured detector responses to changes in moisture provide a basis for the probe calibration to in-tank moisture concentrations.

  16. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, H. J.; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T.

    2016-01-01

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  17. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, H. J. McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T.

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  18. Development and Characterization of a Small Ring-Shaped Ultrasonic Probe for Biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuusuke; Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Sugiyama, Susumu; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Tani, Tohru; Nishitani, Yutaka; Takahashi, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    A small ultrasonic probe capable of precise control of needle position is required for biopsies taken in abdominal surgery and laparoscopic surgery. We fabricated a small size ring-shaped probe with a through hole to insert the needle. The probe simultaneously detects the object in front of it, e.g., a lesion, and the tip of the needle. The error of the insertion depth measured by this detection was estimated to be less than 10.1% at a depth of more than 5 mm when the inner diameter of the probe was 1.1 mm and the outer diameter of the needle was 0.6 mm. The results of an experiment using a stomach wall specimen indicate that the position of the needle can be precisely controlled because the needle is directly below the probe.

  19. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-11-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high TC SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio.

  20. Multiple-measurement beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Grant, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle accelerators are becoming smaller and are producing more intense beams; therefore, it is critical that beam-diagnostic instrumentation provide accelerator operators and automated control systems with a complete set of beam information. Traditionally, these beam data were collected and processed using limited-bandwidth interceptive techniques. For the new-generation accelerators, we are developing a multiple-measurement microstrip probe to obtain broadband beam data from inside a drift tube without perturbing the beam. The cylindrical probe's dimensions are 6-cm OD by 1.0 m long, and the probe is mounted inside a drift tube. The probe (and its associated electronics) monitors bunched-beam current, energy, and transverse position by sensing the beam's electromagnetic fields through the annular opening in the drift tube. The electrical impedance is tightly controlled through the full length of the probe and transmission lines to maintain beam-induced signal fidelity. The probe's small, cylindrical structure is matched to beam-bunch characteristics at specific beamline locations so that signal-to-noise ratios are optimized. Surrounding the probe, a mechanical structure attaches to the drift-tube interior and the quadrupole magnets; thus, the entire assembly's mechanical and electrical centers can be aligned and calibrated with respect to the rest of the linac.

  1. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  2. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  3. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    PubMed

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  4. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  5. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  6. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L [Denver, CO; Hambarian, Artak [Yerevan, AM

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  7. Atmospheric probes: needs and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias

    2004-02-01

    There is only one Rosetta Stone in the Solar System; it's in the British Museum. We cannot understand the inner planets by simply studying the Earth, nor can we apprehend the giants by examining only Jupiter. Despite the stunning successes of previous probes to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter, our knowledge of the atmospheres of even these two planets remains tantalizingly incomplete. We must therefore return to Venus and consider the challenge of exploring all of the outer planets with a family of identical probes, a project that could commemorater the vision of multiple worlds championed by Giordano Bruno.

  8. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  9. Floating Potential Probe Langmuir Probe Data Reduction Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2002-01-01

    During its first five months of operations, the Langmuir Probe on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) obtained data on ionospheric electron densities and temperatures in the ISS orbit. In this paper, the algorithms for data reduction are presented, and comparisons are made of FPP data with ground-based ionosonde and Incoherent Scattering Radar (ISR) results. Implications for ISS operations are detailed, and the need for a permanent FPP on ISS is examined.

  10. Probe Microphone Measurements: 20 Years of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, H. Gustav

    2001-01-01

    working for physicians, and 69% for audiologists in private practice. But more importantly, and a bit puzzling, was the finding that showed that nearly one half of the people who fit hearing aids and have access to this equipment, seldom or never use it. I doubt that the use rate of probe-microphone equipment has changed much in the last three years, and if anything, I suspect it has gone down. Why do I say that? As programmable hearing aids have become the standard fitting in many clinics, it is tempting to become enamoured with the simulated gain curves on the fitting screen, somehow believing that this is what really is happening in the real ear. Additionally, some dispensers have been told that you can't do reliable probe-mic testing with modern hearing aids—this of course is not true, and we'll address this issue in the Frequently Asked Questions portion of this paper. The infrequent use of probe-mic testing among dispensers is discouraging, and let's hope that probe-mic equipment does not suffer the fate of the rowing machine stored in your garage. A lot has changed over the years with the equipment itself, and there are also expanded clinical applications and procedures. We have new manufacturers, procedures, acronyms and noises. We have test procedures that allow us to accurately predict the output of a hearing aid in an infant's ear. We now have digital hearing aids, which provide us the opportunity to conduct real-ear measures of the effects of digital noise reduction, speech enhancement, adaptive feedback, expansion, and all the other features. Directional microphone hearing aids have grown in popularity and what better way to assess the real-ear directivity than with probe-mic measures? The array of assistive listening devices has expanded, and so has the role of the real-ear assessment of these products. And finally, with today's PC -based systems, we can program our hearing aids and simultaneously observe the resulting real-ear effects on the same fitting

  11. Probe microphone measurements: 20 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H G

    2001-06-01

    physicians, and 69% for audiologists in private practice. But more importantly, and a bit puzzling, was the finding that showed that nearly one half of the people who fit hearing aids and have access to this equipment, seldom or never use it. I doubt that the use rate of probe-microphone equipment has changed much in the last three years, and if anything, I suspect it has gone down. Why do I say that? As programmable hearing aids have become the standard fitting in many clinics, it is tempting to become enamoured with the simulated gain curves on the fitting screen, somehow believing that this is what really is happening in the real ear. Additionally, some dispensers have been told that you can't do reliable probe-mic testing with modern hearing aids-this of course is not true, and we'll address this issue in the Frequently Asked Questions portion of this paper. The infrequent use of probe-mic testing among dispensers is discouraging, and let's hope that probe-mic equipment does not suffer the fate of the rowing machine stored in your garage. A lot has changed over the years with the equipment itself, and there are also expanded clinical applications and procedures. We have new manufacturers, procedures, acronyms and noises. We have test procedures that allow us to accurately predict the output of a hearing aid in an infant's ear. We now have digital hearing aids, which provide us the opportunity to conduct real-ear measures of the effects of digital noise reduction, speech enhancement, adaptive feedback, expansion, and all the other features. Directional microphone hearing aids have grown in popularity and what better way to assess the real-ear directivity than with probe-mic measures? The array of assistive listening devices has expanded, and so has the role of the real-ear assessment of these products. And finally, with today's PC -based systems, we can program our hearing aids and simultaneously observe the resulting real-ear effects on the same fitting screen, or even

  12. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Young, Jack P.

    1998-01-01

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferrably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0.degree., an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head.

  13. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  14. High-performance probes for light and electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Sarada; Williams, Megan E.; Bloss, Erik B.; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Speer, Colenso M.; Nern, Aljoscha; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Hooks, Bryan M.; Li, Wei-Ping; English, Brian P.; Tian, Teresa; Henry, Gilbert L.; Macklin, John J.; Patel, Ronak; Gerfen, Charles R.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Wang, Yalin; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an engineered family of highly antigenic molecules based on GFP-like fluorescent proteins. These molecules contain numerous copies of peptide epitopes and simultaneously bind IgG antibodies at each location. These “spaghetti monster” fluorescent proteins (smFPs) distribute well in neurons, notably into small dendrites, spines and axons. smFP immunolabeling localizes weakly expressed proteins not well resolved with traditional epitope tags. By varying epitope and scaffold, we generated a diverse family of mutually orthogonal antigens. In cultured neurons and mouse and fly brains, smFP probes allow robust, orthogonal multi-color visualization of proteins, cell populations and neuropil. smFP variants complement existing tracers, greatly increase the number of simultaneous imaging channels, and perform well in advanced preparations such as array tomography, super-resolution fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy. In living cells, the probes improve single-molecule image tracking and increase yield for RNA-Seq. These probes facilitate new experiments in connectomics, transcriptomics and protein localization. PMID:25915120

  15. Astrophysical probes of electromagnetic neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Li, Yu-Feng; Lokhov, Alexey V.; Studenikin, Alexander I.; Zhou, Shun

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos and current best astrophysical bounds on neutrino magnetic moment and millicharge are outlined. Future probes of electromagnetic neutrinos from a core-collapse supernova with JUNO are discussed.

  16. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  17. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Ballard, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  18. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  19. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  20. A three dimensional probe positioner.

    PubMed

    Intrator, T; Sun, X; Dorf, L; Furno, I; Lapenta, G

    2008-10-01

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a "wobbly" probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  1. A three dimensional probe positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Furno, I.; Dorf, L.; Lapenta, G.

    2008-10-15

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a 'wobbly' probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  2. Towards optimum sample-probe-spectrometer system design by adjusting receiving fiber end face position and probe-membrane sample separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianjun; Bock, Wojtek; Wang, Zhiyuan; Hao, Wenhui

    2005-11-14

    A two-fiber probe interrogated by a spectrometer for the measurement of fluorescence emitted from a thin layer of membrane is investigated. For a specific spectrometer, an optimum fiber probe design exists to maximize the sample-probe-spectrometer system performance. In this paper, for the first time, we report that by separating the front end faces of the receiving and illuminating fibers, spectrum resolution and fluorescence collection capability may be simultaneously enhanced. Theoretical and experimental results reveal that such an optimized system collects more emitted rays with incident angles that fall within the full acceptance angle of the slit. The relative collection efficiency increases to 63% when the membrane is positioned very close to the probe tip. By adjusting positions of the receiving fiber and the membrane sample to an optimized combination, we also prove that the optimum performance of spectrometer can be achieved.

  3. The Interstellar Heliopause Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyngvi, A.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) is one of four Technology Reference Missions (TRM) introduced by the Planetary Exploration Studies Section of the Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office (SCI-A) at ESA. The overall purpose of the TRMs is to focus the development of strategically important technologies of likely relevance to future science missions. This is accomplished through the study of several technologically demanding and scientifically interesting missions, which are currently not part of the ESA science programme. The TRM baseline uses small satellites (< 200kg), with highly miniaturized and highly integrated payload suites. The motivation for this is to use low resource spacecraft in a phased approach, which will reduce the risk and cost, compared to a single, high resource mission. Equipped with a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS) the IHP will answer scientific questions concerning the nature of the interstellar medium, how the interstellar medium affects our solar system and how the solar system impacts the interstellar medium. The HIPS, which is a standard element in all TRMs miniaturize through resource reduction, by using miniaturized components and sensors, and by sharing common structures and payload functionality. To achieve the scientific requirements of the mission the spacecraft is to leave the solar system as close to the heliosphere nose as possible and reach a distance of 200 AU from the Sun within 25 years. The requirement of all TRMs is to use a Souyz-Fregat version 2B or equivalent low cost launch vehicle. With this constraint no current propulsion system is capable of delivering the necessary mass to the final destination. Technologies are therefore needed to enable this mission. The current alternatives are using nuclear propulsion, either with radioisotope or reactor power system or solar sailing. All these alternatives are currently being investigated. Other challenges exist as well such as designing a communication link

  4. The navigation of space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Ohandley, D. A.; Zielenbach, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A new navigational method combining electronic measurement procedures and celestial mechanics makes it possible to conduct a space probe very close to a desired point in the neighborhood of a remote planet. Approaches for the determination of the position of the space probe in space are discussed, giving attention to the effects of errors in the employed data. The application of the navigational methods in a number of space missions is also considered.

  5. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    SciTech Connect

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. )

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  6. Diagnostic applications of DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A

    1991-02-01

    This review has described several of the most common molecular biologic techniques that are, or will be, employed in the diagnostic laboratory. The potential advantages of these DNA probe assays in the diagnosis of infectious diseases include: rapid detection and identification of infectious agents; the ability to screen selected specimens using batteries of probes; and the detection of nonviable or difficult-to-culture organisms. The potential disadvantages of DNA probe assays include: the use of isotopic detection methods for optimum sensitivity; limited diagnostic sensitivity of current assays; slow turna-round time for some assay formats; expense of current reagents; limited availability of many probes; lack of technical expertise in most diagnostic laboratories; and the requirement for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (requires culture). Given the above advantages and disadvantages, there are several key issues that must be considered before adopting DNA probe technology in the diagnostic laboratory; the cost of performing routine culture and identification versus the cost of screening with probes--both the number and type of specimens and the time savings that may be realized by eliminating routine cultures; the prevalence of the infectious agent--even the best DNA probe assay may not be useful or practical in a low-prevalence situation; the need for additional equipment and space; and the interpretation of false-positive and false-negative results--additional research is needed in this area. However, laboratories must consider these issues when using a test other than the current gold standard (i.e., culture). DNA probe technology is with us and expanding rapidly. The intelligent application of this new technology will require communication between laboratorians and clinicians and careful consideration of the many advantages and disadvantages discussed above.

  7. Histochemical staining using lectin probes.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    In histochemistry and cytochemistry, lectins are often used as probes for the localization of carbohydrates in cells and tissues. With lectins, cells and tissues can be identified as a particular type or a group in situ. Various lectins have been used for mapping of normal cells and tissues, pathological diagnosis such as malignant transformation, and identification of cell lineages during development. This chapter describes light and electron microscopic methods using lectin probes for determining carbohydrate localization in cells and tissues.

  8. Simultaneous demonstrations of neuropeptide Y gene expression and peptide storage in single neurons of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Palay, V.; Yasargil, G.; Hamid, Q.; Polak, J.M.; Palay, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    A combination of in situ hybridization for neuropeptide Y mRNA that used a /sup 32/P-labeled complementary RNA probe and immunocytochemistry with polyclonal antibodies against neuropeptide Y were applied to human cortical brain samples to simultaneously localize neuropeptide Y and its mRNA. These two techniques allowed simultaneous identification of neuropeptide Y gene expression and peptide storage in single neutrons of the human brain.

  9. Planetary Landers and Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew J.; Garry, James R. C.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.

    2007-05-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Engineering Issues Specific to Entry Probes, Landers or Penetrators: 1. Mission goals and system engineering; 2. Accommodation, launch, cruise and arrival from orbit or interplanetary trajectory; 3. Entering atmospheres; 4. Descent through an atmosphere; 5. Descent to an airless body; 6. Planetary balloons, aircraft, submarines and cryobots; 7. Arrival at a surface; 8. Thermal control of landers and entry probes; 9. Power systems; 10. Communication and tracking of entry probes; 11. Radiation environment; 12. Surface activities: arms, drills, moles and mobility; 13. Structures; 14. Contamination of spacecraft and planets; Part II. Previous Atmosphere/Surface Vehicles and Their Payloads: 15. Destructive impact probes; 16. Atmospheric entry probes; 17. Pod landers; 18. Legged landers; 19. Payload delivery penetrators; 20. Small body surface missions; Part III. 'Case Studies': 21. Surveyor landers; 22. Galileo probe; 23. Huygens; 24. Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner; 25. Deep Space 2 Mars microprobes; 26. Rosetta lander Philae; 27. Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity; Appendix: Some key parameters for bodies in the Solar System; List of acronyms; Bibliography; References; Index.

  10. Planetary Landers and Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew; Garry, James; Lorenz, Ralph; Kerzhanovich, Viktor

    2010-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Engineering Issues Specific to Entry Probes, Landers or Penetrators: 1. Mission goals and system engineering; 2. Accommodation, launch, cruise and arrival from orbit or interplanetary trajectory; 3. Entering atmospheres; 4. Descent through an atmosphere; 5. Descent to an airless body; 6. Planetary balloons, aircraft, submarines and cryobots; 7. Arrival at a surface; 8. Thermal control of landers and entry probes; 9. Power systems; 10. Communication and tracking of entry probes; 11. Radiation environment; 12. Surface activities: arms, drills, moles and mobility; 13. Structures; 14. Contamination of spacecraft and planets; Part II. Previous Atmosphere/Surface Vehicles and Their Payloads: 15. Destructive impact probes; 16. Atmospheric entry probes; 17. Pod landers; 18. Legged landers; 19. Payload delivery penetrators; 20. Small body surface missions; Part III. 'Case Studies': 21. Surveyor landers; 22. Galileo probe; 23. Huygens; 24. Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner; 25. Deep Space 2 Mars microprobes; 26. Rosetta lander Philae; 27. Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity; Appendix: Some key parameters for bodies in the Solar System; List of acronyms; Bibliography; References; Index.

  11. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording and calcium imaging of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Robert P; Allen, Charles N

    2013-12-08

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and fluorescent imaging recording methods were used to study the role of changes of membrane potential or current in regulating the intracellular calcium concentration. Changing environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle, can modify neuronal and neural network activity and the expression of a family of circadian clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the location of the master circadian clock in the mammalian brain. Excitatory synaptic transmission leads to an increase in the postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration that is believed to activate the signaling pathways that shifts the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes. Hypothalamic slices containing the SCN were patch clamped using microelectrodes filled with an internal solution containing the calcium indicator bis-fura-2. After a seal was formed between the microelectrode and the SCN neuronal membrane, the membrane was ruptured using gentle suction and the calcium probe diffused into the neuron filling both the soma and dendrites. Quantitative ratiometric measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration were recorded simultaneously with membrane potential or current. Using these methods it is possible to study the role of changes of the intracellular calcium concentration produced by synaptic activity and action potential firing of individual neurons. In this presentation we demonstrate the methods to simultaneously record electrophysiological activity along with intracellular calcium from individual SCN neurons maintained in brain slices.

  12. Evaluation of an Electronic Periodontal Probe Versus a Manual Probe

    PubMed Central

    Trentzsch, Lars; Schönfelder, Antje; Schwarzenberger, Fabian; Jentsch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of periodontal diseases requires reco-rding of clinical and periodontal variables. Possible measurement errors in recording the periodontal findings are dependent on the measurement method. Aim The purpose of the trial was to investigate an electronic, pressure-calibrated probe compared with a standard, manual measurement probe used to take periodontal variables. Materials and Methods The study included 25 subjects suffering from periodontal disease. Their findings were taken by two users on a randomized basis using a standard probe and an electronic, pressure calibrated probe, at an interval of 24 hours. The recorded clinical variables contained Pocket Depth (PD), Attachment Level (AL), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), the complete time needed to take the findings and the sensation of pain experienced by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The data were statistically analyzed using the paired t-test. Results The measurement values (24 patients) for PD (p=0.03) and BOP (p=0.01) indicated a significant difference (paired t test, p>0.05), while there was no statistical difference for AL (p=0.064). A classification of PD into groups of 1-3mm, 4-6mm and ≥7mm showed that the manual method measured higher values than the electronic method (p=0.001). The measurement values did not reveal any significant differences (p>0.05) with respect to the total time needed to take findings and the measurement time for PD/AL. There was a significant difference (Wilcoxon-test, p<0.05) in VAS values (p=0.048) and in terms of the time needed to record the findings for BOP (p=0.004). Conclusion It can be assumed that the electronic probe should mainly be used in the supportive periodontal therapy. Present study showed that the use of a standard manual probe is essential to review conspicuous or unclear measurement values, or when treating deep pockets higher than 7mm. PMID:28050524

  13. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  14. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux: the acid test, scintigraphy or the pH probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J.J.; Byrne, W.J.; Euler, A.R.; Latture, T.; Leach, M.; Campbell, M.

    1983-06-01

    The best established technique for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux in children is the 24 hr esophageal pH probe test. No simultaneous comparison of this technique with radionuclide scans has been reported. Therefore, simultaneous 1 hr pH monitoring and gastroesophageal scintigraphy were performed in 49 infants and children with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. Forty-seven of these patients also were later monitored by the 24 hr pH probe test. Upper gastrointestinal series were performed on all patients. All patients with a positive 1 hr pH monitoring also had positive simultaneous scintigraphy. All patients with positive scintigraphy and pH probe monitoring also had a positive upper gastrointestinal series for reflux. The sensitivity of gastroesophageal scintigraphy, when compared to the 24 hr probe as a standard, was 79%; its specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the upper gastrointestinal series was 86%, when compared to the 24 hr pH probe test. However, its specificity was only 21%.

  16. Integrated microcantilevers for high-resolution sensing and probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2012-02-01

    This topical review is focused on microcantilever-based sensing and probing functions that are realized by integrating a mechanically compliant cantilever with self-sensing and self-actuating elements, specific sensing materials as well as functionalized nano-tips. Such integrated cantilever devices have shown great promise in ultra-sensitive applications such as on-the-spot portable bio/chemical detection and in situ micro/nanoscale surface analysis and manipulation. The technical details of this review will be given in a sequence of cantilever sensors and, then, cantilever-tip probes. For the integrated cantilever sensors, the frequency-output style dynamic cantilevers are described first, with the contents including optimized resonance modes, sensing-group-modified nanostructures for specific bio/chemical mass adsorption and nanoscale sensing effects, etc. Thereafter, the static cantilever sensors for surface-stress detection are described in the sequence of the sensing mechanism, surface modification of the sensitive molecule layer and the model of specific reaction-induced surface-energy variation. After technical description of the cantilever sensors, the emphasis of the review moves to functionalized nano-tip equipped cantilever-tip probing devices. The probing functions are not only integrated on the cantilever but also integrated at the sharp apex of the tip. After description of single integrated cantilever probes and their applications in surface scanning and imaging, arrayed cantilever-tip devices and their simultaneous parallel operation for high throughput imaging and nanomechanical data storage are also addressed. With cantilever-tip probes as key elements, micro-analysis instruments are introduced that can be widely used for macro/nanoscale characterizations.

  17. Evaluation of ion collection area in Faraday probes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel L; Gallimore, Alec D

    2010-06-01

    A Faraday probe with three concentric rings was designed and fabricated to assess the effect of gap width and collector diameter in a systematic study of the diagnostic ion collection area. The nested Faraday probe consisted of two concentric collector rings and an outer guard ring, which enabled simultaneous current density measurements on the inner and outer collectors. Two versions of the outer collector were fabricated to create gaps of 0.5 and 1.5 mm between the rings. Distribution of current density in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster ion source was measured in azimuthal sweeps at constant radius from 8 to 20 thruster diameters downstream of the exit plane with variation in facility background pressure. A new analytical technique is proposed to account for ions collected in the gap between the Faraday probe collector and guard ring. This method is shown to exhibit excellent agreement between all nested Faraday probe configurations, and to reduce the magnitude of integrated ion beam current to levels consistent with Hall thruster performance analyses. The technique is further studied by varying the guard ring bias potential with a fixed collector bias potential, thereby controlling ion collection in the gap. Results are in agreement with predictions based on the proposed analytical technique. The method is applied to a past study comparing the measured ion current density profiles of two Faraday probe designs. These findings provide new insight into the nature of ion collection in Faraday probe diagnostics, and lead to improved accuracy with a significant reduction in measurement uncertainty.

  18. Mass Spectrometry for Planetary Probes: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Harpold, Dan N.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probes present a unique opportunity for performing quantitative analysis of extra-terrestrial atmospheres in cases where remote sensing alone may not be sufficient and measurements with balloons or aircraft is not practical. An entry probe can provide a complete vertical profile of atmospheric parameters including chemical composition, which cannot be obtained with most other techniques. There are, however, unique challenges associated with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme, there are inherent time constraints due to the short duration of the experiment, and the instrument experiences rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure as it descends. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements can be more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrument. Our experience building mass spectrometers for atmospheric entry probes leads us to believe that the time is right for a fundamental change in the way spaceflight mass spectrometers are built. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro- mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight mass spectrometry. A highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power mass spectrometer would be an enormous benefit to future entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic analyses and direct atmospheric leaks.) Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small

  19. Mass Spectrometry for Planetary Probes: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Harpold, Dan N.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probes present a unique opportunity for performing quantitative analysis of extra-terrestrial atmospheres in cases where remote sensing alone may not be sufficient and measurements with balloons or aircraft is not practical. An entry probe can provide a complete vertical profile of atmospheric parameters including chemical composition, which cannot be obtained with most other techniques. There are, however, unique challenges associated with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme, there are inherent time constraints due to the short duration of the experiment, and the instrument experiences rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure as it descends. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements can be more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrument. Our experience building mass spectrometers for atmospheric entry probes leads us to believe that the time is right for a fundamental change in the way spaceflight mass spectrometers are built. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro- mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight mass spectrometry. A highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power mass spectrometer would be an enormous benefit to future entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic analyses and direct atmospheric leaks.) Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small

  20. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross‐talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. Magn Reson Med 75:63–81, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. PMID:26308571

  1. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cutoff probe using Fourier analysis for electron density measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Byung-Keun; You, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Dae-Woong; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung

    2012-01-15

    This paper proposes a new method for cutoff probe using a nanosecond impulse generator and an oscilloscope, instead of a network analyzer. The nanosecond impulse generator supplies a radiating signal of broadband frequency spectrum simultaneously without frequency sweeping, while frequency sweeping method is used by a network analyzer in a previous method. The transmission spectrum (S21) was obtained through a Fourier analysis of the transmitted impulse signal detected by the oscilloscope and was used to measure the electron density. The results showed that the transmission frequency spectrum and the electron density obtained with a new method are very close to those obtained with a previous method using a network analyzer. And also, only 15 ns long signal was necessary for spectrum reconstruction. These results were also compared to the Langmuir probe's measurements with satisfactory results. This method is expected to provide not only fast measurement of absolute electron density, but also function in other diagnostic situations where a network analyzer would be used (a hairpin probe and an impedance probe) by replacing the network analyzer with a nanosecond impulse generator and an oscilloscope.

  3. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  4. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  5. Simultaneous optical and mechanical probes to investigate complex cellular responses to physical cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Kristina; Al-Rekabi, Zeinab; Guolla, Louise; Hickey, Ryan; Tremblay, Dominique; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2015-03-01

    Living cells possess an exquisite ability to sense and respond to physical information in their microenvironment. This ability plays a key role in many fundamentally important physiological and pathological processes. We will describe our work utilizing a variety of biophysical tools to investigate the dynamic responses of cells to mechanical stimuli and how physical cues can be employed to re-purpose and manipulate biological processes. These responses to physical cues are not simply a side-product of biology but are key components of biological and physical feedback loops that govern the life of a cell.

  6. Colliders as a simultaneous probe of supersymmetric dark matter and Terascale cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Terascale supersymmetry has the potential to provide a natural explanation of the dominant dark matter component of the standard {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However once we impose the constraints on minimal supersymmetry parameters from current particle physics data, a satisfactory dark matter abundance is no longer prima facie natural. This Neutralino Tuning Problem could be a hint of nonstandard cosmology during and/or after the Terascale era. To quantify this possibility, we introduce an alternative cosmological benchmark based upon a simple model of quintessential inflation. This benchmark has no free parameters, so for a given supersymmetry model it allows an unambiguous prediction of the dark matter relic density. As a example, we scan over the parameter space of the CMSSM, comparing the neutralino relic density predictions with the bounds from WMAP. We find that the WMAP-allowed regions of the CMSSM are an order of magnitude larger if we use the alternative cosmological benchmark, as opposed to {Lambda}CDM. Initial results from the CERN Large Hadron Collider will distinguish between the two allowed regions.

  7. Mechanosensitive ion channels investigated simultaneously by scanning probe microscopy and patch clamp.

    PubMed

    Langer, Matthias G

    2007-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels play an important role for the perception of mechanical signals such as touch, balance, or sound. Here, a new experimental strategy is presented providing well-defined access to single mechanosensitive ion channels in living cells. As a representative example, the investigation of mechanosensitive transduction channels in cochlear hair cells is discussed in detail including all essential technical aspects. Three different techniques were combined: atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a device for local mechanical stimulation, patch clamp for recording the current response of mechanosensitive ion channels, and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy equipped with an upright water-immersion objective lens. A major challenge was to adapt the mechanical design of the AFM setup to the small working distance of the light microscope and the electrical design of the AFM electronics. Various protocols for the preparation and investigation of the organ of Corti with AFM are presented.

  8. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  9. Development of a microwave probe for the optical study of microwave-excited spin physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Adur, Rohan; Odenthal, Patrick; Kawakami, Roland; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an experimental probe that allows simultaneous broadband microwave excitation and optical excitation/detection at variable temperature and magnetic field. Specifically, we have designed a unique sample probe with a microwave stripline based sample mount that allows for direct optical access to the sample under study within a magneto- optical cryostat. This powerful combination enables optical studies of spintronic systems under microwave excitation using both CW (e.g. photo- and electro-luminescence) and time resolved (e.g. time resolved absorption/transmission and time resolved Kerr rotation, TRKR) techniques. To benchmark the capabilities of this probe we present data demonstrating simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and TRKR in a Fe/MgO/GaAs heterostructure. Such studies have potential applications in the study of FMR driven spin pumping and interaction of free carrier spins with native and engineered defects. MRSEC (DMR-0820414).

  10. Surface registration using a multi-beam optical probe and backscatter reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Jeremy R.; Maskaly, Garry; Younk, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a technique for locating the position and orientation of an object surrounding a compound optical probe. The probe allows for simultaneous measurement of 150 points of laser velocimetry, and prior to a dynamic experiment it is important to know the initial position of the surface. Using an optical switch and a Luna OBR rangefinder, we measure the surface distance at hundreds of locations. These measurements are then combined with a dimensional inspection of the object and analysis routines to report the orientation and location of the inner surface relative to the probe. In addition, we present a technique to simultaneously measure the beam paths using a reference hemispherical surface and a number of distance measurements. LA-UR-15-26588

  11. The use of fluorescein for labeling genomic probes in the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Santos Barbosa, Rodrigo Edson; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo; Watanabe, Evandro; Yoko Ito, Izabel; Monesi, Nadia; Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira de

    2008-01-01

    Molecular methods that permit the simultaneous detection and quantification of a large number of microbial species are currently employed in the evaluation of complex ecosystems. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique enables the simultaneous identification of distinct bacterial species in a large number of dental samples. The original technique employed digoxigenin-labeled whole genomic DNA probes which were detected by chemiluminescence. In this study, we present an alternative protocol for labeling and detecting whole genomic DNA probes in the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from five bacterial species and labeled with fluorescein. The fluorescein labeled whole genomic DNA probes were hybridized against whole genomic DNA or subgingival plaque samples in a checkerboard hybridization format, followed by chemiluminescent detection. Our results reveal that fluorescein is a viable and adequate alternative labeling reagent to be employed in the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique.

  12. A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Galletly, N. P.; Stamp, G. W.; Chu, A. C.; Anand, U.; Anand, P.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay profiles, permitting the analysis of complex fluorescence signals. This hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe utilizes two ultrafast lasers operating at 355 and 440nm that can excite autofluorescence from many different biomolecules present in skin tissue including keratin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and flavins. The instrument incorporates an optical fiber probe to provide sample illumination and fluorescence collection over a millimeter-sized area. We present a description of the system, including spectral and temporal characterizations, and report the preliminary application of this instrument to a study of recently resected (<2h) ex vivo skin lesions, illustrating its potential for skin cancer detection and diagnosis.

  13. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe.

  14. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe.

  15. Electrostatic Surface Characterization by Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Yaojian

    1995-01-01

    The electrostatic properties of surfaces are important in biological, polymer and semiconductor physics. Several newly developed scanning probe microscopies can provide nanometer scale characterization of these surfaces. In the course of this work, an Electrostatic Force Microscope (EFM) and a Kelvin Probe Force Microscope (KPFM) have been built using interferometric force detection. An EFM is a modified noncontact mode Atomic Force Microscope, capable of simultaneously measuring surface topography, surface charge or surface potential, and capacitance. A KPFM is similar to the classical Kelvin method in measuring surface potential, only in this case, forces are detected instead of currents. A 10^{-4} A/surdHz displacement detection sensitivity has been achieved. A 200 A spatial resolution and a sub-mV electrostatic potential sensitivity have been demonstrated. The capability of the EFM to map charge and dielectric variations on biological and polymeric surfaces has been demonstrated. Studies have been made on red blood cells, modified Teflon FEP films, and contact lens materials. A quantitative method to measure surface charge density on a nanometer scale has been established. The redistribution of mobile surface ions has been visualized for the first time by the EFM on a submicron scale. It has been shown that the drift in the saturation current observed on the open gate field effect transistor is due to the migration of mobile surface ions under lateral fields. Atomic ordering in GaInP, controlled either by growth temperature or by substrate misorientation, has been studied by the KPFM both in cross section and on the growth plane. It is shown that KPFM is capable of distinguishing ordered GaInP from disordered GaInP. The contrast is observed to depend on the applied ac amplitude used in the measurement. The experiments indicate that ordering in GaInP modifies the density and/or lifetime of the surface states.

  16. Probing the Probes: Fitness Factors For Small Molecule Tools

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Chemical probes for interrogating biological processes are of considerable current interest. Cell permeable small molecule tools have a major role in facilitating the functional annotation of the human genome, understanding both physiological and pathological processes, and validating new molecular targets. To be valuable, chemical tools must satisfy necessary criteria and recent publications have suggested objective guidelines for what makes a useful chemical probe. Although recognizing that such guidelines may be valuable, we caution against overly restrictive rules that may stifle innovation in favor of a “fit-for-purpose” approach. Reviewing the literature and providing examples from the cancer field, we recommend a series of “fitness factors” to be considered when assessing chemical probes. We hope this will encourage innovative chemical biology research while minimizing the generation of poor quality and misleading biological data, thus increasing understanding of the particular biological area, to the benefit of basic research and drug discovery. PMID:20609406

  17. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes for nanoarchitectonic materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoarchitectonic systems are of interest for utilizing a vast range of nanoscale materials for future applications requiring a huge number of elemental nanocomponents. To explore the science and technology of nanoarchitectonics, advanced characterization tools that can deal with both nanoscale objects and macroscopically extended nanosystems are demanded. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs) are powerful tools that meet this demand because they take the advantages of conventional scanning probe microscopes and realize atomically precise electrical measurements, which cannot be done with conventional microprobing systems widely used in characterizing materials and devices. Furthermore, an MP-SPM can be used to operate some nanoarchitectonic systems. In this review, we overview the indispensable features of MP-SPMs together with the past, present and future of MP-SPM technology.

  18. A variable-width harmonic probe for multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li; Xia, Qi E-mail: michael.wang@nus.edu.sg; Luo, Yangjun; Wang, Michael Yu E-mail: michael.wang@nus.edu.sg

    2015-02-16

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM) to simultaneously measure topography and material properties of specimens, it is highly desirable that the higher order resonance frequencies of the cantilever probe are assigned to be integer harmonics of the excitation frequency. The harmonic resonances are essential for significant enhancement of the probe's response at the specified harmonic frequencies. In this letter, a structural optimization technique is employed to design cantilever probes so that the ratios between one or more higher order resonance frequencies and the fundamental natural frequency are ensured to be equal to specified integers and, in the meantime, that the fundamental natural frequency is maximized. Width profile of the cantilever probe is the design variable in optimization. Thereafter, the probes were prepared by modifying a commercial probe through the focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The resonance frequencies of the FIB fabricated probes were measured with an AFM. Results of the measurement show that the optimal design of probe is as effective as design prediction.

  19. Probe permeametry: An overview and bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, A.; Goggin, D.

    1995-03-01

    Applications of probe permeameters in both laboratory and outcrop studies of permeability heterogeneity are common. We present an overview of the current status of probe permeameter data acquisition, analysis, and application. The multidisciplinary nature of probe permeameter studies has led to their publication in diverse scientific journals. We present a bibliography that includes literature covering both the technology and the application of probe permeametry.

  20. Simultaneous imaging of the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric structure in multiferroic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Unguris, J. Pierce, D. T.; Bowden, S. R.; Trassin, M.; Ramesh, R.; Cheong, S.-W.; Fackler, S.; Takeuchi, I.

    2014-07-01

    By measuring the spin polarization of secondary electrons and the intensity of backscattered electrons generated in a scanning electron microscope, we are able to simultaneously image the ferromagnetic domain structure of a ferromagnetic thin film and the ferroelectric domain structure of the underlying ferroelectric substrate upon which it is grown. Simultaneous imaging allows straightforward, quantitative measurements of the correlations in these complex multiferroic systems. We have successfully imaged domains in CoFe/BFO and Fe/BTO, two systems with very different ferromagnet/ferroelectric coupling mechanisms, demonstrating how this technique provides a new local probe of magneto electric/strictive effects in multiferroic heterostructures.

  1. A multiwavelength fluorescence probe: is one probe capable for on-line monitoring of recombinant protein production and biomass activity?

    PubMed

    Hisiger, Steve; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2005-06-29

    Monitoring cell culture performance requires maximizing the number and the quality of measured parameters and in situ 2D fluorescence spectroscopy could allow intensification of simultaneous data acquisition. The use of a multiwavelength fluorescence probe is proposed for monitoring GFP-producing cultures in bioreactor. The yeast Pichia pastoris and NSO mammalian cells were studied as model systems. Tryptophan, NAD(P)H and riboflavins (riboflavin, FMN, FAD) signals were effective for on-line yeast biomass estimation during the growth phase. During the GFP production phase, in situ measurements of the GFP concentration from the fluorescence probe were well correlated with off-line analyses. Tryptophan and NAD(P)H signals diverged from that of biomass during GFP production. With NSO mammalian cells, results showed that the culture parameters have to be optimized for the use of a fluorescence probe. The use of serum and phenol-red interfered with NAD(P)H and riboflavins fluorescence signals. Nevertheless, it appears that a multiwavelength probe could be useful for culture monitoring of biomass, cell activity and recombinant protein expression in an optimized culture medium.

  2. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  3. Nitrogen-doped carbon dots as multifunctional fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fengyi; Jin, Xin; Chen, Junhui; Hua, Ye; Cao, Mulan; Zhang, Lirong; Li, Jianan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Jie; Wu, Chaoyang; Gong, Aihua; Xu, Wenrong; Shao, Qixiang; Zhang, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were prepared through the hydrothermal carbonization of citric acid and ammonium acetate. The resulting NCDs were quasi-spherical particles with an average diameter of approximately 2.1 nm. They exhibited excellent photoluminescent properties and had favorable solubility in water. Furthermore, the NCDs had low cytotoxicity and were readily integrated with cytoplasm. This makes them particularly suitable for multicolor bioimaging. Most importantly, NCDs internalized by cancer cells can be detected at four channels simultaneously with flow cytometry, which further demonstrates that the NCDs can be used as multifunctional fluorescent probes for biomedical applications.

  4. Two-axis probing system for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jayanth, G R; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    A novel two-axis probing system is proposed for multiaxis atomic force microscopy (AFM). It employs a compliant manipulator that is optimally designed in terms of geometries and kinematics, and is actuated by multiple magnetic actuators to simultaneously control tip position and change tip orientation to achieve greater accessibility of the sample surface when imaging surfaces having large geometric variations. It leads to the creation of a multiaxis AFM system, which is a three-dimensional surface tool rather than a two-dimensional planar surface tool. The use of the system to scan the bottom corner of a grating step is reported.

  5. Optical imaging probes in oncology.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Cristina; Lo Dico, Alessia; Diceglie, Cecilia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa

    2016-07-26

    Cancer is a complex disease, characterized by alteration of different physiological molecular processes and cellular features. Keeping this in mind, the possibility of early identification and detection of specific tumor biomarkers by non-invasive approaches could improve early diagnosis and patient management.Different molecular imaging procedures provide powerful tools for detection and non-invasive characterization of oncological lesions. Clinical studies are mainly based on the use of computed tomography, nuclear-based imaging techniques and magnetic resonance imaging. Preclinical imaging in small animal models entails the use of dedicated instruments, and beyond the already cited imaging techniques, it includes also optical imaging studies. Optical imaging strategies are based on the use of luminescent or fluorescent reporter genes or injectable fluorescent or luminescent probes that provide the possibility to study tumor features even by means of fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Currently, most of these probes are used only in animal models, but the possibility of applying some of them also in the clinics is under evaluation.The importance of tumor imaging, the ease of use of optical imaging instruments, the commercial availability of a wide range of probes as well as the continuous description of newly developed probes, demonstrate the significance of these applications. The aim of this review is providing a complete description of the possible optical imaging procedures available for the non-invasive assessment of tumor features in oncological murine models. In particular, the characteristics of both commercially available and newly developed probes will be outlined and discussed.

  6. Optical imaging probes in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Cristina; Dico, Alessia Lo; Diceglie, Cecilia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease, characterized by alteration of different physiological molecular processes and cellular features. Keeping this in mind, the possibility of early identification and detection of specific tumor biomarkers by non-invasive approaches could improve early diagnosis and patient management. Different molecular imaging procedures provide powerful tools for detection and non-invasive characterization of oncological lesions. Clinical studies are mainly based on the use of computed tomography, nuclear-based imaging techniques and magnetic resonance imaging. Preclinical imaging in small animal models entails the use of dedicated instruments, and beyond the already cited imaging techniques, it includes also optical imaging studies. Optical imaging strategies are based on the use of luminescent or fluorescent reporter genes or injectable fluorescent or luminescent probes that provide the possibility to study tumor features even by means of fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Currently, most of these probes are used only in animal models, but the possibility of applying some of them also in the clinics is under evaluation. The importance of tumor imaging, the ease of use of optical imaging instruments, the commercial availability of a wide range of probes as well as the continuous description of newly developed probes, demonstrate the significance of these applications. The aim of this review is providing a complete description of the possible optical imaging procedures available for the non-invasive assessment of tumor features in oncological murine models. In particular, the characteristics of both commercially available and newly developed probes will be outlined and discussed. PMID:27145373

  7. Combining scanning probe microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A new versatile tool, combining Shear Force Microscopy and X-Ray Spectroscopy was designed and constructed to obtain simultaneously surface topography and chemical mapping. Using a sharp optical fiber as microscope probe, it is possible to collect locally the visible luminescence of the sample. Results of tests on ZnO and on ZnWO4 thin layers are in perfect agreement with that obtained with other conventional techniques. Twin images obtained by simultaneous acquisition in near field of surface topography and of local visible light emitted by the sample under X-Ray irradiation in synchrotron environment are shown. Replacing the optical fibre by an X-ray capillary, it is possible to collect local X-ray fluorescence of the sample. Preliminary results on Co-Ti sample analysis are presented. PMID:21711848

  8. Simultaneous shoulder and elbow dislocation.

    PubMed

    Cobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Karataş, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih

    2014-05-23

    Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to emergency service but she was diagnosed with simultaneous ipsilateral shoulder and elbow injury and treated conservatively. As a more painful pathology may mask the additional ones, one should hasten to help before performing a complete evaluation. Any harm caused to the patient due to this reason would not be a complication but a malpractice.

  9. Simultaneous shoulder and elbow dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Çobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Karataş, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to emergency service but she was diagnosed with simultaneous ipsilateral shoulder and elbow injury and treated conservatively. As a more painful pathology may mask the additional ones, one should hasten to help before performing a complete evaluation. Any harm caused to the patient due to this reason would not be a complication but a malpractice. PMID:24859563

  10. Application of a Split-Fiber Probe to Velocity Measurement in the NASA Research Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A split-fiber probe was used to acquire unsteady data in a research compressor. The probe has two thin films deposited on a quartz cylinder 200 microns in diameter. A split-fiber probe allows simultaneous measurement of velocity magnitude and direction in a plane that is perpendicular to the sensing cylinder, because it has its circumference divided into two independent parts. Local heat transfer considerations indicated that the probe direction characteristic is linear in the range of flow incidence angles of +/- 35. Calibration tests confirmed this assumption. Of course, the velocity characteristic is nonlinear as is typical in thermal anemometry. The probe was used extensively in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) low-speed, multistage axial compressor, and worked reliably during a test program of several months duration. The velocity and direction characteristics of the probe showed only minute changes during the entire test program. An algorithm was developed to decompose the probe signals into velocity magnitude and velocity direction. The averaged unsteady data were compared with data acquired by pneumatic probes. An overall excellent agreement between the averaged data acquired by a split-fiber probe and a pneumatic probe boosts confidence in the reliability of the unsteady content of the split-fiber probe data. To investigate the features of unsteady data, two methods were used: ensemble averaging and frequency analysis. The velocity distribution in a rotor blade passage was retrieved using the ensemble averaging method. Frequencies of excitation forces that may contribute to high cycle fatigue problems were identified by applying a fast Fourier transform to the absolute velocity data.

  11. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  12. Spaser as a biological probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  13. Hand-held survey probe

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  14. Recognition of Probe Ptolemaic Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Maw-Shang; Hung, Ling-Ju

    Let G denote a graph class. An undirected graph G is called a probe G graph if one can make G a graph in G by adding edges between vertices in some independent set of G. By definition graph class G is a subclass of probe G graphs. Ptolemaic graphs are chordal and induced gem free. They form a subclass of both chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. Many problems NP-hard on chordal graphs can be solved in polynomial time on ptolemaic graphs. We proposed an O(nm)-time algorithm to recognize probe ptolemaic graphs where n and m are the numbers of vertices and edges of the input graph respectively.

  15. Effects of error correction during assessment probes on the acquisition of sight words for students with moderate intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Rebecca E; Alberto, Paul A; Fredrick, Laura D

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy designed to reduce the number of errors students make; however, research has shown a disparity in the number of errors students make during instructional versus probe trials. This study directly examined the effects of error correction versus no error correction during probe trials on the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting on the acquisition of sight words by three middle school students with moderate intellectual disabilities. A single-case adapted alternating treatments (Sindelar, Rosenberg, & Wilson, 1985) embedded in a multiple baseline across word sets design was employed to examine the effects of error correction during probe trials in order to reduce error rates. A functional relation was established for two of the three students for the use of error correction during probe sessions to reduce error rates. Error correction during assessment probes required fewer sessions to criterion, resulted in fewer probe errors, resulted in a higher percentage of correct responding on the next subsequent trial, and required less total probe time. For two of the three students, probes with error correction resulted in a more rapid acquisition rate requiring fewer sessions to criterion.

  16. Outer Planets/Solar Probe Project: Solar Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar Probe, the first mission to the Sun and the third of three missions in NASA's Outer Solar System/Solar Probe Program, is a voyage of exploration, discovery, and comprehension. This near-Sun flyby will provide in situ measurements in the solar corona and high-resolution pictures and magnetograms of the photosphere and polar atmosphere. These measurements are also needed as "ground truth" for interpreting the many measurements of the Sun and solar activity that have been made from a distance of 1 AU. Solar Probe is scheduled for launch in February 2007. It will arrive at the Sun along a polar trajectory perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line with a perihelion of 4 solar radii (R(sub s)) from the Sun's center. Two perihelion passages will occur, the first in 2010 (near solar sunspot maximum) and the second in 2015 (near solar minimum) ensuring measurement of both coronal hole and streamer-related solar wind properties. To reach the Sun, probe must first fly to Jupiter and use a gravity assist to lose its angular momentum about the Sun. The imaging and in situ miniaturized instruments will provide the first 3-dimensional view of the corona, high spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the magnetic fields, and helioseismic measurements of the polar regions, as well as sporadic high-spatial-resolution local sampling of plasmas and fields at all latitudes.

  17. Probe Project Status and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, RD

    2001-05-07

    The Probe project has completed its first full year of operation. In this document we will describe the status of the project as of December 31, 2000. We will describe the equipment configuration, then give brief descriptions of the various projects undertaken to date. We will mention first those projects performed for outside entities and then those performed for the benefit of one of the Probe sites. We will then describe projects that are under consideration, including some for which initial actions have been taken and others which are somewhat longer-term.

  18. Emerging pictures on the disk-jet connection from simultaneous multiwavelength observations of black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakoff, Gregory; Russell, David; Markoff, Sera; Miller-Jones, James; Tetarenko, Alexandra; Curran, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Relativistic jets in black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) are fundamentally linked to accretion onto the central black hole. Since the outbursts of X-ray binaries, stellar mass cousins of AGN, typically last weeks to months, BHXBs are ideal targets for probing the connected physics of accretion disks and jets over entire outbursts. However, this fast evolution requires coordinated multiwavelength monitoring observations to best probe this physics. The relativistic jet is typically best probed at low frequencies (radio, mm/sub-mm, mid-IR, near-IR, optical) with ground-based observatories while the accretion disk is best probed at X-ray frequencies from space-based observatories. Over the last several years stronger coordination among scientific teams and these facilities has enabled a greater number of near-simultaneous or simultaneous observations. In this talk, I use examples from a range of campaigns (e.g., MAXI J1836-194 & V404 Cyg) to discuss the gains that are being made with increasingly simultaneous observations. I highlight how four specific multi-wavelength trends (flux monitoring with high resolution imaging; dynamic nearly simultaneous SEDs; the push to mm/sub-mm frequencies; comparison of high time resolution data) are producing data that are increasingly testing theoretical models of jet production.

  19. Teaching Core Content Embedded in a Functional Activity to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…

  20. Comparing Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay to Teach Leisure Skills to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Jannike; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Collins, Belva C.; Hall, Meada

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effects of simultaneous prompting and constant time delay in teaching two solitaire card games to five high school students with moderate intellectual disability. An adapted alternating treatments within a multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. Both procedures were effective…

  1. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Narrative Writing Skills to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Collins, Belva C.; Stenhoff, Donald M.; Turner, Kennedy; Gunselman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of written expression to the lives of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is limited research on teaching writing skills to this population. In the current study, we used a multiple probe across behaviors design to evaluate the effects of simultaneous prompting (SP) and computer-assisted instruction (CAI)…

  2. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Narrative Writing Skills to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Collins, Belva C.; Stenhoff, Donald M.; Turner, Kennedy; Gunselman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of written expression to the lives of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is limited research on teaching writing skills to this population. In the current study, we used a multiple probe across behaviors design to evaluate the effects of simultaneous prompting (SP) and computer-assisted instruction (CAI)…

  3. Teaching Core Content Embedded in a Functional Activity to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…

  4. A device for simultaneously measuring nest attendance and nest temperature in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; MacCluskie, Margaret C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies of waterfowl have measured nest attendance and nest temperature separately using a variety of methods. A device was developed that monitors nest attendance and temperature simultaneously. The device consists of an artificial egg with a microswitch that records nest attendance and a thermistor probe that records temperature. Data are stored in a single-channel data logger. The device described measures the length of incubation breaks, and nest cooling and warming rates.

  5. Simultaneous Measurements of Thermal Properties of Individual Carbon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianli; Song, Bai; Zhang, Xing; Song, Yang; Wu, Gangping

    2011-05-01

    Combining the steady-state and quasi-steady-state T type probes, the longitudinal thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity of individual mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber heat treated at 2800 °C and 1000 °C have been measured from 100 K to 300 K. The present method allows simultaneous measurements of thermal properties using the same instrument, by simply changing the applied direct current to alternating current. The specific heat is found to decrease with increasing heat-treatment temperature and to approach the value of graphite. The highly graphitized carbon fiber has a maximum thermal conductivity of 410 W · m-1 · K-1 at about 250 K, and its thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing temperature. Comparatively, the thermal conductivity of the fiber heat treated at 1000 °C is much smaller, with the peak shifting to high temperature due to a large defect density, and its thermal diffusivity is nearly temperature independent.

  6. Fast live simultaneous multiwavelength four-dimensional optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Peter M.; Boulanger, Jérôme; Kervrann, Charles; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Salamero, Jean; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Bressan, Debra; Haber, James E.; Haase, Sebastian; Shao, Lin; Winoto, Lukman; Matsuda, Atsushi; Kner, Peter; Uzawa, Satoru; Gustafsson, Mats; Kam, Zvi; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Live fluorescence microscopy has the unique capability to probe dynamic processes, linking molecular components and their localization with function. A key goal of microscopy is to increase spatial and temporal resolution while simultaneously permitting identification of multiple specific components. We demonstrate a new microscope platform, OMX, that enables subsecond, multicolor four-dimensional data acquisition and also provides access to subdiffraction structured illumination imaging. Using this platform to image chromosome movement during a complete yeast cell cycle at one 3D image stack per second reveals an unexpected degree of photosensitivity of fluorophore-containing cells. To avoid perturbation of cell division, excitation levels had to be attenuated between 100 and 10,000× below the level normally used for imaging. We show that an image denoising algorithm that exploits redundancy in the image sequence over space and time allows recovery of biological information from the low light level noisy images while maintaining full cell viability with no fading. PMID:20705899

  7. MTRAP: The Magnetic Transition Region Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; West, E. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Oberright, J. F.; Evans, D. C.; Wood, H. J.; Saba, J. L. R.; Alexander, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetic Transition Region Probe is a space telescope designed to measure the magnetic field at several heights and temperatures in the solar atmosphere, providing observations spanning the chromospheric region where the field is expected to become force free. The primary goal is to provide an early warning system (hours to days) for solar energetic particle events that pose a serious hazard to astronauts in deep space and to understand the source regions of these particles. The required magnetic field data consist of simultaneous circular and linear polarization measurements in several spectral lines over the wavelength range from 150 to 855 nm. Because the observations are photon limited an optical telescope with a large (>18sq m) collecting area is required. To keep the heat dissipation problem manageable we have chosen to implement MTRAP with six separate Gregorian telescopes, each with approx. 3 sq m collecting area, that are brought to a common focus. The large field of view (5 x 5 arcmin(sup 2)) and angular resolution (0.025 arcsec pixels) require large detector arrays and, because of the requirements on signal to noise (10(exp 3)), pixels with large full well depths to reduce the readout time and improve the temporal resolution. The optical and engineering considerations that have gone into the development of a concept that meets MTRAP's requirements are described.

  8. Saturn Science from Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Simon-Miller, Amy; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William; Colaprete, Anthony; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda; Spilker, Tom; Webster, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Data from atmospheric entry probe missions at the giant planets could uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres, providing for valuable comparative studies of giant planets as well as providing a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. For these reasons, a Saturn Probe mission with a shallow probe is ranked by the recent U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission. Atmospheric constituents needed to constrain theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets could be accessed and sampled by shallow entry probes. Many important constituents are either spectrally inactive or are beneath an atmospheric overburden that is optically thick at useful wavelengths and are therefore not remotely accessible by flyby or orbiting spacecraft. A small, scientifically focused shallow entry probe mission could make critical abundance measurements of key constituents, and could measure profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at a vertical resolution that is significantly higher than could be achieved by remote sensing techniques. The Galileo mission began the detailed study of the solar system's two gas giants by dropping an entry probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter and deploying an orbiter around Jupiter. In 2016-2017 the Juno mission will make measurements of Jupiter's deep oxygen abundance, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In the same epoch, the Cassini orbiter is planned to pursue a set of Juno-like orbits to make comparable gravitational and magnetic field measurements of Saturn. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe would complete the quartet of missions needed for a comparative study of the two gas giants, leading to improved

  9. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y S

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  10. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torusa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  11. LabVIEW software for analyzing Langmuir probe characteristics in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, S.; Binwal, S.; Kabariya, H.; Karkari, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology for processing Ampere-Volts (I-V) characteristics of the Langmuir probe in magnetized plasma using graphical programming language based on LabVIEW. Computing the plasma parameters from I-V characteristic involves several steps that include signal processing, interpolation, linear and non-linear curve fitting based on physical models, finding the derivatives of the experimental curve and determining the zero-crossing of the probe current as a function of the applied voltage. These operations are practically tedious to perform manually causing systematic errors in output parameters. To overcome this challenge, software is developed to analyze the planar Langmuir probe characteristics in magnetized plasma. The software allows simultaneous display of different plasma parameters that helps to verify the consistency of the analyzed plasma parameters with the standard probe theory. Using this software, plasma parameters are obtained in a linear plasma device and its characteristics are discussed.

  12. Tracing ultrafast dynamics of strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces with longitudinal proton probing

    SciTech Connect

    Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Koschitzki, Ch.; Schnürer, M.; Priebe, G.; Andreev, A. A.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.

    2014-07-21

    If regions of localized strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces are probed longitudinally with laser accelerated proton beams their velocity distribution changes sensitively and very fast. Its measured variations provide indirectly a higher temporal resolution as deduced from deflection geometries which rely on the explicit temporal resolution of the proton beam at the position of the object to probe. With help of reasonable models and comparative measurements changes of proton velocity can trace the field dynamics even at femtosecond time scale. In longitudinal probing, the very low longitudinal emittance together with a broad band kinetic energy distribution of laser accelerated protons is the essential prerequisite of the method. With a combination of energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution, we resolve fast field changes down to 100 fs. The used pump probe setup extends previous schemes and allows discriminating simultaneously between electric and magnetic fields in their temporal evolution.

  13. Use of Sloppy Molecular Beacon Probes for Identification of Mycobacterial Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    El-Hajj, Hiyam H.; Marras, Salvatore A. E.; Tyagi, Sanjay; Shashkina, Elena; Kamboj, Mini; Kiehn, Timothy E.; Glickman, Michael S.; Kramer, Fred Russell; Alland, David

    2009-01-01

    We report here the use of novel “sloppy” molecular beacon probes in homogeneous PCR screening assays in which thermal denaturation of the resulting probe-amplicon hybrids provides a characteristic set of amplicon melting temperature (Tm) values that identify which species is present in a sample. Sloppy molecular beacons possess relatively long probe sequences, enabling them to form hybrids with amplicons from many different species despite the presence of mismatched base pairs. By using four sloppy molecular beacons, each possessing a different probe sequence and each labeled with a differently colored fluorophore, four different Tm values can be determined simultaneously. We tested this technique with 27 different species of mycobacteria and found that each species generates a unique, highly reproducible signature that is unaffected by the initial bacterial DNA concentration. Utilizing this general paradigm, screening assays can be designed for the identification of a wide range of species. PMID:19171684

  14. A 512-channels, whole array readout, CMOS implantable probe for acute recordings from the brain.

    PubMed

    Angotzi, G N; Malerba, M; Zucca, S; Berdondini, L

    2015-08-01

    The integration of implantable CMOS neural probes with thousands of simultaneously recording microelectrodes is a promising approach for neuroscience and might allow to literally image electrophysiological neuronal activity in multiple brain circuits as we have previously shown in vitro. Here, we present a complete system based on a fully multiplexed CMOS neural probe that was designed for in-vivo acute recordings with a scalable circuit architecture. In particular, a first prototype of a single-shaft probe with 512 electrodes was realized in a standard CMOS 0.18μm technology and post-processed to structure the shaft with a wedge-like geometry of 30μm in thickness at the tip and 80μm at the base. The design of the system and of the probe as well as the post-processing techniques are discussed. Finally, preliminary results on electrical, mechanical and implantation tests are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  15. NASA Smart Surgical Probe Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Andrews, Russell J.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Guerrero, Michael; Papasin, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Information Technologies being developed by NASA to assist astronaut-physician in responding to medical emergencies during long space flights are being employed for the improvement of women's health in the form of "smart surgical probe". This technology, initially developed for neurosurgery applications, not only has enormous potential for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, but broad applicability to a wide range of medical challenges. For the breast cancer application, the smart surgical probe is being designed to "see" a suspicious lump, determine by its features if it is cancerous, and ultimately predict how the disease may progress. A revolutionary early breast cancer detection tool based on this technology has been developed by a commercial company and is being tested in human clinical trials at the University of California at Davis, School of Medicine. The smart surgical probe technology makes use of adaptive intelligent software (hybrid neural networks/fuzzy logic algorithms) with the most advanced physiologic sensors to provide real-time in vivo tissue characterization for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of tumors, including determination of tumor microenvironment and evaluation of tumor margins. The software solutions and tools from these medical applications will lead to the development of better real-time minimally-invasive smart surgical probes for emergency medical care and treatment of astronauts on long space flights.

  16. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug.

  17. Samara Probe For Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

  18. SUB-SLAB PROBE INSTALLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sub-slab sampling has become an integral part of vapor intrusion investigations. It is now recommended in guidance documents developed by EPA and most states. A method for sub-slab probe installation was devised in 2002, presented at conferences through 2005, and finally docume...

  19. Health. CEM Probe, January 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Roy

    The importance of health and its relationship to personal and community life are explored in this issue of PROBE. Designed to acquaint British secondary school youth with topical problems, the series contains discussion and case studies of national and world issues, followed by questions for student discussion and research. Nine chapters comprise…

  20. Strange probes of the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in hypernuclear physics are reviewed. An appraisal is given of various suggestions for using strange probes to test partial quark deconfinement in nuclei and meson exchange vs quark-gluon exchange descriptions of baryon-baryon interactions. 76 refs., 6 figs.

  1. CNP. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, T.

    1995-05-17

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  2. OCR Pace on Probes Quickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2011-01-01

    In the 21 months since U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan stood on an iconic bridge in Selma, Alabama, and pledged to aggressively combat discrimination in the nation's schools, federal education officials have launched dozens of new probes in school districts and states that reach into civil rights issues that previously received little, if…

  3. Health. CEM Probe, January 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Roy

    The importance of health and its relationship to personal and community life are explored in this issue of PROBE. Designed to acquaint British secondary school youth with topical problems, the series contains discussion and case studies of national and world issues, followed by questions for student discussion and research. Nine chapters comprise…

  4. OCR Pace on Probes Quickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2011-01-01

    In the 21 months since U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan stood on an iconic bridge in Selma, Alabama, and pledged to aggressively combat discrimination in the nation's schools, federal education officials have launched dozens of new probes in school districts and states that reach into civil rights issues that previously received little, if…

  5. Dynamic light scattering homodyne probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Inventor); Cannell, David S. (Inventor); Smart, Anthony E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical probe for analyzing a sample illuminated by a laser includes an input optical fiber operably connectable to the laser where the input optical fiber has an entrance end and an exit end. The probe also includes a first beam splitter where the first beam splitter is adapted to transmit an alignment portion of a light beam from the input fiber exit end and to reflect a homodyning portion of the light beam from the input fiber. The probe also includes a lens between the input fiber exit end and the first beam splitter and a first and a second output optical fiber, each having an entrance end and an exit end, each exit end being operably connectable to respective optical detectors. The probe also includes a second beam splitter which is adapted to reflect at least a portion of the reflected homodyning portion into the output fiber entrance ends and to transmit light from the laser scattered by the sample into the entrance ends.

  6. Simultaneous density contrast is bidirectional.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Baker, Curtis L; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous density contrast, or SDC, is the phenomenon in which the perceived density of a textured region is altered by a surround of different density (Mackay, 1973). SDC provides an experimental tool to investigate mechanisms of density coding, yet has not been systematically examined. We measured SDC with a 2AFC staircase procedure in which human observers judged which of two patterns, one with and one without a surround, appeared more dense. We used a range of surround densities varying from very sparse to very dense (0-76.8 dots/deg2), and two center test densities (6.4 and 12.8 dots/deg2). Psychometric functions were used to estimate both the points of subjective equality (PSE) and their precision. Unexpectedly we find a bidirectional SDC effect across the five observers: Not only does a denser surround reduce perceived density of the center, but a sparser surround enhances its perceived density. We also show that SDC is not mediated by either contrast-contrast or spatial-frequency contrast. Our results suggest the presence of multiple channels selective for texture density, with lateral inhibitory interactions between them.

  7. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  8. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1982-05-02

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  9. Simultaneous Measurement of Noise-Activated Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex and Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex. PMID:16568366

  10. Simultaneous measurement of noise-activated middle-ear muscle reflex and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shawn S; Keefe, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex.

  11. A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.

    PubMed

    Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

    2013-08-01

    This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

  12. High pressure optical combustion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  13. Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberry, Phillip A.

    1991-01-01

    The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

  14. Evaluation of procedures for decontaminating ultrasound probes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shunji; Koibuchi, Harumi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    To determine suitable procedures for decontaminating ultrasound probes. We investigated bacterial transmission via ultrasound probes that were not wiped, wiped with a plain paper towel, or wiped with an ethanol-soaked paper towel. The unwiped probes transmitted large numbers of bacteria, which were markedly reduced by wiping the probes with a plain paper towel, and almost completely eliminated by wiping with an ethanol-soaked paper towel. Improperly decontaminated ultrasound probes can transmit bacteria among patients. Ultrasound probes should be decontaminated by wiping with a paper towel after examinations to prevent bacterial transmission. Plain or ethanol-soaked paper towels should be used depending on the situation.

  15. Performance Assessment of New Multiplex Probe Assay for Identification of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Nanetti, Anna; Piersimoni, Claudio; Cichero, Paola; Farina, Claudio; Mucignat, Giorgio; Scarparo, Claudio; Bartolini, Laura; Valentini, Roberta; Nista, Domenico; Gesu, Giampietro; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini; Crovatto, Marina; Brusarosco, Giuliana

    2001-01-01

    A new DNA probe assay (INNO LiPA Mycobacteria; Innogenetics, Ghent, Belgium) for the simultaneous identification, by means of reverse hybridization and line-probe technology, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium gordonae, the species of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium chelonae was evaluated on a panel of 238 strains including, besides representatives of all the taxa identifiable by the system, a number of other mycobacteria, some of which are known to be problematic with the only other commercial DNA probe system (AccuProbe; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.), and two nocardiae. The new kit, which includes a control probe reacting with the whole genus Mycobacterium, correctly identified 99.6% of the strains tested; the one discrepancy, which remained unresolved, concerned an isolate identified as MAC intermediate by INNO LiPA Mycobacteria and as Mycobacterium intracellulare by AccuProbe. In five cases, because of an imperfect checking of hybridization temperature, a very slight, nonspecific, line was visible which was no longer evident when the test was repeated. Two strains whose DNA failed amplification at the first attempt were regularly identified when the test was repeated. Interestingly, the novel kit dodged all the pitfalls presented by the strains giving anomalous reactions with AccuProbe. A unique feature of INNO LiPA Mycobacteria is its ability to recognize different subgroups within the species M. kansasii and M. chelonae, while the declared overlapping reactivity of probe 4 with some M. kansasii and Mycobacterium gastri organisms and of probe 9 with MAC, Mycobacterium haemophilum, and Mycobacterium malmoense, may furnish a useful aid for their identification. The turnaround time of the method is approximately 6 h, including a preliminary PCR amplification. PMID:11230430

  16. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Based Nonfluorescent Probe for Multiplex DNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lan; Yu, Chenxu; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    To provide rapid and accurate detection of DNA markers in a straightforward, inexpensive and multiplex format, an alternative surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based probe was designed and fabricated to covalently attach both DNA probing sequence and non-fluorescent Raman tags to the surface of gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuP-RTag). The intensity of Raman signal of the probes could be controlled through the surface coverage of the non-fluorescent Raman tags (RTags). Detection sensitivity of these probes could be optimized by fine-tuning the amount of DNA molecules and RTags on the probes. Long-term stability of the DNA-AuP-RTag probes was found to be good (over 3 months). Excellent multiplexing capability of the DNA-AuP-RTag scheme was demonstrated by simultaneous identification of up to eight probes in a mixture. Detection of hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to its complementary targets was successfully accomplished with a long-term goal to use non-fluorescent RTags in a Raman-based DNA microarray platform. PMID:17465531

  17. A MEMS probe card with 2D dense-arrayed 'hoe'-shaped metal tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Xinxin; Feng, Songlin

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel MEMS probe card with densely area-arrayed microprobes for the wafer-level test of advanced ICs. In a 4 inch silicon wafer, a total of about 110 000 probe tips can be simultaneously fabricated, with a two-dimensional tip pitch of 240 µm × 160 µm. The 'hoe-shaped' microprobe structure is composed of one or two planar arms and an up-tilted tip, both of which are high-yield fabricated with metal micromachining techniques including low-stress nickel electroplating. With micromachined cavities, the silicon wafer serves as moulds for the up-tilted metal probes. Then, the microprobes are finally flip-chip packaged to a ceramic board for further connection to automatic testing equipment (ATE). After the probe structures are formed, the silicon wafer is removed completely by using TMAH wet etching, while the probes are freed by silicon laterally etching. The measured spring constants for all the three types of probes agree well with the designed values. As both mechanical anchors and electrical interconnections, the Sn-Ag solder-bumps feature satisfactory properties. The tested contact resistance values for three different thin-film pads on dies under test are always below 0.8 Ω, while the current leakage between two adjacent probes is only about 150 pA under 3.3 V.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering based nonfluorescent probe for multiplex DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Yu, Chenxu; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    To provide rapid and accurate detection of DNA markers in a straightforward, inexpensive, and multiplex format, an alternative surface-enhanced Raman scattering based probe was designed and fabricated to covalently attach both DNA probing sequence and nonfluorescent Raman tags to the surface of gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuP-RTag). The intensity of Raman signal of the probes could be controlled through the surface coverage of the nonfluorescent Raman tags (RTags). Detection sensitivity of these probes could be optimized by fine-tuning the amount of DNA molecules and RTags on the probes. Long-term stability of the DNA-AuP-RTag probes was found to be good (over 3 months). Excellent multiplexing capability of the DNA-AuP-RTag scheme was demonstrated by simultaneous identification of up to eight probes in a mixture. Detection of hybridization of single-stranded DNA to its complementary targets was successfully accomplished with a long-term goal to use nonfluorescent RTags in a Raman-based DNA microarray platform.

  19. A new algorithm for five-hole probe calibration, data reduction, and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, Bruce A.; Wendt, Bruce J.

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for five-hole probe calibration and data reduction using a non-nulling method is developed. The significant features of the algorithm are: (1) two components of the unit vector in the flow direction replace pitch and yaw angles as flow direction variables; and (2) symmetry rules are developed that greatly simplify Taylor's series representations of the calibration data. In data reduction, four pressure coefficients allow total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction to be calculated directly. The new algorithm's simplicity permits an analytical treatment of the propagation of uncertainty in five-hole probe measurement. The objectives of the uncertainty analysis are to quantify uncertainty of five-hole results (e.g., total pressure, static pressure, and flow direction) and determine the dependence of the result uncertainty on the uncertainty of all underlying experimental and calibration measurands. This study outlines a general procedure that other researchers may use to determine five-hole probe result uncertainty and provides guidance to improve measurement technique. The new algorithm is applied to calibrate and reduce data from a rake of five-hole probes. Here, ten individual probes are mounted on a single probe shaft and used simultaneously. Use of this probe is made practical by the simplicity afforded by this algorithm.

  20. A versatile rotary-stage high frequency probe station for studying magnetic films and devices

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shikun; Meng, Zhaoliang; Huang, Lisen; Yap, Lee Koon; Zhou, Tiejun; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-07-15

    We present a rotary-stage microwave probe station suitable for magnetic films and spintronic devices. Two stages, one for field rotation from parallel to perpendicular to the sample plane (out-of-plane) and the other intended for field rotation within the sample plane (in-plane) have been designed. The sample probes and micro-positioners are rotated simultaneously with the stages, which allows the field orientation to cover θ from 0{sup ∘} to 90{sup ∘} and φ from 0{sup ∘} to 360{sup ∘}. θ and φ being the angle between the direction of current flow and field in a out-of-plane and an in-plane rotation, respectively. The operation frequency is up to 40 GHz and the magnetic field up to 1 T. The sample holder vision system and probe assembly are compactly designed for the probes to land on a wafer with diameter up to 3 cm. Using homemade multi-pin probes and commercially available high frequency probes, several applications including 4-probe DC measurements, the determination of domain wall velocity, and spin transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance are demonstrated.

  1. Optimally designed nanolayered metal-dielectric particles as probes for massively multiplexed and ultrasensitive molecular assays.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Anil K; Llora, Xavier; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-08-03

    An outstanding challenge in biomedical sciences is to devise a palette of molecular probes that can enable simultaneous and quantitative imaging of tens to hundreds of species down to ultralow concentrations. Addressing this need using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based probes is potentially possible. Here, we theorize a rational design and optimization strategy to obtain reproducible probes using nanospheres with alternating metal and reporter-filled dielectric layers. The isolation of reporter molecules from metal surfaces suppresses chemical enhancement, and consequently signal enhancements are determined by electromagnetic effects alone. This strategy synergistically couples interstitial surface plasmons and permits the use of almost any molecule as a reporter by eliminating the need for surface attachment. Genetic algorithms are employed to optimize the layer dimensions to provide controllable enhancements exceeding 11 orders of magnitude and of single molecule sensitivity for nonresonant and resonant reporters, respectively. The strategy also provides several other opportunities, including a facile route to tuning the response of these structures to be spectrally flat and localization of the enhancement within a specific volume inside or outside the probe. The spectrally uniform enhancement for multiple excitation wavelengths and for different shifts enables generalized probes, whereas enhancement tuning permits a large dynamic range by suppression of enhancements from outside the probe. Combined, these theoretical calculations open the door for a set of reproducible and robust probes with controlled sensitivity for molecular sensing over a concentration range of over 20 orders of magnitude.

  2. Mechanical design and force calibration of dual-axis micromechanical probe for friction force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Terada, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Amakawa, Hiroaki; Zhang, Hedong; Mitsuya, Yasunaga

    2007-02-01

    A dual-axis micromechanical probe that combines a double cantilever and torsion beams is presented. This probe can reduce the mechanical cross-talk between the lateral and vertical force detections. In addition, dual-axis forces can be detected by measuring the dual-axis displacement of the probe end using the optical lever-based method used in conventional friction force microscopes (FFMs). In this paper, the mechanical design of the probe, the details of the fabrication method, FFM performance, and calibration of the friction force are discussed. The mechanical design and the microfabrication method for probes that can provide a force resolution of the order of 1 nN without mechanical cross-talk are presented. Calibration of the lateral force signal is possible by using the relationship between the lateral force and the piezodisplacement at the onset of the probe scanning. The micromechanical probe enables simultaneous and independent detection of atomic and friction forces. This leads to accurate investigation of nanotribological phenomena and visualization of the distribution of the friction properties, which helps the identification of the material properties.

  3. Plasmonic interferometry: Probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollet, Oriane; Bachelier, Guillaume; Genet, Cyriaque; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien

    2014-03-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using scanning-probe tips as SP launchers. We apply our approach to Young double-hole interferometry experiments in a scanning tunneling microscope discussed recently in the literature as well as to new experiments—reported here—with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope source positioned near a ring-like aperture slit in a thick gold film. In both experimental configurations, the agreement between experiments and model is very good. Our work reveals the role of the launching dipole orientations and magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the interference imaging process. It also stresses the different orientations of the effective dipoles associated with the two different scanning-probe techniques.

  4. [Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations on esophagus].

    PubMed

    Khat'kov, I E; Izrailov, R E; Domrachev, S A; Kononets, P V; Vasnev, O S; Koshkin, M A

    2014-01-01

    Extirpation or subtotal resection of esophagus was performed in 14 patients by using of thoracolaparoscopic technique in terms from November 2011 to March 2014. The mean patients' age was 56 years old (27-67 years). In 10 patients indications for surgery included benign esophagus diseases such as cardiospasm stage IV (2 cases), peptic stricture (5 cases) and burn stricture (3 cases). 4 patients were operated for esophagus cancer including middle one-third cancer in 1 patient, lower one-third cancer in 3 cases. 10 patients underwent extirpation of esophagus with peristaltic gastric tube plasty. 1 patient had esophagus substituted by segment of the left colon. Esophageal anastomoses were formed on the neck (interrupted sutures were applied in 7 patients; staplers - in 3 cases). Lewis operation with intrapleural esophageal-gastric anastomosis forming was performed in 3 patients. The mean surgery duration was 579 minutes (305-710 min), mean blood loss - 141 ml (from 50 to 300 ml). Postoperative period had not complications in 8 of 14 patients. Different complications including partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck (5 cases), intrapleural anastomosis failure (1 case) were observed in 6 patients. Partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck was treated by using of therapy. All patients recovered. Patient with intrapleural anastomosis failure required additional surgery which included uncoupling of anastomosis, esophagostomy on the neck and gastrostomy forming. This patient died from recurrent myocardial infarction. Thus the authors consider that complete thoracolaparoscopic technique provides precise preparation of esophagus and stomach, adequate lymphadenectomy with minimal blood loss and operative trauma. The results after these operations are comparable with those after open interventions. Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations must be applied in clinics having sufficient experience in esophagus surgery and thoracolaparoscopic technique.

  5. Simultaneous electronic and lattice characterization using coupled femtosecond spectroscopic techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2009-09-01

    High-power electronics are central in the development of radar, solid-state lighting, and laser systems. Large powers, however, necessitate improved heat dissipation as heightened temperatures deleteriously affect both performance and reliability. Heat dissipation, in turn, is determined by the cascade of energy from the electronic to lattice system. Full characterization of the transport then requires analysis of each. In response, this four-month late start effort has developed a transient thermoreflectance (TTR) capability that probes the thermal response of electronic carriers with 100 fs resolution. Simultaneous characterization of the lattice carriers with this electronic assessment was then investigated by equipping the optical arrangement to acquire a Raman signal from radiation discarded during the TTR experiment. Initial results show only tentative acquisition of a Raman response at these timescales. Using simulations of the response, challenges responsible for these difficulties are then examined and indicate that with outlined refinements simultaneous acquisition of TTR/Raman signals remains attainable in the near term.

  6. Simultaneous 2D Doppler backscattering from edge turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David; Brunner, Kai; Freethy, Simon; Huang, Billy; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Vann, Roddy

    2015-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic (previously at MAST and now at NSTX-U) actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (80 degree beam width) and broadband (10-34.5 GHz) beam. It digitizes the phase and amplitude of the Doppler backscattered signal using a receiving array of eight antennas which can be focused in any direction post shot to an angular range of 6-24 degree FWHM. This allows Doppler BackScattering (DBS) experiments to be conducted in every direction within the field of view simultaneously. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. SAMI has measured the magnetic pitch angle in the edge for the first time using a backscattering diagnostic. This is possible with simultaneous 2D DBS because the maximum backscattered power is perpendicular to the turbulence and turbulence is elongated along the magnetic field. SAMI has also studied the effect of NBI and the L-H transition on turbulent velocity, and turbulence suppression in the edge during H-mode. Initial results from all of these studies will be presented. This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grants EP/K504178 and EP/H016732.

  7. Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are widely used retinal imaging modalities that can assist in the diagnosis of retinal pathologies. The combination of SLO and OCT provides a more comprehensive imaging system and a method to register OCT images to produce motion corrected retinal volumes. While high quality, bench-top SLO-OCT systems have been discussed in the literature and are available commercially, there are currently no handheld designs. We describe the first design and fabrication of a handheld SLO/spectral domain OCT probe. SLO and OCT images were acquired simultaneously with a combined power under the ANSI limit. High signal-to-noise ratio SLO and OCT images were acquired simultaneously from a normal subject with visible motion artifacts. Fully automated motion estimation methods were performed in post-processing to correct for the inter- and intra-frame motion in SLO images and their concurrently acquired OCT volumes. The resulting set of reconstructed SLO images and the OCT volume were without visible motion artifacts. At a reduced field of view, the SLO resolved parafoveal cones without adaptive optics at a retinal eccentricity of 11° in subjects with good ocular optics. This system may be especially useful for imaging young children and subjects with less stable fixation. PMID:24298396

  8. Simultaneous Spectral and Timing Observations of Accreting Neuron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to perform simultaneous x-ray spectral and millisecond timing observations of accreting neutron stars to further our understanding of their accretion dynamics and in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. Observations of the neutron star binaries 4U0614+091, 4U1728-34, 4U1820-30, and Cyg X-2 were carried out with RXTE and BeppoSAX, ASCA, and Chandra (not all simultaneously). In addition, archival data were analyzed for 4U0614+091 and 4U1820-30. This investigation led to publication of three papers in peer-reviewed journals. These are listed below. In addition, the results were presented at several meetings including the two poster presentations listed below. Dr. Santina Piraino visited SAO for 4 months during 2000 to collaborate on analysis of the data from NAG5-8408 and NAG5-9104.

  9. Does a simultaneous memory load affect older and younger adults' implicit associative learning?

    PubMed

    Gamble, Katherine R; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a simultaneous memory load on implicit associative sequence learning using the Triplets Learning Task (TLT). Participants in the Simultaneous condition held a secondary task memory load during the TLT, while those in the Sequential condition also performed both tasks, but successively, rather than simultaneously. Thus, the Simultaneous condition had a memory load during the TLT, while the Sequential condition did not. Probe blocks without the secondary task allowed separation of effects on learning from effects on its expression. Results revealed that the simultaneous memory load affected older, but not younger adults, by suppressing the expression of learning, not learning itself. Thus, older and younger adults can learn probabilistic associations while holding a simultaneous memory load, but the load can limit the extent to which older adults adapt their performance to environmental structure. Results are consistent with theories which propose that implicit associative learning does not call on limited capacity resources, and highlight the importance of distinguishing effects of dual tasks on the expression of learning from those on learning itself.

  10. Limits on bilingualism revisited: stress 'deafness' in simultaneous French-Spanish bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Peperkamp, Sharon; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2010-02-01

    We probed simultaneous French-Spanish bilinguals for the perception of Spanish lexical stress using three tasks, two short-term memory encoding tasks and a speeded lexical decision. In all three tasks, the performance of the group of simultaneous bilinguals was intermediate between that of native speakers of Spanish on the one hand and French late learners of Spanish on the other hand. Using a composite stress 'deafness' index measure computed over the results of the three tasks, we found that the performance of the simultaneous bilinguals is best fitted by a bimodal distribution that corresponds to a mixture of the performance distributions of the two control groups. Correlation analyses showed that the variables explaining language dominance are linked to early language exposure. These findings are discussed in light of theories of language processing in bilinguals.

  11. Continuously zoom imaging probe for the multi-resolution foveated laparoscope

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In modern minimally invasive surgeries (MIS), standard laparoscopes suffer from the tradeoff between the spatial resolution and field of view (FOV). The inability of simultaneously acquiring high-resolution images for accurate operation and wide-angle overviews for situational awareness limits the efficiency and outcome of the MIS. A dual view multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) which can simultaneously provide the surgeon with a high-resolution view as well as a wide-angle overview was proposed and demonstrated to have great potential for improving the MIS. Although experiment results demonstrated the high-magnification probe has an adequate magnification for viewing surgical details, the dual-view MRFL is limited to two fixed levels of magnifications. A fine adjustment of the magnification is highly desired for obtaining high resolution images with desired field coverage. In this paper, a high magnification probe with continuous zooming capability without any mechanical moving parts is demonstrated. By taking the advantages of two electrically tunable lenses, one for optical zoom and the other for image focus compensation, the optical magnification of the high-magnification probe varies from 2 × to 3 × compared with that of the wide-angle probe, while the focused object position stays the same as the wide-angle probe. The optical design and the tunable lens analysis are presented, followed by prototype demonstration. PMID:27446645

  12. Continuously zoom imaging probe for the multi-resolution foveated laparoscope.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In modern minimally invasive surgeries (MIS), standard laparoscopes suffer from the tradeoff between the spatial resolution and field of view (FOV). The inability of simultaneously acquiring high-resolution images for accurate operation and wide-angle overviews for situational awareness limits the efficiency and outcome of the MIS. A dual view multi-resolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) which can simultaneously provide the surgeon with a high-resolution view as well as a wide-angle overview was proposed and demonstrated to have great potential for improving the MIS. Although experiment results demonstrated the high-magnification probe has an adequate magnification for viewing surgical details, the dual-view MRFL is limited to two fixed levels of magnifications. A fine adjustment of the magnification is highly desired for obtaining high resolution images with desired field coverage. In this paper, a high magnification probe with continuous zooming capability without any mechanical moving parts is demonstrated. By taking the advantages of two electrically tunable lenses, one for optical zoom and the other for image focus compensation, the optical magnification of the high-magnification probe varies from 2 × to 3 × compared with that of the wide-angle probe, while the focused object position stays the same as the wide-angle probe. The optical design and the tunable lens analysis are presented, followed by prototype demonstration.

  13. Neptune Polar Orbiter with Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienstock, Bernard; Atkinson, David; Baines, Kevin; Mahaffy, Paul; Steffes, Paul; Atreya, Sushil; Stern, Alan; Wright, Michael; Willenberg, Harvey; Smith, David; hide

    2005-01-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium; and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, which are believed to contain significant amounts of the heavier elements oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon and sulfur. Detailed comparisons of the internal structures and compositions of the gas giants with those of the ice giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed the solar system and, perhaps, other planetary systems. By 2012, Galileo, Cassini and possibly a Jupiter Orbiter mission with microwave radiometers, Juno, in the New Frontiers program, will have yielded significant information on the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes (NOP) mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an ice giant planet. Such a mission would ideally study the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures approaching and possibly exceeding 1000 bars, as well as the rings, Triton, Nereid, and Neptune s other icy satellites. A potential source of power would be nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Such an ambitious mission requires that a number of technical issues be investigated, however, including: (1) atmospheric entry probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (2) probe structural design including seals, windows, penetrations and pressure vessel, (3) digital, RF subsystem, and overall communication link design for long term operation in the very extreme environment of Neptune's deep atmosphere, (4) trajectory design allowing probe release on a trajectory to impact Neptune while allowing the spacecraft to achieve a polar orbit of Neptune, (5) and finally the suite of science instruments enabled by the probe technology to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere. Another driving factor in the design of the Orbiter and Probes is the necessity to maintain a fully operational flight system during the lengthy transit time

  14. High bandwidth piezoresistive force probes with integrated thermal actuation

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Joseph C.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-speed force probes with on-chip actuation and sensing for the measurement of pN-scale forces at the microsecond time scale. We achieve a high resonant frequency in water (1–100 kHz) with requisite low spring constants (0.3–40 pN/nm) and low integrated force noise (1–100 pN) by targeting probe dimensions on the order of 300 nm thick, 1–2 μm wide and 30–200 μm long. Forces are measured using silicon piezoresistors while the probes are actuated thermally with an aluminum unimorph and silicon heater. The piezoresistive sensors are designed using open source numerical optimization code that incorporates constraints on operating temperature. Parylene passivation enables operation in ionic media and we demonstrate simultaneous actuation and sensing. The improved design and fabrication techniques that we describe enable a 10–20 fold improvement in force resolution or measurement bandwidth over prior piezoresistive cantilevers of comparable thickness. PMID:23175616

  15. Probing single-cell mechanics with picosecond ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Dehoux, Thomas; Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Zouani, Omar F; Ducousso, Mathieu; Chigarev, Nikolay; Rossignol, Clément; Tsapis, Nicolas; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical properties of cells play a key role in several fundamental biological processes, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. The complexity of the inner cell composition and the intricate meshwork formed by transmembrane cell-substrate interactions demands a non-invasive technique to probe cell mechanics and cell adhesion at a subcell scale. In this paper we review the use of laser-generated GHz acoustic waves--a technique called picosecond ultrasonics (PU)--to probe the mechanical properties of single cells. We first describe applications to vegetal cells and biomimetic systems. We show how these systems can be used as simple models to understand more complex animal cells. We then present an opto-acoustic bio-transducer designed for in vivo measurements in physiological conditions. We illustrate the use of this transducer through the simultaneous probing of the density and compressibility of Allium cepa cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this technique can quantify animal-cell adhesion on metallic surfaces by analyzing the acoustic pulses reflected off the cell-metal interface. This innovative approach allows investigating quantitatively cell mechanics without fluorescent labels or mechanical contact to the cell.

  16. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  17. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-07-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  18. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2014-04-29

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  19. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  20. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-12-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  1. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Jesse D.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Feigin, Stuart C.

    2010-04-06

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  2. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  3. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Jesse D [Reno, NV; Sulchek, Todd A [Oakland, CA; Feigin, Stuart C [Reno, NV

    2012-07-10

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  4. Combining Portable Raman Probes with Nanotubes for Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bhirde, Ashwinkumar A.; Liu, Gang; Jin, Albert; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Leapman, Richard D.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Recently portable Raman probes have emerged along with a variety of applications, including carbon nanotube (CNT) characterization. Aqueous dispersed CNTs have shown promise for biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery vectors, photo-thermal therapy, and photoacoustic imaging. In this study we report the simultaneous detection and irradiation of carbon nanotubes in 2D monolayers of cancer cells and in 3D spheroids using a portable Raman probe. A portable handheld Raman instrument was utilized for dual purposes: as a CNT detector and as an irradiating laser source. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed aqueously using a lipid-polymer (LP) coating, which formed highly stable dispersions both in buffer and cell media. The LP coated SWCNT and MWCNT aqueous dispersions were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The cellular uptake of the LP-dispersed SWCNTs and MWCNTs was observed using confocal microscopy, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-nanotube conjugates were found to be internalized by ovarian cancer cells by using Z-stack fluorescence confocal imaging. Biocompatibility of SWCNTs and MWCNTs was assessed using a cell viability MTT assay, which showed that the nanotube dispersions did not hinder the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells at the dosage tested. Ovarian cancer cells treated with SWCNTs and MWCNTs were simultaneously detected and irradiated live in 2D layers of cancer cells and in 3D environments using the portable Raman probe. An apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay carried out after laser irradiation confirmed that cell death occurred only in the presence of nanotube dispersions. We show for the first time that both SWCNTs and MWCNTs can be selectively irradiated and detected in cancer cells using a simple

  5. Simultaneous magnetic actuation and observation with ferromagnetic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, J.; Kinnunen, P.; Haapanen, K.; Niinimäki, J.; Fabritius, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel, non-contact, and non-optical approach to actuation and sensing. In the developed method, both functions are based only on the alternating magnetic field and take place simultaneously. The article demonstrates the technique in one of its potential applications, i.e. rheometry. The developed device uses two orthogonal pairs of inductor coils to generate a rotating magnetic field. The field actuates a rotor with an embedded NdFeB ring magnet. The angular displacement is simultaneously monitored with an angular AMR sensor, placed underneath the rotor. The device is used to study aqueous solutions at different concentrations of glycerol (10-95%). The accuracy of the angular sensing is verified using machine vision and pattern recognition, which is a technique widely used in the existing viscometers. A new approach to viscosity probing and phase slipping detection is introduced. So far, in non-contact rotational viscometers the dynamic viscosity was related to a critical frequency, determined by altering the frequency of the rotating magnetic field. However, we propose to alter the magnitude of the field, by changing the current in the inductor coils. The frequency is kept constant and the viscosity is proportional to the amplitude of current, for which the phase slipping occurs. The applied rate of rotation can be optimized for a particular measurement scenario. The results suggest a great potential of the technique in a variety of scenarios. Simultaneous magnetic actuation and sensing enables application in a broad frequency band, from dc to tens of kilohertz. Moreover, the design of a measurement device is simplified, so that its cost can be significantly lower than that of a conventional system. Furthermore, presented method is non-contact, does not require a clear optical path, and could be less susceptible to the environmental conditions (e.g. poor illumination, or full immersion in the studied solution).

  6. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Sibeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  7. Design Strategies for Bioorthogonal Smart Probes

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Peyton; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry has enabled the selective labeling and detection of biomolecules in living systems. Bioorthogonal smart probes, which become fluorescent or deliver imaging or therapeutic agents upon reaction, allow for the visualization of biomolecules or targeted delivery even in the presence of excess unreacted probe. This review discusses the strategies used in the development of bioorthogonal smart probes and highlights the potential of these probes to further our understanding of biology. PMID:25315039

  8. Air speed and attitude probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. J.; Economu, M. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An air speed and attitude probe characterized by a pivot shaft normally projected from a data boom and supported thereby for rotation about an axis of rotation coincident with the longitudinal axis of the shaft is described. The probe is a tubular body supported for angular displacement about the axis of rotation and has a fin mounted on the body for maintaining one end of the body in facing relation with relative wind and has a pair of transducers mounted in the body for providing intelligence indicative of total pressure and static pressure for use in determining air speed. A stack of potentiometers coupled with the shaft to provide intelligence indicative of aircraft attitude, and circuitry connecting the transducers and potentiometers to suitable telemetry circuits are described.

  9. Galileo probe battery systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Van Ess, J. S.; Marcoux, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter will consist of a Jovian orbiter and an atmospheric entry probe. The power for the probe will be derived from two primary power sources. The main source is composed of three Li-SO2 battery modules containing 13 D-size cell strings per module. These are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years, support a 150 day clock, and a 7 hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 to 9.5 amperes for the last 30 minutes. This main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO4-Ca) for use in firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric staging events. This paper describes design development and testing of these batteries at the system level.

  10. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  11. Galileo probe battery systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Van Ess, J. S.; Marcoux, L. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter will consist of a Jovian orbiter and an atmospheric entry probe. The power for the probe will be derived from two primary power sources. The main source is composed of three Li-SO2 battery modules containing 13 D-size cell strings per module. These are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years, support a 150 day clock, and a 7 hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 to 9.5 amperes for the last 30 minutes. This main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO4-Ca) for use in firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric staging events. This paper describes design development and testing of these batteries at the system level.

  12. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications. PMID:23376346

  13. Ion beam probe diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, R. L.; Jennings, W. C.; Woo, J. T.; Connor, K. A.

    1980-07-01

    Tokomak plasmas suitable for diagnostic development were produced in RENTOR following technological improvements in the vacuum chamber and discharge cleaning systems. Secondary ion signals were obtained from the heavy ion beam probe on RENTOR leading to initial estimates of the plasma space potential, which appears to vary by several hundred volts during the plasma pulse. The principle of measuring space potential in a minimum-B geometry was established using an ion gun mounted at the center of the ALEX baseball coil. The neutral beam probe was installed for measuring the space potential using actual secondary ion signals from a hollow cathode arc in ALEX and preliminary tests have begun. The ion beam test stand was significantly altered to allow more flexibility in testing energy analyzers, ion guns, and ion focusing concepts.

  14. Scanning Probe Microscopy Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhuis, T.; Pasop, J. R.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The numerous, proprietary file formats for Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) have caused problems in the field of both off-line quantitative, data analysis and comparison, as well as long-term archiving of measurement results. Because of the eminent roll SPM's are playing in the multidisciplinary scientific world of today, an open, XML-based, standard SPM data format, called Scanning Probe Microscopy Markup Language (SPML) is proposed. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has proven to be well applicable for standardized, structured, scientific data formats in many other disciplines. The structure of SPML will be explained briefly. The versatility of SPML as well as the possibilities of documenting, publishing, searching and exchanging SPM-data will be shown in examples. This paper gives an overview of the proposed data format, while the complete description can be found at http://spml.net.

  15. A Thomson parabola ion imaging spectrometer designed to probe relativistic intensity ionization dynamics of nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, R; Rishad, K P M; Trivikram, T Madhu; Narayanan, V; Krishnamurthy, M

    2011-08-01

    Conventional techniques of probing ionization dynamics at relativistic intensities for extended target systems such as clusters are difficult both due to problems of achieving good charge resolution and signal integration over the focal volume. Simultaneous measurement of arrival time, necessary for these systems, has normally involved complicated methods. We designed and developed a Thomson parabola imaging spectrometer that overcomes these problems. Intensity sampling method evolved in this report is proved to be mandatory for probing ionization dynamics of clusters at relativistic intensities. We use this method to measure charge resolved kinetic energy spectra of argon nanoclusters at intensities of 4 × 10(18) W cm(-2).

  16. In vivo and ex vivo epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin and microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Thomas E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Simpson, Mary Jane; Jin, Jane Y.; Zhang, Jennifer Y.; Warren, Warren S.

    2011-01-01

    We performed epi-mode pump-probe imaging of melanin in excised human pigmented lesions and both hemoglobin and melanin in live xenograft mouse melanoma models to depths greater than 100 µm. Eumelanin and pheomelanin images, which have been previously demonstrated to differentiate melanoma from benign lesions, were acquired at the dermal-epidermal junction with cellular resolution and modest optical powers (down to 15 mW). We imaged dermal microvasculature with the same wavelengths, allowing simultaneous acquisition of melanin, hemoglobin and multiphoton autofluorescence images. Molecular pump-probe imaging of melanocytes, skin structure and microvessels allows comprehensive, non-invasive characterization of pigmented lesions. PMID:21698020

  17. On the interpretation of fluctuation and ExB turbulent transport measured by Langmuir probes in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, E.; Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Silva, C.

    2004-10-01

    Plasma fluctuations and fluctuation-induced particle fluxes have been investigated in the plasma edge of the TJ-II stellarator using Langmuir probes. Simultaneous measurements of plasma fluctuations carried out by probes located in and out of the probe body sheath show similar results in the normalized level of fluctuations in the ion saturation current. However, floating potential fluctuations measured in the co and counter direction of the magnetic field on the sheath probe body show slight but significant differences. The local radial electrostatic turbulent driven transport measured in and out of the probe body sheath shows consistent results, within the errors bars due to uncertainties in the determination of the effective probe collecting area; the normalized local radial transport to the average ion saturation current (the effective velocity which is not affected by uncertainties in the probe area) show consistent results. These results and previous findings call into question the recent interpretation of probe measurements on the basis of the influence of the probe's pre-sheath zone [B. Labombard, Phys. Plasmas. 9, 1300 (2002)].

  18. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...

  19. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...

  20. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...