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Sample records for medical education management

  1. Management studies in medical education.

    PubMed

    Noor Ghani, S; Saimy, I

    2005-08-01

    In 1977, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the social target--the "Health For All" goal and in 1995, urged member states to "re-orientate medical education and medical practice for "Health For All" (resolution WHA 48.8). This led to World Health Organisation to enunciate the "5-star doctor" needing skills in healthcare management, quality assurance and health economics. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya introduced the New Integrated Curriculum (NIC) in 1995. The objective was aimed at producing a competent doctor with a holistic approach to the practice of medicine. This was to be achieved by having 3 strands of studies i.e. The Scientific Basis of Medicine (SBM), the Doctor, Patient, Health and Society (DPHS), and Personal and Professional Development (PPD) over the 5-year programme, split into 3 phases. Elements of the "5-star doctor" were introduced in strand 2--DPHS and strand 3--PPD. Management studies were introduced in the Personal and Professional Development (PPD) strand. This led to an instructional module--"Principles of Management in Health Care Services (PMGT)" comprising of the Management of Self, Resources and People and incorporating a three week field programme. Evaluation is undertaken at the end of the phase IIIA of the studies. This NIC approach will be able to produce a "5-star doctor", a team player, leader, communicator and an effective manager.

  2. Space Management for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Dino

    1978-01-01

    A reference on current methods and procedures for managing space in academic medical centers is provided. Focus is on elements of space management systems that can enhance the effectiveness of space allocation decisions. These include: space inventory, space standards, evaluation of space utilization, and space allocation. A bibliography is…

  3. Making Management Skills a Core Component of Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Myers, Christopher G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Physicians are being called upon to engage in greater leadership and management in increasingly complex and dynamic health care organizations. Yet, management skills are largely undeveloped in medical education. Without formal management training in the medical curriculum, physicians are left to cultivate their leadership and management abilities through a haphazard array of training programs or simply through trial and error, with consequences that may range from frustration among staff to reduced quality of care and increased risk of patient harm. To address this issue, the authors posit that medical education needs a more systematic focus on topics related to management and organization, such as individual decision making, interpersonal communication, team knowledge sharing, and organizational culture. They encourage medical schools to partner with business school faculty or other organizational scholars to offer a "Management 101" course in the medical curriculum to provide physicians-in-training with an understanding of these topics and raise the quality of physician leadership and management in modern health care organizations.

  4. Stress Management in Medical Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shauna L.; Shapiro, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Gary E. R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of clinical studies providing empirical data on stress management programs in medical education found that student participants in such programs demonstrated improved immunologic functioning, decreased depression and anxiety, increased spirituality and empathy, enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies, improved knowledge of stress…

  5. Stress Management in Medical Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shauna L.; Shapiro, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Gary E. R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of clinical studies providing empirical data on stress management programs in medical education found that student participants in such programs demonstrated improved immunologic functioning, decreased depression and anxiety, increased spirituality and empathy, enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies, improved knowledge of stress…

  6. Medical School Education in Hypertension Management: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Marvin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The management of patients with primary hypertension remains a significant problem for the medical profession. In spite of this, specific programs for education in hypertensive vascular disease have been poorly organized. A survey to determine the level of training in this discipline is discussed. (MLW)

  7. Medical School Education in Hypertension Management: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Marvin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The management of patients with primary hypertension remains a significant problem for the medical profession. In spite of this, specific programs for education in hypertensive vascular disease have been poorly organized. A survey to determine the level of training in this discipline is discussed. (MLW)

  8. The Impact of Managed Care on Internal Medicine Graduate Medical Education at Brooke Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    managed care among residents and staff physicians (Simon, Pan , Sullivan, Clark-Chiarelli, Connelly, Peters, Singer, Inui, and Block, 1999). In fact...have Internal Medicine GME 11 shown that managed care has decreased time for research and teaching (Simon, Pan , Sullivan, Clark-Chiarelli, Connely...Residents on Operational Medicine, Managed Care, Graduate Medical Education, and Continued Military Service. Military Medicine, 163(6), 392. Simon, S. R., Pan

  9. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome.

  10. Integrating Medication Therapy Management Education into a Core Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Poole, Traci M; Kodali, Leela; Pace, Adam C

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To describe the design of a core course directed at improving confidence and competence of students to perform medication therapy management (MTM) services. Design. Using the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) certificate training program framework, a core course was developed to teach MTM concepts to third-year student pharmacists. Using deep learning and authentic assignments, course instructors attempted to improve student confidence and readiness to provide MTM services. Assessment. Student ability to meet course objectives was evaluated by examinations and the APhA MTM program self-assessment. Students had an overall success rate of 93% on all three assessments. Student perceptions of confidence, competence, and importance of performing MTM services were measured using a survey instrument with 56 Likert-type items. Students completing both surveys reported significantly increased confidence and competence. Conclusion. Integrating MTM-specific education into the core curriculum increased student pharmacists' perceived competence and confidence to perform MTM services.

  11. Integrating Medication Therapy Management Education into a Core Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Leela; Pace, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of a core course directed at improving confidence and competence of students to perform medication therapy management (MTM) services. Design. Using the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) certificate training program framework, a core course was developed to teach MTM concepts to third-year student pharmacists. Using deep learning and authentic assignments, course instructors attempted to improve student confidence and readiness to provide MTM services. Assessment. Student ability to meet course objectives was evaluated by examinations and the APhA MTM program self-assessment. Students had an overall success rate of 93% on all three assessments. Student perceptions of confidence, competence, and importance of performing MTM services were measured using a survey instrument with 56 Likert-type items. Students completing both surveys reported significantly increased confidence and competence. Conclusion. Integrating MTM-specific education into the core curriculum increased student pharmacists’ perceived competence and confidence to perform MTM services. PMID:27293237

  12. How to teach medication management: a review of novel educational materials in geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Ravishankar

    2013-09-01

    Medication management is an important component of medical education, particularly in the field of geriatrics. The Association of American Medical Colleges has put forth 26 minimum geriatrics competencies under eight domains for graduating medical students; medication management is one of these domains. The Portal of Geriatric Online education (www.POGOe.org) is an online public repository of geriatrics educational materials and modules developed by geriatrics educators and academicians in the United States, freely available for use by educators and learners in the field. The three POGOe materials presented in this review showcase pearls of medication management for medical and other professional students in novel learning formats that can be administered without major prior preparation. The review compares and contrasts the three materials in descriptive and tabular formats to enable its appropriate use by educators in promoting self-learning or group learning among their learners. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. The case for undergraduate medical education in healthcare business and management.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Benson S; Hosokawa, Michael C; Maria, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical education does notprepare students to approach the intricacies of healthcare business. This absence within medical education creates significant challenges for physicians throughout their careers. The field of academic medicine has clearly documented the need for medical education to prepare students for practice management, yet there exist only a small number of attempts at exposing students to healthcare business and management. The authors argue that this curriculum must start at the level ofundergraduate medical education. Furthermore, this curriculum must possess the basic components of support, integration, practicality, application, and continuation. Fulfilling these requirements will allow for the successful adaptation of the healthcare business and management curriculum.

  14. Medical education.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  15. The Education Review Board: A Mechanism for Managing Potential Conflicts of Interest in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Borus, Jonathan F; Alexander, Erik K; Bierer, Barbara E; Bringhurst, F Richard; Clark, Christopher; Klanica, Kaley E; Stewart, Erin C; Friedman, Lawrence S

    2015-12-01

    Concerns about the influence of industry support on medical education, research, and patient care have increased in both medical and political circles. Some academic medical centers, questioning whether industry support of medical education could be appropriate and not a conflict of interest, banned such support. In 2009, a Partners HealthCare System commission concluded that interactions with industry remained important to Partners' charitable academic mission and made recommendations to transparently manage such relationships. An Education Review Board (ERB) was created to oversee and manage all industry support of Partners educational activities.Using a case review method, the ERB developed guidelines to implement the commission's recommendations. A multi-funder rule was established that prohibits industry support from only one company for any Partners educational activity. Within that framework, the ERB established guidelines on industry support of educational conferences, clinical fellowships, and trainees' expenses for attending external educational programs; gifts of textbooks and other educational materials; promotional opportunities associated with Partners educational activities; Partners educational activities under contract with an industry entity; and industry-run programs using Partners resources.Although many changes have resulted from the implementation of the ERB guidelines, the number of industry grants for Partners educational activities has remained relatively stable, and funding for these activities declined only moderately during the first three full calendar years (2011-2013) of ERB oversight. The ERB continually educates both the Partners community and industry about the rationale for its guidelines and its openness to their refinement in response to changes in the external environment.

  16. Managing change in postgraduate medical education: still unfreezing?

    PubMed

    Agius, Steven J; Willis, Sarah C; McArdle, Patricia J; O'Neill, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Modernizing Medical Careers (MMC) is an ambitious project to change the training of UK doctors. A key to its successful implementation is the ways that MMC is perceived and operationalized by senior doctors who act as local educational leaders and supervisors. To analyse hospital consultants' perceptions of the modernization process and its impact on their role as the primary educators of Senior House Officers (SHOs), using Schein's extended model to explain their stage in the process of change. We interviewed medical directors, College and clinical tutors and education supervisors at 6 Trusts. The transcripts were analysed using Schein's change model to explore the perceptions and assumptions of senior medical staff and to determine their stage in the process of change. 12 tutors, 12 supervisors, and 4/6 medical directors approached agreed to participate (28/30). Nine themes emerged from transcript analysis. These were related to the three-stage model of change. Most participants were at the stage of 'unfreezing', expressing views around disconfirmation of expectations, guilt and anxiety and feelings of some psychological safety. A smaller number were at the stage of 'moving to a new position'. There were limited examples of 'refreezing'. At the local delivery level, most senior doctors were aware of the need to review their current position and alter their approaches and assumptions about postgraduate medical education. Yet only a minority were moving forward. Considerable work remains for successful implementation of MMC.

  17. Performance of Clinical Nurse Educators in Teaching Pharmacology and Medication Management: Nursing Students’ Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Ghamari Zare, Zohre; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Pharmacological knowledge and medication management skills of student nurses greatly depend on the clinical nurse educators’ performance in this critical issue. However, the Iranian nurse educators’ performance in teaching pharmacology and medication management are not adequately studied. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the nursing students’ perceptions on the status of clinical pharmaceutical and medication management education. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on all 152 nursing students registered in the seventh and eighth semesters at the Qom and Naragh branches of Islamic Azad University, and Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 - 2014 academic year. The students’ perceptions on the performance of clinical nurse educators in teaching pharmacology and medication management were assessed using a researcher made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items regarding clinical educators’ performance in teaching pharmacology and medication management and two questions about students’ satisfaction with their level of knowledge and skills in pharmacology and medication management. Descriptive statistics was employed and analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean of scores of teaching pharmacology and medication management in the three universities. Results Among a total of 152 subjects, 82.9% were female and their mean age was 22.57 ± 1.55 years. According to the students, instructors had the weakest performance in the three items of teaching pharmacology and medication management based on the students’ learning needs, teaching medication management through a patient-centered method and teaching pharmacology and medication management based on the course plan. The students’ satisfaction regarding their own knowledge and skill of pharmacology and medication management was at medium level. Conclusions Nursing students gave a relatively low score in several aspects of

  18. Is current medical education adequately preparing future physicians to manage concussion: an initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Donaworth, Michael A; Grandhi, Ravi K; Logan, Kelsey; Gubanich, Paul J; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, there were 2.5 million hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or deaths associated with concussions in the United States.[1] Knowledge deficits exist among physicians regarding concussion management, which can lead to severe repercussions, including poor patient outcomes, poor patient satisfaction, and potential medical-legal issues. While concussion is a prevalent condition evaluated in the medical field, medical students continue to have a knowledge deficit regarding concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. Medical students from a mid-western medical school completed a survey on concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. The response rate was 40%. The data suggests that the vast majority of medical students are able to define concussion; however, most reported never having a lecture dedicated to concussion during medical school and also lacked clinical experience with acute concussion and post-concussive syndrome. There are clear areas of deficiency as noted by the inability of students to correctly identify symptoms and appropriate management of concussion. The current study indicates that at an individual, mid-western, top 50 medical school, current medical trainees may not be adequately educated to identify and manage concussion. Future research is warranted to determine the optimal guidelines to educate future physicians as it pertains to concussion diagnosis, management, prognosis, and return to play guidelines.

  19. A proposal for health care management and leadership education within the UK undergraduate medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Mafe, Cecilia; Menyah, Effie; Nkere, Munachi

    2016-01-01

    Health care management and leadership education is an important gap in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Lack of training promotes poor decision making and may lead to inadequate health services, adversely affecting patients. We propose an integrated approach to health care management and leadership education at undergraduate level, to enable doctors to be effective leaders and manage resources appropriately and to ultimately improve patient care. PMID:26929680

  20. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... No. FDA-2009-N-0664] Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product Life Cycle; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Device Industry Coalition (FMDIC), is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Medical Device Quality...

  1. Management of Hypertension in Private Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A randomized control trial was used to evaluate a physician education program designed to improve physician management of patients' hypertension, hypertension-related behaviors, and diastolic blood pressure. It was suggested that more intensive continuing medical education programs are needed to improve physician performance and patient outcome.…

  2. Management of Hypertension in Private Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A randomized control trial was used to evaluate a physician education program designed to improve physician management of patients' hypertension, hypertension-related behaviors, and diastolic blood pressure. It was suggested that more intensive continuing medical education programs are needed to improve physician performance and patient outcome.…

  3. Health Services Management Education On-Site at a Military Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen J.; Poss, W. Bradley; Cupp, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative educational program with the U.S. military is described to illustrate a unique opportunity that confronted a graduate healthcare management program. The resulting degree program supported the military's operational medical mission but also presented interesting and unexpected challenges resulting from the wars in Iraq and…

  4. Health Services Management Education On-Site at a Military Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen J.; Poss, W. Bradley; Cupp, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative educational program with the U.S. military is described to illustrate a unique opportunity that confronted a graduate healthcare management program. The resulting degree program supported the military's operational medical mission but also presented interesting and unexpected challenges resulting from the wars in Iraq and…

  5. Untangling approaches to management and leadership across systems of medical education.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Kathy

    2016-05-24

    How future doctors might be educated and trained in order to meet the population and system needs of countries is currently being debated. Incorporation of a broad range of capabilities, encompassed within categories of management and, increasingly, leadership, form part of this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to outline a framework by which countries' progress in this area might be assessed and compared. Key databases and journals related to this area were reviewed. From relevant articles potential factors impacting on the incorporation of aspects of management and leadership within medical education and training were identified. These factors were tested via an online survey during 2013 with six members of a European Association of doctors who promote medical involvement in hospital management, including members from countries less represented in the health management literature. A framework for analysing how management and leadership education is being approached within different systems of healthcare is developed and presented. More systematic work across a wider range of countries is needed if we are to have a better understanding of how countries within and beyond Europe are approaching and progressing the education of doctors in management and leadership.

  6. Quality management of medical education at the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2008-12-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research.

  7. Managing conflicts of interest in continuing medical education: a comparison of policies.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Altruism is a central underpinning of professional behavior; however physicians may face instances in which their secondary (financial) interest is in competition with their primary (patient health, research integrity, professional education) interests. Most medical institutions have developed policies to manage conflicts of interest, but chiropractic institutions, organizations and providers may not be well-acquainted with such policies. To compare the policies of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the North American Spine Society (NASS) regarding management of conflicts of interest in continuing medical education (CME). A qualitative review of published policies of the VA and NASS was performed. The policies of each organization were retrieved and reviewed, and data were entered into a spreadsheet for comparison. Content experts at each organization were contacted to provide additional information. The VA and NASS provide explicit, similar policies to manage conflicts of interest in CME. Proposed speakers are required to disclose the nature and value of financial relationships relevant to content of their planned talk/presentation. Procedures for committee review, mitigation of conflict, or prohibiting the participation of a given speaker have been described. Disclosure must be made to the attendees of an educational activity in printed materials and at the time of presentation. The VA and NASS appear similar in their policies to manage conflicts of interest in CME. The policies of the VA and NASS may provide examples for the chiropractic profession to consider in relation to chiropractic continuing education.

  8. Information management of a medical school educational program: a state-of-the-art application.

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, S L

    1996-01-01

    Quality in the design and management of a medical school education program depends on the ability to access and analyze relevant information in a timely fashion. The components of medical-education information system should support learning and instruction as well as the administrative and research responsibilities of the program. A system capable of meeting these needs requires core, operational, and strategic components. This article discusses a conceptual schema of the medical school environment and reports the results of 3 1/2 years' experience developing core, operational, and strategic components as the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The value of a simple conceptual schema as a design and development instrument was confirmed. Limitations of the system are discussed along with potential solutions. PMID:8653446

  9. A fundamental, national, medical disaster management plan: an education-based model.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Hasani, Azadeh; Shirmardi, Kianoush; Castrén, Maaret; Ohlén, Gunnar; Panahi, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    During disasters, especially following earthquakes, health systems are expected to play an essential role in reducing mortality and morbidity. The most significant naturally occurring disaster in Iran is earthquakes; they have killed >180,000 people in the last 90 years. According to the current plan in 2007, the disaster management system of Iran is composed of three main work groups: (1) Prevention and risk management, (2) Education, and (3) Operation. This organizational separation has resulted in lack of necessary training programs for experts of specialized organizations, e.g., the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).The National Board of MOHME arranged a training program in the field of medical disaster management. A qualified training team was chosen to conduct this program in each collaborating center, based on a predefined schedule. All collaborating centers were asked to recall 5-7 experts from each member university. Working in medical disaster management field for greater than or equal to 2 years was an inclusion criterion. The training programs lasted three days, consisted of all relevant aspects of medical disaster management, and were conducted over a six-month period (November 2007-April 2008). Pre-test and post-tests were used to examine the participants' knowledge regarding disaster management; the mean score on the pretest was 67.1 +/-11.6 and 88.1 +/-6.2, respectively. All participants were asked to hold the same training course for their organizations in order to enhance knowledge of related managers, stakeholders, and workers, and build capacity at the local and provincial levels. The next step was supposed to be developing a comprehensive medical disaster management plan for the entire country. Establishing nine disaster management regional collaborating centers in the health system of Iran has provided an appropriate base for related programs to be rapidly and easily accomplished throughout the country. This tree-shaped model is

  10. Teaching Pain Management in Interprofessional Medical Education: A Review of Three Portal of Geriatric Online Education Modules.

    PubMed

    Madaus, Stacy M; Lim, Lionel S

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain is an international healthcare crisis that affects an estimated 1.5 billion individuals worldwide, but pain management is not emphasized in the medical school curriculum, and thus supplemental education is essential. The Portal of Geriatric Online Education (POGOe) is a free repository of teaching modules for use by geriatric educators and learners. This article highlights three teaching modules available on this site: It's My Old Back Again: An Approach to Diagnosing and Managing Back Pain in the Older Adult (POGOe ID: 21670), Computer Based Learning Workbook, Third Edition module on Pain Management (POGOe ID: 21036), and Aging Q3 Curriculum on Pain Management of Older Adult Patients (POGOe ID: 21187). These modules were chosen based on their ability to address the major topics that the International Association for the Study of Pain proposes should be included in medical school curricula: mulitdimensional nature of pain, pain assessment and measurement, management of pain, and clinical conditions resulting in pain in older adults. They were also selected for their ability to be adapted for interprofessional education and how well they integrate basic science and clinical principles. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Effect of educational and electronic medical record interventions on food allergy management.

    PubMed

    Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison; Wang, Julie

    2016-09-01

    The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p < 0.001). Posttest scores remained significantly higher than preintervention scores 6 months later (mean score, 68.0 versus 56.2%; p = 0.006). Although knowledge improved, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients who were provided allergy referral, were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector, or were given an emergency action plan before and after both interventions. Neither intervention resulted in improvements in the management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians.

  12. Development, implementation and evaluation of a pain management and palliative care educational seminar for medical students.

    PubMed

    Paneduro, Denise; Pink, Leah R; Smith, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Anita; Kirshen, Albert J; Backstein, David; Woods, Nicole N; Gordon, Allan S

    2014-01-01

    Despite calls for the development and evaluation of pain education programs during early medical student training, little research has been dedicated to this initiative. To develop a pain management and palliative care seminar for medical students during their surgical clerkship and evaluate its impact on knowledge over time. A multidisciplinary team of palliative care and pain experts worked collaboratively and developed the seminar over one year. Teaching methods included didactic and case-based instruction, as well as small and large group discussions. A total of 292 medical students attended a seminar during their third- or fourth-year surgical rotation. A 10-item test on knowledge regarding pain and palliative care topics was administered before the seminar, immediately following the seminar and up to one year following the seminar. Ninety-five percent (n=277) of students completed the post-test and 31% (n=90) completed the follow-up test. The mean pretest, post-test and one-year follow-up test scores were 51%, 75% and 73%, respectively. Mean test scores at post-test and follow-up were significantly higher than pretest scores (all P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in mean test scores between follow-up and post-test (P=0.559), indicating that students retained knowledge gained from the seminar. A high-quality educational seminar using interactive and case-based instruction can enhance students' knowledge of pain management and palliative care. These findings highlight the feasibility of developing and implementing pain education material for medical students during their training.

  13. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  14. Teaching by example: educating medical students through a weight management experience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susan; Rice, Austin; Kolasa, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    Surgeons General, the Institute of Medicine, and others have called for physicians to be role models for meeting the obesity epidemic. There are few published reports describing undergraduate medical education obesity curriculum elements. Physician experiences, knowledge, and attitudes have been shown to affect patient counseling behavior of physicians. Required and extra credit obesity educational interventions were designed for third-year family medicine clerkship. For extra credit, students completed a personal weight management experience that spanned at least 4 weeks, included calculations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, caloric needs, description of eating and physical activity and monitoring plan, and a final report and reflection. During 2011--2012, 72% of the students completed this extra credit activity with almost all losing or maintaining their weight. Most reflected gratitude for this opportunity and their increased empathy for patients as they struggle with weight issues. Medical students completing a weight management experience during their third-year clerkship can see the effects on their own health while developing empathy for and understanding of the weight management struggles of their patients. Minimal faculty time commitment is required.

  15. [Medical technology and medical education].

    PubMed

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  16. Patient-oriented education and medication management intervention for people with decompensated cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kelly L; Martin, Jennifer H; Cottrell, W Neil; Karmakar, Antara; Horsfall, Leigh U; Patel, Preya J; Smith, David D; Irvine, Katharine M; Powell, Elizabeth E; Valery, Patricia C

    2017-07-20

    People with decompensated cirrhosis require complex medical care and are often prescribed an intricate and frequently changing medication and lifestyle regimen. However, many patients mismanage their medications or have poor comprehension of their disease and self-management tasks. This can lead to harm, hospitalization, and death. A patient-oriented education and medication management intervention has been developed for implementation at a tertiary hospital hepatology outpatient center in Queensland, Australia. Consenting patients with decompensated cirrhosis will be randomly allocated to education intervention or usual care treatment arms when they attend routine follow-up appointments. In the usual care arm, participants will be reviewed by their hepatologist according to the current model of care in the hepatology clinic. In the intervention arm, participants will be reviewed by a clinical pharmacist to receive the education and medication management intervention at baseline in addition to review by their hepatologist. Intervention participants will also receive three further educational contacts from the clinical pharmacist within the following 6-month period, in addition to routine hepatologist review that is scheduled within this time frame. All participants will be surveyed at baseline and follow-up (approximately 6 months post-enrollment). Validated questionnaire tools will be used to determine participant adherence, medication beliefs, illness perceptions, and quality of life. Patients' knowledge of dietary and lifestyle modifications, their current medications, and other clinical data will be obtained from the survey, patient interview, and medical records. Patient outcome data will be collected at 52 weeks. The intervention described within this protocol is ready to adapt and implement in hepatology ambulatory care centers globally. Investigation of potentially modifiable variables that may impact medication management, in addition to the effect of a

  17. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook

    PubMed Central

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. Methods: We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Results: Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Conclusions: Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined. PMID:26038685

  18. Educational Implications of Nurse Practitioner Students and Medical Residents' Attitudes toward Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breer, M. Lynn; Pohl, Joanne M.; Stommel, Manfred; Barkauskas, Violet H.; Schillo, Barbara; Oakley, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Attitudes toward managed care of 431 medical residents and 153 advanced practice nursing students were compared. Medical students were more likely to agree that managed care emphasizes cost over quality and threatens autonomy. Nursing students were more likely to agree that it encourages preventive care. Medical students were less enthusiastic…

  19. Academic medicine change management: the power of the liaison committee on medical education accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Latha; Fleit, Howard B; Shroyer, A Laurie

    2013-09-01

    Stony Brook University School of Medicine (SBU SOM) used a Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) site visit to design a change management approach that engaged students, revitalized faculty, and enabled significant, positive institutional transformation while flexibly responding to concurrent leadership transitions. This "from-the-trenches" description of novel LCME site-visit-related processes may provide an educational program quality improvement template for other U.S. medical schools. The SBU SOM site visit processes were proactively organized within five phases: (1) planning (4 months), (2) data gathering (12 months), (3) documentation (6 months), (4) visit readiness (2 months), and (5) visit follow-up (16 months). The authors explain the key activities associated with each phase.The SBU SOM internal leadership team designed new LCME-driven educational performance reports to identify challenging aspects of the educational program (e.g., timeliness of grades submitted, midcourse feedback completeness, clerkship grading variability across affiliate sites, learning environment or student mistreatment incidents). This LCME process increased institutional awareness, identified the school's LCME vulnerabilities, organized corrective actions, engaged key stakeholders in communication, ensured leadership buy-in, and monitored successes. The authors' strategies for success included establishing a strong internal LCME leadership team, proactively setting deadlines for all phases of the LCME process, assessing and communicating vulnerabilities and action plans, building multidisciplinary working groups, leveraging information technology, educating key stakeholders through meetings, retreats, and consultants, and conducting a mock site visit. The urgency associated with an impending high-stakes LCME site visit can facilitate positive, local, educational program quality improvement.

  20. Medication therapy management services in West Virginia: pharmacists' perceptions of educational and training needs.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kimberly B; Madhavan, S Suresh; Scott, Virginia Ginger; Meredith Elswick, Betsy L

    2009-06-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 recognizes the challenges associated with drug therapy in elderly patients with multiple chronic diseases, and requires the development of medication therapy management services (MTMS) for such beneficiaries. To assess pharmacists' perception of educational and training needs necessary to implement MTMS in community pharmacies in West Virginia, USA. Self-administered mail surveys with an explanatory cover letter were mailed to the designated pharmacist-in-charge (PIC) of each licensed community pharmacy (506) in West Virginia. Main outcome measures included pharmacists' comfort level, perceptions of value to patients, barriers to provision of services, and pharmacists' interest in receiving education and training related to MTMS. Of the 503 surveys that were deliverable, 203 (40.4%) usable responses were received. Fifty-five (27.1%) PICs reported that MTMS are currently being provided in their pharmacy. Respondents were likely to use services that aid in the development of MTMS and disease-state management, felt relatively comfortable in providing MTMS, and had a favorable view of the value of services to patients, but reported that lack of time tended to be a barrier. PICs in West Virginia are interested in and open to their pharmacists receiving education and training for implementation of MTMS.

  1. Financing medical education.

    PubMed

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts.

  2. Applying the institutional review board data repository approach to manage ethical considerations in evaluating and studying medical education

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Erin K.; Rathkey, Daniel; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Palmer, Ryan; Mejicano, George C.; Pusic, Martin; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen; Carney, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Issue Medical educators and educational researchers continue to improve their processes for managing medical student and program evaluation data using sound ethical principles. This is becoming even more important as curricular innovations are occurring across undergraduate and graduate medical education. Dissemination of findings from this work is critical, and peer-reviewed journals often require an institutional review board (IRB) determination. Approach IRB data repositories, originally designed for the longitudinal study of biological specimens, can be applied to medical education research. The benefits of such an approach include obtaining expedited review for multiple related studies within a single IRB application and allowing for more flexibility when conducting complex longitudinal studies involving large datasets from multiple data sources and/or institutions. In this paper, we inform educators and educational researchers on our analysis of the use of the IRB data repository approach to manage ethical considerations as part of best practices for amassing, pooling, and sharing data for educational research, evaluation, and improvement purposes. Implications Fostering multi-institutional studies while following sound ethical principles in the study of medical education is needed, and the IRB data repository approach has many benefits, especially for longitudinal assessment of complex multi-site data. PMID:27443407

  3. Applying the institutional review board data repository approach to manage ethical considerations in evaluating and studying medical education.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Erin K; Rathkey, Daniel; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Palmer, Ryan; Mejicano, George C; Pusic, Martin; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen; Carney, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Issue Medical educators and educational researchers continue to improve their processes for managing medical student and program evaluation data using sound ethical principles. This is becoming even more important as curricular innovations are occurring across undergraduate and graduate medical education. Dissemination of findings from this work is critical, and peer-reviewed journals often require an institutional review board (IRB) determination. Approach IRB data repositories, originally designed for the longitudinal study of biological specimens, can be applied to medical education research. The benefits of such an approach include obtaining expedited review for multiple related studies within a single IRB application and allowing for more flexibility when conducting complex longitudinal studies involving large datasets from multiple data sources and/or institutions. In this paper, we inform educators and educational researchers on our analysis of the use of the IRB data repository approach to manage ethical considerations as part of best practices for amassing, pooling, and sharing data for educational research, evaluation, and improvement purposes. Implications Fostering multi-institutional studies while following sound ethical principles in the study of medical education is needed, and the IRB data repository approach has many benefits, especially for longitudinal assessment of complex multi-site data.

  4. Curiosity and medical education.

    PubMed

    Dyche, Lawrence; Epstein, Ronald M

    2011-07-01

    For doctors, curiosity is fundamental to understanding each patient's unique experience of illness, building respectful relationships with patients, deepening self-awareness, supporting clinical reasoning, avoiding premature closure and encouraging lifelong learning. Yet, curiosity has received limited attention in medical education and research, and studies from the fields of cognitive psychology and education suggest that common practices in medical education may inadvertently suppress curiosity. This study aimed to identify common barriers to and facilitators of curiosity and related habits of mind in the education of doctors. We conducted a theory-driven conceptual exploration and qualitative review of the literature. Curiosity is related to inquisitiveness, reflection and mindfulness. Instructional practices can suppress curiosity by confusing haste with efficiency, neglecting negative emotions, promoting overconfidence and using teaching approaches that encourage passive learning. Curiosity tends to flourish in educational environments that promote the student's responsibility for his or her own learning, multiple perspectives and mindful reflection on both the subject and the learning process. Specific educational strategies that can support curiosity in classroom and clinical settings include the mindful pacing of teaching, modelling effective management of emotions, confronting uncertainty and overconfidence, using inquiry-based learning, helping students see familiar situations as novel, simultaneously considering multiple perspectives, and maximising the value of small-group discussions. Instructor attributes that contribute to the development of student curiosity include patience, a habit of inquiry, emotional candour, intellectual humility, transparency and recognition of the benefits to be gained in learning from peers.   Curiosity, inquisitiveness and related habits of mind can be supported in medical education through specific, evidence

  5. Implementing asthma self-management education in medical care settings--issues and strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P D; Mullen, L R

    1983-11-01

    Asthma self-management education has the potential to improve the health and quality of life for children and to reduce use of acute care services. The preparation of parents and children to prevent asthma attacks and to ameliorate acute episodes when they do occur can best be accomplished with the support of medical care providers. This analysis addresses policy issues relevant to that acceptance: the degree of integration into medical practice that is desirable; the most hospitable clinical settings; and the incentives for providers, consumers, and payers that would result in appropriate supply and use of ASME:. The analysis commences with a discussion of the costs and benefits of making ASME a part of medical care. It then turns to a description of the trends that led to the current array of institutions, services, and incentives within the health care sector. Future changes in family context, financing, and other determinants of the use of medical services by children and youth are forecast. The framework for the analysis of incentives is diffusion of innovation. ASME is analyzed according to the attributes that generally facilitate the acceptance of a new procedure. In its current form and with current incentives, ASME is fairly complex and difficult to communicate, has little relative advantage, and is not necessarily compatible with the usual provider goals. The motivating factors for three interrelated groups-providers, consumers, and third-party payers-and leverage points for the application of incentives are identified. The latter include reimbursement, standards of practice, information generation and flow, insurance regulation, institutional development, and research funding. Important information to potential adopters includes the definition of the service, its optimal intensity and mix of providers, and its effects on net costs and quality of life.

  6. BC Medication Management Project

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Natalie; Tsao, Nicole; Gastonguay, Louise; Lynd, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background: The BC Medication Management Project (BCMMP) was developed by the BC Ministry of Health and the BC Pharmacy Association. This pilot project ran from September 2010 to January 2012. Pharmacists reviewed patients’ medication histories, discussed best use of medications, provided education and monitored for adverse effects, developed a plan to deal with medication issues and created a best possible medication history. Methods: To evaluate the experience of participating in the BCMMP, challenges and strengths of the project and the alignment of these experiences with the overarching goals, focus groups and interviews were conducted with 6 stakeholder groups. Themes were compared within and across stakeholder type and descriptively analyzed. Results: A total of 88 people participated in the focus groups/interviews. Pharmacists stated that providing BCMMP services was professionally satisfying and concurred with patients that the service did benefit them. However, participating in the BCMMP was not seen as financially sustainable by pharmacy owners, and there were concerns about patient selection. Physicians expressed concerns about increased workload associated with the BCMMP, for which they were not compensated. The computer system and burden of documentation were identified as the greatest problems. Conclusions: The BCMMP pilot project was enthusiastically received by pharmacists and patients who felt that it benefited patients and moved the pharmacy profession in a positive direction. It was widely felt that the BCMMP could be successful and sustainable if the identified challenges are addressed. PMID:25983759

  7. Integrating hospital medical care data with pharmaceutical education materials for diabetes self management.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shwu-Jiuan; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Li, Chun-Chuan; Chiu, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Juei-Fen; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic patients need long-term treatment and follow-up exams as well as appropriate self-care pharmaceutical education to get the disease under control and to prevent possible complications. Pharmaceutical treatment plays an essential role in diabetes. If patients don't understand the medicines and dosages they take, their blood glucose control may be affected. In addition, the possibility of developing hypoglycemia may be increased. In this paper, we enhance the POEM system, previously developed for diabetic patient education, by providing diabetic patients' pharmaceutical education. The new system integrates both diabetic patients' pharmaceutical education information and medical care information to provide them with more comprehensive personalized medication information so that they can access the on-line system afterwards. It also strengthens patients' understanding of pharmaceutical functions, side-effects and relevant knowledge thus increasing patients' adherence of medication orders and having better control in their blood glucose levels.

  8. Medication management of chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Slipp, Marlene; Burnham, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of chronic pain is high and increasing. Medication management is an important component of chronic pain management. There is a shortage of physicians who are available and comfortable providing this service. In Alberta, pharmacists have been granted an advanced scope of practice. Given this empowerment, their availability, training and skill set, pharmacists are well positioned to play an expanded role in the medication management of chronic pain sufferers. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and cost of a physician-only vs a pharmacist-physician team model of medication management for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers. Method: Data was analyzed for 89 patients who had received exclusively medication management at a rural Alberta multidisciplinary clinic. 56 were managed by a sole physician. 33 were managed by a team (pharmacist + physician). In the team model, the physician did the medical assessment, diagnosis, and established a treatment plan in consultation with the patient and pharmacist. The pharmacist then provided the ongoing follow-up including education, dose titration and side effect management and consulted with the physician as needed. Change in pain (Numerical Rating Scale) and disability (Pain Interference Questionnaire) over the course of treatment were recorded. The treatment duration and number of visits were used to calculate cost of care. Results: Both models of medication management resulted in significant and comparable improvements in pain, disability and patient perception of medication effectiveness. Patients in the physician-only group were seen more frequently and at a greater cost. The pharmacist-physician team approach was markedly more cost-effective, and patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with their medication management. Conclusions: The pharmacist-physician team model of medication management results in significant reductions of pain and disability for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers

  9. Venue of receiving diabetes self-management education and training and its impact on oral diabetic medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Davis-Ajami, Mary Lynn; Noxon, Virginia; Lu, Zhiqiang Kevin

    2017-04-01

    To determine predictors associated with the diabetes self-management education and training (DSME) venue and its impact on oral antidiabetic (OAD) medication adherence. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey household component (MEPS-HC) data (2010-2012) identified adults with diabetes prescribed OAD medication(s) who completed a supplemental Diabetes Care Survey (DCS). Based on the DCS responses to questions about the number and type of DSME venue(s), two groups were created: (1) multiple venues (a physician or health professional plus internet and/or group classes) vs (2) single venue (physician or health professional only). The medication possession ratio (MPR) measured medication adherence, with 0.80 the cut-point defining adherent. Logistic regression examined factors associated with the DSME venue and its effect on OAD medication adherence. Of the 2119 respondents, 41.6% received DSME from multiple venues. Age (<65years), education-level (college or higher), high-income, and diet modification were significantly more likely associated with receiving DSME from multiple venues. In single vs multiple venues, medication adherence was suboptimal (mean MPR 0.66 vs 0.64, p=0.245), and venue showed no influence on adherence (OR: 0.92, 95% CI, 0.73-1.16). Sociodemographic characteristics influence where adults with diabetes receive DSME. Adding different DSME venues may not address suboptimal OAD medication adherence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How does patient education and self-management among asthmatics and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affect medication?

    PubMed

    Gallefoss, F; Bakke, P S

    1999-12-01

    The effect of patient education on steroid inhaler compliance and rescue medication utilization in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been previously investigated in a single study. We randomized 78 asthmatics and 62 patients with COPD after ordinary outpatient management. Intervention consisted of two 2-h group sessions and 1 to 2 individual sessions by a trained nurse and physiotherapist. A self-management plan was developed. We registered for 12 mo medication dispensed from pharmacies according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification index. Steroid inhaler compliance (SIC) was defined as (dispensed/prescribed) x 100 and being compliant as SIC > 75%. Among asthmatics 32% and 57% were compliant (p = 0.04) with a median (25th/75th percentiles) SIC of 55% (27/96) and 82% (44/127) (p = 0.08) in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Patient education did not seem to change SIC in the COPD group. Uneducated patients with COPD were dispensed double the amount of short-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists compared with the educated group (p = 0.03). We conclude that patient education can change medication habits by reducing the amount of short-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists being dispensed among patients with COPD. Educated asthmatics showed improved steroid inhaler compliance compared with the uneducated patients, whereas this seemed unaffected by education in the COPD group.

  11. Medical education in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muuta

    2007-11-01

    Nigeria is the most populated black African nation, with a population of 140 million from the 2006 population census. Medical education began with the establishment of the University College Hospital, Ibadan as a College branch of the University of London in 1948. Since then four generations of medical schools have evolved. The newer medical schools adopted the curriculum of the older schools with little modification. The subsequent introduction of changes and modification in the curriculum of medical education worldwide did not seem to affect Nigerian medical schools. Teacher training in educational methods for medical educators has not been introduced, nor has there been any curriculum planning or review. Efforts made regionally and nationally to change the medical curriculum and improve quality of medical training has not yielded the desired results. The regulatory bodies, the National Universities Commission and the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria introduced separate curricula for medical schools, as a guide to minimum standards, but there has been so far a varying degree of compliance by the Universities. There is an urgent need to bring Medical Education and teacher training issues to the fore. Needs assessment of medical school faculty to determine their training would be seen to be a good starting point, as well as curriculum transformation and the introduction of newer assessment methods. It is suggested that the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria (MDCN) should take a leading role by collaborating with outside bodies concerned with medical education.

  12. The Digital Drag and Drop Pillbox: Design and Feasibility of a Skill-based Education Model to Improve Medication Management.

    PubMed

    Granger, Bradi B; Locke, Susan C; Bowers, Margaret; Sawyer, Tenita; Shang, Howard; Abernethy, Amy P; Bloomfield, Richard A; Gilliss, Catherine L

    We present the design and feasibility testing for the "Digital Drag and Drop Pillbox" (D-3 Pillbox), a skill-based educational approach that engages patients and providers, measures performance, and generates reports of medication management skills. A single-cohort convenience sample of patients hospitalized with heart failure was taught pill management skills using a tablet-based D-3 Pillbox. Medication reconciliation was conducted, and aptitude, performance (% completed), accuracy (% correct), and feasibility were measured. The mean age of the sample (n = 25) was 59 (36-89) years, 50% were women, 62% were black, 46% were uninsured, 46% had seventh-grade education or lower, and 31% scored very low for health literacy. However, most reported that the D-3 Pillbox was easy to read (78%), easy to repeat-demonstrate (78%), and comfortable to use (tablet weight) (75%). Accurate medication recognition was achieved by discharge in 98%, but only 25% reported having a "good understanding of my responsibilities." The D-3 Pillbox is a feasible approach for teaching medication management skills and can be used across clinical settings to reinforce skills and medication list accuracy.

  13. Medical management of canine and feline dystocia.

    PubMed

    Pretzer, S D

    2008-08-01

    When dystocia is diagnosed in the bitch or queen, two forms of treatment exist: medical or surgical therapy. Medical management of dystocia has the advantage of aiding completion of the parturition process without surgery or anesthesia. However, since not all cases of dystocia can be managed medically, educated and careful decision making is required prior to instituting medical management in cases of dystocia. Improper medical treatment, especially when surgical management is clinically indicated, can result in compromise and even death of the dam and fetuses. This paper focuses on the decision making necessary prior to instituting medical management for cases of dystocia in both bitches and queens, and describes available therapeutics.

  14. Medical education in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Samarasekera, Dujeepa D; Ooi, Shirley; Yeo, Su Ping; Hooi, Shing Chuan

    2015-02-19

    Abstract Allopathic medical education in Singapore extends for more than a century from its simple beginnings. In recent times, changes have been rapid, both in undergraduate and postgraduate specialty medical training. Over the last decade, undergraduate medical education has increased from a single to three medical schools and the postgraduate training has expanded further by incorporating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education International framework. With these changes, the curricula, assessment systems, as well as teaching and learning approaches, with the use of technology-enhanced learning and program evaluation processes have expanded, largely based on best evidence medical education. To support these initiatives and the recent rapid expansion, most training institutions have incorporated faculty development programs, such as the Centre for Medical Education at the National University of Singapore.

  15. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education – A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Gutmann, Johanna; Drossard, Sabine; Gurrea Salas, David; Prodinger, Wolfgang; Mc Dermott, Fiona; Urban, Bert; Staender, Sven; Baschnegger, Heiko; Hoffmann, Gordon; Hübsch, Grit; Scholz, Christoph; Meier, Anke; Wegscheider, Mirko; Hoffmann, Nicolas; Ohlenbusch-Harke, Theda; Keil, Stephanie; Schirlo, Christian; Kühne-Eversmann, Lisa; Heitzmann, Nicole; Busemann, Alexandra; Koechel, Ansgar; Manser, Tanja; Welbergen, Lena; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the report “To err is human” was published by the Institute of Medicine in the year 2000, topics regarding patient safety and error management are in the focal point of interest of science and politics. Despite international attention, a structured and comprehensive medical education regarding these topics remains to be missing. Goals: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety described below the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) has aimed to establish a common foundation for the structured implementation of patient safety curricula at the medical faculties in German-speaking countries. Methods: The development the Learning Objective Catalogue resulted via the participation of 13 faculties in two committee meetings, two multi-day workshops, and additional judgments of external specialists. Results: The Committee of Patient Safety and Error Management of GMA developed the present Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education, structured in three chapters: Basics, Recognize Causes as Foundation for Proactive Behavior, and Approaches for Solutions. The learning objectives within the chapters are organized on three levels with a hierarchical organization of the topics. Overall, the Learning Objective Catalogue consists of 38 learning objectives. All learning objectives are referenced with the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. Discussion: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education is a product that was developed through collaboration of members from 13 medical faculties. In the German-speaking countries, the Learning Objective Catalogue should advance discussion regarding the topics of patient safety and error management and help develop subsequent educational structures. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety can

  16. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education--A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Gutmann, Johanna; Drossard, Sabine; Gurrea Salas, David; Prodinger, Wolfgang; Mc Dermott, Fiona; Urban, Bert; Staender, Sven; Baschnegger, Heiko; Hoffmann, Gordon; Hübsch, Grit; Scholz, Christoph; Meier, Anke; Wegscheider, Mirko; Hoffmann, Nicolas; Ohlenbusch-Harke, Theda; Keil, Stephanie; Schirlo, Christian; Kühne-Eversmann, Lisa; Heitzmann, Nicole; Busemann, Alexandra; Koechel, Ansgar; Manser, Tanja; Welbergen, Lena; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Since the report "To err is human" was published by the Institute of Medicine in the year 2000, topics regarding patient safety and error management are in the focal point of interest of science and politics. Despite international attention, a structured and comprehensive medical education regarding these topics remains to be missing. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety described below the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) has aimed to establish a common foundation for the structured implementation of patient safety curricula at the medical faculties in German-speaking countries. The development the Learning Objective Catalogue resulted via the participation of 13 faculties in two committee meetings, two multi-day workshops, and additional judgments of external specialists. The Committee of Patient Safety and Error Management of GMA developed the present Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education, structured in three chapters: Basics, Recognize Causes as Foundation for Proactive Behavior, and Approaches for Solutions. The learning objectives within the chapters are organized on three levels with a hierarchical organization of the topics. Overall, the Learning Objective Catalogue consists of 38 learning objectives. All learning objectives are referenced with the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education is a product that was developed through collaboration of members from 13 medical faculties. In the German-speaking countries, the Learning Objective Catalogue should advance discussion regarding the topics of patient safety and error management and help develop subsequent educational structures. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety can serve as a common ground for an intensified

  17. Developing Core Competencies for the Prevention and Management of Prescription Drug Misuse: A Medical Education Collaboration in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Antman, Karen H; Berman, Harris A; Flotte, Terence R; Flier, Jeffrey; Dimitri, Dennis M; Bharel, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury death in the United States. More than half of those deaths involve prescription drugs, specifically opioids. A key component of addressing this national epidemic is improving prescriber practices.A review of the curricula at the four medical schools in Massachusetts revealed that, although they taught components of addiction medicine, no uniform standard existed to ensure that all students were taught prevention and management strategies for prescription drug misuse. To fill this gap, the governor and the secretary of health and human services invited the deans of the state's four medical schools to convene to develop a common educational strategy for teaching safe and effective opioid-prescribing practices. With leadership from the Department of Public Health and Massachusetts Medical Society, the deans formed the Medical Education Working Group in 2015. This group reviewed the relevant literature and current standards for treating substance use disorders and defined 10 core competencies for the prevention and management of prescription drug misuse.The medical schools have incorporated these competencies into their curricula and have committed to assessing students' competence in these areas. The members of the Medical Education Working Group have agreed to continue to work together on key next steps, including connecting these competencies to those for residents, equipping interprofessional teams to address prescription drug misuse, and developing materials in pain management and opioid misuse for practicing physicians. This first-in-the-nation partnership has yielded cross-institutional competencies that aim to address a public health emergency in real time.

  18. Does well-child care education improve consultations and medication management for childhood fever and common infections? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peetoom, Kirsten K B; Smits, Jacqueline J M; Ploum, Luc J L; Verbakel, Jan Y; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2017-03-01

    Fever is common in preschool children and is often caused by benign self-limiting infections. Parents' lack of knowledge and fever phobia leads to high healthcare consumption. To systematically review the effect of providing educational interventions about childhood fever and common infections in well-child clinics (WCCs), prior to illness episodes, on parental practices: healthcare-seeking behaviour (frequency of physician consultations, appropriateness of consultations) and medication management. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science were searched. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating interventions in WCC settings focusing on educating parents prior to new illness episodes to improve parental practices during episodes of childhood fever and common infections. Data were extracted on study design, sample characteristics, type of intervention, outcome measures and results. Eight studies were eligible for data extraction. Educating parents, in WCCs, prior to new episodes of childhood fever and common infections reduces daytime physician consultations of parents, home visits and telephone consultations, and enhances medication management. However, single and multicomponent interventions vary in effectiveness in reducing the frequency of daytime physician consultations and differ in their potential to reduce the number of home visits and general practitioner out-of-hours contacts. Only multicomponent interventions achieved a reduction in telephone consultations and improved medication management. Educating parents in WCCs prior to episodes of childhood fever and common infections showed potential to improve parental practices in terms of healthcare-seeking behaviour and medication management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Furthering Medical Education in Texas.

    PubMed

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John

    2016-02-01

    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  20. Medical waste management - A review.

    PubMed

    Windfeld, Elliott Steen; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines medical waste management, including the common sources, governing legislation and handling and disposal methods. Many developed nations have medical waste legislation, however there is generally little guidance as to which objects can be defined as infectious. This lack of clarity has made sorting medical waste inefficient, thereby increasing the volume of waste treated for pathogens, which is commonly done by incineration. This review highlights that the unnecessary classification of waste as infectious results in higher disposal costs and an increase in undesirable environmental impacts. The review concludes that better education of healthcare workers and standardized sorting of medical waste streams are key avenues for efficient waste management at healthcare facilities, and that further research is required given the trend in increased medical waste production with increasing global GDP.

  1. [Education in medical technology].

    PubMed

    Mimura, Kunihiro

    2004-10-01

    This year the education of Medical Technologists has reached the third turning point. The first turning point was the start of the two-year education of health laboratory technicians in 1958 and the second turning point was the start of the three-year education of Medical Technologists in 1971 and, this time, the third turning point is the start of the full-fledged university education. All 20 national education facilities for Medical Technologists and 2 public junior colleges have started the university education from this year. Adding the existing universities, about a half of education facilities for Medical Technologists are universities. From this situation, human resource development with not only knowledge and technique as medical technologists but also with humanly nurtured sentiment is expected in the future. In such situation, I'd like to discuss the progress of education of Medical technologists for 53 years, the current educational situation, and the future education of Medical technologists including the direction of desirable course for the three-year educational facilities.

  2. e-Learning in medical education Guide 32 Part 2: Technology, management and design.

    PubMed

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel

    2008-06-01

    With e-learning now part of the medical education mainstream, both educational and practical technical and informatics skills have become an essential part of the medical teacher's portfolio. The Guide is intended to help teachers develop their skills in working in the new online educational environments, and to ensure that they appreciate the wider changes and developments that accompany this 'information revolution'. The Guide is divided into two parts, of which this is the second. The first part introduced the basic concepts of e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment, the day-to-day issues of e-learning, looking both at theoretical concepts and practical implementation issues. This second part covers topics such as practical knowledge of the forms of technology used in e-learning, the behaviours of teachers and learners in online environments and the design of e-learning content and activities. It also deals with broader concepts of the politics and psychology of e-learning, as well as many of its ethical, legal and economical dimensions, and it ends with a review of emerging forms and directions in e-learning in medical education.

  3. Polymyositis: Medical Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Polymyositis (PM) is a highly treatable disease. Some ... works Comments corticosteroids prednisone tablets (Deltasone); intravenous methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Solu-Medrol) Dampens inflammation and immune response ...

  4. Advanced airway management simulation training in medical education: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Cassie C; Cannon, Eric K; Warner, David O; Cook, David A

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on teaching airway management using technology-enhanced simulation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, and Scopus for eligible articles through May 11, 2011. Observational or controlled trials instructing medical professionals in direct or fiberoptic intubation, surgical airway, and/or supraglottic airway using technology-enhanced simulation were included. Two reviewers determined eligibility. Study quality, instructional design, and outcome data were abstracted independently and in duplicate. Of 10,904 articles screened, 76 studies were included (n = 5,226 participants). We used random effects meta-analysis to pool results. In comparison with no intervention, simulation training was associated with improved outcomes for knowledge (standardized mean difference, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.19-1.35]; n = 7 studies) and skill (1.01 [0.68-1.34]; n = 28) but not for behavior (0.52 [-0.30 to 1.34]; n = 4) or patient outcomes (-0.12 [-0.41 to 0.16]; n = 4). In comparison with nonsimulation interventions, simulation training was associated with increased learner satisfaction (0.54 [0.37-0.71]; n = 2), improved skills (0.64 [0.12-1.16]; n = 5), and patient outcomes (0.86 [0.12-1.59]; n = 3) but not knowledge (0.29 [-0.28 to 0.86]; n = 4). We found few comparative effectiveness studies exploring how to optimize the use of simulation-based training, and these revealed inconsistent results. For example, animal models were found superior to manikins in one study (p = 0.004) using outcome of task speed but inferior in another study in terms of skill ratings (p = 0.02). Five studies comparing simulators of high versus low technical sophistication found no significant difference in skill outcomes (p > 0.31). Limitations of this review include heterogeneity (I2 > 50% for most analysis) and variation in quality among primary studies. Simulation-based airway management curriculum is superior to

  5. Medical waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  6. Implementation of a diabetes self-management education program in primary care for adults using shared medical appointments.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement diabetes self-management education in primary care using the Chronic Care Model and shared medical appointments (SMA) to provide evidence-based interventions to improve process and measure outcomes. A quality improvement project using the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle was implemented in a primary care setting in South Texas to provide diabetes self-management education for adults. Biological measures were evaluated in 70 patients at initiation of the project and thereafter based on current practice guidelines. The results of the project were consistent with the literature regarding the benefits, sustainability, and viability of SMA. As compared with that in studies presented in the literature, the patient population who participated in SMA had similar outcomes regarding improvement in A1C, self-management skills, and satisfaction. SMA are an innovative system redesign concept with the potential to provide comprehensive and coordinated care for patients with multiple and chronic health conditions while still being an efficient, effective, financially viable, and sustainable program. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increase, innovative models of care can meet the growing demand for access and utilization of diabetes self-management education programs. Programs focusing on chronic conditions to improve outcomes can be replicated by health care providers in primary care settings. SMA can increase revenue and productivity, improve disease management, and increase provider and patient satisfaction.

  7. Medical education: changes and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D; Ba, Denian

    2013-08-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history.

  8. Medical management of autism.

    PubMed

    De Ocampo, Anna C; Jacobs, Jeannine M

    2006-10-01

    The primary care physician should be knowledgeable about the medical issues that children with ASD encounter and also be aware of available treatment options. Included among these are: identification of seizures, treatment of sleep problems, aggressive management of chronic constipation and GERD as well as timely referral for preventive dental care. Due to the scarcity of sub-specialists (Pediatric Neurologist, Developmental Pediatrician, Child Psychiatrist/ Psychologist) managing children with ASD, the primary care physician should likewise be familiar with medication options for challenging behaviors. More importantly, there needs to be a close collaboration and communication between the family, the sub-specialist and the child's primary care physician.

  9. Educational technology in medical education.

    PubMed

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  10. [Medical education and professionalism].

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, João

    2013-01-01

    Is briefly analyzed the evolution that the objectives, strategies and models of medical education have had since their presentation and subsequent implementation of the famous model of Abraham Flexner, is now 103 years. Although globally accepted in their original pedagogical principles and instruments, that model does not have avoided the continuing dissatisfaction by the medical community and students and, most markedly in recent decades, the demanding of a most efficient health care by society, in general, and by patients in particular. In response to these ambitions, the medical community felt that it was essential to review the traditional criteria of medical professionalism, adapting them to a new paradigm of society and an appropriate and more efficient model of medical education. In this respect, are analyzed strategies and methodologies, apparently more suitable proposals for the inclusion of the principles and responsibilities of medical professionalism since the early period of pre-graduated medical education. It is assumed that the emphasis in teaching and practice of reflection throughout the course will have positive and lasting repercussions during active working life. However, the author believes that the success of the measures to be introduced in medical education programs to a new model of professionalism continues to depend, above all, of the humanistic and cognitive attributes of the students to be chosen, and the pedagogical quality, professional and academic of their teachers.

  11. Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) Framework to Guide Formative Assessment of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Tham, Kum Ying

    2013-11-01

    The Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) is adapted from RIME, an intuitive, self-explanatory and "synthetic" framework that assesses formatively, a student's ability to synthesise knowledge, skills and attitude during a clinical encounter with a patient. The "O" refers to a student's ability to pay attention and perceive with open-mindedness, people and events around him or her. The framework is suitable for definition of interim outcomes in a 5-year undergraduate programme. To align students' and clinical teachers' expectations further, selection of case complexity that is commensurate with student's seniority and competence should be guided and an adapted version of the Minnesota Complexity Assessment Tool is proposed.

  12. Reflection in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a medical-education perspective that I will hope complement other disciplinary perspectives in examining the value of reflection for learning in tertiary education. The paper outlines some of the theoretical strands of reflective practice facilitated in a unique course subject for professionalism and patient safety, within the…

  13. Medical education in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  14. Medical education in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  15. The art of medical education.

    PubMed

    Scheele, F

    2012-01-01

    Is the art of medical education just making sure to provide sufficient up to date medical knowledge and a lot of clinical experience? It is much more. The art of medical education is about a teaching program that is designed to serve the community of the near future. The program is the result of a thorough evaluation of societal needs and is capable of influencing the properties of future care. New care professionals who are trained in the program will -become instrumental in solving complex problems in health systems. The art of medical education is about the change of traditional ideas of how to cope with these health systems. This change will raise anger and resistance. Effective change management is essential to survive attacks from laggards and to maintain enthusiasm to invest in the health care of the future. Educationalist science provides several important insights that help us find the optimal shape of the program. Good role models and a learning environment that is an example of the intended professional and organisational behaviour, learning by doing, simulation programs, educational tools like e-learning systems, a good assessment and feedback system, and a portfolio to prove and discuss professional progress are all pivotal components of the ideal program. To achieve mastery within the art of medical education, a quality improvement program will be the crown of the process. Medical education is a multifaceted process and so the quality improvement should be. The art of medical education is a great challenge. The health care of your future deserves it.

  16. The art of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    Is the art of medical education just making sure to provide sufficient up to date medical knowledge and a lot of clinical experience? It is much more. The art of medical education is about a teaching program that is designed to serve the community of the near future. The program is the result of a thorough evaluation of societal needs and is capable of influencing the properties of future care. New care professionals who are trained in the program will become instrumental in solving complex problems in health systems. The art of medical education is about the change of traditional ideas of how to cope with these health systems. This change will raise anger and resistance. Effective change management is essential to survive attacks from laggards and to maintain enthusiasm to invest in the health care of the future. Educationalist science provides several important insights that help us find the optimal shape of the program. Good role models and a learning environment that is an example of the intended professional and organisational behaviour, learning by doing, simulation programs, educational tools like e-learning systems, a good assessment and feedback system, and a portfolio to prove and discuss professional progress are all pivotal components of the ideal program. To achieve mastery within the art of medical education, a quality improvement program will be the crown of the process. Medical education is a multifaceted process and so the quality improvement should be. The art of medical education is a great challenge. The health care of your future deserves it. PMID:24753919

  17. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--initial report: radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2005-11-20

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment).

  18. Medical education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  19. Assessing the Educational Needs of Health Information Management Staff of the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kimiafar, Khalil; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Hoseini, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Health information management (HIM) professionals have a combination of skills and, at the same time, the demand for their skills in the health system is increasing rapidly. This study aimed to assess the educational needs of the HIM staff in Iran. This descriptive analytical study was conducted in eight teaching hospitals. It was found that the maximum educational needs concerned the knowledge of medical terminology, occupational safety, legal aspects, the newest rules and regulations, and ministry guidelines, while the least of the felt needs related to insurance and other aspects of registry, data ownership, and data quality. The need to learn about coding and classifications had a significant relationship with work experience (P = 0.045) and those with a work experience of 6 to 10 years had fewer needs. Educational needs were also significantly associated with the number of years since graduation (P = 0.005), as those with 5-10 years' experience after post-graduation had lesser needs than others. Those who plan educational programs for health information professionals must have a comprehensive view of the needs of the health system. Participation of specialists of different fields must be considered in educational planning of such interdisciplinary fields.

  20. APA summit on medical student education task force on informatics and technology: steps to enhance the use of technology in education through faculty development, funding and change management.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Donald M; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J; Boland, Robert J; Luo, John S; Chan, Carlyle H; Kennedy, Robert S; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B; Yellowlees, Peter M; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing technology in medical education. Administrators and faculty should initially assess their own competencies with technology and then develop a variety of teaching methods that use technology to improve their curricula. Programs should decrease the general knowledge-based content of curricula and increase the use of technology for learning skills. For programs to be successful, they must address faculty development, change management, and funding. Willingness for change, collaboration, and leadership at all levels are essential factors for successfully implementing technology.

  1. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat…

  2. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat…

  3. Slow medical education.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians.

  4. [Online continuing medical education based on national disease management guidelines. The e-learning platform leitlinien-wissen.de].

    PubMed

    Vollmar, H C; Schürer-Maly, C-C; Lelgemann, M; Koneczny, N; Koch, M; Butzlaff, M

    2006-05-01

    Effective translation of relevant knowledge into clinical practice is essential for modern health care systems. National Disease Management Guidelines (NDMG) are considered relevant instruments to support this transfer. To implement NDMG Internet-based continuing medical education (CME), modules and online case-based learning objects were designed and published. To ensure high quality the contents are based on NDMG and subjected to multi-step review processes. Presentation on the web was realized through a modified content management system. To obtain a CME certificate, completing an online questionnaire using a four-point Likert scale was mandatory. Between June 2003 and April 2005, 3,105 physicians were registered and used the platform: 95% of the physicians expressed positive feedback in the evaluation questionnaire, and 35% actually used the corresponding NDMG in practice. This prompted the development of interactive medical case-based learning objects as a second learning pathway. An Internet platform for CME including case-based learning objects can be a helpful tool to assure the provision of scientific knowledge for patient care.

  5. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  6. First aid and initial management for childhood burns in Vietnam--an appeal for public and continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyen Nhu; Dung, Nguyen Tien

    2008-02-01

    A prospective study to investigate first aid and initial management for 247 paediatric burn patients from 1 June, 2004 to 31 June, 2006 at the Burn Intensive Care Unit, National Institute of Burns (NIB), Hanoi. Data were collected from documents from referring hospitals and direct interview of patients, relative and transport team as guided by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results showed that cooling the burn surface by cold water was applied in 27.17%. Among 132 patients transferred from other hospitals, fluid resuscitation was given in 102 patients (77.28%) before transferring and over a half of these patients were not given intravenous fluid during the time of transfer, especially for children under 1 year of age (p<0.05). Dressings were applied in 36.36% of transferred patients. Burn surface area was accurately diagnosed in only 21.90% of total cases. In conclusion, first aid and initial management in Vietnam are still far from ideal. Further public education and continuing medical education should be applied in Vietnam.

  7. Medical management of blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Katherine; Jeng, Bennie H

    2015-07-01

    Blepharitis is one of the most common ocular pathologies encountered in the clinical setting. Despite its prevalence, successful treatment is often difficult. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the medical management of blepharitis. The available treatment options for blepharitis have expanded rapidly in recent years. Eyelid hygiene remains the foundation of most treatment regimens, but the addition of topical and oral antibiotics, steroids, and calcineurin inhibitors is showing promising results. Dietary considerations and interventional procedures may also play a role in the future of blepharitis management. Although a curative therapy for blepharitis is unlikely in the near future, several novel treatment options may result in better control of this chronic condition.

  8. Managing Complex Medication Regimens.

    PubMed

    Harvath, Theresa A; Lindauer, Allison; Sexson, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    : This article is the first in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The first video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A74.

  9. Standards for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Nigel; Lloyd-Jones, Gaynor

    2003-02-01

    In the current UK socio-political climate of mounting regulation of professional practice, a debate on the topic of standards amongst medical teachers seems timely. The role of teacher is increasingly recognised as a core professional activity for all doctors and one that cannot be left to chance, aptitude or inclination. As a consequence, faculties have developed a plethora of teacher training programmes for medical teachers. But what is good medical teaching? Unless we know what it is, how can we develop it? One possible approach is to develop clear and comprehensive standards, defining what we mean by competent or effective clinical teaching. In this article we have evaluated and compared two models of standards for clinical educators. The first is the outcome-based approach developed at Dundee Medical School and the second is the scholarship model devised initially by Boyer and then elaborated by Glassick and Fincher et al. The key features of both models are briefly described and their comparative strengths and problematic aspects explored. Both models offer interesting and stimulating ideas and together they provide an instructive contrast. They make a valuable contribution to the ongoing process of improving the provision of medical education.

  10. Medical management of hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, S H

    1992-01-01

    1. Hypercalcaemia is a common disorder, which frequently requires specific treatment either to control symptoms, or to prevent the development of irreversible organ damage or death. Although the best and most effective way of controlling hypercalcaemia in the long-term is to treat the underlying cause, medical antihypercalcaemic therapy is often required in clinical practice, either as a holding measure, or because the primary disease cannot itself be treated. 2. The mainstays of medical antihypercalcaemic therapy are firstly, to promote calcium excretion by the kidney by restoring extracellular volume with intravenous saline and secondly, to administer pharmacological agents which inhibit bone resorption. Measures which seek to reduce intestinal calcium absorption are seldom effective. 3. Intravenous bisphosphonates are the treatment of first choice for the initial management of hypercalcaemia, followed by continued oral, or repeated intravenous bisphosphonates to prevent relapse. These drugs have a relatively slow onset of action (1-3 days) but have potent and sustained inhibitory effects on bone resorption, resulting in a long duration of action (12-30 days). 4. Of the other agents available, calcitonin has an important place in the management of severe hypercalcaemia where a rapid effect is desirable; calcitonin is best used in conjunction with a bisphosphonate however, because of its short duration of action. Intravenous phosphate also has a place in the emergency management of severe hypercalcaemia, but is probably best reserved for patients in whom other less toxic therapies have failed. Corticosteroids are generally ineffective except in certain specific instances and are best avoided in the routine treatment of undiagnosed hypercalcaemia. PMID:1633063

  11. Motivation in medical education().

    PubMed

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  12. The Future of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Judy, Ed.

    The purpose of this monograph is to present the thoughts of a small group of medical educators and administrators on the expansion of medical education's scope and responsibilities, basic conditions for progress, and medical education's obligations to the nation's health. In Chapter 1, the health delivery system of the future is discussed. Chapter…

  13. Veterinary practice management education in the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges member colleges during 1999.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J W; Covert, B R

    2001-07-15

    Most veterinary students enrolled at AAVMC member institutions take at least 1 VPM course prior to graduation. These courses are characterized by widespread involvement of outside lecturers with business expertise, which likely adds to their strength. However, it remains that wide variation in VPM education exists across the AAVMC with regard to the topics addressed, the specific business expertise of faculty and administrative course specifics. As such, the situation provides several key opportunities. Foremost among these is the immediate need for profession-wide discourse on VPM education to define reasonable expectations with regard to the business skills of veterinary graduates. In addition, outcomes assessment would provide information on which of the widely varying approaches to VPM education is most likely to produce successful graduates. The opportunity also exists for development of academic research programs to support VPM education directly by strengthening the related disciplinary knowledge base. Effective leadership for these efforts will be crucial to their success.

  14. The Effect of Physician Continuing Medical Education on Patient-Reported Outcomes for Identifying and Optimally Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara S.; Castle, Patricia H.; Van Marter, Deborah; Roc, Anne; Neubauer, David; Auerbach, Sanford; DeAguiar, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the effect of continuing medical education (CME) activities on patient reported outcomes with regard to (1) screening for excessive sleepiness (ES) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and (2) appropriate referral and treatment. Methods: A total of 725 patients were recruited from 75 providers who either participated or did not participate in Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based OSA CME activities. Patient reported outcomes from participating (n = 36) and non-participating providers (n = 39) were compared using generalized estimating equations examining random effects of provider as unit of assignment. Results: Patients' reports demonstrate that participating physicians were 1.7 times more likely to initiate discussion of sleep problems than non-participating physicians (t1,411 = 3.71, p = 0.05) and 2.25–2.86 times more likely to administer validated measures for OSA (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and STOP-BANG). Patient reports also indicated that participating clinicians (79.9%) were significantly more likely to recommend seeing a sleep specialist compared to non-participating clinicians (60.7%; t1,348 = 9.1, p < 0.01, OR = 2.6). Furthermore, while 89.4% of participating clinicians recommended a sleep study, only 73.2% of the non-participating physicians recommended one (t1,363 = 11.46, p < 0.001, OR = 3.1). Conclusions: Participation in TTM-based OSA CME activities was associated with improved patient reported outcomes compared to the non-participating clinicians. Citation: Johnson SS, Castle PH, Van Marter D, Roc A, Neubauer D, Auerbach S, DeAguiar E. The effect of physician continuing medical education on patient-reported outcomes for identifying and optimally managing obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):197–204. PMID:25845903

  15. Status of medical mycology education.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, William J; Mitchell, Thomas G; Schell, Wiley A; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Coico, Richard F; Walsh, Thomas J; Perfect, John R

    2003-12-01

    The number of immunocompromised patients and subsequent invasive fungal infections continues to rise. However, the education of future medical mycologists to engage this growing problem is diminishing. While there are an increasing number of publications and grants awarded in mycology, the time and detail devoted to teaching medical mycology in United States medical schools are inadequate. Here we review the history in medical mycology education and the current educational opportunities. To accurately gauge contemporary teaching we also conducted a prospective survey of microbiology and immunology departmental chairpersons in United States medical schools to determine the amount and content of contemporary education in medical mycology.

  16. Does Patient Partnership in Continuing Medical Education (CME) Improve the Outcome in Osteoporosis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazirandeh, Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…

  17. Does Patient Partnership in Continuing Medical Education (CME) Improve the Outcome in Osteoporosis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazirandeh, Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…

  18. Learning Disorders in Children: Diagnosis, Medication, Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnopol, Lester, Ed.

    Nine papers dealing with educational, psychological, and medical aspects of the management of children with learning disabilities focus upon the medically-related aspects and information which would be useful to a multidisciplinary team in coordinating differential diagnostic efforts and instituting remediation programs. Discussions of the…

  19. [Assessment in Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Martha Delgado; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of medical education is fundamental for proper feedback and evaulation of students. The overall purpose of the evaluation is numerically and formatively revised. The suggested evaluation processes is described taking into account the Miller competence pyramid as a tool for designing evaluations and concepts of validity and reproducibility in assessments. The utility of student and the teacher is also raised. The issue of assessment should leave the knowledge parameters that are usually used. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. [Medical informatics education at the Medical School in Tuzla].

    PubMed

    Sabanović, Zekerijah; Mujcinagić, Alija

    2004-01-01

    Medical informatics is a specific and interdisciplinary science which involves many participants of the health system like: patients, physicians, nurses, managers, administrators, computer experts, students, with the different level of education and understanding, different approaches and expectations. Education of medical informatics requests organization solutions of high quality and necessary equipment for its realization. Educational programs are also limited by student's basic knowledge of informatics from secondary schools. For assessment of this knowledge we have conducted special designed questionnaire at the first year of undergraduate study which results confirm our thesis that great number of students entered the faculty with the lack of basic knowledge from informatics area. In this paper was presented level of organization and education of medical informatics at the Medical faculty and University Clinical Center of Tuzla, with its characteristics through which this system has been passed since 1990.

  1. [Discussion on logistics management of medical consumables].

    PubMed

    Deng, Sutong; Wang, Miao; Jiang, Xiali

    2011-09-01

    Management of medical consumables is an important part of modern hospital management. In modern medical behavior, drugs and medical devices act directly on the patient, and are important factors affecting the quality of medical practice. With the increasing use of medical materials, based on practical application, this article proposes the management model of medical consumables, and discusses the essence of medical materials logistics management.

  2. Blended Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…

  3. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  4. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  5. [Information technology in medical education].

    PubMed

    Ramić, A

    1999-01-01

    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population.

  6. Comprehensive Medical Management of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial dermatosis seen in adults that exhibits considerable variety in clinical presentation. Multiple medical therapeutic options are available including topical and oral treatments. Optimal medical management of rosacea includes assessment of subtype and disease severity and use of appropriate skin care to reduce epidermal barrier dysfunction. This article provides an overall discussion of the medical management of rosacea and reviews interim results from a study evaluating the role of designated skin care in rosacea treatment. PMID:21103305

  7. Medical and Health Services Managers

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEVEL EDUCATION 2016 MEDIAN PAY Human Resources Managers Human resources managers plan, direct, and coordinate the administrative functions of an organization. They oversee the recruiting, interviewing, and hiring of ...

  8. Medical education... meet Michel Foucault.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Brian D; Martimianakis, Maria A; McNaughton, Nancy; Whitehead, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    There have been repeated calls for the greater use of conceptual frameworks and of theory in medical education. Although it is familiar to few medical educators, Michel Foucault's work is a helpful theoretical and methodological source. This article explores what it means to use a 'Foucauldian approach', presents a sample of Foucault's historical-genealogical studies that are relevant to medical education, and introduces the work of four researchers currently undertaking Foucauldian-inspired medical education research. Although they are not without controversy, Foucauldian approaches are employed by an increasing number of scholars and are helpful in shedding light on what it is possible to think, say and be in medical education. Our hope in sharing this Foucauldian work and perspective is that we might stimulate a dialogue that is forward-looking and optimistic about the possibilities for change in medical education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Quality of postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Sadykova, T I

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, huge efforts to improve quality control process and efficiency of healthcare were put in advancing health systems in Russia. There are measurable and noteworthy achievements, there are unresolved issues.It's impossible to manage the process of improving the quality and efficiency of care without high-quality training of respective troops. However, in the last decade a phrase about the poor quality of postgraduate medical education has been heard periodically in the speeches of the leaders at various levels. The source is unknown, but this information continues to be spread by word of mouth as a regular component of speeches about health issues. Considering that the "poor quality" of postgraduate education has not been substantiated by solid evidence, this informational spam, of course, needs to be overcome. It is not only harmful to health system overall, it is harmful in particular for the process of formation of personnel reserve, but it also discredits the whole system of postgraduate education and a titanic work of thousands of teachers, who work as enthusiasts, most of them performing valuable research, teaching and organizational work. To provide situation analysis in the field of postgraduate medical education. First of all, it begs the question - how and who measures the quality of education. What indicators in the evaluation process are key? As a rule, when assessing quality in any field, preference is given to the opinion of the consumer.Our direct customers are the heads of health organs and institutions who regularly undergo advanced training in the specialty "Public Health and Health Care" at sub-faculty. After the completion of each cycle of training and exams, each participant fills out a questionnaire, which points out the level of quality of pedagogical activity of the sub-faculty. The analysis of these questionnaires shows that the students generally give high assessment of the quality of pedagogical process. The health

  10. Empathy and medical education.

    PubMed

    Schatz, I J

    1995-04-01

    Spiro has said, "computed tomographic scans offer no compassion and magnetic resonance imaging has no human face. Only men and women are capable of empathy." Empathy is an essential and required part of our roles as caregivers. We must enhance this natural emotion that exists in each of us; we can do so by carefully designing a curriculum, much as we would for learning about the physiology of the liver. The roots of our need for detachment and equanimity go back to Sir William Osler, but the pendulum has swung too far, and the need for retention of millions of data bits overwhelms our souls. Although excessive emotion is destructive and counter-productive, we must not suppress our passion--but control it. The best physician both feels with the patient and prescribes for the patient at the same time. To do one without the other is inadequate care. As medical educators our task is clear.

  11. Osteopathic graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth; Lischka, Terri A

    2009-03-01

    The information provided in the present report on osteopathic graduate medical education (OGME) is based primarily on annual data provided through the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Intern/Resident Registration Program (ie, the AOA Match) and the AOA Trainee Information, Verification, and Registration Audit reporting system. In 2007, the number of osteopathic medical graduates totaled 3103, surpassing 3000 for the first time. In 2008, the total reached 3462 graduates. Statistics on the Match in this article are reported for both 2007 and 2008. A total of 1267 (41%) and 1316 (38%) graduates and previous graduates participated and matched in 2007 and 2008, respectively. With post-Match scramble data, the number of graduates and previous graduates in AOA-approved internships and first-year residency positions rose to 1645 (53%) for the 2007-2008 academic year and is estimated to be 1828 (51%) for the 2008-2009 academic year. The response of students through the Match and the increased attention to innovative OGME development activities--particularly the internship restructuring and OGME Development Initiative--are evidence of a positive momentum in OGME in recent years.

  12. Unresolved crisis in medical education.

    PubMed

    Monif, G R; Severin, M J

    1994-01-01

    A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.

  13. Reflective writing in medical education.

    PubMed

    Song, Philip; Stewart, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of reflection and the use of reflective writing assignments is commonplace in medical school education. There is a preponderance of research in medical education, which appraises and discusses new ways of teaching reflection. Students often complain about having to write about their experience with that patient. This work explores some of the reasoning between the variability of student acceptance of reflection in medical education. The method is based on available literature as well as a personal perspective regarding reflective writing in medical education. Reflection is a skill that requires teaching and practice. It is within the explicit process of teaching reflection in medical education that reflective learners can be developed. Reflection includes the take-home lesson from patient encounters. Its use can help learners become better physicians in terms of medical and humanistic effectiveness and support personal growth.

  14. Availability of Education and Training for Medical Specialists about the Impact of Dementia on Comorbid Disease Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Davis, Marie-Claire

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dementia carry an additional health burden of multiple comorbid conditions. Effectively assessing and treating these comorbid conditions requires the medical specialist to be aware of, understand, and manage the effects of dementia on their clinical subspecialty practice. This ecological study describes the dementia-related…

  15. Availability of Education and Training for Medical Specialists about the Impact of Dementia on Comorbid Disease Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Davis, Marie-Claire

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dementia carry an additional health burden of multiple comorbid conditions. Effectively assessing and treating these comorbid conditions requires the medical specialist to be aware of, understand, and manage the effects of dementia on their clinical subspecialty practice. This ecological study describes the dementia-related…

  16. Rethinking Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Robert, Ed.; Grey, Christopher, Ed.

    This book brings together the work of practitioners actively engaged in developing new approaches to management education, and their application. The 10 chapters are: Chapter 1, "Rethinking Management Education: An Introduction" (Christopher Grey and Robert French); chapter 2, "Can Management Education be Educational?" (Alan B. Thomjas and Peter…

  17. Rethinking Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Robert, Ed.; Grey, Christopher, Ed.

    This book brings together the work of practitioners actively engaged in developing new approaches to management education, and their application. The 10 chapters are: Chapter 1, "Rethinking Management Education: An Introduction" (Christopher Grey and Robert French); chapter 2, "Can Management Education be Educational?" (Alan B. Thomjas and Peter…

  18. Medical emergency management among Iranian dentists.

    PubMed

    Khami, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Reza; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Razeghi, Samaneh; Moscowchi, Anahita

    2014-11-01

    More than 18,000 patients need medical emergencies management in dental offices in Iran annually. The present study investigates medical emergencies management among Iranian dentists. From the list of the cell phone numbers of the dentists practicing in the city of Tehran, 210 dentists were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The questionnaire requested information on personal and professional characteristics of the dentists, as well as their knowledge and self-reported practice in the field of medical emergency management, and availability of required drugs and equipments to manage medical emergencies in their offices. Totally, 177 dentists (84%) completed the questionnaire. Less than 60% of the participants were knowledgeable about characteristics of hypoglycemic patient, chest pain with cardiac origin, and true cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice. Regarding practice, less than one quarter of the respondents acquired acceptable scores. In regression models, higher practice scores were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001). The results call for a need to further education on the subject for dentists. Continuing education and changing dental curriculum in the various forms seems to be useful in enhancement of the self-reported knowledge and practice of dentists. To successful control of medical emergencies in the dental office, dentists must be prepared to recognize and manage a variety of such conditions. In addition to dentist's knowledge and skill, availability of necessary equipments and trained staff is also of critical importance.

  19. Managing Costs and Medical Information

    Cancer.gov

    People with cancer may face major financial challenges and need help dealing with the high costs of care. Cancer treatment can be very expensive, even when you have insurance. Learn ways to manage medical information, paperwork, bills, and other records.

  20. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  1. Medical Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  2. Abraham Flexner and medical education.

    PubMed

    Ludmerer, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The Flexner Report had its roots in the recognition in the mid-19th century that medical knowledge is not something fixed but something that grows and evolves. This new view of medical knowledge led to a recasting of the goal of medical education as that of instilling the proper techniques of acquiring and evaluating information rather than merely inculcating facts through rote memorization. Abraham Flexner, a brilliant educator, had the background to understand and popularize the meaning of this new view of education, and he took the unprecedented step of relating the developments in medical education to the ideas of John Dewey and the progressive education movement. Although the Flexner Report is typically viewed as a historical document--due to an understandable tendency to refer only to the second half of the report, where Flexner provides his famous critiques of the medical schools that existed at the time--this article argues that the Flexner Report is actually a living educational document of as much significance to medical educators today as in Flexner's time. The article analyzes Flexner's discussion of medical education and shows that his message--the importance of academic excellence, professional leadership, proper financial support, and service and altruism--is timeless, as applicable to the proper education of physicians today and tomorrow as in the past.

  3. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Postprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Robert F.

    1980-01-01

    Concern about delivery of veterinary medical services to animal agriculture and implications for postprofessional veterinary medical education are discussed. The individual needs and goals of livestock producers, practicing veterinarians, and veterinary academicians are so varied that actual delivery of veterinary medical services is difficult to…

  4. Geriatric Medical Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibovitz, Arthur; Baumoehl, Yehuda; Habot, Beni

    2004-01-01

    In this article we will focus on geriatric medical education in Israel and will review our experience in this field. A coordinated effort of the Ministry of Health and the Israeli Medical Association led to the establishment of a modern geriatric system and to the recognition of geriatrics as a medical specialty in the early 1980s. All four…

  5. [Telemedicine and telematics in medical education].

    PubMed

    Banjanović, B; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Health telematics is a composite term for health-related activities, services and systems carried out over a distance by means of information and communications technologies, for the purposes of global health promotion, disease control and health care, as well as education, management, and research for health. The concept of health telematics encompasses the following functional areas: --tele-education;--telemedicine;--telematics for health research;--telematics for health services management. Communications technologies are rapidly revolutionizing health care. For example, electronic communications support diagnosis and treatment of disease. TeleMedicine is an umbrella term for growing disciplines such as TeleRadiology. TelePathology. TeleCardiology, TelePsychiatry and TeleEducation. TeleMedicine is a component of TeleHealth, which includes the use of telecommunications technology and services for the surveillance and control of diseases and education. In this article authors describes the role of telemedicine and telematics in medical education and medical praxis.

  6. Rapid change in Japanese medical education.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Ichiro

    2004-08-01

    Change in Japanese medical education has been accelerating over the last 10 years. Historically, clinical departments in each medical school played a crucial role, but reports in the mass media tried to refute the feudal 'ikyoku-koza' system with a number of malpractice cases, inappropriate patient-doctor communication, etc. At that time policies by the Ministries of Education and Health (rationalized in 2001) independently became more influential in medical education. In particular the network of governmental medical schools has been restructured, merged and privatized since 2001. In the 1990s several private medical schools developed distinctive curricula including problem-based learning (PBL), the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and introduction to clinical medicine (ICM). The curriculum for clinical medicine is still a critical issue and will be a major challenge for the management of each medical school. The effectiveness of the National Model Curriculum consisting of more than 1200 objectives might be questionable but the National Common Achievement Test (CAT) will make a strong impact on the preclinical curriculum. In the future each medical school should adopt an outcome-based education system to close the loop of curriculum development. An evaluation system based on the entire medical school or curriculum will be the key to successful education.

  7. Medical education in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle

    2007-10-01

    This paper aims to draw a picture of current medical education in The Netherlands. Based on strong historical roots in the seventeenth century, Dutch medical education has adapted to changing circumstances through the ages. Nowadays, medical education in The Netherlands may be called "modern", according to international standards and schools such as the one in Maastricht serve as examples, nationally and internationally. After considerable redesign of undergraduate education in the 1980s and 1990s, the first decade of the new century shows a revolutionary development of postgraduate medical education, with the introduction of nationwide competency-based training, and mandatory in-training assessments and portfolios for residents. The high level of activity in medical education development is reflected in high research productivity, measured as Dutch articles in international journals. Despite these strengths, several critical issues around medical education are in debate, ranging from entrance selection, small group tutoring, the two-cycle bachelor-master model and the relevance of basic sciences to the planning of enrolment numbers and working hours for residents. Medical education in The Netherlands is a dynamic field.

  8. Funding for graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Valerie P

    2006-12-01

    The education of radiology residents and fellows is a vitally important but costly process. This paper reviews the most common methods of funding graduate medical education. The majority of graduate medical education in the United States is funded by Medicare, but there are caps on the number of trainees allowed, and the government is cutting payments. Academic medicine, particularly academic radiology, is at a point of crisis today if new methods to provide additional support are not found.

  9. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  10. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  11. Medication and symptom management education program for the rehabilitation of psychiatric patients in Korea: the effects of promoting schedule on self-efficacy theory.

    PubMed

    Shon, Kyung Hee; Park, Si Sung

    2002-10-01

    An effective rehabilitation program was developed for psychiatric patients' self-management of medication and symptoms. The rehabilitation program was designed to allow the patients to understand their illness, cope with their medical regimen, and prevent a relapse by recognizing any of the symptoms when they recur. This study consisted of three phases. The first phase was to explore the extent and the specific mental health needs of psychiatric patients. Data was obtained from 82 subjects who had symptoms of a mental illness including schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and delusional disorder. They had received medication instruction during their hospitalization. The subjects were at the time outpatients in a psychiatric hospital. In the second phase, the researchers developed an educational program focused on coping with the residual and relapse warning signs, managing the drug side effects, medication compliance, and daily routines, according to the information acquired in the first step. The developed program includes the self-efficacy method reported by Bandura, including manuals and videotapes focusing on real life situations, small group discussions, and telephone coaching. Finally, the researchers investigated the effects of this program. Thirty-eight patients were selected for this study, 18 in the experimental program and 20 as controls. The diagnoses were same as those with the first step. The results showed that the subjects who attended this educational program reported significantly more improvement in self-efficacy (p=0.014) and medication compliance (p= 0.005), and significantly less relapse warning symptom scores (p=0.000) than the controls. In conclusion, these instructional materials will be beneficial for medication and symptom management in rehabilitating psychiatric patients in Korea. In addition, the materials may be a useful psychoeducational resource for professionals in the field of clinical psychiatry.

  12. Medical Management of Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Portalatin, Meredith; Winstead, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common clinical problem. Initial management of chronic constipation should include lifestyle maneuvers, and increased fiber and fluids. Polyethylene glycol, sodium picosulfate, bisacodyl, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide were all more effective than placebo for treating chronic idiopathic constipation. Many commonly used agents lack quality evidence supporting their use. PMID:23449608

  13. [The globalization of medical education].

    PubMed

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  14. Theories of Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. The present author has argued consistently (Bush, 1986; Bush, 1995; Bush, 1999; Bush, 2003) that educational management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial…

  15. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article.

  16. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  17. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Janev Holcer, Natasa; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavić, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  18. The role of the principle of double effect in ethics education at US medical schools and its potential impact on pain management at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Because opioids can suppress respiratory drive, the principle of double effect (PDE) has been used to justify their use for terminally ill patients. Recent studies, however, suggest that the risk of respiratory depression in typical end-of-life (EOL) situations may be overstated and that heightened concern for this rare occurrence can lead to inadequate treatment of pain. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of the PDE in medical school ethics education, with specific reference to its potential impact on pain management at EOL. After obtaining institutional review board approval, an electronic survey was sent to ethics educators at every allopathic medical school in the USA. One-third of ethics educators felt that opioids were 'likely' to cause significant respiratory depression that could hasten death. Educators' opinions of opioid effects did not influence their view of the relevance of the PDE, with approximately 70% deeming it relevant to EOL care. Only 15% of ethics educators believed that associating the PDE with opioid use might discourage clinicians from optimally treating pain, out of concern for respiratory depression. This study demonstrates that a significant minority of ethics educators believe, contrary to current evidence, that opioids are 'likely' to cause significant respiratory depression that could hasten death in terminally ill patients. Yet, many of those who do not feel this is likely still rely on the PDE to justify this possibility, potentially (and unknowingly) contributing to clinical misperceptions and underutilisation of opioids at EOL.

  19. Residential Energy Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)

  20. Development of the Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical Nursing (MED-SURG BKAT) © and implications for in-service educators and managers.

    PubMed

    Toth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM: Medical-surgical nursing is now the largest specialty in acute care, and needs an objective measure of basic knowledge necessary to provide safe care to patients. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations noted that healthcare organizations have in the past relied on education and experience to support competence, but an increasing number are seeking objective measures of a nurse's knowledge that is required for safe practice. The American Nurses Association adds that safe practice is both a professional and a moral responsibility. A review of the literature failed to locate a standardized test of basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. In-service educators and managers need such a test to facilitate orientation programs, and as a way to safely decrease the length of orientation for new employees with previous experience in medical-surgical nursing. The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable test to measure basic knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. The Basic Knowledge Assessment Tool for Medical-Surgical nursing was developed with support for its validity and reliability. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Developing risk management behaviours for nurses through medication incident analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Tran, Duong Thuy; Young, Helen

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define risk management behaviours related to medication safety. Mixed methods were used to analyze 318 nursing related medication incidents reported in an Australian metropolitan hospital. Most incidents did not result in patient harm (93%). Omission of medications was the most frequent often related to patient absences from the unit or nurses failing to sign for medications. Thematic analysis resulted in the Medication Safety Subscales including 29 behavioural statements within three domains-administering medications, storage and management of medications, managing adverse events related to medications. The Medication Safety Subscales can be used by managers, educators and clinicians to reinforce the importance of medication safety. Early action by nurses may reduce patient injury.

  2. [Art in undergraduate medical education].

    PubMed

    Fjellstad, Kenneth; Isaksen, Tor Olav; Frich, Jan C

    2003-08-28

    During the last decades attempts have been made at integrating art in medical education. What should be the form, content and objectives of such teaching? We address this question on the basis of a review of articles in medical journals from 1990 until May 2001 about art and undergraduate medical education. A common reason for integrating art in undergraduate medical education is that art may act as a balance to the dominance of natural science. One pedagogical approach is to use art as a tool for training skills. Many articles emphasise that teaching art should also contribute to the personal and professional development of medical students. The majority of articles report on courses in literature and medicine. Art is often taught in small or medium-sized groups; courses may last from single lessons to programmes over years. The aim of art courses may be the development of skills, but also one of facilitating personal growth and professional development.

  3. Podiatric Medical Education: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, George P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)

  4. Podiatric Medical Education: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, George P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)

  5. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: Steps to Enhance the Use of Technology in Education through Faculty Development, Funding and Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J.; Boland, Robert J.; Luo, John S.; Chan, Carlyle H.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B.; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing…

  6. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: Steps to Enhance the Use of Technology in Education through Faculty Development, Funding and Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J.; Boland, Robert J.; Luo, John S.; Chan, Carlyle H.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B.; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing…

  7. Learning Experiences in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggat, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the learning experience from both traditional and computer-assisted instructional methods. Describes the environments in which these methods are effective. Focuses on learning experiences in medical education and describes educational strategies, particularly the 'SPICES' model. Discusses the importance of mentoring in the psychosocial…

  8. Learning Experiences in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggat, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the learning experience from both traditional and computer-assisted instructional methods. Describes the environments in which these methods are effective. Focuses on learning experiences in medical education and describes educational strategies, particularly the 'SPICES' model. Discusses the importance of mentoring in the psychosocial…

  9. Continuing Education for Medical Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Patricia L.

    A survey was made of medical schools' provision for continuing education for physicians. While few such courses are provided in most communities studied, in one there is a department of postgraduate education with a full-time director, courses of high scientific content, lectures given in rural areas, and careful records of participants. These…

  10. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing High Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Jan 3,2017 When your doctor ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  11. Professionalism in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…

  12. Professionalism in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…

  13. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  14. Education in sexuality in the medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Dennis, K J; Elstein, M

    1980-08-01

    Medical curricula have been deficient in the area of education in sexuality, and it is only over the last decade or so that medical schools in the UK and abroad have recognized the importance of teaching human sexual physiology and sexuality. Attention in this discussion of education in sexuality in the medical curricula is directed to the following: present status of sex education in British schools and in medical schools; a suggested component of human sexuality in the undergraduate medical curriculum (learning objectives and strategy for introducing education in sexuality in the medical curriculum); and postgraduate education in sexual matters. Secondary schools, whether comprehensive, grammar, or private, have been slow to develop cognitive learning in such topics as the place of sexual drive within and without marriage, variations in sexual orientation, and the technicalities of various contraceptives methods. They have done even less to encourage the development of positive responsible attitudes to human sexuality. Students at the time of arrival at a medical school will have many gaps in their knowledge of the commonplace in human sexuality and in reproduction. If they have positive, healthy, and responsible attitudes toward their own sexual drives and to the sexuality of others, it is only because they are among the minority whose parents have been able to transmit them to their offspring. The Royal Commission on Medical Education (Todd report 1965-1968) identified deficiencies in the sex education of Britain's doctors and recommended that medical students should learn about the reproductive organs and their physiology and should also have an awareness of the wide implications of the problems of fertility and infertility and know something about marital problems and their management. In the older and well established medical schools, the teaching of human sexuality, especially in the earlier preclinical part of the course, depends upon enthusiasts

  15. Medical education: creating physicians or medical technicians?

    PubMed

    Berkow, Robert

    2002-02-01

    The 20th century witnessed phenomenal growth in scientific medical knowledge and technology, enabling physicians to more accurately diagnose and effectively treat a wide range of diseases. However, these advances led to longer and more complex training periods for physicians and increasing specialization and dependence on the new technology. An adverse outcome of these changes has been the development of many physicians who are less able to communicate with their patients and deal with them in a humanistic and personally caring manner; ie, the development of finely trained medical technologists as opposed to caring physicians. Their behavior and their blind trust in science and technology without understanding the patients in whom illness occurs often leads to making incorrect, incomplete, or inappropriate diagnoses or to unnecessary failures of treatment. It also results in excessive costs, hazardous procedures, and ill will from patients. Unfortunately, such technologically oriented physicians are often the primary role models for students. The best hope for a remedy to the problem lies in recognizing that it exists, understanding its causes, and modifying medical education accordingly. Providing students with good role models and some rudimentary techniques can lead to significant gains, but sophisticated programs have been designed only in some schools.

  16. Medical Education and Global Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Peter; Morse, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Recent efforts to expand medical training in resource-constrained settings are laudable, but change that transforms health systems will require new educational approaches. Today's physician-leaders need to leverage clinical and global health knowledge with a nuanced understanding of the social forces that impact health, the ability to marshal political will, and the capacity to manage dynamic programs and institutions. In establishing the University of Global Health Equity, we have identified three reform principles. First, equipping medical schools with the tools and technology to deliver is imperative. Second, the mismatch between the skills taught in most medical schools and those needed to improve fragile health systems must be addressed. Finally, medical schools that strive to eliminate health inequities should "walk the walk," adopting progressive practices to institutionalize equity. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 2376-6980.

  17. Quality Management in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    When transferring the methods of quality management from industry to academia, there are important differences that must be considered. This paper describes the differences between traditional management and quality management, and shows how Deming's principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) can be applied to education. Some of these principles…

  18. Medical Education: The Hot Seat

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman; Pal, Shrayan; Vidyasagar; Mukherji, Bijay; Debabrata, Sarbapalli

    2016-01-01

    Medical science has eventually metamorphosed from ‘Knowledge based’ to ‘Skill based’ applied social science. So, the age-old traditional courses and curriculums in Indian medical education need a overhauling with radical modifications. With a paradigm shift, we have to take into account not only the help of scientific feedback from the teachers and students but also from all the stakeholders of health care delivery system. PMID:27453838

  19. Concordance in cancer medication management.

    PubMed

    Chewning, Betty; Wiederholt, Joseph B

    2003-05-01

    This article explores how the concept of concordance can help to identify gaps and opportunities for research on consumer-provider communication related to cancer medication management. The relationship of concordance, patient-centered care and shared decision making is examined. Research on unmet patient agendas, quality of life issues related to symptom management and tools to assist communication about patient somatic experience are discussed. The need for research on patient communication with pharmacists, nurses and other health team members beyond physicians is noted. Research implications for longitudinal, descriptive and intervention studies are offered.

  20. Medical management of hunger strikers.

    PubMed

    Chalela, Julio A; Lopez, J Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Hunger strikes are not infrequent occurrences in military and civilian prisons. Although practicing clinicians are familiar with the management of patients who have limited oral intake, managing hunger strikers is unfamiliar to most. The psychological, physiological, and social events that surround hunger strikes are very complex and need to be understood by those caring for hunger strike patients. To provide adequate medical care to hunger strike patients, clinicians most understand the physiological events that ensue after prolonged starvation. Careful vigilance for development of refeeding syndrome is of key importance. A multidisciplinary approach to hunger strikes is of utmost importance, and involvement of a multidisciplinary clinical team as well as prison officials is essential.

  1. Medical management of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Khalessi, Alexander A; Oh, Bryan C; Wang, Michael Y

    2008-01-01

    In the following literature review the authors consider the available evidence for the medical management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and they critically assess current treatment guidelines. Medical therapy for axial disease in AS emphasizes improvement in patients' pain and overall function. First-line treatments include individualized physical therapy and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in conjunction with gastroprotective therapy. After an adequate trial of therapy with two NSAIDs exceeding 3 months or limited by medication toxicity, the patient may undergo tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade therapy. Response should occur within 6-12 weeks, and patients must undergo tuberculosis screening. Evidence does not currently support the use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, corticosteroids, or radiotherapy in AS.

  2. Medical management of motor fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Richard B

    2008-08-01

    Given the magnitude of the problem of motor fluctuations in patients who have Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa, a significant effort has been expended by physicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical manufacturers over the years to find effective treatments. This article briefly reviews the medical options for managing motor fluctuations that are in common use in the United States or that are expected to be available soon.

  3. [Piercing: health education or medicalization?].

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2000-06-10

    In Europe, the piercing mode has naturally been associated with specific complications raising an important public health problem. The debate on the role physicians should play requires a careful analysis of the ethical issues involved. Specifically, should the piercing be done in a medical setting? This question is raised because, when performed under ideal conditions, the act of piercing requires a certain degree of medical competency: history taking, asepsia, technical procedure (hemostasis), anesthesia.... However, mandatory medicalization would not, in our opinion, appear to be desirable since we are dealing with a social rite which lies outside the domain of specific medical care. Nevertheless, although we do not advocate systematic medicalization, we do believe that medicine should play a role, in terms of public health, in this emerging practice. We discuss the modalities of a health education dialogue which could be established with professional practicing piercing.

  4. Management Operations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    This book is intended to acquaint students and professionals in educational management with those activities in educational organizations requiring technical, business-related competence, and with selected management tools that aid in the analysis of those activities. Part 1, Fiscal Systems, includes discussions of fund accounting, direct costing,…

  5. Management Operations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    This book is intended to acquaint students and professionals in educational management with those activities in educational organizations requiring technical, business-related competence, and with selected management tools that aid in the analysis of those activities. Part 1, Fiscal Systems, includes discussions of fund accounting, direct costing,…

  6. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  7. Medical management of adult transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Knezevich, Emily L; Viereck, Laura K; Drincic, Andjela T

    2012-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), or transsexualism, is an increasingly recognized medical condition with an expanding body of medical literature to support the use of established therapeutic guidelines. Transsexualism can be effectively managed through exogenous cross-sex hormone administration used to induce development of desired sex characteristics, as well as use of other agents, such as aldosterone antagonists, aimed at decreasing physical characteristics of the undesired sex. Many complications can arise with the use of the available therapies, and these must be considered before determining the appropriate course of action. This review describes methods, including both pharmacotherapy and surgical interventions, for effective medical management of both male and female adults with GID. In addition, specific goals of therapy as well as safety aspects with long-term use of pharmacotherapeutic agents are discussed. This review also discusses some special considerations for treating patients with significant, yet common, comorbid diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and viral hepatitis, as these conditions may complicate the clinical course and preclude some patients from using certain therapies. Pharmacist involvement in the management of transsexualism can be extremely beneficial to patients and other health care providers. Pharmacists can help determine the appropriate therapy, optimize dosages, monitor for adverse effects, and educate patients on what to expect during their therapy. Pharmacists should become knowledgeable about guidelines and current literature on transsexualism, understand the monitoring parameters for safe and effective therapy, and establish themselves as partners in the collaborative management of this disorder.

  8. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  9. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  10. Assessment Methods in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; McKinley, Danette W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been rapid and extensive change in the way assessment is conducted in medical education. Several new methods of assessment have been developed and implemented over this time and they have focused on clinical skills (taking a history from a patient and performing a physical examination), communication skills, procedural…

  11. Inspiring innovation in medical education.

    PubMed

    Woods, Majka; Anderson, Leslie; Rosenberg, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, changes to medical education come from the top down, an approach that potentially misses important contributions from medical students, residents, faculty and staff. In order to provide an avenue for them to bring forward their ideas for educational improvements, the University of Minnesota Medical School sponsored the "What's the Bright Idea?" contest. Through the contest, we sought to foster a culture of innovation and collaboration among faculty, staff and students. The contest included five phases: launch, idea submission, online voting, follow-up and implementation. Seventy-six ideas were submitted, and 902 people participated in the online voting. When asked in a follow-up survey whether the submitter would have developed their idea without the contest, 27% of respondents answered "no" and 18% answered "maybe." Three-fourths stated the contest stimulated networking and collaboration. Four of the recommendations are now being implemented.

  12. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation.

    PubMed

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many medical schools are modifying curricula to reflect the rapidly evolving health care environment, but schools struggle to provide the educational informatics technology (IT) support to make the necessary changes. Often a medical school's IT support for the education mission derives from isolated work units employing separate technologies that are not interoperable. We launched a redesigned, tightly integrated, and novel IT infrastructure to support a completely revamped curriculum at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. This system uses coordinated and interoperable technologies to support new instructional methods, capture students' effort, and manage feedback, allowing the monitoring of students' progress toward specific competency goals across settings and programs. The new undergraduate medical education program at Vanderbilt, entitled Curriculum 2.0, is a competency-based curriculum in which the ultimate goal is medical student advancement based on performance outcomes and personal goals rather than a time-based sequence of courses. IT support was essential in the creation of Curriculum 2.0. In addition to typical learning and curriculum management functions, IT was needed to capture data in the learning workflow for analysis, as well as for informing individual and programmatic success. We aligned people, processes, and technology to provide the IT infrastructure for the organizational transformation. Educational IT personnel were successfully realigned to create the new IT system. The IT infrastructure enabled monitoring of student performance within each competency domain across settings and time via personal student electronic portfolios. Students use aggregated performance data, derived in real time from the portfolio, for mentor-guided performance assessment, and for creation of individual learning goals and plans. Poorly performing students were identified earlier through online communication systems that alert the appropriate instructor or coach of

  13. Perceptions of current and recent military internal medicine residents on operational medicine, managed care, graduate medical education, and continued military service.

    PubMed

    Salerno, S; Cash, B; Cranston, M; Schoomaker, E

    1998-06-01

    Current and recent internal medicine residents were surveyed on their level of confidence in practicing operational medicine, satisfaction with graduate medical education, the impact of TRICARE, the military managed care plan, on their patients and education, and intentions on remaining in uniformed service. Their sentiments were recorded on a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly agree, 3 = neutral, 5 = strongly disagree). Two hundred twenty-one of the 294 surveys were returned (75.2%). Most physicians felt unprepared to perform duties in a nuclear, biological, or chemical warfare environment, or handle administrative aspects of operational medicine (mean scores, 3.2-3.7). A majority of respondents felt satisfied with the quality of their residency experience (mean score, 1.9). Although more than half of those surveyed (53.6%) listed the opportunity to teach residents as a top factor influencing their retention decision, most felt skeptical that graduate medical education would remain important in the future (mean score, 3.6). Most physicians agreed that restriction of TRICARE to patients less than 65 years old may degrade the quality of military internal medicine residencies (mean score, 1.6). Previous service, Reserve Officer Training Corps experience, and graduation from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences were factors associated with increased physician intention to remain beyond their obligated service. The most common factors inducing physicians to leave the military included frequent deployments, relocations, and financial compensation. Factors cited most frequently as influencing physicians to stay on active duty included high-quality colleagues, opportunities for teaching residents, and freedom from malpractice and office management details.

  14. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  15. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  16. Pediatric hospitalists and medical education.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Mary C

    2014-07-01

    Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) is moving toward becoming an American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) subspecialty, roughly a decade after its formal inception in 2003. Education has played a central role as the field has evolved. Hospitalists are needed to educate trainees, medical students, residents, fellows, and nurse practitioner and physician assistant students in inpatient pediatric practice. Continuous professional development is needed for hospitalists currently in practice to augment clinical skills, such as providing sedation and placing peripherally inserted central catheter lines, and nonclinical skills in areas such as quality improvement methodology, hospital administration, and health service research. To address the educational needs of the current and future state of PHM, additional training is now needed beyond residency training. Fellowship training will be essential to continue to advance the field of PHM as well as to petition the ABP for specialty accreditation. Training in using adult educational theory, curriculum, and assessment design are critical for pediatric hospitalists choosing to advance their careers as clinician-educators. Several venues are available for gaining advanced knowledge and skill as an educator. PHM clinician-educators are advancing the field of pediatric education as well as their own academic careers by virtue of the scholarly approach they have taken to designing and implementing curricula for unique PHM teaching situations. PHM educators are changing the educational paradigm to address challenges to traditional education strategies posed by duty hour restrictions and the increasing drive to shorten the duration of the hospitalization. By embracing learning with technology, such as simulation and e-learning with mobile devices, PHM educators can address these challenges as well as respond to learning preferences of millennial learners. The future for PHM education is bright. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  18. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  19. Disease management and medication compliance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna

    2012-02-01

    Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.

  20. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration.

  1. Individualized education plans in medical education.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Myriam; Grewald, Yekaterina; Hutchinson, Karen; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw; Manthous, Constantine

    2011-10-01

    Individualized education plans (IEP) are commonly used in nonmedical educational programs to define students' deficiencies and action plans for addressing them. There are no reports of using IEP for medical education. Internal medicine residency of a community teaching hospital. Residents requiring IEP were identified by a consensus of faculty members. IEPs, overseen by mentors, included: 1. List of deficiencies, 2. Techniques for remediation, 3. Schedule for meetings and re-evaluation of IEP progress. Demographic and evaluative data were abstracted from the performance files of internal medicine residents who served in the program between 2003 and 2010. Characteristics and educational outcomes of those receiving IEPs were compared to those not requiring IEPs. Of 92 residents, 16 received IEPs; 13 for medical knowledge, four for professionalism and one for communication.Average age was greater (35.2 vs 30.3 y; P=0.004) and graduation less recent (8.7 vs 4.8 y; P=0.03). USMLE step I and American Board of Internal Medicine in-service scores were lower in those with IEP (82.6 vs 89.4; P=0.001; 44.6 vs 68.5 percentile relative to same-PGY level; P=0.01). Three residents repeated a PGY year (two successfully) and four completed two to six extra months at the same PGY level. All but two residents in the program between 2003 and 2010 passed Boards on their first attempt; neither had an IEP. Of the 12 with successful IEPs, three graduated to primary-care positions, two to hospitalist positions, and six to subspecialty fellowships; one was lost to follow-up. A formal IEP process similar to that employed in nonmedical education was associated with successful graduation and board certification in a majority of medical trainees who required remediation.

  2. Medical field management of the injured diver.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, K

    1999-03-01

    This article discusses the history of medical field management of the injured diver, and presents a comprehensive medical equipment list for field treatment as well as treatment protocols. Case reports are used to illustrate the principles and outcome of medical field management.

  3. Improving Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To present an outsider's view of how management education can be significantly improved. Design/methodology/approach: Focuses on correcting several obvious deficiencies in courses and degree programs to create highly differentiated educational experiences that are more relevant to student's needs and the organizations that employ…

  4. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  5. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  6. [Medical audit: a modern undervalued management tool].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Guido; Sayes, Nilda; Fernández, Lautaro; Araya, Ester; Poblete, Dennis

    2002-02-01

    Medical audit is defined as the critical and periodical assessment of the quality of medical care, through the revision on medical records and hospital statistics. This review defines the work of the medical auditor and shows the fields of action of medical audit, emphasizing its importance and usefulness as a management tool. The authors propose that every hospital should create an audit system, should provide the necessary tools to carry out medical audits and should form an audit committee.

  7. A brief history of medical education and training in Australia.

    PubMed

    Geffen, Laurence

    2014-07-07

    Medical education and training in Australia comprises four phases: basic education, prevocational training, vocational training and continuing professional development. Between the 1860s and 1960s, eight medical schools were established in Australia, admitting school leavers to courses comprised of preclinical, paraclinical and clinical phases. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, two innovative new schools were established and all schools made major reforms to student selection, curricula and teaching, learning and assessment methods. Since 2000, student numbers expanded rapidly, both in existing medical schools and in eight new schools established to meet workforce demands, particularly in the rural sector. Prevocational training, first introduced as a compulsory internship year in the 1930s, has undergone reform and extension to subsequent years of junior doctor training through the agency of health departments and postgraduate medical education councils. Vocational training and continuing professional development, delivered by 15 specialist medical colleges, has evolved since the 1930s from a focus on specialist care of individual patients to include broader professional attributes required to manage complex health care systems. The Australian Medical Council began accreditation of basic medical education in 1985 and its remit now extends to all phases of medical education and training. With national governance of the entire system of medical education and training now achieved, mechanisms exist for flexible integration of all phases of medical education to meet the local and global challenges facing Australia's medical workforce.

  8. Managing Mandated Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' perspectives on the management of mandated educational change in order to understand how it may be managed more effectively. A case study of teachers' responses to the introduction of a quality teaching initiative in two New South Wales schools found that while some teachers described the strong negative impact of…

  9. Managing Mandated Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' perspectives on the management of mandated educational change in order to understand how it may be managed more effectively. A case study of teachers' responses to the introduction of a quality teaching initiative in two New South Wales schools found that while some teachers described the strong negative impact of…

  10. Feedback in clinical medical education.

    PubMed

    Ende, J

    1983-08-12

    In the setting of clinical medical education, feedback refers to information describing students' or house officers' performance in a given activity that is intended to guide their future performance in that same or in a related activity. It is a key step in the acquisition of clinical skills, yet feedback is often omitted or handled improperly in clinical training. This can result in important untoward consequences, some of which may extend beyond the training period. Once the nature of the feedback process is appreciated, however, especially the distinction between feedback and evaluation and the importance of focusing on the trainees' observable behaviors rather than on the trainees themselves, the educational benefit of feedback can be realized. This article presents guidelines for offering feedback that have been set forth in the literature of business administration, psychology, and education, adapted here for use by teachers and students of clinical medicine.

  11. Medical waste management in China: a case study of Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Yong, Zhang; Gang, Xiao; Guanxing, Wang; Tao, Zhou; Dawei, Jiang

    2009-04-01

    Medical waste management is of great importance due to its infectious and hazardous nature that can cause undesirable effects on humans and the environment. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the present status of medical waste management in the light of medical waste control regulations in Nanjing. A comprehensive inspection survey was conducted for 15 hospitals, 3 disposal companies and 200 patients. Field visits and a questionnaire survey method were implemented to collect information regarding different medical waste management aspects, including medical waste generation, segregation and collection, storage, training and education, transportation, disposal, and public awareness. The results indicated that the medical waste generation rate ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 kg/bed day with a weighted average of 0.68 kg/bed day. The segregated collection of various types of medical waste has been conducted in 73% of the hospitals, but 20% of the hospitals still use unqualified staff for medical waste collection, and 93.3% of the hospitals have temporary storage areas. Additionally, 93.3% of the hospitals have provided training for staff; however, only 20% of the hospitals have ongoing training and education. It was found that the centralized disposal system has been constructed based on incineration technology, and the disposal cost of medical waste is about 580 US$/ton. The results also suggested that there is not sufficient public understanding of medical waste management, and 77% of respondents think medical waste management is an important factor in selecting hospital services. The problematic areas of medical waste management in Nanjing are addressed by proposing some recommendations that will ensure that potential health and environmental risks of medical waste are minimized.

  12. Compendium of Military Allied Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    To improve the effectiveness of allied health education in both civilian and military programs, the U. S. Department of Defense and the AMA Council on Medical Education's Advisory Committee on Education for the Allied Professions and Services sponsor a Subcommittee on Military Allied Medical Education. One objective of this Subcommittee is AMA…

  13. Medication therapy management services: definitions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Annette N; Martin, Michelle T; Tilton, Jessica J; Touchette, Daniel R

    2009-01-01

    In the US, the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 required that Medicare Part D insurers provide medication therapy management (MTM) services (MTMS) to selected beneficiaries, with the goals of providing education, improving adherence, or detecting adverse drug events and medication misuse. These broad goals and variety in MTM programmes available make assessment of these programmes difficult. The objectives of this article are to review the definitions of MTMS proposed by various stakeholders, and to summarize and evaluate the outcomes of MTMS consistent with those that may be offered in Medicare Part D or reimbursed by State Medicaid programmes. MTM programmes are approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Pharmacy, medical and insurance organizations have provided guidelines and definitions for MTM programmes, distinguishing them from other types of community pharmacy activities. MTM has been distinguished from disease state management because of the focus on medications and multiple conditions. It differs from patient counselling because it is delivered independent of dispensing and involves collaboration with patients and providers. There is no consensus on the recommended mode of delivery (i.e. face-to-face or by telephone) for MTM. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify articles published after 2000 using the search terms 'medication therapy management' and 'medication management'. Studies with outcomes evaluating community-based programmes consistent with MTMS, regardless of MTMS reimbursement source, were included in the review. Seven publications describing four MTMS were identified. For each of the identified articles, we describe the study design, service setting, inclusion criteria and outcomes. An additional three surveys describing multiple MTMS were identified and are summarized. Finally, ongoing efforts by CMS to evaluate the success of MTMS in the US are described. To date, there are limited outcomes available for MTMS

  14. Environmental Management, Hazard Management and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.

    This paper investigates the links between environmental management, hazard management, and education in Australia. The purpose of the paper is to show that hazards are a major aspect of the environment of all students, hazard education is fundamental to effective hazard management in a democratic society, and hazard education should be regarded as…

  15. [Ethical "flashes" of medical care management].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    This document demonstrates in a simple way the depth and variety of ethical topics in medical care management, which are subjects not often addressed. Every medical administrator should be aware that all actions and decisions have ethical dimensions. Ethics applies to management of medical services according to honesty, transparency and decency. The behavior of those persons administering medical services is based on ethical values, principles and theories.

  16. Abdominal ultrasound and medical education.

    PubMed

    García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. The Status of Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. R.

    1966-01-01

    Any educational process involves four distinct stages: the selection of goals, the selection of learning experiences, the organization of these experiences and the evaluation of achievement. If the results of evaluation are unsatisfactory, then the goals were unrealistic, the learning experiences were inadequate, or the experiences were poorly organized. The characteristics of the good physician and the recognition of these in candidates for medical education are matters of great interest. Does a student learn because he has good teachers or because he has proper motivation for success? Is it possible for one to teach another, and if so, what is the best technique of instruction? How can the student best be evaluated? Medical education is in a state of rapid change, but changes of significance will not occur until the quality of the teachers is improved and the barriers of departmental organization are removed, thus putting the students' instruction in the hands of persons unbiased by concentration on a small field of endeavour. PMID:5907585

  18. [Generic competences in medical undergraduate education].

    PubMed

    Kääpä, Pekka; Hoffren, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    In medical practice physicians need both vocational and generic competences. The importance of generic competences In medical undergraduate curriculum is often poorly appreciated. We assessed by questionnaires the opinions of medical students of the importance of generic competences in medical practice and of their anticipated development during undergraduate medical education in the University of Turku. Students thought that application of medical knowledge in practice, information acquisition, independent working and problem solving skills are important in medical practice and are also well-handled in undergraduate education. On the other hand, students felt that competences, like coping at work, tolerance of uncertainty and organizing skills are often needed in medical profession, but are insufficiently considered in basic education. The balance between importance in medical practice and educational development of generic competences should be more explicitly considered in undergraduate medical teaching.

  19. Nurses' attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jane F; Rotz, Melissa E; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita

    2017-01-01

    Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Examine nurses' attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses' medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses' confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p<0.01), providing information on new medications (0.52; p<0.05), using open-ended questions (0.51; p<0.01), and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p<0.05). Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient's understanding of the information, was the most common challenge for nurses

  20. The Medical Educator Teaching Portfolio

    PubMed Central

    Lamki, Neela; Marchand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A revolution in thinking and redefinition of traditional scholarship by prioritising teaching skills and achievements has led to the birth of the Teaching Portfolio, designed to carry a comprehensive and dynamic record of the teaching activities of the faculty. A teaching portfolio documents the faculty’s teaching scholarship and effectiveness. It is a record of selected information on one’s teaching achievements, skills and strategies and dynamically represents the faculty’s growth, progress and teaching record. The author suggests a template for the Teaching Portfolio of a Medical Educator, which consists of four parts: (1) evaluation, (2) personal professional development, (3) learning processes and (4) an appendix. PMID:21748120

  1. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  2. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  3. A shift to ambulatory medical education in Israel.

    PubMed

    Karkabi, Khaled; Castel, Orit Cohen; Reis, Shmuel; Shvartzman, Pesach; Vinker, Shlomo; Lahad, Amnon

    2010-06-01

    The Council for Higher Education in Israel published an extensive report in 2007, calling for a significant increase of undergraduate medical education in Israel in ambulatory care settings. The objective of this article is to propose an action plan aimed at shifting undergraduate medical education in Israel towards ambulatory education. The main barriers to increasing ambulatory education in Israel are lack of academic recognition for teaching and excellence, conflict between patient care, income and teaching, lack of an adequate educational infrastructure and faculty in ambulatory care, and insufficient support and involvement of the health organisations. However, there is great potential for developing ambulatory education in Israel based on existing resources: Israel has a well-established primary care network, has chronic disease management programmes, community-based preventive medicine and health promotion activities, and an emerging structure for home, palliative and terminal care in the community. The proposed action plan presents a framework for enhancing ambulatory education in undergraduate medical education in Israel, and allows site-specific adjustments according to the preferences, resources and capabilities of each of the four medical schools. A national shift to ambulatory education in Israel can be implemented through the existing coordination mechanism of the four medical schools. A government funding policy that encourages the collaboration between four medical schools will be beneficial both in terms of resource utilisation and the engagement of other stakeholders. The recognition of community services and educational excellence can be advanced by establishing academies of teaching scholars. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  4. Analysis of the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education Program Fund Allocations for Indirect Medical Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Kawata, Jennifer

    This study analyzed issues related to estimating indirect medical education costs specific to pediatric discharges. The Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGNE) program was established to support graduate medical education in children's hospitals. This provision authorizes payments for both direct and indirect medical education…

  5. [Proper disposal(management) of medical wastes--the appropriate management of medical waste in laboratory].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, S

    2000-05-01

    In accordance with "The Manual for Management of Infectious Waste" which is based on the "Waste Management Law", a counterplan for the appropriate management of medical waste must be carried out in every hospital. This requires establishing "a committee for the appropriate management of medical waste" and to assign a "responsible person for management of medical waste" (an administrator for managing industrial waste under special control) inside the hospital. Since the law requires hospitals to take responsibility for discharging medical waste, hospitals must adopt a prudent policy for waste management. It becomes a most critical issue for hospitals, because medical waste is the subject of spot inspection under the supervision of MHW, and also the subject of border transgression prohibition between countries(both import and export) by the Bazel Treaty (1989) that Japan ratified in 1993. In this study, we discuss medical waste management in the central laboratory based upon the counterplan for appropriate management of medical waste at our hospital.

  6. An upcoming program for medical humanities education in Fudan University's School of Basic Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-05-23

    Ideal medical care requires professional skills as well as appropriate communication skills. However, traditional medical education in medical schools mostly emphasizes the former. To remedy this situation, medical humanities education will be incorporated into education for medical students at Fudan University. Comprehensive medical education that includes both medical skills and humanities may greatly improve medical care.

  7. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Tayyab

    2010-01-01

    Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.

  8. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  9. Students Are Not Customers: A Better Model for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the student-as-customer model of medical education has many failings that result in educationally dysfunctional interactions. Proposes a new model (based on Deming's 14 principles for quality in business) in which faculty are managers of instruction, students are learning workers, the product is successful learning, and the customers…

  10. Students Are Not Customers: A Better Model for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the student-as-customer model of medical education has many failings that result in educationally dysfunctional interactions. Proposes a new model (based on Deming's 14 principles for quality in business) in which faculty are managers of instruction, students are learning workers, the product is successful learning, and the customers…

  11. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. Methods We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. Results 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. Conclusions The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify the most effective and cost

  12. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mark R; Quince, Thelma A; Wood, Diana F; Benson, John A

    2011-11-14

    There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify the most effective and cost-effective curriculum innovations, this

  13. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  14. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  15. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process.

  16. 78 FR 18990 - Medical Professionals Recruitment and Continuing Education Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    .... B. Grantee Cooperative Agreement Award Activities (1) Overall coordination and management of the... pursuing excellence in Native American health care by promoting education in the medical disciplines.... The applicant will be notified by email by the Division of Grants Management (DGM) of this...

  17. American Medical Education: Institutions, Programs, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    This report presents information about the academic medical centers belonging to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and profiles American medical education generally. Following a brief introduction, a section on institutions and resources offers information on medical schools' financial support, faculties, and faculty practice…

  18. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge.

  19. Medical education and social environment.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Ahsan; Qayum, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Farooq, Umer; Shah, Awais Ali; Waqas, Muhammad; Rasool, Maleeha; Hameed, Sania; Kanwal, Rana; Azmat, Muneeba; Marwat, Saleem; Afridit, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    A positive learning environment and quality of course content have an imperative role in academic achievement of students. This study aims to assess students' point of view about the quality of education and social environment of a public sector medical college in Pakistan. Relative scarcity of data from students' perspective merited this study. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan, including 300 medical students from all five years of the MBBS course. Systematic random sampling was used with a kth interval of 4 for each class. Self-administered questionnaire was used and contained items related to academics, learning environment, learning resources, teaching methodologies and student-friendly activities. The data were analysed using SPSS-16. There were 265 respondents (88.3%) to the questionnaire with males accounting for 58.9% (n=156). In general students showed satisfaction with quality of content being taught; however there was discontent towards various academic and non- academic facilities provided to the students. Only 44.10% and 31.50% students reported provision of academic related facilities and interactive sessions as up to mark respectively; 83% students reported that undergraduate medical research was in need of improvement; 55.5% and 60.2% reported that facilities in hostel and recreational facilities needed improvement respectively; and 52.8% students stated presence of a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment was not up to mark. Although course content and teaching methodologies are generally satisfactory, a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment is vet to be created to help students foster their abilities completely.

  20. [Current status of medical education in Chile].

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it.

  1. Medical Care Evaluation: An Experience in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlow, L. J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The educational contribution of medical care evaluation (MCE) has been portrayed as the identification of physicians' educational needs. A study of 13 MCE committees was undertaken to document the learning that occurs in these committees and to discover the conditions affecting their educational value. (Author/MLW)

  2. Management Engineered Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomstedt, Bob

    "Management engineered" teacher education is an instructional method designed to assist teachers in the acquisition, maintenence, and improvement of essential knowledge, skills, attributes, and professional competencies which are necessary to function effectively in varied professional roles. The system aims at improving teachers' performances as…

  3. Simplifying Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Managing district information, web sites, and data security as well as supplying information on-demand are just a few of the tasks causing educational administrators to seek new solutions these days. The answer is to streamline the business of running schools by putting all information in one place so coordinated data and files can be accessed.…

  4. An intensive medical education elective for senior medical students.

    PubMed

    Gainor, Jamie; Patel, Nilay K; George, Paul F; MacNamara, Marina M C; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2014-07-01

    Peer teaching by medical students is increasingly consid- ered an effective and efficient instructional modality with value for both teachers and learners. In 2012, twelve senior medical students participated in an inaugural, four-week Medical Education Elective at The Alpert Medical School of Brown University. The first week emphasized education theory and skills. During the remaining three weeks, participants served as a core group of instructors in a Clinical Skills Clerkship (CSC), a three-week required course transitioning rising third-year students to clinical clerkships. Senior near-peer instructors (NPIs) gained substantive experience in developing curriculum, facilitating small group sessions, teaching clinical skills, mentoring, providing feedback, and grading an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Based on direct observation by faculty and written anonymous evaluations by learners (n=98), NPIs demonstrated a high degree of teaching competence. This innovative, by-invitation-only, annual elective is the most substantive medical education experience for medical students described in the literature.

  5. Biostatistical and medical statistics graduate education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of graduate education in biostatistics and medical statistics is discussed in the context of training within a medical center setting. The need for medical researchers to employ a wide variety of statistical designs in clinical, genetic, basic science and translational settings justifies the ongoing integration of biostatistical training into medical center educational settings and informs its content. The integration of large data issues are a challenge. PMID:24472088

  6. Teaching teamwork in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica

    2009-08-01

    Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis

  7. Deficiencies in concussion education in Canadian medical schools.

    PubMed

    Burke, Matthew J; Chundamala, Josie; Tator, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports raise concern that physician knowledge of the identification and management of concussion may be deficient. There is little information known about the adequacy of concussion education provided to physicians or medical students. The present study assesses the concussion curriculum offered at medical schools in Canada. We asked all 17 Canadian medical schools to complete a questionnaire on their concussion curriculum, including the following: year of medical school offered; format/setting; and estimated teaching hours. The responses were organized into three categories: (1) concussion-specific education; (2) head injury education incorporating a concussion component; and (3) no concussion education. Replies were received from 14 (82%) of the 17 medical schools in Canada. Of the 14 responding schools, four (29%) provided concussion-specific education, six (43%) offered head injury education that incorporated a concussion component, and four (29%) reported no concussion teaching in their curriculum. We found deficiencies in the concussion education curriculum provided in the majority of Canadian medical schools. To address this issue, we recommend that all medical schools should, at a minimum, include a one-hour formal concussion-specific teaching session in an early year of their curriculum to be followed by clinical exposure to concussed patients in the later years of medical school. Future studies will be necessary to evaluate if these recommended curricular enhancements are effective in remedying the reported gaps in physicians' concussion knowledge and whether the improved curriculum translates into better care for patients suffering concussion.

  8. Medical education in Libya: the challenges.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran

    2009-06-01

    The history of medical education in Libya spans over a period of 40 years. Medical schools had a good and promising start in the 1970s. The graduates of the first few classes had a good impact on the health services in Libya. However, the medical schools did not embrace the immense changes that medical education experienced over the last two decades. This article aims to give a background on the medical education in Libya and explore the challenges facing it, which may help in gaining the initial momentum that seems to have been lost.

  9. Successful medical management of neutropenic enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, W.; Greenberg, B.R.

    1983-04-15

    The medical management of neutropenic enterocolitis has been associated with a 100% mortality rate according to recent reports. This report describes two cases which were successfully managed without colonic resection. In one case, /sup 67/Ga radionuclide scanning was utilized as an aid in the diagnosis. The incidence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and previously reported cases of medical management of neutropenic enterocolitis are reviewed, and the role of granulocyte transfusions and /sup 67/Ga scanning are discussed.

  10. Future directions in reptile medical education.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott; Heard, Darryl; Isaza, Ramiro

    2006-01-01

    Reptile medicine has emerged as a specialty area within the broader field of zoological medicine. It encompasses the medical needs of approximately 7,500 vertebrate species. This vertebrate class is highly diversified, having biological and medical peculiarities that differ both between and within major groups. Historically, veterinarians who have become recognized specialists with reptiles have had limited formal training in their medical management. The pet reptile trade is a multi-million-dollar business, and the popularity of reptiles as pets has resulted in a need for more veterinarians with training in their medical management. While few private practices have high volumes of reptile cases, many small-animal practices will have the opportunity to see a significant number of reptiles on an annual basis. Most practitioners with reptile medical expertise have merged their experiences as reptile pet owners with the principles of veterinary medicine taught in veterinary college. Several North American veterinary colleges have reptile medicine courses, and most have didactic and clinical courses in exotic and zoo animal medicine that include lectures and practical experience. Most accredited zoological medicine residency training programs include training in reptile medicine. The case load and interest in reptile medicine will probably never be sufficient to lead the average veterinary college to develop much more than what is currently offered. Consequently, those few colleges having more extensive course offerings, both didactic and clinical, will serve as educational centers for this discipline. Future Web-based teaching programs in reptile medicine will allow students nationally and internationally to have access to instructional material that can be continually updated.

  11. Students are not customers: a better model for medical education.

    PubMed

    Albanese, M

    1999-11-01

    The author argues that the student-as-customer model of medical education has many failings that result in interactions that are educationally dysfunctional. Ten "pathologies" resulting from the adoption of this model are presented (e.g., "The student-customer model seduces students into believing that they know what is best for them"). Part of the reason for the unprofessional conduct often demonstrated by students and faculty alike may be a result of the influence of this model on medical education and the consequent inappropriate empowerment of students in the role of customers, the diminishment of faculty in the role of workers who provide instruction, and the view that instruction is the service or product of medical education. The author proposes a new model of medical education in which faculty are managers of instruction, students are learning workers, the product is successful learning, and the customers are faculty, residency supervisors, patients, managed care organizations, and society. The implications of this new model are profound and are described in terms of Deming's 14 principles for achieving quality in business. The author maintains that the proposed model is the critical first step in clarifying and identifying the proper roles of all those involved in the medical education process, which in turn will diminish or eliminate the pathologies that currently plague medical education and lead to the achievement of real quality.

  12. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities. PMID:23248661

  13. Progress integrating medical humanities into medical education: a global overview.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefani; Chen, Yuchia; Tsai, Duujian

    2016-09-01

    The article reviews the most recent developments in integrating humanities into medical education. Global implications and future trends are illustrated. The main concern of medical humanities education is teaching professionalism; one important aspect that has emerged is the goal of nurturing emotion through reflexivity. Relating effectively to all stakeholders and being sensitive to inequitable power dynamics are essential for professional social accountability in modern medical contexts. Mediating doctors' understanding of the clinical encounter through creative arts and narrative is part of most recent pedagogic innovations aimed at motivating learners to become empowered, engaged and caring clinicians. Scenario-based and discursive-oriented evaluations of such activities should be aligned with the medical humanities' problem-based learning curriculum. Medical humanities education fosters professional reflexivity that is important for achieving patient-centered care. Countering insufficient empathy with reflective professionalism is an urgent challenge in medical education; to answer this need, creative arts and narrative understanding have emerged as crucial tools of medical humanities education. To ensure competent professional identity formation in the era of translational medicine, medical humanities programs have adopted scenario-based assessments through inclusion of different voices and emphasizing personal reflection and social critique.

  14. Using disease-state management as the key to promoting employer sponsorship of medical nutrition therapy (continuing education credit).

    PubMed

    Israel, D A; McCabe, M

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, implement, and improve a nationwide medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention program for nutritionally at-risk employees and their dependents and retirees (hereinafter referred to as clients) with a Fortune 100 company (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Tex) with a dispersed population of 80,000. Preferred Nutrition Therapists (PNT), a network of registered dietitians, with the assistance of the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department, identified International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed (ICD-9), codes for which MNT intervention was appropriate. PNT then negotiated a contract with the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department and implemented clients' self-referral process. The main challenge was to promote utilization of a new service from an outside vendor (PNT) and to measure outcomes in meaningful ways. The goal was to use MNT as a tool to prevent the progression of clients' diseases to states that require more costly treatments. PNT used a continuous quality improvement process to refine the system and improve information gathering and reporting, by providing quarterly reports to the Health Promotion and Benefits Department. These reports summarized the outcomes for all clients seen at least 3 times during the quarter. The cost was less than $0.35 per member per month (less than the employer spent on advertising the program), and 0.5% of the population requested MNT during the first year of implementation (about what was expected for a new carveout benefit).

  15. Has medical education killed "silence"?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shuh Shing

    2017-04-01

    There is an ignorance of "silence" observed from student selection methods to teaching and learning approaches. While selecting the candidates with suitable values to medical schools is crucial, most methods are unable to address fairness issue toward students from some disadvantaged background or certain personality specifically introversion. Similarly, teaching and learning approaches have shifted away from didactic to a more discursive methods such as brainstorming, team-based learning and case-based learning. These methods emphasize active participation and communication with team members, but having more discussion does not indicate that deep learning has taken place. Majority of these approaches require students to complete a task within an allocated time frame. Therefore, most of the time is utilized to complete a task instead of learning how to acquire a skill or learning how to learn. Important "silent" skills such as observation, reasoning process, and listening skills, are given less time or almost none due to time constraint within these discursive approaches, although these skills are extremely important as a doctor. Hence, it is time to think about on how best to balance the use of silence and externalize thought processes in medical education.

  16. Trust and risk: a model for medical education.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Arvin; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust. This narrative overview of the trust literature explores how risk, trust and control intersect with current thinking in medical education, and makes suggestions for potential directions of enquiry. Beyond EPAs, the importance of trust in health care and medical education is reviewed, followed by a brief history of trust research in the wider literature. Interpersonal and organisational levels of trust and a model of trust from the management literature are used to provide the framework with which to decipher trust decisions in health care and medical education, in which risk and vulnerability are inherent. In workplace learning and assessment, the language of 'trust' may offer a more authentic and practical vocabulary than that of 'competency' because clinical and professional risks are explicitly considered. There are many other trust relationships in health care and medical education. At the most basic level, it is helpful to clearly delineate who is the trustor, the trustee, and for what task. Each relationship has interpersonal and organisational elements. Understanding and considered utilisation of trust and control mechanisms in health care and medical education may lead to systems that maturely manage risk while actively encouraging trust and empowerment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. Use of Handheld Computers in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Anna; Henderson, Laura E; Dressler, Daniel D; Kripalani, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past decade, handheld computers (or personal digital assistants [PDAs]) have become a popular tool among medical trainees and physicians. Few comprehensive reviews of PDA use in medicine have been published. OBJECTIVE We systematically reviewed the literature to (1) describe medical trainees' use of PDAs for education or patient care, (2) catalog popular software applications, and (3) evaluate the impact of PDA use on patient care. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (1993 to 2004), medical education-related conference proceedings, and hand search of article bibliographies. REVIEW METHODS We identified articles and abstracts that described the use of PDAs in medical education by trainees or educators. Reports presenting a qualitative or quantitative evaluation were included. RESULTS Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Approximately 60% to 70% of medical students and residents use PDAs for educational purposes or patient care. Satisfaction was generally high and correlated with the level of handheld computer experience. Most of the studies included described PDA use for patient tracking and documentation. By contrast, trainees rated medical textbooks, medication references, and medical calculators as the most useful applications. Only 1 randomized trial with educational outcomes was found, demonstrating improved learning and application of evidence-based medicine with use of PDA-based decision support software. No articles reported the impact of PDA use on patient outcomes. CONCLUSION Most medical trainees find handhelds useful in their medical education and patient care. Further studies are needed to evaluate how PDAs impact learning and clinical outcomes. PMID:16704405

  18. Intelligent distributed medical image management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.

    1995-05-01

    The rapid advancements in high performance global communication have accelerated cooperative image-based medical services to a new frontier. Traditional image-based medical services such as radiology and diagnostic consultation can now fully utilize multimedia technologies in order to provide novel services, including remote cooperative medical triage, distributed virtual simulation of operations, as well as cross-country collaborative medical research and training. Fast (efficient) and easy (flexible) retrieval of relevant images remains a critical requirement for the provision of remote medical services. This paper describes the database system requirements, identifies technological building blocks for meeting the requirements, and presents a system architecture for our target image database system, MISSION-DBS, which has been designed to fulfill the goals of Project MISSION (medical imaging support via satellite integrated optical network) -- an experimental high performance gigabit satellite communication network with access to remote supercomputing power, medical image databases, and 3D visualization capabilities in addition to medical expertise anywhere and anytime around the country. The MISSION-DBS design employs a synergistic fusion of techniques in distributed databases (DDB) and artificial intelligence (AI) for storing, migrating, accessing, and exploring images. The efficient storage and retrieval of voluminous image information is achieved by integrating DDB modeling and AI techniques for image processing while the flexible retrieval mechanisms are accomplished by combining attribute- based and content-based retrievals.

  19. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    PubMed

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (p<0.001). A majority of Swedish medical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Medication information management: capturing multiprofessional perspective.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Kivekäs, Eija; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Medication information management (MIM) is a crucial activity for good quality of medication, but unfortunately not without problems. In order to improve medication information management the core activity of medication as a cooperative activity is to be studied as a whole, and the multiprofessional viewpoint for the improvement needs must be captured. In this paper we present our approach to gain such shared understanding, based on our regional development project experiences in Northern Savonia, Finland. The central features of the approach include thematic interviews supported by activity-driven models and a workshop with professionally mixed groups. Participants agreed strongly on the usefulness of the approach.

  1. Educational Management: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…

  2. Continuing medical education: ethical collaboration between sponsor and industry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Frederic S

    2003-07-01

    The quandary is, "How can the very different fiduciary responsibilities of physicians and pharmaceutical companies ethically coexist in a society where its healthcare system is under increasing financial scrutiny?" It is paradoxical that the number of states requiring continuing medical education for medical licensure has increased to 39, in the face of reduced federal funding and the squeeze of managed care. Despite industry's providing more than half of the funding required to sustain the increasing need for continuing medical education, some physicians claim it is inappropriate for continuing medical education sponsors to collaborate with pharmaceutical companies because of their vested interest in selling prescription medications. Is the integrity of the physician-patient relationship at risk? I will show that there are ethical standards in place, for professionals and industry, that are effectively maintaining the continuing medical education system in balance. Eliminating the current opportunities for collaboration between sponsors and commercial supporters would severely compromise the continuing medical education enterprise in the United States, ultimately, a disservice to patients, who expect their physicians to continue their medical education lifelong.

  3. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  4. Lead User Design: Medication Management in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan; Weber, Jens H; Davies, Iryna; Bellwood, Paule

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in medication management may lead to a reduction of preventable errors. Usability and user experience issues are common and related to achieving benefits of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs). This paper reports on a novel study that combines the lead user method with a safety engineering review to discover an innovative design for the medication management module in EMRs in primary care. Eight lead users were recruited that represented prescribers and clinical pharmacists with expertise in EMR design, evidence-based medicine, medication safety and medication research. Eight separate medication management module designs were prototyped and validated, one with each lead user. A parallel safety review of medicaiton management was completed. The findings were synthesized into a single common set of goals, activities and one interactive, visual prototype. The lead user method with safety review proved to be an effective way to elicit diverse user goals and synthesize them into a common design. The resulting design ideas focus on meeting the goals of quality, efficiency, safety, reducing the cognitive load on the user, and improving communication wih the patient and the care team. Design ideas are being adapted to an existing EMR product, providing areas for further work.

  5. [Effectiveness of education in diabetes care management - instructions for educators].

    PubMed

    Jirkovská, Jarmila

    Continuous process of diabetic patient´s education is essential. Educator´s task is to select situationally and individually appropriate form of education and educational tools. Than he becomes capable to motivate patients to participate actively and cooperate. Use of practical and visual educational tools increases the memorability. Studies have shown positive effect on improvement of glycemic control for both individual and group education. When properly educated diabetic patient is able to make independent decisions and manage the disease. Achieving good long-term glycemic control with reduced risk of chronic complications in compliant diabetic patient is the expected target of treatment. Thus the medical care becomes cost-effective.Key words: conversation map tools - diabetes mellitus - educator - group education - individual education.

  6. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Shahram; Khoshgoftar, Zohreh; Ahmady, Soleiman; Rastegarpour, Hassan; Foroutan, Seyed Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system's main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the 'Four-phase method' adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion.

  7. Rethinking Anatomy: How to Overcome Challenges of Medical Education's Evolution.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bruno; Dourado, Luís; Tsisar, Stanislav; Diniz, José Miguel; Madeira, Maria Dulce; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-02-27

    Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm. We performed a bibliographic review aiming to reflect on Medical Education's current pedagogical trend, by analysing the advantages of the introduction and diversification of pedagogical approaches in Anatomy Education. Anatomy Education's status quo is characterized by: less available teaching time, increasing demands from radiology and endoscopy imaging and other invasive and non-invasive medical techniques, increasing number of medical students and other logistical restrains exposed by the current Medical Education scenario. The traditional learning approach, mainly based on cadaveric dissection, is drifting to complementary newer technologies - such as 3D models or 2D/3D digital imaging - to examine the anatomy of the human body. Also, knowledge transfer is taking different channels, as learning management systems, social networks and computer-assisted learning and assessment are assuming relevant roles. The future holds promising approaches for education models. The development of Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality and Learning Analytics could provide analytic tools towards a real-time and personalized learning process. A reflection on Anatomy Education, as a comprehensive model, allows us to understand Medical Education's complexity. Therefore, the present Medical Education context favours a blended learning approach, in which multi-modality pedagogical strategies may become the landmark.

  8. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system

    PubMed Central

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; KHOSHGOFTAR, ZOHREH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; RASTEGARPOUR, HASSAN; FOROUTAN, SEYED ABBAS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system’s main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. Methods: In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the ‘Four-phase method’ adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. Results: We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Conclusion: Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion. PMID:28124017

  9. Structuring medication related activities for information management.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Kivekäs, Eija; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Medication treatment and the related information management are central parts of a patient's health care. As a cross-organizational and cooperative process, medication information management is a complex domain for development activities. We studied medication activities and related information management in a regional project in order to produce a shared broad picture of its processes and to understand the main issues and the needs for improvement. In this paper we provide a summary of the findings in a structured form, based on a six-dimensioned framework for design and analysis of activities and processes.

  10. Lived Experiences of Educational Leaders in Iranian Medical Education System: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Farshad, Mohammad Mahdi; Farshad, Fatemeh; Farahani, Mansoureh Ashgale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High quality educational systems are necessary for sustainable development and responding to the needs of society. In the recent decades, concerns have increased on the quality of education and competency of graduates. Since graduates of medical education are directly involved with the health of society, the quality of this system is of high importance. Investigation in the lived experience of educational leaders in the medical education systems can help to promote its quality. The present research examines this issue in Iran. Methodology: The study was done using content-analysis qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews. The participants included 26 authorities including university chancellors and vice-chancellors, ministry heads and deputies, deans of medical and basic sciences departments, education expert, graduates, and students of medical fields. Sampling was done using purposive snowball method. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings: Five main categories and 14 sub-categories were extracted from data analysis including: quantity-orientation, ambiguity in the trainings, unsuitable educational environment, personalization of the educational management, and ineffective interpersonal relationship. The final theme was identified as “Education in shadow”. Conclusion: Personalization and inclusion of personal preferences in management styles, lack of suitable grounds, ambiguity in the structure and process of education has pushed medical education toward shadows and it is not the first priority; this can lead to incompetency of medical science graduates. PMID:26925915

  11. Lived Experiences of Educational Leaders in Iranian Medical Education System: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Farshad, Mohammad Mahdi; Farshad, Fatemeh; Farahani, Mansoureh Ashgale

    2015-12-18

    High quality educational systems are necessary for sustainable development and responding to the needs of society. In the recent decades, concerns have increased on the quality of education and competency of graduates. Since graduates of medical education are directly involved with the health of society, the quality of this system is of high importance. Investigation in the lived experience of educational leaders in the medical education systems can help to promote its quality. The present research examines this issue in Iran. The study was done using content-analysis qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews. The participants included 26 authorities including university chancellors and vice-chancellors, ministry heads and deputies, deans of medical and basic sciences departments, education expert, graduates, and students of medical fields. Sampling was done using purposive snowball method. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Five main categories and 14 sub-categories were extracted from data analysis including: quantity-orientation, ambiguity in the trainings, unsuitable educational environment, personalization of the educational management, and ineffective interpersonal relationship. The final theme was identified as "Education in shadow". Personalization and inclusion of personal preferences in management styles, lack of suitable grounds, ambiguity in the structure and process of education has pushed medical education toward shadows and it is not the first priority; this can lead to incompetency of medical science graduates.

  12. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  13. Reform of Medical Education. The Role of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condliffe, Peter G.; Furnia, Arthur H.

    This book is the second of a series of conference proceedings on problems of medical education held by the Fogarty International Center. The participants discussed the value of research in medical education, research as a teaching tool, research and the teaching of community medicine, concepts of medical education, the role of the school of…

  14. Challenges and opportunities facing medical education.

    PubMed

    Densen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is at a crossroads. Although unique features exist at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels, shared aspects of all three levels are especially revealing, and form the basis for informed decision-making about the future of medical education.This paper describes some of the internal and external challenges confronting undergraduate medical education. Key internal challenges include the focus on disease to the relative exclusion of behavior, inpatient versus outpatient education, and implications of a faculty whose research is highly focused at the molecular or submolecular level. External factors include the exponential growth in knowledge, associated technologic ("disruptive") innovations, and societal changes. Addressing these challenges requires decisive institutional leadership with an eye to 2020 and beyond--the period in which current matriculants will begin their careers. This paper presents a spiral-model format for a curriculum of medical education, based on disease mechanisms, that addresses many of these challenges and incorporates sound educational principles.

  15. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, Joanne P I; Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Lee, Nadine; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Dörr, P Joep; Scheele, Fedde

    2012-04-01

      Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead consultants approach educational change.   This study was conducted to explore lead consultants' approaches to educational change in specialty training and factors influencing these approaches.   From an interpretative constructivist perspective, we conducted a qualitative exploratory study using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 16 lead consultants in the Netherlands between August 2010 and February 2011. The study design was based on the research questions and notions from corporate business and social psychology about the roles of change managers. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using template analysis.   The lead consultants described change processes with different stages, including cause, development of content, and the execution and evaluation of change, and used individual change strategies consisting of elements such as ideas, intentions and behaviour. Communication is necessary to the forming of a strategy and the implementation of change, but the nature of communication is influenced by the strategy in use. Lead consultants differed in their degree of awareness of the strategies they used. Factors influencing approaches to change were: knowledge, ideas and beliefs about change; level of reflection; task interpretation; personal style, and department culture.   Most lead consultants showed limited awareness of their own approaches to change. This can lead them to adopt a rigid approach, whereas the ability to adapt strategies to circumstances is considered important to effective change management. Interventions and research should be aimed at enhancing the awareness of lead consultants of approaches to change in PGME.

  16. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are…

  17. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are…

  18. Managing Change in a Medical Context: Guidelines for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Rodney; Grant, Janet

    This booklet presents guidelines for the management of change in medicine in Great Britain, particularly post-basic medical education. Following a forward and introduction, a description of the study from which the guidelines were developed is presented. That study was a major investigation of adapting business and industry change management…

  19. The Medicalization of Education: A Historiographic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author described eight, distinct practices through which schools were medicalized during the last decade of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. The medicalization of education was summarized in expanding definitions of educational hygiene, encompassing mental, neoscholastic, physical, and school…

  20. The Medicalization of Education: A Historiographic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author described eight, distinct practices through which schools were medicalized during the last decade of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. The medicalization of education was summarized in expanding definitions of educational hygiene, encompassing mental, neoscholastic, physical, and school…

  1. Medical education today: globalising with quality.

    PubMed

    Shahabudin, S H

    2005-08-01

    With globalization education has become a tradable service governed by the rules and regulations of GATS and worth trillions of dollars. International standards are rapidly being developed to facilitate cross border supply of services. In medical education, the WFME has produced International Guidelines on Quality in Medical Education which has a regional equivalent in the WHO Western Pacific Region, and the IIME has defined the minimum essential requirements of standards in medical education in seven core competences. Malaysia, having an explicit policy of making education a sector for revenue generation, has put in place regulatory frameworks and incentives to make the country a centre of educational excellence. Within the ambit of this national aspiration, medical education has grown phenomenally in the last decade. Standards and procedures for accreditation of medical schools in line with the world standards have been developed and implemented and policies are enforced to facilitate compliance to the standards. The ultimate goal is for medical schools to be self-accredited. In striving towards self-accreditation medical schools should be innovative in making changes in the three requirements of medical education. These are the intellectual and social imperatives and strategies for effective implementation.

  2. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  3. Changing Medical Education: An Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This paper presents an agenda for worldwide change in medical education to meet current and future requirements of society. The first of four sections offers the central arguments for change in medical education noting global patterns in the search for better use of resources for health care, describing a profound shift underway in the present…

  4. Simulation in Medical Education: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, J. Lindsey; Slavin, Stuart; Ziv, Amitai

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of simulation in medical education at all levels and describes how role play, standardized patients, computer, videotape, and mannequin simulations are integrated into the educational curricula for medical students and physicians. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of simulation and barriers to the use of simulation.…

  5. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  6. Total quality management approach improves medication replacement.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L K

    1994-07-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is based on understanding customer needs, improving key processes that affect customer satisfaction, and creating cross-functional teams to resolve process problems. This article describes application of TQM principles and problem-solving processes to improve one OR's medication exchange system. The problem was excessive monthly pharmacy medication replacement costs. The goal was to reduce the monthly medication replacement costs by 50%. Within four months, monthly medication replacement charges decreased from $656 to $302, and by one year, monthly charges decreased to $160. The new process had fewer steps, fewer staff members involved, and fewer delays in medication replacement.

  7. The development of education for medical librarians.

    PubMed

    Hill, B

    1972-01-01

    Formal education for medical library specialization was initiated only thirty-two years ago despite the fact that medical libraries received special treatment for many years before that time. The philosophy of specialized education was developed as early as 1925, and this theory was finally put into practice beginning with the medical reference and bibliography course given at Columbia in 1939. In the late 1940s the requisites for medical librarians were formalized into a certification code by the Medical Library Association, and since that time specialized education for medical librarians has grown stronger using this code as a guideline. This education consists basically of two types-formal library school courses and internship programs which offer a working-while-learning situation. Now that the established programs have a few years of history, there is a need for evaluation and restatement of goals and methods.

  8. The Development of Education for Medical Librarians

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Barbarie

    1972-01-01

    Formal education for medical library specialization was initiated only thirty-two years ago despite the fact that medical libraries received special treatment for many years before that time. The philosophy of specialized education was developed as early as 1925, and this theory was finally put into practice beginning with the medical reference and bibliography course given at Columbia in 1939. In the late 1940s the requisites for medical librarians were formalized into a certification code by the Medical Library Association, and since that time specialized education for medical librarians has grown stronger using this code as a guideline. This education consists basically of two types—formal library school courses and internship programs which offer a working-while-learning situation. Now that the established programs have a few years of history, there is a need for evaluation and restatement of goals and methods. PMID:4554214

  9. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  10. A Management-Decision-Oriented View of Medical School Information System Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; Lee, Edgar

    1973-01-01

    At Case Western Reserve University an interdisciplinary management team has been formed of educators and management specialists to effectively organize, plan and control the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  11. Development of national competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, R; Stausberg, J; Dugas, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a catalogue of competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education (abbreviated NKLM-MI in German). The development followed a multi-level annotation and consensus process. For each learning objective a reason why a physician needs this competence was required. In addition, each objective was categorized according to the competence context (A = covered by medical informatics, B = core subject of medical informatics, C = optional subject of medical informatics), the competence level (1 = referenced knowledge, 2 = applied knowledge, 3 = routine knowledge) and a CanMEDS competence role (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, professional, scholar). Overall 42 objectives in seven areas (medical documentation and information processing, medical classifications and terminologies, information systems in healthcare, health telematics and telemedicine, data protection and security, access to medical knowledge and medical signal-/image processing) were identified, defined and consented. With the NKLM-MI the competences in the field of medical informatics vital to a first year resident physician are identified, defined and operationalized. These competencies are consistent with the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The NKLM-MI will be submitted to the National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. The next step is implementation of these objectives by the faculties.

  12. Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

  13. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  14. Accreditation of Allied Medical Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    Prepared by the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association with the cooperation of collaborating organizations, this document is a collection of guidelines for accredited programs for medical assistants, nuclear medicine technology, orthopedic assistants, radiation therapy technology, and radiologic technologists. The…

  15. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  16. Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

  17. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  18. Accreditation of Allied Medical Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    Prepared by the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association with the cooperation of collaborating organizations, this document is a collection of guidelines for accredited programs for medical assistants, nuclear medicine technology, orthopedic assistants, radiation therapy technology, and radiologic technologists. The…

  19. French Medical Education: Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensh, Ivan Norman

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed is the impact on French medical education of the expansion in numbers of medical schools and students, introduction of a competitive examination to select students whose numbers are a function of the number of teaching hospital beds available, and governmental plans to effect a 20 percent reduction in the number of medical students by…

  20. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  1. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  2. Managing a new medication administration process.

    PubMed

    Englebright, Jane D; Franklin, Michelle

    2005-09-01

    The national focus on medication errors has stimulated rapid adoption of medication administration technologies with bar code verification. The effectiveness of these technologies in preventing errors is directly related to how consistently practitioners use the technology to verify both patient identity and drug identity with each administration. The authors discuss management strategies that have proven effective at increasing staff compliance with using bar code-enabled medication systems.

  3. Dental management of patients taking antiplatelet medications.

    PubMed

    Henry, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Antiplatelet medications are drugs which decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus (clot) formation. They are widely used in primary and secondary prevention of thrombotic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. The most common antiplatelet medications are the cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin) and the adenosine disphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors clopidogrel (Plavix) and ticlopidine (Ticlid). The dental management of patients taking these drugs is reviewed here.

  4. Medical education research in GCC countries.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996-2013. In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996-2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with GCC Countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. In ISI-Web of Science, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research papers, Kuwait 1666, United Arab Emirates 3045, Qatar 4265, Bahrain 1666 and Oman 4848 research papers. However, in Medical Education only Saudi Arabia contributed 323 (0.79%) research papers, Kuwait 52 (0.03%), United Arab Emirates 41(0.01%), Qatar 37(0.008%), Bahrain 28 (0.06%) and Oman 22 (0.45%) research papers in in ISI indexed journals. In medical education the Hirsch index (h-index) of Saudi Arabia is 14, United Arab Emirates 14, Kuwait 11, Qatar 8, Bahrain 8 and Oman 5. GCC countries produced very little research in medical education during the period 1996-2013. They must improve their research outcomes in medical education to produce better physicians to enhance the standards in medical practice in the region.

  5. Defining competencies and performance indicators for physicians in medical management.

    PubMed

    Lane, D S; Ross, V

    1998-04-01

    The recent and profound changes in the American health care delivery system have created a need for physicians who are trained and willing to assume a high level of responsibility for managing evolving health care organizations. Yet most physicians receive no formal training in medical administration and management because changes in medical school and residency education have lagged behind changes in clinical practice and reimbursement. To avoid haphazard approaches and unnecessary duplication of resources, it is important for physicians involved in managerial medicine to collectively identify competencies in this area needed in the marketplace. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM), with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), undertook an effort to identify competencies essential for physicians who will fill leadership roles in medical management. Like ACPM's earlier effort to develop core competencies in preventive medicine, this project drew upon the theoretical model of competency-based education. This article describes the strategy we followed in reaching consensus among a diverse group of physician executives and preventive medicine residency program directors, and includes the list of medical management competencies and performance indicators developed. Recurrent issues that can sidetrack competency development projects are also presented as well as suggestions for overcoming them. The competencies can serve as a framework for expanding current core preventive medicine training in management and administration and for developing new training programs to equip physicians with the special expertise they will need to provide management leadership within the changing landscape of health care delivery.

  6. Medication management during electroconvulsant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated to be highly effective and safe, even life saving for many psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Most patients who require ECT are also on concurrent pharmacotherapy. As such, the objective of this article is to provide a review of the most recent literature focusing on the medications used during an ECT procedure and on the effects of concurrent psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications on the effectiveness and safety of ECT. The review also attempts to summarize the recommendations derived from existing documents to guide pharmacotherapy decisions for patients undergoing ECT. For this purpose, using electronic databases, an extensive search of the current literature was made using ECT and medications or drug classes as keywords. PMID:27143894

  7. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end.

  8. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  9. Medical education in a changing world: thoughts from California.

    PubMed

    Zweifler, J; Rodnick, J

    1998-02-01

    Medical education has been buffeted by the frenetic changes in our health care delivery system. This commentary focuses on six major issues facing family practice training programs caring for underserved populations in California: 1) The patient base for training programs is eroding. 2) There is no or limited funding for graduate medical education (GME) in Medicaid managed care programs. 3) There are barriers to using residents in managed care systems. 4) Disproportionate share funding from Medicaid for hospitals caring for poor and underserved patients does not support medical education. 5) Capitated Medicare and Medicaid programs are siphoning off dollars meant for GME. 6) Consolidation in the health care market is threatening medical education training sites. To address these issues, primary care GME programs should work with community-based sites so both can increase patient care, educational activities, and revenue in this managed care era. At the same time, community-based training sites in primary care GME programs must redesign their delivery systems to provide efficient, cost-effective care. The result will be better access for primary care patients and more appropriate training for our residents. Family medicine educators should become increasingly involved at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that GME funding directly supports training and is not relegated to being a by-product of patient care.

  10. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  12. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  13. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Challenges of basical sciences in medical education].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo

    2014-12-01

    The relevance of basic sciences in medical education has been recognized for centuries, and the importance of exposing medical students to science was acknowledged and reinforced by the recommendations of Flexner in 1910. Since then, traditional medical education has been divided into preclinical and clinical subjects; within this scheme, the first terms of undergraduate medical education usually concentrate on basic sciences, while subsequent ones focus on clinical sciences and clinical training. Since 1956, this educational scheme has been questioned and, in some schools, the medical curriculum has undergone significant structural changes; some of these reforms, especially integrated curricula, are associated with important reductions in the time allotted to individual basic science courses or even with their removal. The removal of basic science subjects from the medical curriculum is paradoxical because nowadays the value of biomedical knowledge and the scientific reasoning to make medical decisions is more appreciated than ever. To maintain its relevance in medical education, basic sciences have to confront three challenges: a) increasing its presence in clinical education; b) developing nuclear programs; and c) renewing laboratory instruction.

  15. Decision support using anesthesia information management system records and accreditation council for graduate medical education case logs for resident operating room assignments.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Charnin, Jonathan; Driscoll, William D; Bailin, Michael T; Baker, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Our goal in this study was to develop decision support systems for resident operating room (OR) assignments using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs and evaluate the implementations. We developed 2 Web-based systems: an ACGME case-log visualization tool, and Residents Helping in Navigating OR Scheduling (Rhinos), an interactive system that solicits OR assignment requests from residents and creates resident profiles. Resident profiles are snapshots of the cases and procedures each resident has done and were derived from AIMS records and ACGME case logs. A Rhinos pilot was performed for 6 weeks on 2 clinical services. One hundred sixty-five requests were entered and used in OR assignment decisions by a single attending anesthesiologist. Each request consisted of a rank ordered list of up to 3 ORs. Residents had access to detailed information about these cases including surgeon and patient name, age, procedure type, and admission status. Success rates at matching resident requests were determined by comparing requests with AIMS records. Of the 165 requests, 87 first-choice matches (52.7%), 27 second-choice matches (16.4%), and 8 third-choice matches (4.8%) were made. Forty-three requests were unmatched (26.1%). Thirty-nine first-choice requests overlapped (23.6%). Full implementation followed on 8 clinical services for 8 weeks. Seven hundred fifty-four requests were reviewed by 15 attending anesthesiologists, with 339 first-choice matches (45.0%), 122 second-choice matches (16.2%), 55 third-choice matches (7.3%), and 238 unmatched (31.5%). There were 279 overlapping first-choice requests (37.0%). The overall combined match success rate was 69.4%. Separately, we developed an ACGME case-log visualization tool that allows individual resident experiences to be compared against case minimums as well as resident peer groups. We conclude that it is feasible to use ACGME case

  16. MEDRIS: The Problem Oriented Electronic Medical Record in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Rifat, Sami F.; Robert, Shanthi; Trace, David; Prakash, Sanjeev; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Barnett, David; Pannicia, Gregory; Hammergren, David; Carmony, Lowell; Evens, Martha

    1990-01-01

    MEDRIS (The Medical Record Interface System) is an object oriented HyperCard interface designed to help physicians enter patient information as comfortably and naturally as possible. It can function as a stand alone system producing its own reports or serve as an interface to a medical expert system (e.g., MEDAS). MEDRIS plays an important role in the clinical education of medical students at the Chicago Medical School. MEDRIS portrays an intuitive, graphically oriented system that will provide a learning environment for the problem oriented medical record (POMR) that forms the basis of the structure of the history and physical exam. The enthusiasm shown by the medical students for this project has garnered support for including MEDRIS in the curriculum of the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course this semester. MEDRIS, developed using HyperCard, can be used as a tool not only for teaching POMR and physical diagnosis, but also computer literacy.

  17. Sophistry, the Sophists and modern medical education.

    PubMed

    Macsuibhne, S P

    2010-01-01

    The term 'sophist' has become a term of intellectual abuse in both general discourse and that of educational theory. However the actual thought of the fifth century BC Athenian-based philosophers who were the original Sophists was very different from the caricature. In this essay, I draw parallels between trends in modern medical educational practice and the thought of the Sophists. Specific areas discussed are the professionalisation of medical education, the teaching of higher-order characterological attributes such as personal development skills, and evidence-based medical education. Using the specific example of the Sophist Protagoras, it is argued that the Sophists were precursors of philosophical approaches and practices of enquiry underlying modern medical education.

  18. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.

  19. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  20. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    PubMed

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg's and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard.

  1. Medical hypnotherapy for pain management.

    PubMed

    Colón, Yvette; Avnet, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Hypnotherapy, its uses and process, and certification and training of hypnotherapy professionals are addressed.

  2. Modelling empathy in medical and nursing education.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Corbett, Andrea

    2012-03-30

    Medical and nursing student numbers are expected to increase significantly in NZ over the next few years. The ethical, and professional and clinical skills' training of trainee health practitioners is a central and crucial component in medical and nursing education and is underpinned by a strong commitment to improve patient health and well being. In this discussion we reflect on the virtue of empathy and the importance of role modelling in the education of nurses and doctors. We endorse the claim that as medical educators, how and what we teach matters.

  3. Nineteenth century medical education for tomorrow's doctors.

    PubMed

    Waterston, S W; Laing, M R; Hutchison, J D

    2007-02-01

    Many of the ideas contained within the GMC's 'Tomorrow's Doctors' could be considered as old ideas reworked for modern medical education. Sir John Struthers, a pioneer in the field of medical education, touched on many of the issues in 'Tomorrow's Doctors' in his writings published over one hundred years ago. The study of the history of medicine, often neglected by members of our profession in the search for new ideas, is not only of interest, but is valuable to current and future medical education. History illustrates the mistakes of the past, but also helps highlight the successes and insights that remain applicable and relevant today.

  4. A Review of the Medical Education Literature for Graduate Medical Education Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Kenneth A.; Bates, Carol K.; Karani, Reena; Chheda, Shobhina G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapidly evolving body of literature in medical education can impact the practice of clinical educators in graduate medical education. Objective To aggregate studies published in the medical education literature in 2011 to provide teachers in general internal medicine with an overview of the current, relevant medical education literature. Review We systematically searched major medical education journals and the general clinical literature for medical education studies with sound design and relevance to the educational practice of graduate medical education teachers. We chose 12 studies, grouped into themes, using a consensus method, and critiqued these studies. Results Four themes emerged. They encompass (1) learner assessment, (2) duty hour limits and teaching in the inpatient setting, (3) innovations in teaching, and (4) learner distress. With each article we also present recommendations for how readers may use them as resources to update their clinical teaching. While we sought to identify the studies with the highest quality and greatest relevance to educators, limitation of the studies selected include their single-site and small sample nature, and the frequent lack of objective measures of outcomes. These limitations are shared with the larger body of medical education literature. Conclusions The themes and the recommendations for how to incorporate this information into clinical teaching have the potential to inform the educational practice of general internist educators as well as that of teachers in other specialties. PMID:24404262

  5. Evaluating an interprofessional disease state and medication management review model.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Kreshnik; Forman, Dawn; Hughes, Jeffery

    2014-03-01

    There is lack of literature data reporting an incorporation of medication management reviews in students' interprofessional education (IPE) and practice programs in aged care settings. This pilot study reports how an interprofessional disease state and medication management review program (DSMMR) was established in a residential aged care facility in Perth, Western Australia. Students from the professions of nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy focused on a wellness check in the areas of cognition, falls and continence while integrating a medication management review. Students' attitudes were explored using a pre- and post-placement questionnaire. Students indicated positive experience with the IPE DSMMR program which also resulted in their positive attitudinal shift towards IPE and practice. These findings indicated that aged care can be a suitable setting for student interprofessional programs focusing on DSMMR.

  6. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested.

  7. Medical Services: Nutrition Standards and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-15

    prevention . 3–2. Nutrition education personnel a. Registered dietitians (RDs) and other qualified personnel develop nutrition education curriculum for...Army Regulation 40–25 BUMEDINST 10110.6 AFI 44-141 Medical Services Nutrition Standards and Education Headquarters Departments of the Army, Navy, and...YYYY) 15-06-2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2001 to xx-xx-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nutrition Standards and Education

  8. Preparing our future physicians: integrating medical informatics into the undergraduate medical education curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D M; Jennett, P A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes how two medical schools have integrated "medical informatics" into their undergraduate medical education programs with the aim of preparing their students for future practice. It describes the components or elements of the informatics programs, how learning opportunities have been integrated into the curricula, how the informatics programs have evolved, and future directions. The medical schools approached the task of introducing informatics in a parallel way. Following needs identification, similar topic areas, goals, and specific informatics learning objectives were developed. These were used as a basis for implementation and evaluation. In general, the topic areas selected are: computer literacy, communications, information retrieval and management, computer-aided learning, patient management, office practice management, and hospital information systems. Learning opportunities in informatics were integrated for the above goals, in accordance with how the curriculum was organized in each school. These opportunities, and the support activities provided will be described.

  9. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Reutzel, Thomas; Watkins, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify whether and how pharmacy faculty members are addressing the issue of medication management in primary or secondary schools in their teaching, research, and service activities, and to ascertain the extent to which they think the issue is an important one. Methods Four hundred ninety-nine faculty members completed a questionnaire inquiring about the research, teaching, and service activities in which they participated that related to medication management in schools. Results Only 33 subjects (6.6%) addressed the topic of medication management in schools in their courses; only 13 (2.6%) conducted research on the topic; and only 30 (6%) were involved in service in this area. On the other hand, 432 respondents (86.6%) believed that the issue of medication management in schools was either somewhat or extremely important. Conclusions There is a large gap between the number of subjects that think medication management in schools is an important topic and the number who actually include the topic in teaching, research, and or service. PMID:17136150

  10. Factors That Influence the Financing and Cost of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPheeters, Harold L.

    Financing and cost factors in medical education and the effect of the many missions of a medical school on funding issues are discussed. The teaching mission of medical schools includes undergraduate medical education (preparation for the MD degree), graduate medical education (training of resident physicians), biomedical specialist education,…

  11. [Undergraduate medical education. Students' perspective and medical school policy].

    PubMed

    Vinceneux, P; Carbon, C; Pouchot, J; Crickx, B; Maillard, D; Regnier, B; Desmonts, J M; Fontaine, A

    2000-10-14

    Student attendance to lectures in French medical schools is often poor. We surveyed undergraduate medical students in our medical school, repeating a similar survey conducted ten years earlier. The results are presented with the conclusions of the faculty seminar that followed this survey. A closed item questionnaire was distributed in June, 1998, through the hospital wards where the students were posted. After two reminders, the final response rate was 71% (247/348). Overall, 71% of the students declared that they never, or only occasionally, attended lectures in the medical school. Reasons included lack of time (75%), the curriculum diverging from the program of the selective examination that gives access to graduate specialization programs (59%), or insufficient practical clinical content (36%); 46% believed that this teaching prepared them to practice family medicine (11% some specially), and 92% that the way it was organized was not compatible with preparing for the selective examination. On the other hand, 75% of the students in the final two years of the curriculum declared that attending regularly special preparation seminars for the selective examination, to succeed at this test (91%), but also to prepare for family practice (25%). Respectively, 75%, 68% and 66% declared that undergraduate medical courses should, ideally, prepare them for the selective examination, but also for the practice of family medicine, and for graduate medical education. These results echoed the difficulties of the faculty of the medical school to reconcile preparing students both for their future medical practice and for the selective examination. Two working groups were asked to identify independently appropriate educational objectives according to each perspective: their conclusions appeared to be quite compatible. Based on these conclusions, institutional objectives were ratified to guide the educational policy of our medical school, including the following: to reinforce the

  12. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  13. Communicating Medical Needs to Non-Medical Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Differences in communication styles and languages between groups often lead to miscommunication, confusion, and/or frustration. Engineers, computer specialists, clinicians, and managers often utilize the English language in very different ways, with different groups using the same words to represent different concepts ("complaint" is a typical example). In addition, medical issues are often perceived as "off-nominal" and not "primary mission tasks" by managers, which can cause them to assign lower priorities to medical training time and resources. Knowledge bases differ due to variations in training and skill sets, and the goals (both immediate and long-term) of the communicators may also vary, with managers being primarily concerned with overall mission objectives, while clinicians focus on individual or group health issues. Furthermore, true communication is only possible when clinicians possess a deep understanding of mission requirements as well as the ability to communicate medical requirements on a priority basis using risk assessment, added value, and cost benefit analysis. These understandable differences may contribute to difficulties in expressing concerns and ideas in an efficient manner, particularly in projects, such as the space program or many military operations, where these varied groups must collaborate, and where the final decisions must be made by fully informed mission commanders. Methods: Three scenario-based approaches were developed utilizing decision trees and problem based learning, to help define and integrate these concepts. Results: Use of these techniques by NASA and military personnel will be presented. Discussion: To enhance communication, particularly of medical needs, one must identify the concerns and motivating factors for the other groups; for example, members of management may focus on financial concerns, a desire for risk mitigation, public perceptions, mission objectives, etc. Training clinicians to frame issues in these

  14. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  15. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  16. Commissioning medical education: principles for best practice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly.

  17. Theory development and application in medical education.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Anna T; Eva, Kevin W; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-01-01

    The role and status of theory is by no means a new topic in medical education. Yet summarizing where we have been and where we are going with respect to theory development and application is difficult because our community has not yet fully elucidated what constitutes medical education theory. In this article, we explore the idea of conceptualizing theory as an effect on scholarly dialogue among medical educators. We describe theory-enabled conversation as argumentation, which frames inquiry, permits the evaluation of evidence, and enables the acquisition of community understanding that has utility beyond investigators' local circumstances. We present ideas for assessing argumentation quality and suggest approaches to increasing the frequency and quality of argumentation in the exchange among diverse medical education scholars.

  18. Evaluation of Specialized Medication Packaging Combined With Medication Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Zillich, Alan J.; Jaynes, Heather A. W.; Snyder, Margie E.; Harrison, Jeff; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; de Moor, Carl; French, Dustin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effect of a program combing specialized medication packaging and telephonic medication therapy management on medication adherence, health care utilization, and costs among Medicaid patients. Research Design A retrospective cohort design compared Medicaid participants who voluntarily enrolled in the program (n = 1007) compared with those who did not (n = 13,614). Main outcome measures were medication adherence at 12 months, hospital admissions and emergency department visits at 6 and 12 months, and total paid claim costs at 6 and 12 months. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for the effect of age, sex, race, comorbidities, and 12-month preenrollment health care utilization. Results Measures of medication adherence were significantly improved in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort. At 6 months, adjusted all-cause hospitalization was marginally less in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort [odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–1.0, P = 0.05]. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 cohorts for any of the other adjusted utilization endpoints at 6 or 12 months. Adjusted total cost at 6 and 12 months were higher in the program cohort (6-month cost ratio = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.65–1.89; 12-month cost ratio = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.72–1.97), primarily because of an increase in prescription costs. Emergency department visits and hospitalization costs did not differ between groups. Conclusions The program improved measures of medication adherence, but the effect on health care utilization and nonpharmacy costs at 6 and 12 months was not different from the usual care group. Reasons for these findings may reflect differences in the delivery of the specialized packaging and the medication therapy management program, health care behaviors in this Medicaid cohort, unadjusted confounding, or time required for the benefit of the intervention to manifest

  19. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  20. Professional Liability Pertinent to Graduate Medical Education: The Intersection of Medical Education, Patient Care, and Law.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Elizabeth; Paterick, Zachary R; Patel, Nachiket; Waterhouse, Blake; Sanbar, Sandy; Tajik, A Jamil; Paterick, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    Physicians in training, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, attending physicians, and institutions that sponsor medical education are all at risk for potential professional liability issues. The unique relationship between healthcare providers and their sponsoring institution generates complex and evolving legal issues for all participants in medical education training. The law has played a great role integrating quality care and patient safety with excellent medical education for training physicians, while providing an avenue for relief when a medical error occurs. The intersection of law and medicine, while allowing for optimal medical education and patient care, exposes participating medical providers and the sponsoring institutions to specific professional liability issues. This article addresses these medical education settings and their potential professional liability issues.

  1. Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children’s environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers. PMID:15579423

  2. Graduate medical education: focus for change.

    PubMed

    Foreman, S

    1990-02-01

    The author documents a significant broadening of the interest of both state and federal government in influencing graduate medical education. He states that the unwillingness of the academic medical community to address the issues of manpower supply and specialty distribution, the limited effectiveness of minority enhancement programs, and an ambiguous position on foreign medical graduates have invited government intervention. The author maintains that such intervention was inevitable because academic medical centers have focused only on the educational process and the quality of graduates but have not dealt with the need to shape the output of their training programs to meet national health needs. He challenges the academic medical community to seize the initiative in seeking the difficult-to-find solutions to major issues of medical training or be prepared to yield to the decisions of lawmakers and regulators.

  3. A national survey of medical education fellowships

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Britta M.; Searle, Nancy S.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hatem, Charles J.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence, focus, time commitment, graduation requirements and programme evaluation methods of medical education fellowships throughout the United States. Medical education fellowships are defined as a single cohort of medical teaching faculty who participate in an extended faculty development programme. Methods A 26-item online questionnaire was distributed to all US medical schools (n=127) in 2005 and 2006. The questionnaire asked each school if it had a medical education fellowship and the characteristics of the fellowship programme. Results Almost half (n=55) of the participating schools (n=120, response rate 94.5 %) reported having fellowships. Duration (10–584 hours) and length (<1 month–48 months) varied; most focused on teaching skills, scholarly dissemination and curriculum design, and required the completion of a scholarly project. A majority collected participant satisfaction; few used other programme evaluation strategies. Conclusions The number of medical education fellowships increased rapidly during the 1990s and 2000s. Across the US, programmes are similar in participant characteristics and curricular focus but unique in completion requirements. Fellowships collect limited programme evaluation data, indicating a need for better outcome data. These results provide benchmark data for those implementing or revising existing medical education fellowships. PMID:21475643

  4. Gerontology and geriatrics in Dutch medical education.

    PubMed

    Tersmette, W; van Bodegom, D; van Heemst, D; Stott, D; Westendorp, R

    2013-01-01

    The world population is ageing and healthcare services require trained staff who can address the needs of older patients. In this study we determined how current medical education prepares Dutch students of medicine in the field of Gerontology and Geriatrics (G&G). Using a checklist of the essentials of G&G, we assessed Dutch medical education on three levels. On the national level we analysed the latest National Blueprint for higher medical education (Raamplan artsopleiding 2009). On the faculty level we reviewed medical curricula on the basis of interviews with program directors and inspection of course materials. On the student level we assessed the topics addressed in the questions of the cross-institutional progress test (CIPT). The National Bluepr int contains few specific G&G objectives. Obligatory G&G courses in medical schools on average amount to 2.2% of the total curriculum measured as European Credit Transfer System units (ECTS). Only two out of eight medical schools have practical training during the Master phase in the form of a clerkship in G&G. In the CIPT, on average 1.5% of questions cover G&G. Geriatric education in the Netherlands does not seem to be in line with current demographic trends. The National Blueprint falls short of providing sufficiently detailed objectives for education on the care of older people. The geriatric content offered by medical schools is varied and incomplete, and students are only marginally tested on their knowledge of G&G in the CIPT.

  5. Software engineering education in medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Leven, F J

    1989-11-01

    Requirements and approaches of Software Engineering education in the field of Medical Informatics are described with respect to the impact of (1) experiences characterizing the "software misery", (2) status and tendencies in software methodology, and (3) educational status and needs in computer science education influenced by the controversy "theoretical versus practical education". Special attention is directed toward the growing importance of analysis, design methods, and techniques in the professional spectrum of Medical Informatics, the relevance of general principles of systems engineering in health care, the potential of non-procedural programming paradigms, and the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and education. Realizations of and experiences with programs in the field of Software Engineering are reported with respect to special requirements in Medical Informatics.

  6. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia

    2016-10-11

    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.

  7. Nutrition Education in the Medical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullo, Alice C.

    1982-01-01

    It is important that nutrition education be made part of the regular and postgraduate curriculum in all medical schools. The medical student should be provided training in nutrition and dietetics, both as part of the basic science syllabus and of the clinical aspects as they apply to disease states. (MSE)

  8. Medical Education and the Contemporary World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George E., Ed.

    Proceedings of a conference on Medical Education in the Contemporary World, organized by Dr. George E. Miller and sponsored by the University of Illinois in Chicago, September 13-14, 1976, are presented. American and foreign medical edu- cation experts considered the principal and recurrent problems confronting the field in a period of rapid…

  9. Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    (Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

  10. Information Technology and Undergraduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard Corporation grant enabled Harvard Medical School to begin using computer technology in medical educational applications. Hardware and software selection, integration into the curriculum, teaching the use of computers, cost, successful applications, knowledge base access, simulations, video and graphics teaching programs, and…

  11. Instructional Intranets in Graduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Susan; White, James A.; Fabri, Peter J.; Khonsari, Laleh S.

    1998-01-01

    Three major issues have led to changes in graduate medical education: shortages of academic and community physician time to devote to teaching; limited resident exposure to various medical conditions due to shifts in training venues; and residents' lack of training in information technologies. Internal organizational networks (intranets) can be…

  12. Medical management of genitourinary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sharma, Surendra K

    2008-07-01

    Antimycobacterial chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB). A large body of evidence from clinical trials suggests that short-course chemotherapy regimens, employing four drugs including rifampicin and pyrazinamide, achieve cure in most of the patients with tuberculosis (TB) and are associated with the lowest rates of relapse. Standard six-month regimens are adequate for the treatment of GUTB. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) is the internationally recommended comprehensive strategy to control TB, and directly observed treatment is just one of its five elements. DOTS cures not only the individual with TB but also reduces the incidence of TB as well as the prevalence of primary drug-resistance in the community. Corticosteroids have no proven role in the management of patients with GUTB. Errors in prescribing anti-TB drugs are common in clinical practice. Standardized treatment regimens at correct doses and assured completion of treatment have made DOTS the present-day standard of care for the management of all forms of TB including GUTB.

  13. Globalization and the modernization of medical education.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Fred C J; Simmonds Goulbourne, Jacqueline D

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, there are essential differences underpinning what educators and students perceive to be effective medical education. Yet, the world looks on for a recipe or easy formula for the globalization of medical education. This article examines the assumptions, main beliefs, and impact of globalization on medical education as a carrier of modernity. The article explores the cultural and social structures for the successful utilization of learning approaches within medical education. Empirical examples are problem-based learning (PBL) at two medical schools in Jamaica and the Netherlands, respectively. Our analysis shows that people do not just naturally work well together. Deliberate efforts to build group culture for effective and efficient collaborative practice are required. Successful PBL is predicated on effective communication skills, which are culturally defined in that they require common points of understanding of reality. Commonality in cultural practices and expectations do not exist beforehand but must be clearly and deliberately created. The globalization of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs. It includes Western models of social organization requiring deep reflection and adaptation to ensure its success in different environments and among different groups.

  14. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  15. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    ABDOLMALEKI, MOHAMMADREZA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; MOMENI, SEDIGHEH; MOMTAZMANESH, NADER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. Methods: In this study, the modified version of McKenna’s approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. Results: By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. Conclusion: According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system. PMID:28761884

  16. Correlation Research of Medical Security Management System Network Platform in Medical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wang; Fan, Zhang; Jian, Hao; Li-nong, Yu; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-The related research of medical security management system network in medical practice. Methods-Establishing network platform of medical safety management system, medical security network host station, medical security management system(C/S), medical security management system of departments and sections, comprehensive query, medical security disposal and examination system. Results-In medical safety management, medical security management system can reflect the hospital medical security problem, and can achieve real-time detection and improve the medical security incident detection rate. Conclusion-The application of the research in the hospital management implementation, can find hospital medical security hidden danger and the problems of medical disputes, and can help in resolving medical disputes in time and achieve good work efficiency, which is worth applying in the hospital practice.

  17. 78 FR 57159 - Scientific Information Request on Medication Therapy Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on Medication... scientific information submissions from the public on medication therapy management Scientific information is being solicited to inform our review of Medication Therapy Management, which is currently...

  18. The need for a comprehensive medication safety module in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Chandy, Sujith John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A rising number of medicines and minimal emphasis on rational prescribing in the medical curriculum may compromise medication safety. There is no focused module in the curriculum dealing with factors affecting safety such as quality, medicines management, rational use, and approach to adverse effects. Creating awareness of these issues would hopefully plant a seed of safe prescribing and encourage pharmacovigilance. A study was therefore done to determine the need for such a module. Method: A quasi-experimental pre-post module study. Medical students (n = 88) completing pharmacology term were recruited after informed consent. A questionnaire containing 20 questions on various themes was administered and scored. Subsequently a module was developed and relevant safety themes taught to the students. After one month, the questionnaire was re-administered. Results: The pre module score was 9.52/20. Knowledge about the various themes, adverse effects, medication management, quality issues and rational use were similar though poor knowledge was evident in specific areas such as clinical trials, look alike-sound alike medicines (LASA) and medicine storage. The post module score was 12.24/20. The improvement of score was statistically significant suggesting the effectiveness of the module. Conclusion: The relatively poor knowledge and improvement with a specific educational module emphasizes the need of such a module within the medical curriculum to encourage safe use of medicines by Indian Medical Graduates (IMG). It is hoped that the policy makers in medical education will introduce such a module within the medical curriculum. PMID:28031610

  19. Applying adult learning practices in medical education.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead

  20. Medical management of paraquat ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Gawarammana, Indika B; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    Poisoning by paraquat herbicide is a major medical problem in parts of Asia while sporadic cases occur elsewhere. The very high case fatality of paraquat is due to inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatments. We conducted a systematic search for human studies that report toxicokinetics, mechanisms, clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Paraquat is rapidly but incompletely absorbed and then largely eliminated unchanged in urine within 12–24 h. Clinical features are largely due to intracellular effects. Paraquat generates reactive oxygen species which cause cellular damage via lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-κB, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in many organs. Kinetics of distribution into these target tissues can be described by a two-compartment model. Paraquat is actively taken up against a concentration gradient into lung tissue leading to pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Paraquat also causes renal and liver injury. Plasma paraquat concentrations, urine and plasma dithionite tests and clinical features provide a good guide to prognosis. Activated charcoal and Fuller's earth are routinely given to minimize further absorption. Gastric lavage should not be performed. Elimination methods such as haemodialysis and haemoperfusion are unlikely to change the clinical course. Immunosuppression with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone is widely practised, but evidence for efficacy is very weak. Antioxidants such as acetylcysteine and salicylate might be beneficial through free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and NF-κB inhibitory actions. However, there are no published human trials. The case fatality is very high in all centres despite large variations in treatment. PMID:21615775

  1. Medical education and the challenge of neurological disability.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C D

    1992-01-01

    The neuroscience curriculum should take account of the needs of patients and families and both undergraduate and postgraduate education should be guided by three criteria for quality of medical care--clinical competence, communication (and teamwork), and professional values. The assessment and management of neurological disability requires specific knowledge, skills and attitudes which can be supported by medical education. Suggestions are given on some of the elements which might be included in a curriculum relevant to neurological disability. The implementation of appropriate programmes is discussed. PMID:1564508

  2. Private medical education: provider's perspective.

    PubMed

    Riches, D J

    2000-08-01

    Issues related to the provision of private education are discussed in relation to the need, clinical teaching, professional standards and financial implications. The advantages and disadvantages are summarised.

  3. Medical management of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ubee, Sarvpreet S.; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat. PMID:20877608

  4. Medical Management of Premenstrual Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Carolyn; Steinberg, Susan K.; Sylvester, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a wide variety of symptoms occurring over several days before menstruation. In the differential diagnosis, family physicians should consider other conditions such as chronic yeast infection, allergy, stress, hypoglycemia and primary dysmenorrhea. Each patient should complete a daily menstrual diary for two to three monthly cycles. This diary may help the physician to determine the cyclical nature of PMS and specific symptoms. For most PMS sufferers, initial treatment involves the physician's acknowledgement of the problem and advice about lifestyle, dietary modification and vitamin supplements (e.g., pyridoxine). Seven steps are recommended to assist the family physician in the practical office management of most women with PMS. The potential role of progesterone and other agents in the treatment of PMS is described. Referral to a psychiatrist or psychologist, or the use of drugs such as lithium, danazol or bromocriptine may be required for women suffering from severe PMS. PMID:21267135

  5. Midwives in medical student and resident education and the development of the medical education caucus toolkit.

    PubMed

    Radoff, Kari; Nacht, Amy; Natch, Amy; McConaughey, Edie; Salstrom, Jan; Schelling, Karen; Seger, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives have been involved formally and informally in the training of medical students and residents for many years. Recent reductions in resident work hours, emphasis on collaborative practice, and a focus on midwives as key members of the maternity care model have increased the involvement of midwives in medical education. Midwives work in academic settings as educators to teach the midwifery model of care, collaboration, teamwork, and professionalism to medical students and residents. In 2009, members of the American College of Nurse-Midwives formed the Medical Education Caucus (MECA) to discuss the needs of midwives teaching medical students and residents; the group has held a workshop annually over the last 4 years. In 2014, MECA workshop facilitators developed a toolkit to support and formalize the role of midwives involved in medical student and resident education. The MECA toolkit provides a roadmap for midwives beginning involvement and continuing or expanding the role of midwives in medical education. This article describes the history of midwives in medical education, the development and growth of MECA, and the resulting toolkit created to support and formalize the role of midwives as educators in medical student and resident education, as well as common challenges for the midwife in academic medicine. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. General principals of management: education.

    PubMed

    Musto, Patricia K

    2003-12-01

    Asthma education is an essential part of the treatment of this disease. Health care professionals must establish a partnership with the patient with asthma and the patient's family to devise a plan of care with which the patient voluntarily will comply. The partnership with the patient begins at the first encounter and continues throughout the therapeutic relationship. Each member of the health care team can be instrumental in reinforcing the crucial information the patient must know to be an informed participant in his or her care. Nursing professionals are in a particularly advantageous position to foster this partnership because of their patient-focused outlook and the quality of time spent with patients. When the partnership is based on mutual trust and cooperation, the clinician can direct asthma care that is consistent with current expert guidelines. Educational interventions should be meaningful to the patient, learner centered to incorporate the patient's needs, and sensitive to the patient's cultural influences. The patient and his or her significant social and family support should be actively involved. The clinician should be alert to the patient's readiness to learn and tailor the message to suit the setting in which it is delivered. The patient should receive information that allows his or her participation in goal setting for treatment. Essentials to be included are the significance of the diagnosis, basics about inflammation as the primary cause of symptoms, the difference between controllers and relievers, how to use the medications and monitoring devices, how to reach the provider, and the need for continuous ongoing interaction with the clinician. Goals set in the partnership are objectified in the asthma action plan or guided self-management plan. The success of the treatment can be assessed from the patient's improved asthma control and reduced reliance on emergency treatment. Every health care provider is a potential wealth of patient education

  7. AVMA guide for veterinary medical waste management.

    PubMed

    Brody, M D

    1989-08-15

    Lawmakers have enacted a variety of laws and regulations to ensure proper disposal of certain potentially infectious or otherwise objectionable waste. The veterinary medical profession supports scientifically based regulations that benefit public health. In 1988, Congress passed the Medical Waste Tracking Act, a federal program that mandates tracking certain regulated waste. Several types of waste generated in the typical clinical veterinary medical practice are considered regulated veterinary medical waste. Discarded needles, syringes, and other sharps; vaccines and vials that contained certain live or attenuated vaccines; cultures and stocks of infectious agents and culture plates; research animals that were exposed to agents that are infectious to human beings and their associated waste; and other animal waste that is known to be potentially harmful to human beings should be handled as regulated veterinary medical waste. Regulated veterinary medical waste should be handled with care. It should be decontaminated prior to disposal. The most popular, effective methods of decontamination are steam sterilization (autoclaving) and incineration. Chemical decontamination is appropriate for certain liquid waste. Waste should be packaged so that it does not spill. Sharps require rigid puncture- and leak-resistant containers that can be permanently sealed. Regulated veterinary medical waste that has not been decontaminated should be labeled with the universal biohazard symbol. Generators retain liability for waste throughout the entire disposal process. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that waste transporters and disposal facilities comply with state and federal requirements. Veterinary practices should maintain a written waste management program and accurate records of regulated veterinary medical waste disposal. Contingency planning and staff training are other important elements of a veterinary medical waste management program. The guide includes a model veterinary

  8. The Department of Medical Education at the University of Michigan Medical School: a case study in medical education research productivity.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research.

  9. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, “learning at bedside,” aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education – their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education. PMID:23408471

  10. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  11. Graduate and medical education - 2000 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The author addresses the fate and future of Graduate and Medical Education. The dominant concern lies with the identification of a reliable and continuous source of funding for the education, training and research experience of the students. The problems and the needs are discussed along with some potential remedies.

  12. American medical education at a crossroads.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Arthur M; Runge, Marschall S; Garcia, Joe G N; Rubenstein, Arthur H

    2015-04-29

    New medical-education models in which research plays a modest role could engender a two-tiered educational system, cause a reduction in the physician-scientist pipeline, and diminish the translation of biomedical advances. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  14. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Medical Nutrition Therapy Improve Patient Outcomes: A Pilot Study Documenting the Efficacy of Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Interventions through Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Marincic, Patricia Z; Hardin, Amie; Salazar, Maria V; Scott, Susan; Fan, Shirley X; Gaillard, Philippe R

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) improve patient outcomes; poor reimbursement limits access to care. Our aim was to develop methodology for tracking patient outcomes subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions, document outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes attending an American Diabetes Association-recognized program, and obtain outcome data to support reimbursement and public policy initiatives to improve patient access to DSME and MNT. Retrospective chart review. A random sample of 100 charts was chosen from the electronic medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes completing DSME and individualized MNT, June 2013 to 2014. Data were extracted on body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), weight, hemoglobin A1c, blood glucose, and lipids. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to determine differences between means for continuous variables; McNemar's tests and γ-statistic trend analysis were used to assess frequency of patients reaching glycemic targets. Significant weight loss was observed from baseline (94.3±21.1 kg) to end of program (91.7±21.2 kg [-1.6±3.9 kg]; P<0.001); weight loss in whites (-5.0±8.4 kg; P<0.001) exceeded that of African Americans (-0.8±9.0 kg; P>0.05). Significant hemoglobin A1c reduction was observed from baseline (8.74%±2.30%) to end of program (6.82%±1.37% [-1.92%±2.25%]; P<0.001) and retained at 1 year (6.90%±1.16%; P<0.001). Comparatively, 72% of patients reached hemoglobin A1c targets (≤7.0%) vs 27% at baseline (P=0.008). When stratified by diet alone and diet plus drug therapy, patients exhibited a 1.08%±1.20% (P<0.001) and 2.36%±2.53% (P<0.001) reduction in hemoglobin A1c, respectively. Triglycerides decreased from baseline 181.6±75.5 mg/dL (2.0±0.9 mmol/L) to 115.8±48.1 mg/dL (1.3±0.5mmol/L) (P=0.023). High-density lipoprotein increased from 41.4±12.4 mg/dL (1.1±0.3 mmol/L) to 47.3±12.4 mg/dL (1.2±0.3 mmol/L) (P=0.007). Retrospective

  15. Hypertension Intervention Nurse Telemedicine Study (HINTS): testing a multifactorial tailored behavioral/educational and a medication management intervention for blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, Hayden B; Olsen, Maren K; McCant, Felicia; Harrelson, Mikeal; Gentry, Pamela; Rose, Cynthia; Goldstein, Mary K; Hoffman, Brian B; Powers, Benjamin; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2007-06-01

    Only 31% of Americans with hypertension have their blood pressure (BP) under effective control. We describe a study that tests 3 different interventions in a randomized controlled trial using home BP telemedicine monitoring. A sample of hypertensive patients with poor BP control at baseline (N = 600) are randomized to 1 of 4 arms: (1) control group--a group of hypertensive patients who receive usual care; (2) nurse-administered tailored behavioral intervention; (3) nurse-administered medication management according to a hypertension decision support system; (4) combination of the 2 interventions. The interventions are triggered based on home BP values transmitted via telemonitoring devices over standard telephone lines. The tailored behavioral intervention involves promoting adherence with medication and health behaviors. Patients randomized to the medication management or the combined arm have their hypertension regimen changed by the study team using a validated hypertension decision support system based on evidence-based hypertension treatment guidelines and individualized to patients' comorbid illnesses. The primary outcome is BP control: < or = 140/90 mm Hg (nondiabetic) and < or = 130/80 mm Hg (diabetics) measured at 6-month intervals over 18 months (4 total measurements). Given the increasing prevalence of hypertension and our inability to achieve adequate BP control using traditional models of care, testing novel interventions in patients' homes may improve access, quality, and outcomes.

  16. In defence of utility: the medical humanities and medical education.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    The idea that a study of the humanities helps to humanise doctors has become a leitmotif within the field. It is argued that the humanities (especially, literature) help to foster insights beyond those provided by biomedical training. Healthy young medics, it is claimed, can thereby gain significant insights into patienthood, and obtain important skills that may be valuable for their professional life. But the instrumentality of the humanities is not the only justification proffered for its inclusion in medical curricula. In this paper I critically examine the two overarching justifications recurrently cited in the mainstream literature-namely, (1) the instrumental worth and (2) the intrinsic value of the medical humanities in educating doctors. Examining these theses (and focusing on the views of a leading medical humanities scholar) I show that the bifurcation into instrumental versus non-instrumental justifications is not supported by the argumentation. Instead, I find that the particulars of the supposedly intrinsic justifications amount to an unambiguously instrumental defence of the humanities. Contextualizing the present investigation to probe further, I describe a long history of debate about the role of the humanities in British education and find that it rests on unsupported dichotomies (utility vs non-utility, theoretical vs applied, educated vs trained). I conclude that the medical humanities' manifesto would be more intellectually honest and coherent, and provide a more robust defence of its value in medical education, if it chose to embrace a wholly instrumental rationale for its role. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The educational attributes and responsibilities of effective medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  18. The changing context of undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, G. J.; Bligh, J.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been recognised that intensive efforts are needed to reform medical education in order to meet the future needs of populations worldwide. Pressure for changes to the organisation, content and delivery of both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education has greatly increased in the last two decades. The experience of innovative medical schools, the emergence of learner-centred teaching methods and the implications of health-care reforms in North America and Britain are major factors influencing calls for change. The pace of change has accelerated to such an extent in recent years that progress towards widespread reform appears to be more attainable than ever before. This article provides an overview of the changing context of health-care, some patterns of existing medical education and some strategies for change. PMID:7567730

  19. Understanding social influence in medical education.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Michael; Raven, Bertram H

    2002-06-01

    Many aspects of the medical education system lead trainees to a host of maladaptive reactions and behaviors, but far too little attention has been focused on the impact that interactions between teacher and learner can have on the development of professionalism. The authors discuss the concept of "social influence," a change of attitude, belief, or behavior resulting from the actions of another person in the context of the medical education setting. Using the example of a medical student who has not adequately completed his inpatient medicine requirements, they identify ten strategies of social influence that a medical educator might invoke to change the student's behavior and evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of these strategies. This overview can be used by faculty to explore new strategies of teaching and to reflect on their current teaching styles.

  20. Making sense of ethnography and medical education.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Paul; Pugsley, Lesley

    2005-02-01

    This paper aims to locate the ethnographic tradition in a socio-historical context. In this paper we chart the history of the ethnographic tradition, explaining its roots and highlighting its value in enabling the ethnographic researcher to explore and make sense of the otherwise invisible aspects of cultural norms and practices. We discuss a number of studies that have provided detailed and context-sensitive accounts of the everyday life of medical schools, medical practitioners and medical students. We demonstrate how the methods of ethnographic fieldwork offer "other ways of knowing" that can have a significant impact on medical education. The ethnographic research tradition in sociological and anthropological studies of educational settings is a significant one. Ethnographic research in higher education institutions is less common, but is itself a growing research strategy.

  1. Medical simulation: Overview, and application to wound modelling and management

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dinker R.; Singh, Simerjit

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in medical education is progressing in leaps and bounds. The need for simulation in medical education and training is increasing because of a) overall increase in the number of medical students vis-à-vis the availability of patients; b) increasing awareness among patients of their rights and consequent increase in litigations and c) tremendous improvement in simulation technology which makes simulation more and more realistic. Simulation in wound care can be divided into use of simulation in wound modelling (to test the effect of projectiles on the body) and simulation for training in wound management. Though this science is still in its infancy, more and more researchers are now devising both low-technology and high-technology (virtual reality) simulators in this field. It is believed that simulator training will eventually translate into better wound care in real patients, though this will be the subject of further research. PMID:23162218

  2. Professionalism beyond medical school: an educational continuum?

    PubMed

    van Mook, Walther N K A; Gorter, Simone L; de Grave, Willem S; van Luijk, Scheltus J; O'Sullivan, Helen; Wass, Valerie; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2009-12-01

    Given the changes in society we are experiencing, the increasing focus on patient centred care and acknowledgment that medical education needs to continue not only in the residency programmes but throughout the doctors career, is not surprising. This article describes the attention currently paid to professionalism in the residency programmes, differences in perception of professionalism between patients, faculty, students and residents, differences in professionalism issues in the different educational phases, as well as their consequences for training and assessment regarding professionalism. Continuous medical education in professionalism is thereafter briefly discussed.

  3. Faculty development in medical education research.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  4. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by…

  5. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by…

  6. Using evaluation research to improve medical education.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Gruppen, Larry D; Torabi, Sima

    2010-09-01

    Evaluation research is a form of applied research that scrutinises how well a particular programme, practice, procedure or policy is operating. Evaluation researchers use both quantitative and qualitative research data to construct a collective picture of the programme under evaluation. Medical educators need to provide information about a particular programme using the methods of evaluation research in order to make a decision on the potential adoption, improvements and refinements of the programme. Improving curricula and pedagogical methods using these methods may enhance health care education. We provide an overview of the methods of evaluation research in the context of medical education. We discuss the application, general methodology, methods of collecting data and analysis for each type of evaluation research. The methods of evaluation research described in this article enable medical educators to gain a comprehensive understanding of evaluation research in the context of medical education. The use of evaluation research findings helps medical educators to make informed decisions regarding a programme and any future actions related to it. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  7. Medical informatics education at medical faculty of sarajevo university - 15 years experience.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2008-01-01

    NONE DECLARED In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Medical informatics has been a separate subject for the last 15 years with regard to Medical curriculum at the biomedical faculties in the country (1,2). Education in the field of Medical informatics is based on the concept which is used in developed countries, according to the recommendations of the working groups EDU - Education of Medical Informatics, of the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) and International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). Theoretical and practical teaching and training performance as a whole is performed by use of the computer equipment, and the final knowledge check of the students is also performed using the Data Base Management System MS Access specifically designed to cover full teaching and training material by using question sets in the data base which encircled nearly 1500 question combinations. The distance learning is logical step that can further improve this method of education. In this paper, authors present 15 years of experience of Medical informatics education at biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Medical Informatics, as an obligatory subject, was introduced to the biomedical faculties in Sarajevo (medical, dental and pharmaceutical as well as the High medical school) in 1992 and 1993. Students have practical computer exercises for a period of 7 weeks. Students had training in Excel, Word etc. During the semester, the students perform specific operation such as creation of data carrier for manipulation with medical information. The information was analyzed by statistical program such as Excel. From 2002 years Medical Informatics is divided in two parts in order to facilitate data processing and other procedure that are necessary to perform at time when student's knowledge of medicine is sufficient for practicing specific tasks that include management the data about patient, anamnesis and similar parameters cause we noticed that students without such

  8. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical education

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam Manni; Mohan, Yogesh; Roy, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER) in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills. PMID:26451183

  9. Library School Education for Medical Librarianship *

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Fred W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored. PMID:385086

  10. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    PubMed

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations.

  11. Commentary: public health and preventive medicine: proposing a transformed context for medical education and medical care.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Wegman, David H

    2012-07-01

    Because medical students and residents receive inadequate education and training in public health and preventive medicine, they will miss many opportunities, as they practice medicine, to improve the health of individual patients and populations. Although there is an ongoing need to expand the number and improve the specialist training of public health and preventive medicine residents, all medical students and residents should enter practice with substantive knowledge and practical skills in public health and preventive medicine. This knowledge and these skills will make them more effective in such areas as enabling patients to make lifestyle changes, identifying and reducing occupational and environmental risk factors, and empowering patients to manage their chronic health conditions. The authors propose a paradigm shift to establish public health and preventive medicine as the context for medical education and medical care.

  12. Purchasing a decentralized medication management system.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Decentralized medication management systems (DMMSs) are used in hospitals, long-term care facilities, prisons, outpatient clinics, surgery centers, and other places to manage the distribution of drugs. DMMSs consist of storage compartments for medications, with an internal computer that controls and records the administration of drugs. Some DMMSs are stationary cabinets and others are mobile carts. There have been important advances in DMMS technology since we evaluated these products in 1996, including enhanced computer memory and processing power, wider adoption of wireless networking, better user interfaces, and greater integration with other hospital information systems. To get the most out of a DMMS purchase or upgrade, facilities will need careful planning that involves assessing their own needs, selecting hardware and software configurations that meet those needs, and then choosing the right vendor and model. A properly selected DMMS can help to enforce medication distribution policies, prevent errors, and streamline processes.

  13. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    PubMed Central

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  14. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support).

    PubMed

    Whicker, Shari A; Engle, Deborah L; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M; Narayan, Aditee P; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape.

  15. Roles, Functions, Training, and Proficiency Tests for Medical Record Personnel: A Guide to Curriculum Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Fredric A.

    The curriculum management guide serves as an aid to medical record teachers and other medical record educators. It is designed to provide them with a useful tool to improve student performances by improved administration and management of programs. The guide documents one possible systematic approach to professional and vocational curriculum…

  16. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  17. [Medical education: why and how to innovate it].

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Conti, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of some innovative educational perspectives regarding the figure of the physician, on the basis of the awareness that the cultural formation of the medical class represents a major strategy in achieving a high quality medical standard and an effective evidence-based health care. Quality education, both during the graduate curriculum and in the post-graduate phase (today including Decision Making, Knowledge Management, Health Economics, General Practice Medicine, Evidence Based Medicine and Evidence Based History of Medicine, as in the Florence Medical School), is essential for the training of updated health professionals, as well as being geared to life-long learning. The classical medical education paradigm involved knowing, knowing how to do and knowing how to be; today this model should be enriched by other key competences for practicing medicine, among them knowing how to make other people do things and knowing how to continue with self-education. With specific reference to making others carry out tasks, the current need for team work renders it necessary for physicians to reconstruct their competences continuously in the light of the essential integration with the competence of non-medical colleagues with whom they work in an inter-disciplinary pattern. With regard to knowing how to continue with self-education, this is possibly the most relevant current and future challenge, not only for health systems but also for physicians.

  18. Medical migration and Africa: an unwanted legacy of educational change.

    PubMed

    Bundred, Peter; Gibbs, Trevor

    2007-11-01

    The opportunities given for medical staff to travel, work and remain in countries other than that of their domicile or graduation have led to the phenomenon of medical migration. This has been supported by ease of travel, improved technology and a drive to share good examples of medical education through improved communication. Whilst these opportunities create positive advantages to the individuals and countries involved, through the transfer of knowledge and medical management, the situation does not always lead to long term benefits, and clear disadvantages begin to emerge. The gulf between the developed and developing countries becomes pronounced, leading to a general drift of resources away from the areas where they are most needed and subsequent profound effects upon the indigenous population. This paper suggests that it is a responsibility of medical educators throughout the world to recognize this effect and create opportunities whereby the specialty of medical education positively effects medical migration to the benefit of the less fortunate areas of the world.

  19. [Innovative concepts for patient education in medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Faller, H; Reusch, A; Meng, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient education aims to empower rehabilitants. While patient education has, in the past, been conceived of as providing solely information, modern self-management concepts now focus on both behavioral competencies and motivational factors. Participants receive all the skills and tools necessary to make informed decisions regarding both their health and lifestyles and to actively participate in the rehabilitation process. Accordingly, didactic methods have changed from predominantly vertical lectures to more patient-oriented and interactive approaches. Meta-analyses have proven that patient education is effective in improving the chronic conditions of patients. However, the implementation of modern concepts into routine care is still suboptimal. The Center of Patient Education, funded by the German Statutory Pension Insurance, has performed a survey of the present state of patient education within medical rehabilitation programs in Germany. Furthermore, quality criteria for patient education have been developed, an internet database presenting self-management programs in a systematic manner has been created, and various services designed to improve educational practice are being offered by the Center of Patient Education. Lastly, a state-of-the-art, self-management education program is described.

  20. Task analysis of information technology-mediated medication management in outpatient care

    PubMed Central

    van Stiphout, F; Zwart-van Rijkom, J E F; Maggio, L A; Aarts, J E C M; Bates, D W; van Gelder, T; Jansen, P A F; Schraagen, J M C; Egberts, A C G; ter Braak, E W M T

    2015-01-01

    Aims Educating physicians in the procedural as well as cognitive skills of information technology (IT)-mediated medication management could be one of the missing links for the improvement of patient safety. We aimed to compose a framework of tasks that need to be addressed to optimize medication management in outpatient care. Methods Formal task analysis: decomposition of a complex task into a set of subtasks. First, we obtained a general description of the medication management process from exploratory interviews. Secondly, we interviewed experts in-depth to further define tasks and subtasks. Setting: Outpatient care in different fields of medicine in six teaching and academic medical centres in the Netherlands and the United States. Participants: 20 experts. Tasks were divided up into procedural, cognitive and macrocognitive tasks and categorized into the three components of dynamic decision making. Results The medication management process consists of three components: (i) reviewing the medication situation; (ii) composing a treatment plan; and (iii) accomplishing and communicating a treatment and surveillance plan. Subtasks include multiple cognitive tasks such as composing a list of current medications and evaluating the reliability of sources, and procedural tasks such as documenting current medication. The identified macrocognitive tasks were: planning, integration of IT in workflow, managing uncertainties and responsibilities, and problem detection. Conclusions All identified procedural, cognitive and macrocognitive skills should be included when designing education for IT-mediated medication management. The resulting framework supports the design of educational interventions to improve IT-mediated medication management in outpatient care. PMID:25753467

  1. Social network analysis in medical education.

    PubMed

    Isba, Rachel; Woolf, Katherine; Hanneman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social beings. The social systems within which we live our lives (families, schools, workplaces, professions, friendship groups) have a significant influence on our health, success and well-being. These groups can be characterised as networks and analysed using social network analysis. Social network analysis is a mainly quantitative method for analysing how relationships between individuals form and affect those individuals, but also how individual relationships build up into wider social structures that influence outcomes at a group level. Recent increases in computational power have increased the accessibility of social network analysis methods for application to medical education research. Social network analysis has been used to explore team-working, social influences on attitudes and behaviours, the influence of social position on individual success, and the relationship between social cohesion and power. This makes social network analysis theories and methods relevant to understanding the social processes underlying academic performance, workplace learning and policy-making and implementation in medical education contexts. Social network analysis is underused in medical education, yet it is a method that could yield significant insights that would improve experiences and outcomes for medical trainees and educators, and ultimately for patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Developed by an instructional materials center, this teaching guide was prepared to present home management and consumer education in the perspective of family living. Arranged in four major sections the section on Homemaking I introduces the student to management in everyday living, while Homemaking II emphasizes the management of household…

  3. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315 Remote Medication Management System. (a) Identification. A remote medication management system is a device composed of clinical and communications software, a medication delivery unit...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315 Remote Medication Management System. (a) Identification. A remote medication management system is a device composed of clinical and communications software, a medication delivery unit...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315 Remote Medication Management System. (a) Identification. A remote medication management system is a device composed of clinical and communications software, a medication delivery unit...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315 Remote Medication Management System. (a) Identification. A remote medication management system is a device composed of clinical and communications software, a medication delivery unit...

  7. The dental management of medically compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Goss, A N

    1984-12-01

    There is an increasing population of apparently well, but in fact medically compromised people in the community. Most will require dental treatment at some stage and will usually seek it away from a hospital environment. In a recent survey of a general dental practice in Australia it was found that up to 55 per cent of some age groups had concurrent medical problems. Thus there is a real risk that adverse interactions between medical conditions and dental treatment may occur--on some occasions, even fatal ones. It is not possible for any one individual to know the details of all medical conditions, their treatment and the possible interactions with dental treatment. However, by the application of some sound general principles the risks of any potential interactions can be evaluated. The essential steps are: knowledge of the medical history of all patients; knowledge of the potential interactions; and knowledge of the management of medical emergencies. These principles will be discussed and illustrated by examples of medically compromised patients who may experience common or potentially serious sequelae as a result of dental treatment.

  8. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  9. The Bologna Process and medical education.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Leif

    2004-11-01

    The Bologna Process designates the ongoing activities whereby the Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Europe attempt to change and harmonize fundamental aspects of all higher education in the many countries involved. This grand scheme is gaining momentum. The number of participating countries is increasing, more aspects of higher education are included and the number of activities and projects is growing. Medical education has so far been neglected in the process and awareness of the development at medical schools has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Bologna Process, its background, objectives and main activities and to draw attention to some of the challenges medical education will probably have to face in the near future such as a structure based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate, a system of easily readable and comparable degrees and European cooperation in quality assurance including a system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures. The position of medical education towards the Bologna Process is essential.

  10. Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi; Markel Vaysman, Anna; Wilken, Lori

    2013-07-01

    To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM) clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting. This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32%) completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as 'excellent', 44% as 'good', 5% as 'fair', and 0% stated 'poor'. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise. In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

  11. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Paraprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The emergence of the veterinary technician as an extension of the veterinarian's capability into animal agriculture is discussed. Some aspects reviewed include: technician education, current restrictions imposed by practice acts, general acceptance by the consumer, and effective relationships for veterinary technicians working under the…

  12. Reflections on experimental research in medical education.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders. Second, the posttest-only design is inherently stronger than the pretest-posttest design, provided the study is randomized and the sample is sufficiently large. Third, demonstrating the superiority of an educational intervention in comparison to no intervention does little to advance the art and science of education. Fourth, comparisons involving multifactorial interventions are hopelessly confounded, have limited application to new settings, and do little to advance our understanding of education. Fifth, single-group pretest-posttest studies are susceptible to numerous validity threats. Finally, educational interventions (including the comparison group) must be described in detail sufficient to allow replication.

  13. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.

  14. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    PubMed

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions.

  15. Continuing medical education and pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Vakani, Farhan Saeed; Jafri, Wasim; Amin, Almas; Sheerani, Mughis

    2011-06-01

    Continuing medical education providers' (academia) and industrial relationship is drawing attention all over the world. To date, there are no national commercial support guidelines available in Pakistan to properly regulate cooperation between the two distinct entities. However, the fact is that the future of all continuing medical education depends on pharmaceutical support and the providers are heavily dependent on the pharmaceutical industry to remain in action. It should always be remembered that medical education and profession is regarded as a moral of enterprise based on a blind faith between the physician and the patient. The funding support by the industry should not bind or influence physician's prescription for any reason. To be trusted, medicine must be free of all such dependency; it should be accountable only to the society it serves and to its own professional standards.

  16. [Simulation in medical education: a synopsis].

    PubMed

    Corvetto, Marcia; Bravo, María Pía; Montaña, Rodrigo; Utili, Franco; Escudero, Eliana; Boza, Camilo; Varas, Julián; Dagnino, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Clinical simulation is defined as a technique (not a technology) to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Over the past few years, there has been a significant growth in its use, both as a learning tool and as an assessment for accreditation. Example of this is the fact that simulation is an integral part of medical education curricula abroad. Some authors have cited it as an unavoidable necessity or as an ethical imperative. In Chile, its formal inclusion in Medical Schools' curricula has just begun. This review is an overview of this important educational tool, presenting the evidence about its usefulness in medical education and describing its current situation in Chile.

  17. [Medical devices classification: principles and quality management].

    PubMed

    Ventura, M

    2011-09-01

    Medical device market covers a large rank of references and is characterized by a lack of standardization in products naming. Using a specific classification is the first step to ensure a good analysis and a specific follow up of this market. CLADIMED is the classification for medical device used in France and Belgium. It is a five level classification, similar to the Anatomical Therapeutical Chemical classification (ATC) for drugs (WHO). CLADIMED association, gathering users and suppliers, manage this classification. A scientific committee is in charge to guarantee quality and respect of the classification principles. 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. A medical model for criminalistics education.

    PubMed

    Stoney, D A

    1988-07-01

    The history of medical education during the period of 1870 to 1926 is examined in the context of current issues confronting education in the forensic laboratory sciences. Medical education was radically altered during this period, changing from a rudimentary lecture/apprenticeship system into its modern form. Although the motivating forces had developed over some time, the actual change was quite rapid. By examining how this change occurred, we gain insight into how changes in our own profession might be initiated. Parallels between our current situation and that in medical education 117 years ago include: (1) the primary burden of professional education is borne outside the university in an apprenticeship system, (2) the apprenticeship system is overburdened by a dramatic expansion in the knowledge and skills needed for professional practice, (3) there is no standardized curriculum or accreditation process for educational programs, and (4) there is no educational program that incorporates formal clinical education. Based on this historical analysis, three major goals are proposed: (1) active entreprenurial promotion of professional educational programs by academics, (2) creation of a committee within the American Academy of Forensic Sciences to critique and rate university programs, and (3) the development of a well-defined clinical education program. A model for formalized clinical education in the forensic laboratory sciences is proposed, incorporating clinical professors, student clerkships, and university control over instruction within an operational forensic science laboratory. Benefits from this arrangement include: efficient combination of physical plants, added personnel resources in the laboratory, rapid introduction of research into the laboratory, enhanced prestige for both academics and practitioners, and relief of the laboratory's in-house training burden.

  19. Financing radiology graduate medical education: today's challenges.

    PubMed

    Otero, Hansel J; Ondategui-Parra, Silvia; Erturk, Sukru Mehmet; Ros, Pablo R

    2006-03-01

    Radiology graduate medical education (GME) is exposed to huge financial challenges. First, there is a continuous increase in demand for imaging services by referring doctors and the general population, aggravating the staff shortage. Second, there has been an important decline in reimbursements. Third and probably most important is the progressive reduction of federal funds subsidizing GME. Medicare is the largest single contributor to GME. The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 introduced reductions in Medicare payments to the major teaching hospitals calculated at $5.6 billion over the first 5 years after implementation. The BBA also brought other changes directly affecting GME. Financial changes in health care over the past decade have increased the pressure on academic institutions, which must preserve or improve the quality of training and the quality of care and manage an increased workload with fewer funds available and a narrow margin for errors. Yet the use of new technology promises to help simplify processes, decreasing workloads for residents and faculty members and increasing overall productivity, and new sources of funding have been suggested. By reviewing the financial challenges of radiologic training in today's academic centers, the authors reach the conclusion that there is still space for improving academic quality and the quality of care within current financial boundaries. But more reliable data about the specific benefits and drawbacks of having a residency program in a clinical radiology department are required.

  20. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article. PMID:27882273

  1. Handoff practices in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Liston, Beth W; Tartaglia, Kimberly M; Evans, Daniel; Walker, Curt; Torre, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Growing data demonstrate that inaccuracies are prevalent in current handoff practices, and that these inaccuracies contribute to medical errors. In response, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) now requires residency programs to monitor and assess resident competence in handoff communication. Given these changes, undergraduate medical education programs must adapt to these patient safety concerns. To obtain up-to-date information regarding educational practices for medical students, the authors conducted a national survey of Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) members. In June 2012, CDIM surveyed its institutional members, representing 121 of 143 Departments of Medicine in the U.S. and Canada. The section on handoffs included 12 questions designed to define the handoff education and practices of third year clerkship and fourth year sub-internship students. Ninety-nine institutional CDIM members responded (82%). The minority (15%) reported a structured handoff curriculum provided during the internal medicine (IM) core clerkship, and only 37% reported a structured handoff curriculum during the IM sub-internship. Sixty-six percent stated that third year students do not perform handoff activities. However, most respondents (93%) reported that fourth year sub-internship students perform patient handoff activities. Only twenty-six (26%) institutional educators in CDIM believe their current handoff curriculum is adequate. Despite the growing literature linking poor handoffs to adverse events, few medical students are taught this competency during medical school. The common practice of allowing untrained sub-interns to perform handoffs as part of a required clerkship raises safety concerns. Evidence-based education programs are needed for handoff training.

  2. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners.

    PubMed

    Tam, V C; Berry, S; Hsu, T; North, S; Neville, A; Chan, K; Verma, S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty-related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners.

  3. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners

    PubMed Central

    Tam, V.C.; Berry, S.; Hsu, T.; North, S.; Neville, A.; Chan, K.; Verma, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. Methods To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Results Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty–related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Conclusions Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners. PMID:24523624

  4. Relevance of anatomy to medical education and clinical practice: perspectives of medical students, clinicians, and educators.

    PubMed

    Sbayeh, Amgad; Qaedi Choo, Mohammad A; Quane, Kathleen A; Finucane, Paul; McGrath, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-12-01

    Against a backdrop of ever-changing diagnostic and treatment modalities, stakeholder perceptions (medical students, clinicians, anatomy educators) are crucial for the design of an anatomy curriculum which fulfils the criteria required for safe medical practice. This study compared perceptions of students, practising clinicians, and anatomy educators with respect to the relevance of anatomy education to medicine. A quantitative survey was administered to undergraduate entry (n = 352) and graduate entry students (n = 219) at two Irish medical schools, recently graduated Irish clinicians (n = 146), and anatomy educators based in Irish and British medical schools (n = 30). Areas addressed included the association of anatomy with medical education and clinical practice, mode of instruction, and curriculum duration. Graduate-entry students were less likely to associate anatomy with the development of professionalism, teamwork skills, or improved awareness of ethics in medicine. Clinicians highlighted the challenge of tailoring anatomy education to increase student readiness to function effectively in a clinical role. Anatomy educators indicated dissatisfaction with the time available for anatomy within medical curricula, and were equivocal about whether curriculum content should be responsive to societal feedback. The group differences identified in the current study highlight areas and requirements which medical education curriculum developers should be sensitive to when designing anatomy courses.

  5. Engaging Learners to Advance Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Jones, R Logan; Farlow, Janice L

    2017-04-01

    Learners are a pillar of academic medicine, yet their voice is seldom heard in national and international scholarly conversations on medical education. However, learners are eager to contribute: in response to a recent open call from Academic Medicine, medical students and residents representing 98 institutions across 11 countries submitted 224 Letters to the Editor on wide-ranging topics. In this Invited Commentary, the authors-three medical students serving in national leadership roles-contextualize several themes discussed in these learner-authored letters.The authors first explore the unique voice learners contribute to educational innovation, highlighting the value learners add to curricular and systemic educational reform efforts. They then turn to the broader implications of the many submitted letters addressing the culture and humanism of medicine, proposing that learners can be powerful catalysts and partners in cultural change. Despite these benefits, the authors note that learners are largely untapped change agents who are particularly underrepresented in medical education scholarship, finding that students were just 2.8% (39/1,396) of authors and 3.5% (12/340) of first authors among all print publications in Academic Medicine in 2016. The authors conclude by offering tangible steps for the academic medical community to engage learners in leadership, advocacy, and scholarship.

  6. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  7. THE NEED FOR CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION.

    PubMed

    STEEVES, L C

    1965-04-03

    Continuing medical education is an essential feature of the practice of modern medicine since it furnishes the means to maintain the doctor's ability to provide quality patient care.TO ENSURE THAT CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION IS PROVIDED EFFICIENTLY AND IN THE BEST QUALITY, AND UTILIZED FULLY, IT IS NECESSARY THAT: (1) the medical faculty inculcate in the student the concept of lifelong learning; (2) the practitioner adopt less time-consuming patterns of practice, to free more of his time for learning; (3) community hospital-based clinical teaching be provided universally; and (4) research be conducted to determine the best of current teaching methods and develop better ones. Conflicting efforts to meet these needs by practitioners (whose primary responsibility it is) and by organized medicine, specialty societies, voluntary health agencies and others have led to inefficient use of medical faculty teachers. The key parties in continuing medical education-practitioner and teacher-can learn best in medical school-administered programs, which need be supported by all other interested organizations.

  8. Medical Education and Information and Communication Technology

    PubMed Central

    Houshyari, Asefeh Badiey; Bahadorani, Mahnaz; Tootoonchi, Mina; Gardiner, John Jacob Zucker; Peña, Roberto A; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought many changes in medical education and practice in the last couple of decades. Teaching and learning medicine particularly has gone under profound changes due to computer technologies, and medical schools around the world have invested heavily either in new computer technologies or in the process of adapting to this technological revolution. In order to catch up with the rest of the world, developing countries need to research their options in adapting to new computer technologies. Materials and Methods: This descriptive survey study was designed to assess medical students’ computer and Internet skills and their attitude toward ICT. Results: Research findings showed that the mean score of self-perceived computer knowledge for male students in general was greater than for female students. Also, students who had participated in various prior computer workshops, had access to computer, Internet, and e-mail, and frequently checked their e-mail had higher mean of self-perceived knowledge and skill score. Finally, students with positive attitude toward ICT scored their computer knowledge higher than those who had no opinion. Conclusions: The results have confirmed that the medical schools, particularly in developing countries, need to bring fundamental changes such as curriculum modification in order to integrate ICT into medical education, creating essential infrastructure for ICT use in medical education and practice, and structured computer training for faculty and students. PMID:23555106

  9. Medical education and information and communication technology.

    PubMed

    Houshyari, Asefeh Badiey; Bahadorani, Mahnaz; Tootoonchi, Mina; Gardiner, John Jacob Zucker; Peña, Roberto A; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought many changes in medical education and practice in the last couple of decades. Teaching and learning medicine particularly has gone under profound changes due to computer technologies, and medical schools around the world have invested heavily either in new computer technologies or in the process of adapting to this technological revolution. In order to catch up with the rest of the world, developing countries need to research their options in adapting to new computer technologies. This descriptive survey study was designed to assess medical students' computer and Internet skills and their attitude toward ICT. Research findings showed that the mean score of self-perceived computer knowledge for male students in general was greater than for female students. Also, students who had participated in various prior computer workshops, had access to computer, Internet, and e-mail, and frequently checked their e-mail had higher mean of self-perceived knowledge and skill score. Finally, students with positive attitude toward ICT scored their computer knowledge higher than those who had no opinion. The results have confirmed that the medical schools, particularly in developing countries, need to bring fundamental changes such as curriculum modification in order to integrate ICT into medical education, creating essential infrastructure for ICT use in medical education and practice, and structured computer training for faculty and students.

  10. Nurses in medical education: A unique opportunity.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Trevor J; Thome, Lindsay; Even, Elizabeth

    2016-11-13

    Medical students are expected to learn certain procedural skills in addition to clinical skills, such as assessment and decision making. There is much literature that shows proficiency in procedural skills translated to improved outcomes and cost-saving. Given the time constraints placed by increasing clinical demands, physicians have less time to work with students in teaching technical skills. There is a unique opportunity to utilize nurses in clinical clerkships to teach procedural skills. A dedicated nurse educator can provide a consistent curriculum, work with learners to achieve proficiency, and provide measurable outcomes. Future research should explore the role played by nurses in medical education and the comparison of instructional effectiveness.

  11. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    PubMed

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.

  12. Using cognitive theory to facilitate medical education.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu Qi; Shen, Jun; Liang, Xiao; Ding, Song; Chen, Fang Yuan; Shao, Li; Zheng, Qing; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2014-04-14

    Educators continue to search for better strategies for medical education. Although the unifying theme of reforms was "increasing interest in, attention to, and understanding of the knowledge base structures", it is difficult to achieve all these aspects via a single type of instruction. We used related key words to search in Google Scholar and Pubmed. Related search results on this topic were selected for discussion. Despite the range of different methods used in medical education, students are still required to memorize much of what they are taught, especially for the basic sciences. Subjects like anatomy and pathology carry a high intrinsic cognitive load mainly because of the large volume of information that must be retained. For these subjects, decreasing cognitive load is not feasible and memorizing appears to be the only strategy, yet the cognitive load makes learning a challenge for many students. Cognitive load is further increased when inappropriate use of educational methods occurs, e.g., in problem based learning which demands clinical reasoning, a high level and complex cognitive skill. It is widely known that experts are more skilled at clinical reasoning than novices because of their accumulated experiences. These experiences are based on the formation of cognitive schemata. In this paper we describe the use of cognitive schemata, developed by experts as worked examples to facilitate medical students' learning and to promote their clinical reasoning. We suggest that cognitive load theory can provide a useful framework for understanding the challenges and successes associated with education of medical professionals.

  13. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    , technologies capable of predicting and managing medication side effects, interactions, and toxicity of drugs during spaceflight are needed. We propose to develop and customize for NASAs applications available on the market Personalized Prescribing System (PPS) that would provide a comprehensive, non-invasive solution for safer, targeted medication management for every crew member resulting in safer and more effective treatment and, consequently, better performance. PPS will function as both decision support and record-keeping tool for flight surgeons and astronauts in applying the recommended medications for situations arising in flight. The information on individual drug sensitivity will translate into personalized risk assessment for adverse drug reactions and treatment failures for each drug from the medication kit as well as predefined outcome of any combination of them. Dosage recommendations will also be made individually. The mobile app will facilitate ease of use by crew and medical professionals during training and flight missions.

  14. Using TV Dramas in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth; Evans, Lowri; Alshareef, Nora Talal

    2015-01-01

    Medical dramas are an incredibly popular TV genre especially amongst medical learners, and they have become an increasingly accepted resource in learning experiences. Educators have recognised their pedagogical value, as they allow a host of complex medical and psychosocial issues to be presented to learners in an engaging format. Care has to be taken however to appreciate and overcome their limitations including recognising 'unexpected learning outcomes'. What is vital to their successful incorporation into teaching programme is the reflection component; which facilitates discussion and allows for a deeper learning experience.

  15. Microethics in medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    “Microethics” is an avant-garde in the field of ethics. When the term “ethics” is brought into discussion in medical education or clinical practice, it customarily points to the traditional ethics, that is, biomedical ethics that deals with the ethical issues faced during unaccustomed or rare clinical circumstances. In contrast, microethics is a continuous ethical science existing in the physician-patient interaction that happens each day in every physician's clinical liaison. These ethical issues of everyday importance need to be introduced in the ethics training programs of medical institutions to provide insight and thereby promoting improvement in medical care and outcome. PMID:26629449

  16. Situational analysis of palliative care education in thai medical schools.

    PubMed

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak

    2013-01-01

    The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.

  17. Medical Emergency Team syndromes and an approach to their management

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Daryl; Duke, Graeme; Green, John; Briedis, Juris; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Casamento, Andrew; Kattula, Andrea; Way, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Most literature on the medical emergency team (MET) relates to its effects on patient outcome. Less information exists on the most common causes of MET calls or on possible approaches to their management. Methods We reviewed the calling criteria and clinical causes of 400 MET calls in a teaching hospital. We propose a set of minimum standards for managing a MET review and developed an approach for managing common problems encountered during MET calls. Results The underlying reasons for initiating MET calls were hypoxia (41%), hypotension (28%), altered conscious state (23%), tachycardia (19%), increased respiratory rate (14%) and oliguria (8%). Infection, pulmonary oedema, and arrhythmias featured as prominent causes of all triggers for MET calls. The proposed minimum requirements for managing a MET review included determining the cause of the deterioration, documenting the events surrounding the MET, establishing a medical plan and ongoing medical follow-up, and discussing the case with the intensivist if certain criteria were fulfilled. A systematic approach to managing episodes of MET review was developed based on the acronym 'A to G': ask and assess; begin basic investigations and resuscitation, call for help if needed, discuss, decide, and document, explain aetiology and management, follow-up, and graciously thank staff. This approach was then adapted to provide a management plan for episodes of tachycardia, hypotension, hypoxia and dyspnoea, reduced urinary output, and altered conscious state. Conclusion A suggested approach permits audit and standardization of the management of MET calls and provides an educational framework for the management of acutely unwell ward patients. Further evaluation and validation of the approach are required. PMID:16507153

  18. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

  19. Medical management of diabetes after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J-L; Pradignac, A; Luca, F; Meyer, L; Rohr, S

    2009-12-01

    Several studies indicate that bariatric surgery frequently leads to resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes in overweight patients. However, the medical postoperative management requires lifelong counselling, monitoring and nutrient supplements in patients in remission as well as in patients who continue to be diabetic. The aim of such management is to avoid nutritional deficiencies, and to delay diabetes relapse by optimizing the control of risk factors. To this end, diet and pharmacological prescriptions, including vitamin and mineral supplements, are indispensable, despite the fact that specific recommendations, until now, have been lacking for these particular patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [A pragmatic vision of medical education].

    PubMed

    Cumplido-Hernández, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Some aspects of the educative system at the Mexican Institute of Social Security are described. It is based on the perception of a problematic situation that constitutes a challenge. An educational process to enhance the quality of medical education is proposed, with the adoption of a participative model of self-constructive learning. This proposal is based on theoretical references in a both philosophical and sociological knowledge perspective of an individual related to institutional behavior, to end with a psychological view from which some learning theories are explored. An educational model is built with the inclusion of institutional elements, like the new evaluation system for residents; centers for educational investigation and a teacher training process. Three axes of the educational process are proposed: tutorial teaching, development of complex abilities of thought and critical reading. The evaluation system includes guides for measuring the operational process established and the professional responsibilities of the different participants.

  1. Medical management after indoor fires: a review.

    PubMed

    Welling, L; van Harten, S M; Patka, P; Bierens, J J L M; Boers, M; Luitse, J S K; Mackie, D P; Trouwborst, A; Gouma, D J; Kreis, R W

    2005-09-01

    Fires involving mass burn casualties require extreme efforts and flexibility from the regular health care system. The café fire in Volendam, which occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001, resulted in the worst indoor mass burns incident in Dutch history. During the extensive medical evaluation of this disaster, it became obvious that information on similar incidents is relatively scarce in the literature. This article systematically reviews the existing information in the medical literature on indoor fires and provides findings and knowledge used in the evaluation of the medical management after indoor fires and for future mass burn casualty preparedness, mitigation and response. A literature review was undertaken for burn disasters with characteristics similar to the indoor Volendam fire disaster. In all fires, the following aspects were investigated: characteristics of the fire; the initial emergency response; triage and on-site treatment; primary and secondary distribution; hospital admission; severity of the sustained injuries and mortality. A total of nine similar indoor fires were selected. The number of people involved was reported in seven fires (range 137-6000). All reports provided the mortality rate (range 1.4% to over 50%). Data regarding the emergency response could be collected in half of the studies. On-scene triage was performed in five fires. The number of hospitals participating in the primary distribution ranged from 1 to 19. Except for the Volendam fire, all patients were primarily distributed to general hospitals. Characteristics of indoor fires, which are relevant for disaster preparedness, mitigation and response are not frequently reported in medical literature. The current articles on indoor fires, mainly report on numbers of casualties and the mortality. Limited data are available to provide insight in the characteristics of management and medical treatment and to come up with suggestions for improvement of future

  2. The Relationship Between the Educational Background and Managerial Experience of Senior Navy Medical Service Corps Executives (Health Care Administrators) and their Perceived Current and Required Management Capabilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    all f8 1.1 ldg 16a__ _ _ 16I 73i APPENDIX F. EDUCATION AND TRAINING GOALS laik Pkin (0.1/0-3) b~ doaf.iio Scoo Mwo Rhode wwad Basnic binry Shut lau am...joint docme, and "WAblh Mir Fumes. Degned 040-5 officers. Beed Dak Feowship Lammin: or Reed Army Medical Camer. Whion. DC Bowling Green Universnty...WI. 30 X operastg ftme -~qIn I VAL max smew. (GRAS) OFp ROaM Nwin od.w" 6 wke. " kee x POWi SeIdise Adonama. 4 vA. 30 x Pkm 0p - nu Med - a1 2 ub. 60 x

  3. Medical evaluation and management of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Semins, Michelle Jo; Matlaga, Brian R

    2010-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent condition with a high recurrence rate that has a large impact on the quality of life of those affected. It also poses a great financial burden on society. There have been great advancements in the surgical treatment of stone disease over the past several decades. The evolution of surgical technique appears to have overshadowed the importance of prevention of stone disease despite evidence showing medical therapies significantly decreasing stone recurrence rates. Herein we review the metabolic evaluation of stone formers with the use of specific blood and urine tests. We complete our discussion with a review of the medical management of stone formers providing both general recommendations as well as reviewing focused therapies for specific metabolic abnormalities and medical conditions.

  4. Medical education in the United States: do residents feel prepared?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen Amy; Kotliar, Dylan; Drolet, Brian C

    2015-08-01

    Medical schools face a growing challenge in providing a comprehensive educational experience. Students must graduate with not only the medical knowledge but also the requisite skills to care for patients and serve as physicians-in-training. To assess whether residents felt prepared by their medical school training. We developed a questionnaire to assess resident attitudes towards various aspects of their medical school training and electronically distributed it among 107 United States training institutions. A total of 2287 residents responded. Overall, a majority (53.8 %) agreed that 'medical school prepared me well to be a resident.' Most residents felt very well or mostly prepared in medical knowledge and clinical skills such as collecting a history (92.3 %), presenting a physical exam (86.1 %), or pathophysiology (81.6 %), but not for applied medical and psychosocial practices including end-of-life care (41.7 %), dealing with a patient death (46.3 %), and considering cost-effective care (28.7 %). Additionally, many residents reported feeling underprepared for time and fatigue management, debt, and medical-legal issues. Medical school graduates generally feel well prepared for residency. However, they may be less prepared to face important psychosocial, cultural and professional issues. Ultimately, a greater emphasis on skills and psychosocial experience may yield graduates who feel better prepared for today's residency challenges.

  5. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    PubMed Central

    KHABAZ MAFINEJAD, MAHBOOBEH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYYED KAMRAN; BIGDELI, SHOALEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of inter-professional training programs in Iran.  In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system. PMID:27382577

  6. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis.

    PubMed

    Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh; Ahmady, Soleiman; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyyed Kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2016-07-01

    The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were "educational structure", "mediating factors", "conceptual understanding", and "professional identity". These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of inter-professional training programs in Iran.  In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system.

  7. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  8. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  9. Medical Education and Leadership in Breastfeeding Medicine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Scott; Bell, Esther

    2017-08-17

    Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition. An overarching goal of ABM, which is a multispecialty organization of doctors around the world, is to educate all maternal-child healthcare professionals, not just physicians, about breastfeeding. Within the field of medicine, family doctors, pediatricians, and obstetrician/gynecologists are considered the most logical source of breastfeeding expertise. However, the need for breastfeeding education goes beyond those providers who have obvious interactions with mothers and babies. We must educate anesthesiologists, surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists, among others. Building pipelines of physicians who are well educated in breastfeeding medicine allows more effective collaboration and care of mothers and infants among providers in various medical and surgical specialties as well as between doctors and other healthcare providers. This evidence-based education needs to be multifaceted, with didactic curricula for a strong knowledge base complemented by clinical experiences for skill development and application. Clinical knowledge and skills can also be reinforced during nonclinical opportunities in teaching, research, advocacy, and professional development. In this article, we describe a foundational framework for physician education in breastfeeding medicine as well as several creative noncurricular opportunities to develop breastfeeding expertise in future

  10. Medication therapy management (MTM): an innovative approach to improve medication adherence in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Bindu Murali, Athira; Boban, Belsy; Karoor Shanmughan, Aswathy; Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Ramakrishnan Sreelatha, Aravind; Xavier, Augustine

    2016-09-01

    Medication therapy management (MTM) is a pharmacist-led professional service, one of the main aims of which is to improve patient medication adherence. Ensuring adequate adherence to the prescribed therapeutic regimen is one of the major challenges in attaining the desired therapeutic goals in diabetics. The objective of this study was to implement MTM in diabetic patients and to identify its effectiveness in improving patient medication adherence. A prospective interventional study was carried out within a 1-year period in KIMS-Al-Shifa Hospital, which is a tertiary care referral hospital in Malabar region of Kerala, including inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general medicine department of the hospital. The MTM programme was applied in selected patients, including personal medication record, medication-related action plan and detailed counselling. Adherence was measured using the Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 both before and after the programme. A total of 104 patients were included in the study. The adherence of patients to anti-diabetic therapy was very low, which showed significant improvement after applying intervention (p-value<0.05 in a paired t-test). Initially, only 37.5% had high adherence which was increased to 59.5% after intervention. Age and educational status were identified to have a significant impact on patient medication adherence (p-value<0.05 in a χ2-test). Medication adherence is a key component of self-management for patients with diabetes. A pharmacist-led MTM programme if appropriately designed and implemented will have a potential positive impact on medication adherence in diabetic patients.

  11. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  12. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  13. [Network-based continuing medical education].

    PubMed

    Romanov, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    Network-based training can provide continuing medical education with methods, whose implementation by means of traditional training is difficult or practically impossible. By virtue of its chronological and geographical flexibility, educational application of the network may provide extra advantage for the trainee and the trainer. Implementation of network-based training is, however, demanding and laborious both technically and pedagogically, whereby organizations should strive for collaboration in organizing the training. In addition, the status of network-based continuing education in relation to the physician's working time should be clearly defined.

  14. Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

  15. Vanquishing Virtue: The Impact of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulehan, Jack; Williams, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that North American medical education favors an explicit commitment to traditional values of doctoring--empathy, compassion, and altruism--but a tacit commitment to behaviors grounded in an ethic of detachment, self-interest, and objectivity. Explores differing ways (conflation, deflation, and maintaining of values) that students respond…

  16. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  17. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  18. Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

  19. Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

  20. Emotional Intelligence Medical Education: Measuring the Unmeasurable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Natalie J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Hudson, J. Nicky; Bleakley, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained increasing popularity over the last 10 years and now has a relatively large academic and popular associated literature. EI is beginning to be discussed within the medical education literature, where, however, it is treated uncritically. This reflections paper aims to stimulate thought about…

  1. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  2. Academic postgraduate medical education -- an Oxford view.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise

    2014-02-01

    Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes.

  3. A Simulation Laboratory for Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajid, Abdul; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the program of the Learning Resource and Development Center established by the Center for Educational Development of the University of Illinois College of Medicine to provide self-instructional practice of clinical skills through the use of instructional simulations and assistance to the medical faculty in developing and evaluating the…

  4. Vanquishing Virtue: The Impact of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulehan, Jack; Williams, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that North American medical education favors an explicit commitment to traditional values of doctoring--empathy, compassion, and altruism--but a tacit commitment to behaviors grounded in an ethic of detachment, self-interest, and objectivity. Explores differing ways (conflation, deflation, and maintaining of values) that students respond…

  5. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  6. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  7. Study skills course in medical education for postgraduate residents.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2007-01-01

    The learners have to take active parts in the teaching learning activities. To make them aware and to help them develop the skills required, the need of the study skills course in medical education early in the part of their training has been realized for the postgraduate residents. The important areas of the study skills course focusing in the requirement of clinical components of the postgraduate residents are 1) Interpersonal and communications skills, 2) Teaching, learning and presentation skills, 3) Language, reading and computer use, 4) Evidence based medicine and diagnosis and management, 5) Assessment principles and strategies, 6) Time management strategies to get the best out of the training, 7) Reflection, portfolio and self-directed lifelong learning, and 8) Follow-up presentation. The methodologies that could be used in such study skills course are interactive lectures, brainstorming, presentations by the trainees, demonstration to and by the trainees, small group discussion, group work and presentation, group and individual feedback, practice sessions, role play, short relevant video movies, video recording of the trainees and viewing with feedback. With their already tight training schedule and posting and other similar other mandatory courses required for the postgraduate residents, much time cannot be allocated for the study skills course in medical education alone. Similar study skills course in medical education may need to be arranged for the undergraduate medical students as well.

  8. Mobile technology use in medical education.

    PubMed

    Luanrattana, Rattiporn; Win, Khin Than; Fulcher, John; Iverson, Don

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the PDA functionalities for a problem-based learning (PBL) medical curriculum at the Graduate School of Medicine (GSM), the University of Wollongong (UOW). The study determines the factors/aspects of incorporating PDAs, and the attitudes of stakeholders regarding the use of PDAs in such a PBL-based medical curriculum. In-depth interviews were designed and conducted with medical faculty, the medical education technology team and honorary medical academics. Four major PDA functionalities were identified, these being: clinical-log, reference, communication, and general functions. Two major aspects for the incorporation of PDAs into the PBL-medical curriculum at the UOW were determined from the interviews, these being technical and practical aspects. There is a potential for PDAs to be incorporated into the PBL-medical curricula at the UOW. However, a clear strategy needs to be defined as to how best to incorporate PDAs into PBL-medical curricula with minimal impact on students, as well as financial and resource implications for the GSM.

  9. Medication therapy management programs: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ai, Amy L; Carretta, Henry; Beitsch, Leslie M; Watson, Leah; Munn, Jean; Mehriary, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Medication therapy management (MTM) is one form of a medication benefit program offered by public and private health providers and insurers. Although the term was first coined in 2003, MTM in its earlier forms has been used since the 1990s as a mechanism to improve health metrics for medically complex patients. Its role expanded with the passage of Medicare Part D, as a mandated component to help patients with multiple chronic conditions, high drug costs, and high utilization to improve the effectiveness and safety of their medication treatments.  To review the evidence on MTM effectiveness in order to (a) provide information on its establishment and goals and (b) summarize research findings under 3 outcomes: economic, clinical, and humanistic.  PubMed, a search engine service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information was utilized by trained research assistants to search for articles with the following key words: MTM, randomized controlled trials on MTM, evaluation of MTM, comprehensive medication review, medication action plan, special needs population, special needs plans, Medicaid, disease management, adherence, non-adherence, compliance, chronic conditions, disabling chronic conditions, and disability. Additional searches were conducted for key articles in references listed in the most recent review articles. The initial search identified nearly 300 articles. When evaluated, most studies found economic benefits, but the quality of research design and end point measures varied considerably across evaluations. Clinical outcomes encompassed a wide range of potential metrics, from service utilization, to individual patient and population outcomes, and quality of care. Quality measures such as provider-prescribing habits and medication adherence were frequently found to improve. As noted with the economic outcomes studies, overall rigor of study design was suboptimal, and often underpowered.  Few studies have focused on humanistic outcomes such as

  10. Introducing medical students to careers in medical education: the student track at an annual medical education conference.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Benjamin; Plack, Margaret; Suzuki, Mari; Arepalli, Sruthi; Schroth, Scott; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2013-08-01

    Few avenues exist to familiarize medical students with careers as clinician-educators, and the clinician-educator career pathway has not been well defined. In this article, the authors describe how they integrated a career-oriented student track into the 2011 Northeast Group on Educational Affairs (NEGEA) annual retreat to introduce students to careers in medical education. Annual education conferences are principal sources of educational scholarship, networking, collaboration, and information sharing; as such, they represent attractive venues for early exposure to the culture of medical education. The authors' goal in creating the NEGEA conference student track was to excite students about careers in medical education by providing them with an array of opportunities for active involvement in both student-specific and general conference activities.The authors draw from their experience to provide a guide for recruiting student participants to career-building student tracks. They also offer a guide for developing future student tracks, based on their experience and grounded in social cognitive career theory. Although their focus is on medical education, they believe these guides will be useful for educators planning a conference-based student track in any field.

  11. Measuring stress in medical education: validation of the Korean version of the higher education stress inventory with medical students.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Hana; Lee, Kwang-Min; Jung, Dooyoung; Noh, Hae-Lim; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2016-11-24

    Medical students face a variety of stressors associated with their education; if not promptly identified and adequately dealt with, it may bring about several negative consequences in terms of mental health and academic performance. This study examined psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (K-HESI). The reliability and validity of the K-HESI were examined in a large scale multi-site survey involving 7110 medical students. The K-HESI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and questions regarding quality of life (QOL) and self-rated physical health (SPH) were administered. Exploratory factor analysis of the K-HESI identified seven factors: Low commitment; financial concerns; teacher-student relationship; worries about future profession; non-supportive climate; workload; and dissatisfaction with education. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis supported the 7-factor model. Internal consistency of the K-HESI was satisfactory (Cronbach's α = .78). Convergent validity was demonstrated by its positive association with the BDI. Known group validity was supported by the K-HESI's ability to detect significant differences on the overall and subscale scores of K-HESI according to different levels of QOL and SPH. The K-HESI is a psychometrically valid tool that comprehensively assesses various relevant stressors related to medical education. Evidence-based stress management in medical education empirically guided by the regular assessment of stress using reliable and valid measure is warranted.

  12. [Medical education in Je Joon Won].

    PubMed

    Park, H W; Park, Y J; Yeo, I S; Kim, I S

    1999-01-01

    Medical education in Je Joong Won was proposed and initiated by Dr. HN Allen. In his proposal of building a new hospital, submitted to the king in 1885, he expressed his wish to teach Western medicine to young Koreans at the hospital. The king welcomed his proposal and the plan was soon realized. Je Joon Won, the first modern hospital in Korea, opened on April 10th, 1885. The following year, on March 29th, Dr. Allen began medical school attached to the hospital. Many applicants were recruited by the government and 16 students were selected through the entrance examination. At first, they were taught English and finally 12 students out of them were selected after three months of teaching. The selected students were taught arithmetic, physics, chemistry, anatomy and physiology. The medical education at this period cannot be evaluated entirely successful since none of the 12 students was presumed to have worked as a practitioner.

  13. Medical education and indigent patient care.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Deborah S

    2003-12-01

    The 20th century model of medical education has focused on a network of urban medical centers serving primarily indigent patients in an unspoken contract of medical services in exchange for student and resident education. The improvement in federal and state reimbursement for indigent care services, along with the decline in reimbursement rates from the private sector, has led to competition for these patients from nonacademic providers. As numbers of patients seeking care at urban teaching centers have steadily declined, concerns about adequate teaching volume and revenue generation have led to very creative problem-solving. Bringing marketing concerns into the indigent care environment is not a straightforward undertaking, but the rewards might far exceed the simple goal of "getting our numbers back up."

  14. Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other.

  15. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of home management and consumer education. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested reading. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  16. Classroom Management in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Eddie L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on classroom management in business education includes 17 chapters on such topics as combating teacher burnout, curriculum improvement, declining enrollments in business education, human relations in the classroom, team cohesiveness and the business department, communicating the essentials for the first week of class, and…

  17. Managing the Occupational Education Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, George

    This guide for occupational educators deals with laboratory and instructional management on an interdisciplinary basis within the broad field of occupational education. The principles discussed are intended to be applied at all levels and in all types of laboratories. The text suggests effective ways of organizing laboratories so that students can…

  18. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of home management and consumer education. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested reading. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  19. The Need for Continuing Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Lea C.

    1965-01-01

    Continuing medical education is an essential feature of the practice of modern medicine since it furnishes the means to maintain the doctor's ability to provide quality patient care. To ensure that continuing medical education is provided efficiently and in the best quality, and utilized fully, it is necessary that: (1) the medical faculty inculcate in the student the concept of lifelong learning; (2) the practitioner adopt less time-consuming patterns of practice, to free more of his time for learning; (3) community hospital-based clinical teaching be provided universally; and (4) research be conducted to determine the best of current teaching methods and develop better ones. Conflicting efforts to meet these needs by practitioners (whose primary responsibility it is) and by organized medicine, specialty societies, voluntary health agencies and others have led to inefficient use of medical faculty teachers. The key parties in continuing medical education—practitioner and teacher—can learn best in medical school-administered programs, which need be supported by all other interested organizations. PMID:14278031

  20. Oral Health Education for Medical Students: Malaysian and Australian Students' Perceptions of Educational Experience and Needs.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mas S; Abuzar, Menaka A; Razak, Ishak A; Rahman, Sabariah A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L

    2017-09-01

    Education in oral health is important to prepare future medical professionals for collaborative roles in maintaining patients' oral health, an important component of general health and well-being. The aims of this study were to determine the perceptions of medical students in Malaysia and Australia of the quality of their training in oral health care and their perceptions of their professional role in maintaining the oral health of their patients. A survey was administered in the classroom with final-year Malaysian (n=527; response rate=79.3%) and Australian (n=455; response rate: 60%) medical students at selected institutions in those countries. In the results, most of these medical students reported encountering patients with oral health conditions including ulcers, halitosis, and edentulism. A majority in both countries reported believing they should advise patients to obtain regular dental check-ups and eat a healthy diet, although they reported feeling less than comfortable in managing emergency dental cases. A high percentage reported they received a good education in smoking cessation but not in managing dental trauma, detecting cancerous lesions, or providing dietary advice in oral disease prevention. They expressed support for inclusion of oral health education in medical curricula. These students' experience with and perceptions of oral health care provide valuable information for medical curriculum development in these two countries as well as increasing understanding of this aspect of interprofessional education and practice now in development around the world.

  1. Chronic disease management: teaching medical students to incorporate community.

    PubMed

    Dent, M Marie; Mathis, Mary W; Outland, Monita; Thomas, McKinley; Industrious, DeShawn

    2010-01-01

    As a response to the growing prevalence of chronic disease, models of chronic care have emerged as salient approaches to address dynamic health care changes and to manage the burden of suffering of these diseases. Concurrently, there has been a growing call to address chronic disease management within medical school curricula. This article describes the development and evaluation of a curricular intervention designed to prepare students to integrate patient-centered care with an understanding of the patients' community, provide care within rural settings, and experience clinical education specific to chronic disease management. Second-year medical students completed a chronic disease management project as part of a 4-week community visit in rural and/or medically underserved sites. Paired pre- and post-survey data were collected using the Community Oriented Health Care Competency Scale to assess the student's knowledge, intent to practice, and attitudes toward incorporating community-oriented primary care into future practice. Matched pre- and post-project surveys were identified for 170 respondents out of 219 students (77.6% response rate). Post-assessment items were found to be statistically different from measures collected prior to the students' entrance into the community: all knowledge questions indicated significant advancements toward community responsiveness, as did one question related to attitude and three of the intent to practice community-oriented health care questions. Community-based rotations can play a positive role in developing the competencies needed for future practice. The development of curricular opportunities designed to train future physicians on the value of incorporating models of chronic care within rural and underserved communities should remain at the forefront of medical education.

  2. Opt-in medical management strategies.

    PubMed

    Fetterolf, Donald; Olson, Marty

    2008-02-01

    Historically, health plans and disease management companies have employed "opt-out" strategies for evaluating medical management outcomes across larger populations, targeting the entire population of eligible individuals and allowing those not interested to opt out. Recent observations that the predominant effort of these programs is on high-risk patients has lead some managers to suggest that the focus be on only those individuals with an anticipated higher effectiveness and lower cost to the payers of such services. They believe such "opt-in" models, in which only higher risk participants are targeted and enrolled, will deliver higher value. The use of common opt-in models, however, is not only methodologically unsound, but experience in the field suggests there may be less overall effect as well. Calculation methods for developing impact remain extremely sensitive to methodology

  3. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  4. Continuing Education Courses in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Herbert S.

    1987-01-01

    Examines issues of special library management and the emphases in SLA (Special Libraries Association) continuing education courses dealing with these issues. Five courses taught for SLA are described, including one-day courses on management communications, delegation, and effective supervisory skills, as well as seminars dealing with human…

  5. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  6. Educational Management through Microcomputer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Sharon L.

    In order to determine whether business software packages (word processing, financial management, data management, graphics, statistical, or multi-functional integrated software packages with business applications) are effective tools for public service professionals (educators and government workers) when applied directly to individuals' daily…

  7. Wanted: Successful Higher Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, Maryann; Grills, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an expert roundtable's list of desirable qualities for higher education managers: strong leadership, ability to teach others, ability to develop a cadre of people who can carry out the mission, partnering well with outsiders, managing well, adaptability, being a change agent, understanding the competition, and having an entrepreneurial…

  8. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  9. Graduate Medical Education-Accelerated Change.

    PubMed

    Linville, Mark David; Bates, J Edward

    2017-02-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) is a critical link in the educational chain for physicians. Graduating from a strict apprenticeship model, GME has become a highly structured educational system whose peer-review organization provides an intentional and direct approach to ensuring that GME not only addresses the public's expectations of the profession but also positions itself to be a foundational structure in the outcomes-focused healthcare environment of the nation. GME is currently in a state of accelerated change-grounded in both educational and patient outcomes. This article provides an update on the significant changes that have occurred in GME over the past 10 years, a review of current initiatives and the perspectives related to educating physicians-in-training. Additionally, an analysis is provided on the future of GME, including areas of continued focus and uncertainty.

  10. Interdisciplinarity in medical education on race.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Richard Staggers

    2006-01-01

    Race is important in medicine. In order to correct the inequality in healthcare racial minority people can expect to receive, a new rhetorical stance is needed so that we can place our discourse in a productive arena. Most recommended solutions argue for increased education on "cultural competence" for physicians. Who will educate the educators? What rhetorical stance will work? A requirement for physicians to learn about cultural and linguistic competence will not get us to fairness in medical care, independent of race. That's because race is not the problem. There's nothing wrong with our race. Other disciplines within academe must contribute to students' understanding and treatment of race in America if we are to seriously address disparities in medical care. PMID:16749662

  11. Educational programs in US medical schools.

    PubMed

    Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I; Barzansky, B

    1993-09-01

    As described in the introduction, the data presented in this report can be viewed in both a historical and an environmental context. From a historical perspective, there has been change in many areas of medical education. The number of applicants to medical schools has risen sharply in the past few years, a result seemingly inconsistent with the dissatisfaction with medicine expressed by many physicians and with the uncertainties about the eventual outcomes of health system reform. The number of minority applicants and enrollees is slowly rising, but at rates below the goals identified by such initiatives as the Association of American Medical Colleges' "Project 3000 by 2000." Even with the expansion of the applicant pool, however, most medical schools do not anticipate enrollment increases. Medical school tuition also continues to increase significantly, in both public and private schools. The number of faculty members in the clinical disciplines also has continued to rise, although the rate of increase has become less marked. The decrease in the number of basic science faculty members that occurred this year will need to be monitored to ensure that appropriate faculty resources are available for teaching, especially with the initiatives to introduce more active learning formats during the basic science years. The medical curriculum continues to evolve at differing rates across schools. Many "innovations" have become part of the curricular repertoire; for example, medical schools have incorporated educational formats, such as problem-based learning or computer-assisted instruction, which emphasize active student learning, although in a number of cases they are limited to a small portion of the curriculum. In addition, the availability of clinical experiences during the first 2 years of the curriculum, especially those located in ambulatory settings, gives students an early glimpse of the world of actual medical practice. The use of standardized patients provides

  12. Medical waste management training for healthcare managers - a necessity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This is an interventional study, since a training has been given, performed in order to investigate whether training has significant impact on knowledge levels of healthcare managers (head-nurses, assistant head nurses, hospital managers and deputy managers) regarding bio-medical waste management. Methods The study was conducted on 240 volunteers during June – August 2010 in 12 hospitals serving in Istanbul (private, public, university, training-research hospitals and other healthcare institutions). A survey form prepared by the project guidance team was applied to the participants through the internet before and after the training courses. The training program was composed of 40 hours of theory and 16 hours of practice sessions taught by persons known to have expertise in their fields. Methods used in the analysis of the data chi-square and t-tests in dependent groups. Results 67.5% (162) of participants were female. 42.5% (102) are working in private, and 21.7% in state-owned hospitals. 50.4% are head-nurses, and 18.3% are hospital managers. A statistically significant difference was found among those who had received medical waste management training (preliminary test and final test) and others who had not (p<0.01). It was observed that information levels of all healthcare managers who had received training on waste management had risen at the completion of that training session. Conclusion On the subject of waste management, to have trained healthcare employees who are responsible for the safe disposal of wastes in hospitals is both a necessity for the safety of patients and important for its contribution to the economy of the country. PMID:24499642

  13. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... hunger strike: (1) Measure and record height and weight; (2) Take and record vital signs; (3) Urinalysis...

  14. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    PubMed

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  15. Medical education in the electronic medical record (EMR) era: benefits, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Michael J; Pageler, Natalie M; Kahana, Madelyn; Pantaleoni, Julie L; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, electronic medical record (EMR) use in academic medical centers has increased. Although many have lauded the clinical and operational benefits of EMRs, few have considered the effect these systems have on medical education. The authors review what has been documented about the effect of EMR use on medical learners through the lens of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies for medical education. They examine acknowledged benefits and educational risks to use of EMRs, consider factors that promote their successful use when implemented in academic environments, and identify areas of future research and optimization of EMRs' role in medical education.

  16. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education

    PubMed Central

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution’s curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. Objective We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. Methods We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. Results We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent

  17. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education.

    PubMed

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution's curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent global in-depth medical curriculum

  18. Professional competencies learned through working on a medication education project.

    PubMed

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Saano, Susanna; Vainio, Kirsti

    2010-08-10

    To implement a medication education project and assess the competencies students learned and implemented in professional practice after graduation. Fourth-year pharmacy students planned, carried out, and reported on a real-life project during 1 study year. Outside experts and 2 faculty members facilitated the work. The aim of the medication education project was to create material that schoolteachers could use to teach children about rational use of medicines. All students who had participated in the medication education program during its 3 years were contacted (n = 31). A questionnaire was sent to the 21 students who had graduated (18 responded), and a focus group was conducted with the 10 students completing their final year of pharmacy school (9 participants). The competencies that the students reported learning most were teamwork and social interaction skills. They considered the project motivating but also found it challenging and the deadlines frustrating. Through participation in a medication education project, students learned interpersonal skills, time management, conflict resolution, and other skills that many of them already were finding valuable in their professional practice.

  19. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, W M; Zanting, A; van Beukelen, P; de Grave, W; Baane, J A; Bustraan, J A; Engbers, R; Fick, Th E; Jacobs, J C G; Vervoorn, J M

    2009-05-01

    The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of Deans of Medical Schools in The Netherlands installed a national task force to explore a method to weigh criteria for teacher qualifications of medical teachers. A framework was developed covering competencies of teachers throughout the medical education continuum and including medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine. The framework distinguishes 3 dimensions: (a) six domains of teaching (development - organization - execution - coaching - assessment - evaluation); (b) three levels in the organization at which teachers perform (micro, meso and macro level) and (c) competencies as integration of knowledge, skills and attitude and described as behaviour in specific context. The current framework is the result of several cycles of descriptions, feedback from the field and adaptations. It is meant as a guideline, leaving room for local detailing. The framework provides a common language that may be used not only by teachers and teacher trainers, but also by quality assurance committees, human resource managers and institutional boards.

  20. Innovation in medical education: how Linköping created a Blue Ocean for medical education in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Savage, Carl; Brommels, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The Linköping Health University is an example of a medical school which has succeeded, not only with a major curricular change, transforming itself into a problem-based learning school, but also in contributing to innovations in medical education. To analyse the Linköping example in order to better understand how to succeed with innovations in medical education. By applying a framework developed within the strategic management literature to the case study, the authors hope to understand how this innovation was achieved. Linköping Health University was able to break boundaries and create a divergent profile through eliminating, reducing, raising, and creating different aspects of the curricula. A strategic management framework can be applied to medical education to better understand innovation. The authors discover that many of the later innovations were in fact more aimed at sustaining the initial innovation rather than creating new trends. It remains unclear from the case study how to stimulate innovation without the use of fear or threats.

  1. Variability in state Medicaid medication management initiatives.

    PubMed

    Neyarapally, George A; Smith, Marie A

    Many U.S. states have expanded Medicaid programs, with over 70 million beneficiaries now enrolled. States' interest in improving care quality and lowering costs has spurred experimentation with several medication management (MM) programs. The implementation of MM programs for beneficiaries has been sporadic, and program elements and implementation methods have been heterogeneous. A survey was conducted to: (1) determine covered MM services in state Medicaid programs, (2) report innovative MM program findings, and (3) identify challenges in creating sustainable MM programs. The survey was sent to state Medicaid pharmacy directors in February 2015. The survey data focused on the type and extent of pharmacist-provided MM services, MM provider qualifications, patient eligibility criteria and enrollment strategies, MM delivery settings and referral patterns, MM program evaluations, program costs and sustainability models, key implementation challenges, and future program enhancements. Many Medicaid programs generally followed Medicare Part D Medication Therapy Management requirements. Highly variable findings were due to different Medicaid eligibility criteria, pharmacist integration with health teams, access to electronic medical records (EMRs), and MM delivery methods/settings to optimize drug therapy regimens. Several implementation challenges were identified. Pharmacist integration on care teams and access to EMRs improves MM implementation. MM program evaluation funding and data support must be secured prior to program implementation. The findings and discussion here can assist states with limited or preliminary Medicaid MM experience to progress toward sustainable programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends and the future of postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Harden, R M

    2006-10-01

    Where is the present flurry of activity in medical education leading and what sort of future is envisaged? This paper looks at trends in postgraduate medical education. Four themes and two trends for each theme have been identified. The themes are: the postgraduate medical curriculum, the application of learning technologies, assessment of competence, and professionalism in medical education. The trends are: outcome based education and a unitary approach to medical education; the use of simulators and e-learning; competency and performance based assessment, and portfolios and self assessment; and training the trainer and best evidence medical education. Any limitations in implementing change will likely result from a lack of imagination in those planning postgraduate medical education and their ability to bring about the necessary changes. To avoid a growing gap developing between what is possible educationally and what is delivered, it is clear that we need a new paradigm for postgraduate medical education.

  3. Trends and the future of postgraduate medical education

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R M

    2006-01-01

    Where is the present flurry of activity in medical education leading and what sort of future is envisaged? This paper looks at trends in postgraduate medical education. Four themes and two trends for each theme have been identified. The themes are: the postgraduate medical curriculum, the application of learning technologies, assessment of competence, and professionalism in medical education. The trends are: outcome based education and a unitary approach to medical education; the use of simulators and e‐learning; competency and performance based assessment, and portfolios and self assessment; and training the trainer and best evidence medical education. Any limitations in implementing change will likely result from a lack of imagination in those planning postgraduate medical education and their ability to bring about the necessary changes. To avoid a growing gap developing between what is possible educationally and what is delivered, it is clear that we need a new paradigm for postgraduate medical education. PMID:16988312

  4. Modernizing and Transforming Medical Education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College

    PubMed Central

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-01-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  5. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    PubMed

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued.

  6. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  8. Using databases in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 77.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jennifer; Scott, Neil; Harrild, Kirsten; Moffat, Mandy

    2013-05-01

    This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to the use of databases in medical education research. It is intended for those who are contemplating conducting research in medical education but are new to the field. The Guide is structured around the process of planning your research so that data collection, management and analysis are appropriate for the research question. Throughout we consider contextual possibilities and constraints to educational research using databases, such as the resources available, and provide concrete examples of medical education research to illustrate many points. The first section of the Guide explains the difference between different types of data and classifying data, and addresses the rationale for research using databases in medical education. We explain the difference between qualitative research and qualitative data, the difference between categorical and quantitative data, and the difference types of data which fall into these categories. The Guide reviews the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative research. The next section is structured around how to work with quantitative and qualitative databases and provides guidance on the many practicalities of setting up a database. This includes how to organise your database, including anonymising data and coding, as well as preparing and describing your data so it is ready for analysis. The critical matter of the ethics of using databases in medical educational research, including using routinely collected data versus data collected for research purposes, and issues of confidentiality, is discussed. Core to the Guide is drawing out the similarities and differences in working with different types of data and different types of databases. Future AMEE Guides in the research series will address statistical analysis of data in more detail.

  9. The relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2008-9

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Maryam; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Javadi, Marzi; Ansary, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Old methods of administrating can’t cover the rapid changes of today. These changes redounded new organizations like learning organizations to be formed. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytic survey. The population of study included 90 nursing managers of 9 educational hospitals. Data gathering was done via learning organizational (LO) and organizational commitment (OC) questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean score of LO was 56.9 ± 18.1 among nursing mangers, and the mean score of OC was 62.3 ± 10.1. In general, there was a significant relationship between LO and OC and there was a significant relationship between LO and job experience based on ANOVA test. CONCLUSIONS: In today’s changing environment of very rapid changes which have been seen in different areas of science and technology and the increasing complexity and dynamics of environmental factors, only organizations with active adaptation (dynamic equilibrium) can survive and remain capable of growth. This aim can be fulfilled just in learning organizations. PMID:21589785

  10. The relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Maryam; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Javadi, Marzi; Ansary, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Old methods of administrating can't cover the rapid changes of today. These changes redounded new organizations like learning organizations to be formed. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers. This was a descriptive analytic survey. The population of study included 90 nursing managers of 9 educational hospitals. Data gathering was done via learning organizational (LO) and organizational commitment (OC) questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. The mean score of LO was 56.9 ± 18.1 among nursing mangers, and the mean score of OC was 62.3 ± 10.1. In general, there was a significant relationship between LO and OC and there was a significant relationship between LO and job experience based on ANOVA test. In today's changing environment of very rapid changes which have been seen in different areas of science and technology and the increasing complexity and dynamics of environmental factors, only organizations with active adaptation (dynamic equilibrium) can survive and remain capable of growth. This aim can be fulfilled just in learning organizations.

  11. Medical student psychiatric educators' perceptions of supports, resources, and rewards.

    PubMed

    Roman, Brenda; Briscoe, Gregory; Gay, Tamara

    2014-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of resources for medical student education in psychiatry in US medical schools. An e-questionnaire was deployed to psychiatric educators in the Association of the Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP) regarding resources for fulfilling their educational mission. Medical student educators in psychiatry were neutral as to whether they had adequate mentoring, yet did report support from their chair. Participants' roles in medical student education and membership in ADMSEP enhanced their work satisfaction, career satisfaction, and career development. Many participants reflected a lack of adequate resources to achieve student education goals. There are opportunities for improvement in provision of teaching resources, mentoring for medical student educators, greater protected time for teaching and administration, and rewards (salary and non-monetary) for educators. If actualized, these improvements would promote optimization of medical student education in psychiatry.

  12. Educational objectives for international medical electives: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, William A; Drain, Paul K; Brewer, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    Although most medical schools and residency programs offer international medical electives (IMEs), little guidance on the educational objectives for these rotations exists; thus, the authors reviewed the literature to compile and categorize a comprehensive set of educational objectives for IMEs. In February and July 2012, the authors searched SciVerse Scopus online, which includes the Embase and MEDLINE databases, using specified terms. From the articles that met their inclusion criteria, they extracted the educational objectives of IMEs and sorted them into preelective, intraelective, and postelective objectives. The authors identified and reviewed 255 articles, 11 (4%) of which described 22 educational objectives. Among those 22 objectives, 5 (23%), 15 (68%), and 2 (9%) were, respectively, preelective, intraelective, and postelective objectives. Among preelective objectives, only cultural awareness appeared in more than 2 articles (3/11; 27%). Among intraelective objectives, the most commonly defined were enhancing clinical skills and understanding different health care systems (9/11; 82%). Learning to manage diseases rarely seen at home and increasing cultural awareness appeared in nearly half (5/11; 45%) of all articles. Among postelective objectives, reflecting on experiences through a written project was most common (9/11; 82%). The authors identified 22 educational objectives for IMEs in the published literature, some of which were consistent across institutions. These consistencies, in conjunction with future research, can be used as a framework on which institutions can build their own IME curricula, ultimately helping to ensure that their medical trainees have a meaningful learning experience while abroad.

  13. Continuing education for medical professionals: a reflective model.

    PubMed Central

    Brigley, S.; Young, Y.; Littlejohns, P.; McEwen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Royal Colleges and their Faculties have moved continuing professional development up the agenda of doctors in the UK. The low educational value and failure to change professional practice of much continuing medical education has led to criticism of its emphasis on formal, didactic teaching and academic knowledge. The ubiquitous scientific or technical bias in medical education makes questionable assumptions about the nature of professional knowledge, how professionals learn, and the linkage of theory and practice in professional work. Given its narrow conception of professional knowledge, it is hardly surprising that the effectiveness of continuing medical education has proven difficult to evaluate. These points of criticism suggest that a more systematic and coherent approach to continuing education is required. The adoption of the concept of continuing professional development, which draws on learning by reflective practice, marks an important step in this direction. Continuing professional development emphasises self-directed learning, professional self-awareness, learning developed in context, multidisciplinary and multilevel collaboration, the learning needs of individuals and their organisations, and an inquiry-based concept of professionalism. It also involves a widening of accountability to patients, the community, managers and policymakers, and a form of evaluation which is internal, participatory and collaborative rather than external and scientific in character. PMID:9039405

  14. [Competency-based assessment in medical education].

    PubMed

    Champin, Denisse

    2014-01-01

    At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum.

  15. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is part I of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1925 to 1983. Most of the references are from the 1970's. (RH)

  16. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  17. Smart financial management of medical office space.

    PubMed

    Shactman, D

    1993-06-01

    In a healthcare environment of strained resources and scarce profits, hospital administrators must seek revenue from all available sources. Some potential revenue sources are capital intensive, however, requiring large initial investments for new construction and modern equipment. Other potential revenue sources may require starting new programs and recruiting additional staff. Few potentially income-producing alternatives can be funded from existing assets, require little additional investment, and yield significant revenue. But hospitals that own and lease medical office buildings, will find that with proper management these existing assets can become sources of additional revenue.

  18. Medicare Financing of Graduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Eugene C; Liebow, Mark; Srinivasan, Malathi; Parish, David; Wolliscroft, James O; Fein, Oliver; Blaser, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The past decade has seen ongoing debate regarding federal support of graduate medical education, with numerous proposals for reform. Several critical problems with the current mechanism are evident on reviewing graduate medical education (GME) funding issues from the perspectives of key stakeholders. These problems include the following: substantial interinstitutional and interspecialty variations in per-resident payment amounts; teaching costs that have not been recalibrated since 1983; no consistent control by physician educators over direct medical education (DME) funds; and institutional DME payments unrelated to actual expenditures for resident education or to program outcomes. None of the current GME reform proposals adequately address all of these issues. Accordingly, we recommend several fundamental changes in Medicare GME support. We propose a re-analysis of the true direct costs of resident training (with appropriate adjustment for local market factors) to rectify the myriad problems with per-resident payments. We propose that Medicare DME funds go to the physician organization providing resident instruction, keeping DME payments separate from the operating revenues of teaching hospitals. To ensure financial accountability, we propose that institutions must maintain budgets and report expenditures for each GME program. To establish educational accountability, Residency Review Committees should establish objective, annually measurable standards for GME program performance; programs that consistently fail to meet these minimum standards should lose discretion over GME funds. These reforms will solve several long-standing, vexing problems in Medicare GME funding, but will also uncover the extent of undersupport of GME by most other health care payers. Ultimately, successful reform of GME financing will require “all-payer” support. PMID:11972725

  19. Medicare financing of graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Rich, Eugene C; Liebow, Mark; Srinivasan, Malathi; Parish, David; Wolliscroft, James O; Fein, Oliver; Blaser, Robert

    2002-04-01

    The past decade has seen ongoing debate regarding federal support of graduate medical education, with numerous proposals for reform. Several critical problems with the current mechanism are evident on reviewing graduate medical education (GME) funding issues from the perspectives of key stakeholders. These problems include the following: substantial interinstitutional and interspecialty variations in per-resident payment amounts; teaching costs that have not been recalibrated since 1983; no consistent control by physician educators over direct medical education (DME) funds; and institutional DME payments unrelated to actual expenditures for resident education or to program outcomes. None of the current GME reform proposals adequately address all of these issues. Accordingly, we recommend several fundamental changes in Medicare GME support. We propose a re-analysis of the true direct costs of resident training (with appropriate adjustment for local market factors) to rectify the myriad problems with per-resident payments. We propose that Medicare DME funds go to the physician organization providing resident instruction, keeping DME payments separate from the operating revenues of teaching hospitals. To ensure financial accountability, we propose that institutions must maintain budgets and report expenditures for each GME program. To establish educational accountability, Residency Review Committees should establish objective, annually measurable standards for GME program performance; programs that consistently fail to meet these minimum standards should lose discretion over GME funds. These reforms will solve several long-standing, vexing problems in Medicare GME funding, but will also uncover the extent of undersupport of GME by most other health care payers. Ultimately, successful reform of GME financing will require "all-payer" support.

  20. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    PubMed

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.