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Sample records for medical imaging procedures

  1. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed. PMID:26828544

  2. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  3. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  4. Interventional therapy procedures assisted by medical imaging and simulation. The experience of U 703 Inserm (Lille France).

    PubMed

    Vermandel, M; Betrouni, N; Rousseau, J; Dubois, P

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, minimally invasive techniques have been increasingly used in ever more and diversified fields of application. These techniques have some shared characteristics (predominant role of medical imaging, intensive use of new communication technologies, a multidisciplinary medical and scientific framework, etc.) but also shared specific problems (high-tech tools unfamiliar to the medical users, a major and long period of time for technological development, unavailability of training systems, difficulties in obtaining regulatory approval). For a long time, our Laboratory of Medical Physics (U 703 Inserm) has developed an innovative research activity in biomedical engineering in the field of assisted therapy, medical imaging and medical simulation. This paper presents the general context of interventional therapy procedures assisted by image and simulation and describes our scientific activities based on realistic objectives close to medical practice.

  5. Medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Alex

    2005-07-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques—X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion.

  6. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, C. Carl

    1982-01-01

    Describes principle imaging techniques, their applications, and their limitations in terms of diagnostic capability and possible adverse biological effects. Techniques include film radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and digital radiography. PET has…

  7. Image analysis and processing methods in verifying the correctness of performing low-invasive esthetic medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of various treatments using fractional laser or radiofrequency depend, to a large extent, on precise movement of equipment head across the patient’s skin. In addition, they both depend on uniform distribution of emitted pulses throughout the treated skin area. The pulses should be closely adjacent but they should not overlap. Pulse overlapping results in amplification of irradiation dose and carries the danger of unwanted effects. Methods Images obtained in infrared mode (Flir SC5200 thermovision camera equipped with photon detector) were entered into Matlab environment. Thermal changes in the skin were forced by CO2RE laser. Proposed image analysis and processing methods enable automatic recognition of CO2RE laser sites of action, making possible to assess the correctness of performed cosmetic procedures. Results 80 images were acquired and analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI) for the entire treatment field were determined automatically. In accordance with the proposed algorithm, laser-irradiated Li areas (ROI) were determined for the treatment area. On this basis, error values were calculated and expressed as percentage of area not covered by any irradiation dose (δo) and as percentage area which received double dose (δz). The respective values for the analyzed images were δo=17.87±10.5% and δz=1.97±1.5%, respectively. Conclusions The presented method of verifying the correctness of performing low-invasive esthetic medical (cosmetic) procedures has proved itself numerous times in practice. Advantages of the method include: automatic determination of coverage error values δo and δz, non-invasive, sterile and remote-controlled thermovisual mode of measurements, and possibility of assessing dynamics of patient’s skin temperature changes. PMID:23758786

  8. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  9. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  10. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  11. Medical Imaging: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Debashis; Chakraborty, Srabonti; Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization. Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible. The medical images plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy of doctor and teaching and researching etc. Medical imaging is often thought of as a way to represent anatomical structures of the body with the help of X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. But often it is more useful for physiologic function rather than anatomy. With the growth of computer and image technology medical imaging has greatly influenced medical field. As the quality of medical imaging affects diagnosis the medical image processing has become a hotspot and the clinical applications wanting to store and retrieve images for future purpose needs some convenient process to store those images in details. This paper is a tutorial review of the medical image processing and repository techniques appeared in the literature.

  12. Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Jaffe, C. Carl; Duncan, James

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema. PMID:9147338

  13. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings. PMID:23715317

  14. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.

  15. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats.

  16. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  17. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241

  18. Costing imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bretland, P M

    1988-01-01

    The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting.

  19. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  20. Medical image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Wang, Jinxiang

    1994-12-01

    In this paper a medical image processing system is described. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. Principles and cases provided here. Many kinds of pictures are used in modern medical diagnoses, for example B-supersonic, X-ray, CT and MRI. Some times the pictures are not good enough for diagnoses. The noises interfere with real situation on these pictures. That means the image processing is needed. A medical image processing system is described in this paper. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. There are four functions in that system. The first part is image processing. More than thirty four programs are involved. The second part is calculating. The areas or volumes of single or multitissues are calculated. Three dimensional reconstruction is the third part. The stereo images of organs or tumors are reconstructed with cross-sections. The last part is image storage. All pictures can be transformed to digital images, then be stored in hard disk or soft disk. In this paper not only all functions of that system are introduced, also the basic principles of these functions are explained in detail. This system has been applied in hospitals. The images of hundreds of cases have been processed. We describe the functions combining real cases. Here we only introduce a few examples.

  1. Medical Images Remote Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Maurizio; Frixione, Paolo; Squarcia, Sandro

    Teleconsultation of digital images among different medical centers is now a reality. The problem to be solved is how to interconnect all the clinical diagnostic devices in a hospital in order to allow physicians and health physicists, working in different places, to discuss on interesting clinical cases visualizing the same diagnostic images at the same time. Applying World Wide Web technologies, the proposed system can be easily used by people with no specific computer knowledge providing a verbose help to guide the user through the right steps of execution. Diagnostic images are retrieved from a relational database or from a standard DICOM-PACS through the DICOM-WWW gateway allowing connection of the usual Web browsers to DICOM applications via the HTTP protocol. The system, which is proposed for radiotherapy implementation, where radiographies play a fundamental role, can be easily converted to different field of medical applications where a remote access to secure data are compulsory.

  2. Wavelets in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Noor e.; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  3. Wavelets in medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-17

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  4. Digital diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Kuismin, Raimo; Jormalainen, Raimo; Dastidar, Prasun; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    2001-08-01

    The popularity of digital imaging devices and PACS installations has increased during the last years. Still, images are analyzed and diagnosed using conventional techniques. Our research group begun to study the requirements for digital image diagnostic methods to be applied together with PACS systems. The research was focused on various image analysis procedures (e.g., segmentation, volumetry, 3D visualization, image fusion, anatomic atlas, etc.) that could be useful in medical diagnosis. We have developed Image Analysis software (www.medimag.net) to enable several image-processing applications in medical diagnosis, such as volumetry, multimodal visualization, and 3D visualizations. We have also developed a commercial scalable image archive system (ActaServer, supports DICOM) based on component technology (www.acta.fi), and several telemedicine applications. All the software and systems operate in NT environment and are in clinical use in several hospitals. The analysis software have been applied in clinical work and utilized in numerous patient cases (500 patients). This method has been used in the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up in various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory system (RS) and human reproductive system (HRS). In many of these diseases e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (CNS), nasal airways diseases (RS) and ovarian tumors (HRS), these methods have been used for the first time in clinical work. According to our results, digital diagnosis improves diagnostic capabilities, and together with PACS installations it will become standard tool during the next decade by enabling more accurate diagnosis and patient follow-up.

  5. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  6. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing. PMID:23822402

  7. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing.

  8. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  9. Content standards for medical image metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Ornellas, Marcos C.; da Rocha, Rafael P.

    2003-12-01

    Medical images are at the heart of the healthcare diagnostic procedures. They have provided not only a noninvasive mean to view anatomical cross-sections of internal organs but also a mean for physicians to evaluate the patient"s diagnosis and monitor the effects of the treatment. For a Medical Center, the emphasis may shift from the generation of image to post processing and data management since the medical staff may generate even more processed images and other data from the original image after various analyses and post processing. A medical image data repository for health care information system is becoming a critical need. This data repository would contain comprehensive patient records, including information such as clinical data and related diagnostic images, and post-processed images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data as well as the diversified user access requirements, the implementation of the medical image archive system will be a complex and challenging task. This paper discusses content standards for medical image metadata. In addition it also focuses on the image metadata content evaluation and metadata quality management.

  10. Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J

    2010-12-01

    Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging.

  11. Medical Office Laboratory Procedures: Course Proposal. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eleanor

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course…

  12. [PTSD in young children after medical procedure].

    PubMed

    Sepers, J W; van der Boon, N; Landsmeer-Beker, N E A

    2016-01-01

    An eight-year-old boy with spastic type bilateral cerebral palsy and a two-year-old girl with biliary atresia were referred to a psycho-trauma centre. Both children developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of the medical procedure. Because of their symptoms, they were resisting further medical treatment. The children were given trauma-focused treatment (eye movement and desensitisation reprocessing and cognitive behavioural therapy). This article argues that hypnosis and distraction can play a role in preventing PTSD symptoms after undergoing a medical procedure. If PTSD is unavoidable, it is important to recognise the symptoms and to treat these children. Furthermore, their parents might also be traumatised. PTSD symptoms in children and their parents can be successfully treated. Also children with sub-threshold PTSD can benefit from trauma treatment. PMID:27353156

  13. Desktop supercomputers. Advance medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Frisiello, R S

    1991-02-01

    Medical imaging tools that radiologists as well as a wide range of clinicians and healthcare professionals have come to depend upon are emerging into the next phase of functionality. The strides being made in supercomputing technologies--including reduction of size and price--are pushing medical imaging to a new level of accuracy and functionality.

  14. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  15. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  16. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  17. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  18. Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. HSI acquires a three-dimensional dataset called hypercube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension. Spatially resolved spectral imaging obtained by HSI provides diagnostic information about the tissue physiology, morphology, and composition. This review paper presents an overview of the literature on medical hyperspectral imaging technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. PMID:24441941

  19. Generalized nonconvex optimization for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Joshi, Sujit

    2000-06-01

    Design of a generalized technique for medical image segmentation is a challenging task. Currently a number of approaches are being investigated for 2-D and 3-D medical image segmentation for diagnostic and research applications. The methodology used in this work is aimed at obtaining a generalized solution of non-convex optimization problems by including a structural constraint of mass or density and the concept of additivity properties of entropy to a recently developed statistical approach to clustering and classification. The original computationally intensive procedure is made more efficient both in processing time and accuracy by employing a new similarity parameter for generating the initial clusters that are updated by minimizing an energy function relating the image entropy and expected distortion. The application of the computationally intensive yet generalized solution to nonconvex optimization to a limited set of medical images has resulted in excellent segmentation when compared to other clustering based segmentation approaches. The addition of the parametric approach to determine the initial number of clusters allows significant reduction in processing time and better design of automated segmentation procedure. This research work generalizes a deterministic annealing i.e. a specific statistical approach to solve nonconvex optimization problems by developing a more efficient technique applicable to nonconvex optimization problems (getting trapped in local minima). However, the DA approach is extremely computationally intensive for applications such as image segmentation. The new integrated approach developed in this work allows this optimization technique to be used for medical image segmentation.

  20. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  1. Compressive sensing in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Christian G.; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed. PMID:25968400

  2. Medical ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Schuy, S

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic imaging techniques is by no means finished even today. The morphological display of anatomical cross-sections has already reached a high standard and is characterized by the realization of real-time compound scanners. Automated water-bath scanners, either compound or single pass, are intended to help ultrasound to play a more dominant role in mammography, especially as a screening method, although at present it cannot be used very efficiently for this purpose. Considerable progress can be expected with the increasing use of computer facilities, especially digital signal-processing techniques. They should not only further improve image fidelity and intelligibility, but also the comfort of the handling. A major step forward will be the implementation of objective transducer-independent tissue-differentiation facilities into imaging devices. The development of alternative ultrasonic imaging techniques like the transmission camera should increase the scope of ultrasonic application rather than compete with B-scan imaging.

  3. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  4. Monitoring medical procedures by exponential smoothing.

    PubMed

    Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-15

    A new exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart well suited for 'online' routine surveillance of medical procedures is introduced. The chart is based on inter-event counts for failures recorded when the failures occur. The method can be used for many types of hospital procedures and activities, such as problems or errors in surgery, hospital-acquired infections, erroneous handling or prescription of medicine, deviations from scheduled treatments causing inconveniences for patients. The construction, the use and the effectiveness of the control chart are demonstrated by two well-known examples about wound infection in orthopaedic surgery and neonatal arterial switch surgery. The method is easy to implement and apply, it illustrates, estimates and tests the current failure rate. Comparisons with two examples from the literature indicate that its ability to quickly detect an increased failure rate is comparable to that of other well-established methods.

  5. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  6. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom...

  7. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient....

  8. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient....

  9. Stereoscopic medical imaging collaboration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Fumio; Hirano, Takenori; Nakabayasi, Yuusuke; Minoura, Hirohito; Tsuruoka, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    The computerization of the clinical record and the realization of the multimedia have brought improvement of the medical service in medical facilities. It is very important for the patients to obtain comprehensible informed consent. Therefore, the doctor should plainly explain the purpose and the content of the diagnoses and treatments for the patient. We propose and design a Telemedicine Imaging Collaboration System which presents a three dimensional medical image as X-ray CT, MRI with stereoscopic image by using virtual common information space and operating the image from a remote location. This system is composed of two personal computers, two 15 inches stereoscopic parallax barrier type LCD display (LL-151D, Sharp), one 1Gbps router and 1000base LAN cables. The software is composed of a DICOM format data transfer program, an operation program of the images, the communication program between two personal computers and a real time rendering program. Two identical images of 512×768 pixcels are displayed on two stereoscopic LCD display, and both images show an expansion, reduction by mouse operation. This system can offer a comprehensible three-dimensional image of the diseased part. Therefore, the doctor and the patient can easily understand it, depending on their needs.

  10. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an...

  11. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  12. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  13. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an...

  14. Medical gamma ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Osborne, Louis S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the distribution of a position-emitting radioisotope into an object, the apparatus consisting of a wire mesh radiation converter, an ionizable gas for propagating ionization events caused by electrodes released by the converter, a drift field, a spatial position detector and signal processing circuitry for correlating near-simultaneous ionization events and determining their time differences, whereby the position sources of back-to-back collinear radiation can be located and a distribution image constructed.

  15. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  16. CMAS: a rich media annotation system for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Jong; Chao, Hui

    2006-03-01

    We have developed the CMAS system (Collaborative Medical Annotation System) so that medical professionals will be able to easily annotate digital medical records that contain medical imaging or procedure videos. The CMAS system enables a non-technical person to annotate a medical image or video with their recorded presence. The CMAS system displays medical images via a projector onto a screen; when a doctor (or patient) physically walks in front of this screen with the medical image and gives his/her opinion while gesturing at the image, the CMAS system intuitively captures this interaction by creating a video annotation with HP's Active Shadows technology. The CMAS system automatically transforms physical interactions, ranging from a laser pointer spot to a doctor's physical presence, into video annotation that then can be overlaid on top of the medical image or seamlessly inserted into the procedure video. Annotated in such a manner, the medical record retains the historical development of the diagnostic medical opinion, explained through presence of doctors and their respective annotations. The CMAS system structures the annotation of digital medical records such that image/video annotations from multiple sources, at different times, and from different locations can be maintained within a historical context and be consistently referenced among multiple annotations.

  17. Medical physics personnel for medical imaging: requirements, conditions of involvement and staffing levels-French recommendations.

    PubMed

    Isambert, Aurélie; Le Du, Dominique; Valéro, Marc; Guilhem, Marie-Thérèse; Rousse, Carole; Dieudonné, Arnaud; Blanchard, Vincent; Pierrat, Noëlle; Salvat, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    The French regulations concerning the involvement of medical physicists in medical imaging procedures are relatively vague. In May 2013, the ASN and the SFPM issued recommendations regarding Medical Physics Personnel for Medical Imaging: Requirements, Conditions of Involvement and Staffing Levels. In these recommendations, the various areas of activity of medical physicists in radiology and nuclear medicine have been identified and described, and the time required to perform each task has been evaluated. Criteria for defining medical physics staffing levels are thus proposed. These criteria are defined according to the technical platform, the procedures and techniques practised on it, the number of patients treated and the number of persons in the medical and paramedical teams requiring periodic training. The result of this work is an aid available to each medical establishment to determine their own needs in terms of medical physics.

  18. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  19. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  20. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  1. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  2. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  3. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  4. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  5. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  6. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  7. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  8. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  9. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  10. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  11. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  12. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  13. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  14. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  15. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  16. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  17. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102.26 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by...

  18. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  19. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  20. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  1. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  2. MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    ANGENENT, SIGURD; PICHON, ERIC; TANNENBAUM, ALLEN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some central mathematical problems in medical imaging. The subject has been undergoing rapid changes driven by better hardware and software. Much of the software is based on novel methods utilizing geometric partial differential equations in conjunction with standard signal/image processing techniques as well as computer graphics facilitating man/machine interactions. As part of this enterprise, researchers have been trying to base biomedical engineering principles on rigorous mathematical foundations for the development of software methods to be integrated into complete therapy delivery systems. These systems support the more effective delivery of many image-guided procedures such as radiation therapy, biopsy, and minimally invasive surgery. We will show how mathematics may impact some of the main problems in this area, including image enhancement, registration, and segmentation. PMID:23645963

  3. Improving Performance During Image-Guided Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, James R.; Tabriz, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Image-guided procedures have become a mainstay of modern health care. This article reviews how human operators process imaging data and use it to plan procedures and make intraprocedural decisions. Methods A series of models from human factors research, communication theory, and organizational learning were applied to the human-machine interface that occupies the center stage during image-guided procedures. Results Together, these models suggest several opportunities for improving performance as follows: 1. Performance will depend not only on the operator’s skill but also on the knowledge embedded in the imaging technology, available tools, and existing protocols. 2. Voluntary movements consist of planning and execution phases. Performance subscores should be developed that assess quality and efficiency during each phase. For procedures involving ionizing radiation (fluoroscopy and computed tomography), radiation metrics can be used to assess performance. 3. At a basic level, these procedures consist of advancing a tool to a specific location within a patient and using the tool. Paradigms from mapping and navigation should be applied to image-guided procedures. 4. Recording the content of the imaging system allows one to reconstruct the stimulus/response cycles that occur during image-guided procedures. Conclusions When compared with traditional “open” procedures, the technology used during image-guided procedures places an imaging system and long thin tools between the operator and the patient. Taking a step back and reexamining how information flows through an imaging system and how actions are conveyed through human-machine interfaces suggest that much can be learned from studying system failures. In the same way that flight data recorders revolutionized accident investigations in aviation, much could be learned from recording video data during image-guided procedures. PMID:24921628

  4. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  5. Medical Imaging of Hyperpolarized Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. Wilson

    2009-08-04

    Since the introduction of hyperpolarized {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe as gaseous MRI contrast agents more than a decade ago, a rich variety of imaging techniques and medical applications have been developed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inhaled gas depicts ventilated lung airspaces with unprecedented detail, and allows one to track airflow and pulmonary mechanics during respiration. Information about lung structure and function can also be obtained using the physical properties of the gas, including spin relaxation in the presence of oxygen, restricted diffusion inside the alveolar airspaces, and the NMR frequency shift of xenon dissolved in blood and tissue.

  6. Application of the CCD camera in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kom; Smith, Chuck; Bunting, Ralph; Knoll, Paul; Wobig, Randy; Thacker, Rod

    1999-04-01

    Medical fluoroscopy is a set of radiological procedures used in medical imaging for functional and dynamic studies of digestive system. Major components in the imaging chain include image intensifier that converts x-ray information into an intensity pattern on its output screen and a CCTV camera that converts the output screen intensity pattern into video information to be displayed on a TV monitor. To properly respond to such a wide dynamic range on a real-time basis, such as fluoroscopy procedure, are very challenging. Also, similar to all other medical imaging studies, detail resolution is of great importance. Without proper contrast, spatial resolution is compromised. The many inherent advantages of CCD make it a suitable choice for dynamic studies. Recently, CCD camera are introduced as the camera of choice for medical fluoroscopy imaging system. The objective of our project was to investigate a newly installed CCD fluoroscopy system in areas of contrast resolution, details, and radiation dose.

  7. The value of diagnostic medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Bradley, Kendall E

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging has clear clinical utility, but it also imposes significant costs on the health care system. This commentary reviews the factors that drive the cost of medical imaging, discusses current interventions, and suggests possible future courses of action.

  8. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  9. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  10. Archimedes, an archive of medical images.

    PubMed

    Tahmoush, Dave; Samet, Hanan

    2006-01-01

    We present a medical image and medical record database for the storage, research, transmission, and evaluation of medical images. Medical images from any source that supports the DICOM standard can be stored and accessed, as well as associated analysis and annotations. Retrieval is based on patient info, date, doctor's annotations, features in the images, or a spatial combination. This database supports the secure transmission of sensitive data for tele-medicine and follows all HIPPA regulations.

  11. PET: a revolution in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Abass; Lakhani, Paras; Mavi, Ayse; Kung, Justin W; Zhuang, Hongming

    2004-11-01

    FDG-PET has had remarkable influence on the assessment of physiologic and pathologic states. The authors predict that FDG-PET imaging could soon become the most common procedure used by nuclear medicine laboratories and could remain so for an extended period of time. The power of molecular imaging lies in the vast potential for using biochemical and pharmacologic probes to extend applications arising from an understanding of cell biology to a large number of well-characterized pathologic states. Molecular imaging based upon tracer kinetics with positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals could become the main source of information for the management of cancer patients. In that case, nuclear medicine procedures might become the most common imaging studies performed in the practice of medicine. This speculation is not farfetched when one realizes the enormous change that a single biologically important compound, FDG, has brought to the medical arena. The major challenge today is to attract the highly qualified individuals and to secure the resources needed to harness the opportunities in the specialty of molecular imaging. PMID:15488553

  12. Medical confidentiality and patient safety: reporting procedures.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette Roscam

    2014-06-01

    Medical confidentiality is of individual and of general interest. Medical confidentiality is not absolute. European countries differ in their legislative approaches of consent for data-sharing and lawful breaches of medical confidentiality. An increase of interference by the legislator with medical confidentiality is noticeable. In The Netherlands for instance this takes the form of new mandatory duties to report resp. of legislation providing for a release of medical confidentiality in specific situations, often under the condition that reporting takes place on the basis of a professional code that includes elements imposed by the legislator (e.g. (suspicion of) child abuse, domestic violence). Legislative interference must not result in the patient loosing trust in healthcare. To avoid erosion of medical confidentiality, (comparative) effectiveness studies and privacy impact assessments are necessary (European and national level). Medical confidentiality should be a subject of permanent education of health personnel.

  13. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  14. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  15. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  16. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An...

  17. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An...

  18. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  19. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  20. MR imaging guidance for minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terence Z.; Kettenbach, Joachim; Silverman, Stuart G.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Morrison, Paul R.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1998-04-01

    Image guidance is one of the major challenges common to all minimally invasive procedures including biopsy, thermal ablation, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. This is essential for (1) identifying the target lesion, (2) planning the minimally invasive approach, and (3) monitoring the therapy as it progresses. MRI is an ideal imaging modality for this purpose, providing high soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging, capability with no ionizing radiation. An interventional/surgical MRI suite has been developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital which provides multiplanar imaging guidance during surgery, biopsy, and thermal ablation procedures. The 0.5T MRI system (General Electric Signa SP) features open vertical access, allowing intraoperative imaging to be performed. An integrated navigational system permits near real-time control of imaging planes, and provides interactive guidance for positioning various diagnostic and therapeutic probes. MR imaging can also be used to monitor cryotherapy as well as high temperature thermal ablation procedures sing RF, laser, microwave, or focused ultrasound. Design features of the interventional MRI system will be discussed, and techniques will be described for interactive image acquisition and tracking of interventional instruments. Applications for interactive and near-real-time imaging will be presented as well as examples of specific procedures performed using MRI guidance.

  1. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  2. Novel Algorithm for Classification of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Juneja, Monika

    2010-11-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods in medical image databases have been designed to support specific tasks, such as retrieval of medical images. These methods cannot be transferred to other medical applications since different imaging modalities require different types of processing. To enable content-based queries in diverse collections of medical images, the retrieval system must be familiar with the current Image class prior to the query processing. Further, almost all of them deal with the DICOM imaging format. In this paper a novel algorithm based on energy information obtained from wavelet transform for the classification of medical images according to their modalities is described. For this two types of wavelets have been used and have been shown that energy obtained in either case is quite distinct for each of the body part. This technique can be successfully applied to different image formats. The results are shown for JPEG imaging format.

  3. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  4. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  5. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  7. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  9. Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2004-07-01

    Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

  10. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  11. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system.

  12. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses.

  13. NASA Technology Finds Uses in Medical Imaging

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA software has been incorporated into a new medical imaging device that could one day aid in the interpretation of mammograms, ultrasounds, and other medical imagery. The new MED-SEG system, dev...

  14. Medical image fusion based on non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daoming; Zhang, Xianda

    2009-10-01

    Medical image fusion is a process of obtaining a new composite image from two or more source images which are from different modalities. In this paper, we proposed a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm, the only resulted basis image is just the fused image. Since the CT and MRI images have a lot of pixels which are zeros, the NMF algorithm can not be employed directly. To overcome this difficulty, we first add a positive bias to the original data matrix and remove the bias from the resulted fusion image after the NMF procedure. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing wavelet-based methods and Laplacian pyramid-based methods.

  15. Imaging and Analytics: The changing face of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Thomas

    There have been significant technological advances in imaging capability over the past 40 years. Medical imaging capabilities have developed rapidly, along with technology development in computational processing speed and miniaturization. Moving to all-digital, the number of images that are acquired in a routine clinical examination has increased dramatically from under 50 images in the early days of CT and MRI to more than 500-1000 images today. The staggering number of images that are routinely acquired poses significant challenges for clinicians to interpret the data and to correctly identify the clinical problem. Although the time provided to render a clinical finding has not substantially changed, the amount of data available for interpretation has grown exponentially. In addition, the image quality (spatial resolution) and information content (physiologically-dependent image contrast) has also increased significantly with advances in medical imaging technology. On its current trajectory, medical imaging in the traditional sense is unsustainable. To assist in filtering and extracting the most relevant data elements from medical imaging, image analytics will have a much larger role. Automated image segmentation, generation of parametric image maps, and clinical decision support tools will be needed and developed apace to allow the clinician to manage, extract and utilize only the information that will help improve diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity. As medical imaging devices continue to improve in spatial resolution, functional and anatomical information content, image/data analytics will be more ubiquitous and integral to medical imaging capability.

  16. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    mission. The manufacturing techniques developed to create the components have yielded innovations advancing medical imaging, transportation security, and even energy efficiency.

  17. MIARS: a medical image retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Mueen, A; Zainuddin, R; Baba, M Sapiyan

    2010-10-01

    The next generation of medical information system will integrate multimedia data to assist physicians in clinical decision-making, diagnoses, teaching, and research. This paper describes MIARS (Medical Image Annotation and Retrieval System). MIARS not only provides automatic annotation, but also supports text based as well as image based retrieval strategies, which play important roles in medical training, research, and diagnostics. The system utilizes three trained classifiers, which are trained using training images. The goal of these classifiers is to provide multi-level automatic annotation. Another main purpose of the MIARS system is to study image semantic retrieval strategy by which images can be retrieved according to different levels of annotation.

  18. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... care. (a) When a member of the ARNG incurs a disease or an injury, while performing training duty under... benefits. (b) Authorization for care in civilian facility. (1) An individual who desires medical or...

  19. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System Insurance... the individual to whom they pertain or that person's authorized or legal representative or to...

  20. Interactive MR image guidance for neurosurgical and minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Terence Z.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Black, Peter M.; Kacher, Daniel F.; Morrison, Paul R.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-05-01

    Advantages of MR imaging for guidance of minimally invasive procedures include exceptional soft tissue contrast, intrinsic multiplanar imaging capability, and absence of exposure to ionizing radiation. Specialized imaging sequences are available and under development which can further enhance diagnosis and therapy. Flow-sensitive imaging techniques can be used to identify vascular structures. Temperature-sensitive imaging is possible which can provide interactive feedback prior to, during, and following the delivery of thermal energy. Functional MR imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences can provide additional information for guidance in neurosurgical applications. Functional MR allows mapping of eloquent areas in the brain, so that these areas may be avoided during therapy. Dynamic contrast enhancement techniques can be useful for distinguishing active tumor from tumor necrosis caused by previous radiation therapy. An open-configuration 0.5T MRI system (GE Signa SP) developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital in collaboration with General Electric Medical Systems is described. Interactive navigation systems have been integrated into the MRI system. The imaging system is sited in an operating room environment, and used for image guided neurosurgical procedures (biopsies and tumor excision), as well as minimally invasive thermal therapies. Examples of MR imaging guidance, navigational techniques, and clinical applications are presented.

  1. Multimodality Imaging for Guiding EP Ablation Procedures.

    PubMed

    Njeim, Mario; Desjardins, Benoit; Bogun, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional electroanatomical mapping have been met by continuous improvements in the field of cardiac imaging and image integration during ablation procedures. Echocardiography, computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear imaging provide information about cardiac anatomy and ultrastructure of the heart that may be crucial for a successful ablation procedure. Techniques and value of pre-procedural, intraprocedural, and post-procedural imaging and image integration are discussed in this review article. Pre-procedural imaging provides key anatomic information that can be complemented by intraprocedural imaging to minimize procedural complications. Furthermore, the presence and extent of structural heart disease can be assessed pre-procedurally and can be displayed intraprocedurally to limit and focus the mapping and ablation procedure to the area of interest. Pre-procedural imaging combined with imaging obtained during the ablation procedure further enhances procedural safety, reduces exposure to ionizing radiation from fluoroscopy, reduces procedure time, and may improve outcomes. PMID:27388666

  2. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  3. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  4. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  5. Medical imaging V: Image capture, formatting, and display

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Digital image display I-V; Quality assurance I-V; Clinical image presentation I-V; Imaging systems; Image compression; Workstations; and Medical diagnostic imaging support system for military medicine and other federal agencies.

  6. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    It is a well known fact that managed care and new treatment technologies are revolutionizing the health care provider world. Community Health Information Network and Computer-based Patient Record projects are underway throughout the United States. More and more hospitals are installing digital, `filmless' radiology (and other imagery) systems. They generate a staggering amount of information around the clock. For example, a typical 500-bed hospital might accumulate more than 5 terabytes of image data in a period of 30 years for conventional x-ray images and digital images such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computer Tomography images. With several hospitals contributing to the archive, the storage required will be in the hundreds of terabytes. Systems for reliable, secure, and inexpensive storage and retrieval of digital medical information do not exist today. In this paper, we present a Medical Image Archive and Distribution Service (MIADS) concept. MIADS is a system shared by individual and community hospitals, laboratories, and doctors' offices that need to store and retrieve medical images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data, as well as the diversified user access requirement, implementation of the MIADS will be a complex procedure. One of the key challenges to implementing a MIADS is to select a cost-effective, scalable system architecture to meet the ingest/retrieval performance requirements. We have performed an in-depth system engineering study, and developed a sophisticated simulation model to address this key challenge. This paper describes the overall system architecture based on our system engineering study and simulation results. In particular, we will emphasize system scalability and upgradability issues. Furthermore, we will discuss our simulation results in detail. The simulations study the ingest/retrieval performance requirements based on different system configurations and architectures for variables such as workload, tape

  7. The algorithm stitching for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenishchev, E.; Marchuk, V.; Voronin, V.; Pismenskova, M.; Tolstova, I.; Svirin, I.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we propose a stitching algorithm of medical images into one. The algorithm is designed to stitching the medical x-ray imaging, biological particles in microscopic images, medical microscopic images and other. Such image can improve the diagnosis accuracy and quality for minimally invasive studies (e.g., laparoscopy, ophthalmology and other). The proposed algorithm is based on the following steps: the searching and selection areas with overlap boundaries; the keypoint and feature detection; the preliminary stitching images and transformation to reduce the visible distortion; the search a single unified borders in overlap area; brightness, contrast and white balance converting; the superimposition into a one image. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the task of image stitching.

  8. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  9. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  10. Color hard copy requirements for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Ellen B.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, color mapping has not been utilized for diagnostic medical imaging. Color mapping was not possible prior to the emergence of electronic imaging modalities. Diagnostic imaging is considered in view of its purpose and goals as distinguished from photographic and scientific imaging. The applications for color in digital imaging modalities are discussed, as well as research directions for color utilized as a means of increasing the information density available to an observer. Requirements for color hardcopy are discussed.

  11. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII. PMID:9509399

  12. Image registration method for medical image sequences

    DOEpatents

    Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, James S.

    2013-03-26

    Image registration of low contrast image sequences is provided. In one aspect, a desired region of an image is automatically segmented and only the desired region is registered. Active contours and adaptive thresholding of intensity or edge information may be used to segment the desired regions. A transform function is defined to register the segmented region, and sub-pixel information may be determined using one or more interpolation methods.

  13. Medical image libraries: ICoS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honniball, John; Thomas, Peter

    1999-08-01

    FOr use of digital techniques for the production, manipulation and storage of images has resulted in the creation of digital image libraries. These libraries often store many thousands of images. While provision of storage media for such large amounts of data has been straightforward, provision of effective searching and retrieval tools has not. Medicine relies heavily on images as a diagnostic tool. The most obvious example is the x-ray, but many other image forms are in everyday use. Advances in technology are affecting the ways medical images are generated, stored and retrieved. The paper describes the work of the Image COding and Segmentation to Support Variable Rate Transmission Channels and Variable Resolution Platforms (ICoS) research project currently under way in Bristol, UK. ICoS is a project of the Mobile of England and Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories Europe. Funding is provided by the Engineering and PHysical Sciences Research Council. The aim of the ICoS project is to demonstrate the practical application of computer networking to medical image libraries. Work at the University of the West of England concentrates on user interface and indexing issues. Metadata is used to organize the images, coded using the WWW Consortium standard Resource Description Framework. We are investigating the application of such standards to medical images, one outcome being to implement a metadata-based image library. This paper describes the ICoS project in detail and discuses both metadata system and user interfaces in the context of medical applications.

  14. THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Singh, Rahul S.; Bennett, David B.; Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bajwa, Neha; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Lee, Hua; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The application of THz to medical imaging is experiencing a surge in both interest and federal funding. A brief overview of the field is provided along with promising and emerging applications and ongoing research. THz imaging phenomenology is discussed and tradeoffs are identified. A THz medical imaging system, operating at ~525 GHz center frequency with ~125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth is introduced and details regarding principles of operation are provided. Two promising medical applications of THz imaging are presented: skin burns and cornea. For burns, images of second degree, partial thickness burns were obtained in rat models in vivo over an 8 hour period. These images clearly show the formation and progression of edema in and around the burn wound area. For cornea, experimental data measuring the hydration of ex vivo porcine cornea under drying is presented demonstrating utility in ophthalmologic applications. PMID:26085958

  15. From radio-astronomy to medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Peters, T M

    1991-12-01

    A common thread in much of the medical imaging that has developed over the past 20 years has been the Fourier transform. It was Richard Bates' interest in radio-interferometry, as well as his fascination with problems of medical imaging that prompted an initial interest in applying Fourier techniques to medical imaging in general and to Computed Tomography in particular. This resulted 20 years ago in one of the earliest technical papers advocating Fourier techniques for reconstructing cross-sections from radiographic projections (Bates and Peters, NZ J Science 14:883-896, 1971). Since those early days, medical imaging has explored into a multi-billion dollar industry. The CT scanner has become the workhorse imaging modality in the radiology department, while its more recent relative, the MR scanner, is rapidly gaining ground as a technique of even greater importance. Richard Bates, with his team of "Medical Imagers" was a very significant force in the development of the field of Medical Imaging as we know it today. This paper attempts to chronicle the genesis of this process from the personal perspective of the author.

  16. Watermarking techniques used in medical images: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Naghsh, Alireza; Abu-Bakar, S A R

    2014-12-01

    The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods.

  17. Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions. PMID:23543789

  18. Web-based medical image archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Edward B.; Warach, Steven; Cheung, Huey; Wang, Shaohua A.; Tangiral, Phanidral; Luby, Marie; Martino, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a Web-based medical image archive system in three-tier, client-server architecture for the storage and retrieval of medical image data, as well as patient information and clinical data. The Web-based medical image archive system was designed to meet the need of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke for a central image repository to address questions of stroke pathophysiology and imaging biomarkers in stroke clinical trials by analyzing images obtained from a large number of clinical trials conducted by government, academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers. In the database management-tier, we designed the image storage hierarchy to accommodate large binary image data files that the database software can access in parallel. In the middle-tier, a commercial Enterprise Java Bean server and secure Web server manages user access to the image database system. User-friendly Web-interfaces and applet tools are provided in the client-tier for easy access to the image archive system over the Internet. Benchmark test results show that our three-tier image archive system yields fast system response time for uploading, downloading, and querying the image database.

  19. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  20. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  1. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  2. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  3. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  4. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  5. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  6. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  7. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  8. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  9. I2Cnet medical image annotation service.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, C E; Zabulis, X; Orphanoudakis, S C

    1997-01-01

    I2Cnet (Image Indexing by Content network) aims to provide services related to the content-based management of images in healthcare over the World-Wide Web. Each I2Cnet server maintains an autonomous repository of medical images and related information. The annotation service of I2Cnet allows specialists to interact with the contents of the repository, adding comments or illustrations to medical images of interest. I2Cnet annotations may be communicated to other users via e-mail or posted to I2Cnet for inclusion in its local repositories. This paper discusses the annotation service of I2Cnet and argues that such services pave the way towards the evolution of active digital medical image libraries.

  10. Current perspectives in medical image perception

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical images constitute a core portion of the information a physician utilizes to render diagnostic and treatment decisions. At a fundamental level, this diagnostic process involves two basic processes: visually inspecting the image (visual perception) and rendering an interpretation (cognition). The likelihood of error in the interpretation of medical images is, unfortunately, not negligible. Errors do occur, and patients’ lives are impacted, underscoring our need to understand how physicians interact with the information in an image during the interpretation process. With improved understanding, we can develop ways to further improve decision making and, thus, to improve patient care. The science of medical image perception is dedicated to understanding and improving the clinical interpretation process. PMID:20601701

  11. Towards THz medical imaging; reflective imaging of animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul S; Taylor, Zachary D; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Brown, Elliott R

    2008-01-01

    A reflective THz imaging system has been developed, and features a photoconductive switch and zero-bias Schottky diode detector. The system was used to image deli meats and can distinguish between muscle and adipose tissue based on water content. This capability is a step towards the development of THz medical imaging systems.

  12. A cloud-based medical image repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Anthony J.; Planitz, Birgit M.; El Rifai, Diaa

    2012-02-01

    Many widely used digital medical image collections have been established but these are generally used as raw data sources without related image analysis toolsets. Providing associated functionality to allow specific types of operations to be performed on these images has proved beneficial in some cases (e.g. brain image registration and atlases). However, toolset development to provide generic image analysis functions on medical images has tended to be ad hoc, with Open Source options proliferating (e.g. ITK). Our Automated Medical Image Collection Annotation (AMICA) system is both an image repository, to which the research community can contribute image datasets, and a search/retrieval system that uses automated image annotation. AMICA was designed for the Windows Azure platform to leverage the flexibility and scalability of the cloud. It is intended that AMICA will expand beyond its initial pilot implementation (for brain CT, MR images) to accommodate a wide range of modalities and anatomical regions. This initiative aims to contribute to advances in clinical research by permitting a broader use and reuse of medical image data than is currently attainable. For example, cohort studies for cases with particular physiological or phenotypical profiles will be able to source and include enough cases to provide high statistical power, allowing more individualised risk factors to be assessed and thus allowing screening and staging processes to be optimised. Also, education, training and credentialing of clinicians in image interpretation, will be more effective because it will be possible to select instances of images with specific visual aspects, or correspond to types of cases where reading performance improvement is desirable.

  13. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  14. Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee…

  15. Medical Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome, Postprocedural Pain, and Venous Thromboembolism Following Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  16. Medical management of tumor lysis syndrome, postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism following interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2015-06-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  17. Automated medical image library creation for education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark; Feied, Craig; Gillam, Michael; Handler, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe a method to create a medical teaching library that is automatically maintained, contains tens of thousands of radiologic images and is built using existing, internal, hospital dictations, radiologic images, and an off-the-shelf commercial search engine product (Google Inc.).

  18. Use Of Medical Images In Today's Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ralph G.

    1982-01-01

    Medicine is a visual discipline. In the Practice of medicine, physicians require many forms of visual information to successfully conduct their tasks of diagnosing the presence or absence of disease; evaluating the progression or remission of disease; developing strategies for individual patient treatment planning; and in educating their peers and students. Thus, today's hospitals must provide an effective management strategy for a variety of medical images. This management strategy includes the functions of the acquisition of patient images, the archiving of patient images, and the storage of patient images. In a hospital, each medical specialty generates a class of visual images from which information is extracted for use by the patient's physician. This paper will address four issues in the use of medical images in today's hospitals. First, an estimate of the sources and utilization of clinical images in a hospital will be presented. Second, estimates will be provided regarding the magnitude of each of these images sources. Third, current management strategies for dealing with these images will be reviewed. Fourth, several potential solutions will be described for improving the management and archiving of these image sources in a hospital environment.

  19. Multispectral imaging for medical diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    Photography technique determines amount of morbidity present in tissue. Imaging apparatus incorporates numerical filtering. Overall system operates in near-real time. Information gained from this system enables physician to understand extent of injury and leads to accelerated treatment.

  20. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  1. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.

  2. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven

    2003-01-01

    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  3. Teaching about the Physics of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean; McBride, Dyan; Murphy, Sytil; Aryal, Bijaya; Kalita, Spartak; Wirjawan, Johannes v. d.

    2010-07-01

    Even before the discovery of X-rays, attempts at non-invasive medical imaging required an understanding of fundamental principles of physics. Students frequently do not see these connections because they are not taught in beginning physics courses. To help students understand that physics and medical imaging are closely connected, we have developed a series of active learning units. For each unit we begin by studying how students transfer their knowledge from traditional physics classes and everyday experiences to medical applications. Then, we build instructional materials to take advantage of the students' ability to use their existing learning and knowledge resources. Each of the learning units involves a combination of hands-on activities, which present analogies, and interactive computer simulations. Our learning units introduce students to the contemporary imaging techniques of CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and wavefront aberrometry. The project's web site is http://web.phys.ksu.edu/mmmm/.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, G.P.

    1998-09-01

    Because continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations can be nearly exact simulations of physical reality (within data limitations, geometric approximations, transport algorithms, etc.), it follows that one should be able to closely approximate the results of many experiments from first-principles computations. This line of reasoning has led to various MCNP studies that involve simulations of medical imaging modalities and other visualization methods such as radiography, Anger camera, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and SABRINA particle track visualization. It is the intent of this paper to summarize some of these imaging simulations in the hope of stimulating further work, especially as computer power increases. Improved interpretation and prediction of medical images should ultimately lead to enhanced medical treatments. It is also reasonable to assume that such computations could be used to design new or more effective imaging instruments.

  5. Evolution of Medical Imaging and Computational Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    2000-11-01

    The first medical images produced using x-rays appeared less than a year after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. For over a century x-ray projection radiography has been and continues to be the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality. For over seventy years mathematics and computational methods were used in a general way for image processing and analysis. The really challenging mathematical and computational problems did not emerge until the 1970s with the beginning of computed tomography (CT) to produce images popularly known as CAT (computer-assisted tomography) scans. This was followed rapidly by positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged in the 1980s and is in many ways the most informative medical imaging methodology. Computer-based mathematical methods are fundamental to the success of these imaging modalities, and are increasingly important in several other novel imaging techniques. The technologies involved in each modality are competely different, have varying diagnostic value, and are described by different fundamental equations. The common underlying theme is that of the reconstruction of important characteristics of medical interest from indirect measurements. Several of these methodologies for visualizing internal body anatomy and function will be discussed and related to the evolution of computational capabilities. This brings out aspects of these biomedical imaging technologies where a deeper understanding is needed, and to frontiers where future advances are likely to come from continued research in physics jointly with the mathematical sciences.

  6. Sharing medical images: a proposal of a reference image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Furuie, Sérgio S.

    2006-03-01

    Due to increasing number of digital images used in medical diagnosis, the image processing and analysis are becoming essential for many tasks in medicine. One of the obstacles within the field of medical image processing is the lack of reference image datasets freely available for groups and/or individual users, in order to evaluate their new methods and applications. In order to improve this situation, this work presents the development of a framework to make available a free, online, multipurpose and multimodality medical image database for software and algorithm evaluation. The project is implemented as a distributed architecture for medical image database including a publishing workflow, authoring tools, and role-based access control. Our effort aims to offer a testbed and a set of resources including software, links to scientific papers, gold standards, reference and post-processed images, enabling the medical image processing community (scientists, physicians, students and industrials) to be more aware of evaluation issues. The proposed approach has been used as an electronic teaching system in Radiology as well.

  7. A lossless encryption method for medical images using edge maps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2009-01-01

    Image encryption is an effective approach for providing security and privacy protection for medical images. This paper introduces a new lossless approach, called EdgeCrypt, to encrypt medical images using the information contained within an edge map. The algorithm can fully protect the selected objects/regions within medical images or the entire medical images. It can also encrypt other types of images such as grayscale images or color images. The algorithm can be used for privacy protection in the real-time medical applications such as wireless medical networking and mobile medical services.

  8. Medical imaging in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Heelan, R.T.; Bains, M.S.; Yeh, S.

    1987-10-01

    The routine imaging work-up of suspected lung cancer should include posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs and, in most cases, a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the entire thorax and adrenal glands. In asymptomatic patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, there is justification for doing routine contrast-enhanced CT examination of the brain. Further imaging workup will be suggested by the patient's history, physical findings, and laboratory findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest in patients with lung cancer is being investigated, but current studies comparing it with CT demonstrate no definite advantage at this time, with the possible exception of the lung apex in which T1 weighted thin-section coronal views are useful.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging: opening new frontiers in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Valluru, Keerthi S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Rao, Navalgund A

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, technology is advancing at an exponential rate and medical imaging is no exception. During the last hundred years, the field of medical imaging has seen a tremendous technological growth with the invention of imaging modalities including but not limited to X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography. These tools have led to better diagnosis and improved patient care. However, each of these modalities has its advantages as well as disadvantages and none of them can reveal all the information a physician would like to have. In the last decade, a new diagnostic technology called photoacoustic imaging has evolved which is moving rapidly from the research phase to the clinical trial phase. This article outlines the basics of photoacoustic imaging and describes our hands-on experience in developing a comprehensive photoacoustic imaging system to detect tissue abnormalities.

  10. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  11. Deformable Medical Image Registration: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos; Paragios, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Deformable image registration is a fundamental task in medical image processing. Among its most important applications, one may cite: i) multi-modality fusion, where information acquired by different imaging devices or protocols is fused to facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning; ii) longitudinal studies, where temporal structural or anatomical changes are investigated; and iii) population modeling and statistical atlases used to study normal anatomical variability. In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of deformable registration methods, putting emphasis on the most recent advances in the domain. Additional emphasis has been given to techniques applied to medical images. In order to study image registration methods in depth, their main components are identified and studied independently. The most recent techniques are presented in a systematic fashion. The contribution of this paper is to provide an extensive account of registration techniques in a systematic manner. PMID:23739795

  12. Human visual pattern recognition of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, Irving

    1990-07-01

    The output of most medical imaging systems is a display for interpretation by human observers. This paper provides a general summary of recent work on shape recognition by humans. Two broad modes of visual image processing executed by different cortical loci can be distinguished: a) a mode for motor interaction which is sensitive to quantitative variation in image parameters and b) a mode for basic-level object recognition which is based on a small set of qualitative contrasts in viewpoint invariant properties of images edges. Many medical image classifications pose inherently difficult problems for the recognition system in that they are based on quantitative and surface patch variations--rather than qualitative--variations. But when recognition can be achieved quickly and accurately it is possible that a small viewpoint invariant contrast has been discovered and is being exploited by the interpreter.

  13. Nanotechnology-supported THz medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Andreas; Talias, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the achievements and progress in the field of medical imaging have dramatically enhanced the early detection and treatment of many pathological conditions. The development of new imaging modalities, especially non-ionising ones, which will improve prognosis, is of crucial importance. A number of novel imaging modalities have been developed but they are still in the initial stages of development and serious drawbacks obstruct them from offering their benefits to the medical field. In the 21 st century, it is believed that nanotechnology will highly influence our everyday life and dramatically change the world of medicine, including medical imaging. Here we discuss how nanotechnology, which is still in its infancy, can improve Terahertz (THz) imaging, an emerging imaging modality, and how it may find its way into real clinical applications. THz imaging is characterised by the use of non-ionising radiation and although it has the potential to be used in many biomedical fields, it remains in the field of basic research. An extensive review of the recent available literature shows how the current state of this emerging imaging modality can be transformed by nanotechnology. Innovative scientific concepts that use nanotechnology-based techniques to overcome some of the limitations of the use of THz imaging are discussed. We review a number of drawbacks, such as a low contrast mechanism, poor source performance and bulky THz systems, which characterise present THz medical imaging and suggest how they can be overcome through nanotechnology. Better resolution and higher detection sensitivity can also be achieved using nanotechnology techniques. PMID:24555052

  14. Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers. PMID:25596835

  15. Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers.

  16. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  17. Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mireshghi, A.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.K.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1994-07-01

    Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipments. An important component in the a-Si:H imager is the scintillator screen. A new approach for fabrication of high resolution CsI(Tl) scintillator layers, appropriate for coupling to a-Si:H arrays, are presented. For nuclear medicine applications, a new a-Si:H based gamma camera is introduced and Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate its performance.

  18. Transducer for monitoring respiration during imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R

    1988-07-01

    A transducer system for monitoring respiration is described; it uses a 'liquid column' sensor with a remote integrated circuit pressure module. It was designed primarily for non-invasive monitoring and control of respiration during diagnostic imaging procedures, but has also found applications in other areas, e.g. physiotherapy and pulse monitoring. The device is a new version of a system developed several years ago and takes advantage of relatively low cost commercial 'building blocks'. The output is an analogue voltage (from a low impedance source) capable of driving a wide range of recorders, amplifiers and computer interfaces. Reference is also made in the text to a bio-feedback signal processing and display unit (described elsewhere) which, when used with this transducer, provides a versatile respiratory control system.

  19. Patterns of postoperative pain medication prescribing after invasive dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; McNeal, Sandre F; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2011-01-01

    We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute postoperative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects, 357 African American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African American and 78% of White patients received a postoperative narcotic prescription (p = .56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p = .003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with preexisting pain (p = .004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p = .001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics.

  20. Radiation risks of medical imaging: separating fact from fantasy.

    PubMed

    Hendee, William R; O'Connor, Michael K

    2012-08-01

    During the past few years, several articles have appeared in the scientific literature that predict thousands of cancers and cancer deaths per year in the U.S. population caused by medical imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation. These predictions are computed by multiplying small and highly speculative risk factors by large populations of patients to yield impressive numbers of "cancer victims." The risk factors are acquired from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report without attention to the caveats about their use presented in the BEIR VII report. The principal data source for the risk factors is the ongoing study of survivors of the Japanese atomic explosions, a population of individuals that is greatly different from patients undergoing imaging procedures. For the purpose of risk estimation, doses to patients are converted to effective doses, even though the International Commission on Radiological Protection warns against the use of effective dose for epidemiologic studies or for estimation of individual risks. To extrapolate cancer incidence to doses of a few millisieverts from data greater than 100 mSv, a linear no-threshold model is used, even though substantial radiobiological and human exposure data imply that it is not an appropriate model. The predictions of cancers and cancer deaths are sensationalized in electronic and print public media, resulting in anxiety and fear about medical imaging among patients and parents. Not infrequently, patients are anxious about a scheduled imaging procedure because of articles they have read in the public media. In some cases, medical imaging examinations may be delayed or deferred as a consequence, resulting in a much greater risk to patients than that associated with imaging examinations. © RSNA, 2012.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  2. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  3. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  4. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  5. Medical image noise reduction using the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation.

    PubMed

    Sanches, João M; Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2008-09-01

    Multiplicative noise is often present in medical and biological imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and fluorescence microscopy. Noise reduction in medical images is a difficult task in which linear filtering algorithms usually fail. Bayesian algorithms have been used with success but they are time consuming and computationally demanding. In addition, the increasing importance of the 3-D and 4-D medical image analysis in medical diagnosis procedures increases the amount of data that must be efficiently processed. This paper presents a Bayesian denoising algorithm which copes with additive white Gaussian and multiplicative noise described by Poisson and Rayleigh distributions. The algorithm is based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion, and edge preserving priors which avoid the distortion of relevant anatomical details. The main contribution of the paper is the unification of a set of Bayesian denoising algorithms for additive and multiplicative noise using a well-known mathematical framework, the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation, developed in the context of the Control theory.

  6. Medical imaging with a microwave tomographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Jofre, L; Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; de los Reyes, E; Ferrando, M; Elias-Fusté, A R

    1990-03-01

    A microwave tomographic scanner for biomedical applications is presented. The scanner consists of a 64 element circular array with a useful diameter of 20 cm. Electronically scanning the transmitting and receiving antennas allows multiview measurements with no mechanical movement. Imaging parameters are appropriate for medical use: a spatial resolution of 7 mm and a contrast resolution of 1% for a measurement time of 3 s. Measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms and volunteers, together with numerical simulations, are presented to assess the system for absolute imaging of tissue distribution and for differential imaging of physiological, pathological, and induced changes in tissues. PMID:2329003

  7. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost. PMID:27349829

  8. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost.

  9. Medical image registration using sparse coding of image patches.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Image registration is a basic task in medical image processing applications like group analysis and atlas construction. Similarity measure is a critical ingredient of image registration. Intensity distortion of medical images is not considered in most previous similarity measures. Therefore, in the presence of bias field distortions, they do not generate an acceptable registration. In this paper, we propose a sparse based similarity measure for mono-modal images that considers non-stationary intensity and spatially-varying distortions. The main idea behind this measure is that the aligned image is constructed by an analysis dictionary trained using the image patches. For this purpose, we use "Analysis K-SVD" to train the dictionary and find the sparse coefficients. We utilize image patches to construct the analysis dictionary and then we employ the proposed sparse similarity measure to find a non-rigid transformation using free form deformation (FFD). Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to robustly register 2D and 3D images in both simulated and real cases. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures and decreases the transformation error compared to the previous methods. Even in the presence of bias field distortion, the proposed method aligns images without any preprocessing. PMID:27085311

  10. Medical image registration using sparse coding of image patches.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Image registration is a basic task in medical image processing applications like group analysis and atlas construction. Similarity measure is a critical ingredient of image registration. Intensity distortion of medical images is not considered in most previous similarity measures. Therefore, in the presence of bias field distortions, they do not generate an acceptable registration. In this paper, we propose a sparse based similarity measure for mono-modal images that considers non-stationary intensity and spatially-varying distortions. The main idea behind this measure is that the aligned image is constructed by an analysis dictionary trained using the image patches. For this purpose, we use "Analysis K-SVD" to train the dictionary and find the sparse coefficients. We utilize image patches to construct the analysis dictionary and then we employ the proposed sparse similarity measure to find a non-rigid transformation using free form deformation (FFD). Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to robustly register 2D and 3D images in both simulated and real cases. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures and decreases the transformation error compared to the previous methods. Even in the presence of bias field distortion, the proposed method aligns images without any preprocessing.

  11. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  12. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  13. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  14. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  15. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  16. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  17. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  18. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  19. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  20. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  1. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  2. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  3. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  4. Transfer representation learning for medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chuen-Kai Shie; Chung-Hisang Chuang; Chun-Nan Chou; Meng-Hsi Wu; Chang, Edward Y

    2015-08-01

    There are two major challenges to overcome when developing a classifier to perform automatic disease diagnosis. First, the amount of labeled medical data is typically very limited, and a classifier cannot be effectively trained to attain high disease-detection accuracy. Second, medical domain knowledge is required to identify representative features in data for detecting a target disease. Most computer scientists and statisticians do not have such domain knowledge. In this work, we show that employing transfer learning can remedy both problems. We use Otitis Media (OM) to conduct our case study. Instead of using domain knowledge to extract features from labeled OM images, we construct features based on a dataset entirely OM-irrelevant. More specifically, we first learn a codebook in an unsupervised way from 15 million images collected from ImageNet. The codebook gives us what the encoders consider being the fundamental elements of those 15 million images. We then encode OM images using the codebook and obtain a weighting vector for each OM image. Using the resulting weighting vectors as the feature vectors of the OM images, we employ a traditional supervised learning algorithm to train an OM classifier. The achieved detection accuracy is 88.5% (89.63% in sensitivity and 86.9% in specificity), markedly higher than all previous attempts, which relied on domain experts to help extract features.

  5. [Medical image automatic adjusting window and segmentation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhuan; Chen, Siping; Tao, Duchun; Chen, Xinhai

    2005-04-01

    Image guided surgical navigation system is the most advanced surgical apparatus, which develops most rapidly and has great application prospects in neurosurgery, orthopaedics, E.N.T. department etc. In current surgical navigation systems, windowing, segmenting and registration of medical images all depend on manual operation, and automation of image processing is urgently needed. This paper proposes the algorithm which realizes very well automatic windowing and segmentation of medical images: first, we analyze a lot of MRI and CT images and propose corresponding windowing algorithm according to their common features of intensity distribution. Experiments show that the effects of windowing of most MRI and CT images are optimized. Second, we propose the seed growing algorithm based on intensity connectivity,which can segment tumor and its boundary exactly by simply clicking the mouse, and control dynamically the results in real time. If computer memory permits, the algorithm can segment 3D images directly. Tests show that this function is able to shorten the time of surgical planning, lower the complexity, and improve the efficiency in navigation surgery. PMID:15884547

  6. Estimating fractal dimension of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Alan I.; Loew, Murray H.

    1996-04-01

    Box counting (BC) is widely used to estimate the fractal dimension (fd) of medical images on the basis of a finite set of pixel data. The fd is then used as a feature to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy conditions. We show that BC is ineffective when used on small data sets and give examples of published studies in which researchers have obtained contradictory and flawed results by using BC to estimate the fd of data-limited medical images. We present a new method for estimating fd of data-limited medical images. In the new method, fractal interpolation functions (FIFs) are used to generate self-affine models of the underlying image; each model, upon discretization, approximates the original data points. The fd of each FIF is analytically evaluated. The mean of the fds of the FIFs is the estimate of the fd of the original data. The standard deviation of the fds of the FIFs is a confidence measure of the estimate. The goodness-of-fit of the discretized models to the original data is a measure of self-affinity of the original data. In a test case, the new method generated a stable estimate of fd of a rib edge in a standard chest x-ray; box counting failed to generate a meaningful estimate of the same image.

  7. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  8. Medical Imaging Informatics: Towards a Personalized Computational Patient.

    PubMed

    Ayache, N

    2016-05-20

    Medical Imaging Informatics has become a fast evolving discipline at the crossing of Informatics, Computational Sciences, and Medicine that is profoundly changing medical practices, for the patients' benefit.

  9. Transaction recording in medical image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Christian H.; Ploeger, Andreas; Onnasch, Dietrich G. W.; Mehdorn, Hubertus M.

    1999-07-01

    In medical image processing original image data on archive servers may absolutely not be modified directly. On the other hand, images from read-only devices like CD-ROM cannot be changed and saved on the same storage medium. In both cases the modified data have to be stored as a second version and large amounts of storage volume are needed. We avoid these problems by using a program which records only each transaction prescribed to images. Each transaction is stored and used for further utilization and for renewed submission of the modified data. Conventionally, every time an image is viewed or printed, the modified version has to be saved in addition to the recorded data, either automatically or by the user. Compared to these approaches which not only squander storage space but area also time consuming our program has the following and advantages: First, the original image data which may not be modified are protected against manipulation. Second, small amounts of storage volume and network range are needed. Third, approved image operations can be automated by macros derived from transaction recordings. Finally, operations on the original data can always be controlled and traced back. As the handling of images gets easier with this concept, security for original image data is granted.

  10. Medical tourism: the trend toward outsourcing medical procedures to foreign countries.

    PubMed

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee replacement in the United States can cost $40,000 compared to $13,000 in Singapore.A new industry, medical tourism, has been created to advise patients on the appropriate facility in the right country for their condition, handle all travel arrangements, teleconference with physicians, and send medical records. To respond to the growth in medical travel, the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations) initiated the Joint Commission International (JCI) to accredit hospitals worldwide. Although outcome statistics from hospitals outside the United States are rare, first-person reports on quality are numerous. Making surgery possible for uninsured and underinsured individuals or self-insured state, municipal, and private entities is a major benefit of medical tourism. Mitigating against medical travel are the lack of legal remedies in place for malpractice and the possibility that travel itself can impose risk to patients. For example, lengthy air flights where the patient is in a fixed position for hours at a time can cause embolisms. If the trend toward medical tourism continues, continuing education, credentialing, and certification services may be required to help assure patient safety. PMID:18521877

  11. Automatic scale selection for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ersin; Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong

    2001-07-01

    The scale of interesting structures in medical images is space variant because of partial volume effects, spatial dependence of resolution in many imaging modalities, and differences in tissue properties. Existing segmentation methods either apply a single scale to the entire image or try fine-to-coarse/coarse-to-fine tracking of structures over multiple scales. While single scale approaches fail to fully recover the perceptually important structures, multi-scale methods have problems in providing reliable means to select proper scales and integrating information over multiple scales. A recent approach proposed by Elder and Zucker addresses the scale selection problem by computing a minimal reliable scale for each image pixel. The basic premise of this approach is that, while the scale of structures within an image vary spatially, the imaging system is fixed. Hence, sensor noise statistics can be calculated. Based on a model of edges to be detected, and operators to be used for detection, one can locally compute a unique minimal reliable scale at which the likelihood of error due to sensor noise is less than or equal to a predetermined threshold. In this paper, we improve the segmentation method based on the minimal reliable scale selection and evaluate its effectiveness with both simulated and actual medical data.

  12. Photoacoustic monitoring of circulating tumor cells released during medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    Many cancer deaths are related to metastasis to distant organs due to dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor. For many years, oncologists believed some medical procedures may provoke metastasis; however, no direct evidence has been reported. We have developed a new, noninvasive technology called in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC), which provides ultrasensitive detection of CTCs. When CTCs with strongly light-absorbing intrinsic melanin pass through a laser beam aimed at a peripheral blood vessel, laser-induced acoustic waves from CTCs were detected using an ultrasound transducer. We focused on melanoma as it is one of the most metastatically aggressive malignancies. The goal of this research was to determine whether melanoma manipulation, like compression, incisional biopsy, or tumor excision, could enhance penetration of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system. The ears of nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cells. Blood vessels were monitored for the presence of CTCs using in vivo PAFC. We discovered some medical procedures, like compression of the tumor, biopsy, and surgery may either initiate CTC release in the blood which previously contained no CTCs, or dramatically increased (10-30-fold) CTC counts above the initial level. Our results warn oncologists to use caution during physical examination, and surgery. A preventive anti-CTC therapy during or immediately after surgery, by intravenous drug administration could serve as an option to treat the resulting release of CTCs.

  13. Mimos: a description framework for exchanging medical image processing results.

    PubMed

    Aubry, F; Todd-Pokropek, A

    2001-01-01

    Image processing plays increasingly important role in using medical images, both for routine as for research purposes, due to the growing interest in functional studies (PET, MR, etc.). Unfortunately, there exist nearly as many formats for data and results coding as image processing procedures. If Dicom presently supports a kind of structured reporting of image studies, it does not take into account the semantics of the image handling domain. This can impede the exchange and the interpretation of processing results. In order to facilitate the use of image processing results, we have designed a framework for representing image processing results. This framework, whose principle is called an "ontology" in the literature, extends the formalism, which we have used in our previous work on image databases. It permits a systematic representation of the entities and information involved in the processing, that is not only input data, command parameters, output data, but also software and hardware descriptions, and relationships between these different parameters. Consequently, this framework allows the building of standardized documents, which can be exchanged amongst various users. As the framework is based on a formal grammar, documents can be encoded using XML. They are thus compatible with Internet / Intranet technology. In this paper, the main characteristics of the framework are presented and illustrated. We also discuss implementation issues in order to be able to integrate documents, and correlated images, handling these with a classical Web browser.

  14. Scientific evaluation and pricing of medical devices and associated procedures in France.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Martine; Debroucker, Frederique; Dubray, Claude; Allioux, Yves; Aper, Eliane; Barat-Leonhardt, Valérie; Brami, Michèle; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Coqueblin, Claire; Fare, Sandrine; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Levesque, Karine; Maugendre, Philippe; Parquin, François; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Szwarcensztein, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Medical devices are many and various, ranging from tongue spatulas to implantable or invasive devices and imaging machines; their lifetimes are short, between 18 months and 5 years, due to incessant incremental innovation; and they are operator-dependent: in general, the clinical user performs a fitting procedure (hip implant or pacemaker), a therapeutic procedure using a non-implantable invasive device (arrhythmic site ablation probe, angioplasty balloon, extension spondyloplasty system, etc.) or follow-up of an active implanted device (long-term follow-up of an implanted cardiac defibrillator or of a deep brain stimulator in Parkinson's patients). A round-table held during the XXVIII(th) Giens Workshops meeting focused on the methodology of scientific evaluation of medical devices and the associated procedures with a view to their pricing and financing by the French National Health Insurance system. The working hypothesis was that the available data-set was sufficient for and compatible with scientific evaluation with clinical benefit. Post-registration studies, although contributing to the continuity of assessment, were not dealt with. Moreover, the focus was restricted to devices used in health establishments, where the association between devices and technical medical procedures is optimally representative. An update of the multiple regulatory protocols governing medical devices and procedures is provided. Issues more specifically related to procedures as such, to non-implantable devices and to innovative devices are then dealt with, and the proposals and discussion points raised at the round-table for each of these three areas are presented.

  15. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  16. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  17. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  18. PACS and multimodality in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Asseler, Y; Koole, M; Van Laere, K; Vandenberghe, S; Bouwens, L; Van de Walle, R; Van de Wiele, C; Lemahieu, I; Dierckx, R A

    2000-01-01

    A PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is a system that is able to store, exchange, display and manipulate images and associated diagnoses from any modality within a hospital in a timely and cost-effective way. Several developments, such as the DICOM standard, fast and convenient networking, and new storage solutions for large amounts of data, make the setup of such a PACS system possible. As the information acquired with various imaging modalities is then available and often complementary, it is desirable for the clinician to have a point-by-point spatial co-registration of images from different modalities in order to enable a synergistic use of the multimodality imaging of a patient for increased diagnostic accuracy. Various types of algorithms are available for the matching of medical images from the same or from different modalities. Co-registration algorithms based on voxel properties consist of a similarity or dissimilarity measure and an iterative or non-iterative method minimizing the dissimilarity or maximizing the similarity between the two images by a transformation of one image relative to the other. PMID:10942990

  19. Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

  20. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  1. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  2. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging modalities. Methods In this work, we motivate and derive a statistical measure of image heterogeneity. This statistic measures the distance-dependent average deviation from the smoothest intensity gradation feasible. We show how this statistic may be used to automatically rank images of in vivo human tumors in order of increasing heterogeneity. We test this method against the current practice of ranking images via expert visual inspection. Results We find that this statistic provides a means of heterogeneity quantification beyond that given by other statistics traditionally used for the same purpose. We demonstrate the effect of tumor shape upon our ranking method and find the method applicable to a wide variety of clinically relevant tumor images. We find that the automated heterogeneity rankings agree very closely with those performed visually by experts. Conclusions These results indicate that our automated method may be used reliably to rank, in order of increasing heterogeneity, tumor images whether or not object shape is considered to contribute to that heterogeneity. Automated heterogeneity ranking yields objective results which are more consistent than visual rankings. Reducing variability in image interpretation will enable more researchers to better study potential clinical implications of observed tumor heterogeneity. PMID:23453000

  3. Multilayer descriptors for medical image classification.

    PubMed

    Lumini, Alessandra; Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for improving the performance of 2D descriptors by building an n-layer image using different preprocessing approaches from which multilayer descriptors are extracted and used as feature vectors for training a Support Vector Machine. The different preprocessing approaches are used to build different n-layer images (n=3, n=5, etc.). We test both color and gray-level images, two well-known texture descriptors (Local Phase Quantization and Local Binary Pattern), and three of their variants suited for n-layer images (Volume Local Phase Quantization, Local Phase Quantization Three-Orthogonal-Planes, and Volume Local Binary Patterns). Our results show that multilayers and texture descriptors can be combined to outperform the standard single-layer approaches. Experiments on 10 datasets demonstrate the generalizability of the proposed descriptors. Most of these datasets are medical, but in each case the images are very different. Two datasets are completely unrelated to medicine and are included to demonstrate the discriminative power of the proposed descriptors across very different image recognition tasks. A MATLAB version of the complete system developed in this paper will be made available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357.

  4. Twofold processing for denoising ultrasound medical images.

    PubMed

    Kishore, P V V; Kumar, K V V; Kumar, D Anil; Prasad, M V D; Goutham, E N D; Rahul, R; Krishna, C B S Vamsi; Sandeep, Y

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound medical (US) imaging non-invasively pictures inside of a human body for disease diagnostics. Speckle noise attacks ultrasound images degrading their visual quality. A twofold processing algorithm is proposed in this work to reduce this multiplicative speckle noise. First fold used block based thresholding, both hard (BHT) and soft (BST), on pixels in wavelet domain with 8, 16, 32 and 64 non-overlapping block sizes. This first fold process is a better denoising method for reducing speckle and also inducing object of interest blurring. The second fold process initiates to restore object boundaries and texture with adaptive wavelet fusion. The degraded object restoration in block thresholded US image is carried through wavelet coefficient fusion of object in original US mage and block thresholded US image. Fusion rules and wavelet decomposition levels are made adaptive for each block using gradient histograms with normalized differential mean (NDF) to introduce highest level of contrast between the denoised pixels and the object pixels in the resultant image. Thus the proposed twofold methods are named as adaptive NDF block fusion with hard and soft thresholding (ANBF-HT and ANBF-ST). The results indicate visual quality improvement to an interesting level with the proposed twofold processing, where the first fold removes noise and second fold restores object properties. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), normalized cross correlation coefficient (NCC), edge strength (ES), image quality Index (IQI) and structural similarity index (SSIM), measure the quantitative quality of the twofold processing technique. Validation of the proposed method is done by comparing with anisotropic diffusion (AD), total variational filtering (TVF) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for enhancement of US images. The US images are provided by AMMA hospital radiology labs at Vijayawada, India. PMID:26697285

  5. Medical Imaging In An Object Oriented Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Daniel; Vannier, Michael W.

    1988-06-01

    A workstation has been developed to evaluate computed tomographic (CT) image data in 2 and 3 dimensions. The workstation consists of an independent image display station (Independent Viewing and Analysis Station or WAS, International Imaging Systems, Inc., Milpitas, Calif.) and a VAX host computer. The WAS has 1024 X 1024 X 24 bits of image memory plus 4 bits of graphics overlay. An independent VLSI graphics processor and 1024 X 1024 X 4 bit graphics memory, independent of the image memory, are included in the self-contained WAS unit. A local microprocessor host (Motorola 68000 microprocessor) controls the IVAS from directives obtained through a direct memory access channel to the VAX host. This facilitated the creation of an object oriented software enviroment for the IVAS under control of a VAX host program written in the C language. The workstation created has an interactive user interface consisting of a mouse and pull-down menus. The workstation enables loading multiple images, typically 256 x 256 or 512 x 512, into the 1024 X 1024 frame buffer. Once loaded, the images can be manipulated by applying gray scale transforms, editing them and performing 3-D reconstructions from serial sections. Algorithms for three dimensional (3-D) reconstructions were implemented in the VAX/VMS host computer environment and are available on the workstation through special menu functions for handling these reconstructions. The functions interactively combine depth and gradient shading of surfaces to suit specific applications in craniofacial surgical planning or orthopedics. This workstation is user friendly and is very easy to handle. A workstation of this type may become a popular tool for physicians and surgeons in evalution of medical images.

  6. Mining knowledge in medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Petra

    2000-04-01

    Availability of digital data within picture archiving and communication systems raises a possibility of health care and research enhancement associated with manipulation, processing and handling of data by computers. That is the basis for computer-assisted radiology development. Further development of computer-assisted radiology is associated with the use of new intelligent capabilities such as multimedia support and data mining in order to discover the relevant knowledge for diagnosis. In this paper, we present our work on data mining in medical picture archiving systems. We use decision tree induction in order to learn the knowledge for computer- assisted image analysis. We are applying our method to interpretation of x-ray images for lung cancer diagnosis. We are describing our methodology on how to perform data mining on picture archiving systems and our tool for data mining. Results are given. The method has shown very good results so that we are going on to apply it to other medical image diagnosis tasks such as lymph node diagnosis in MRI and investigation of breast MRI.

  7. [Tattoos and medical imaging: issues and myths].

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Tattooing is characterized by the introduction in the dermis of exogenous pigments to obtain a permanent design. Whether it is a traditional tattoo applied on the skin or a cosmetic one (permanent make-up), its prevalence has boomed for the past 20 years. The increased prevalence of tattooed patients along with medical progresses, in the field of therapeutics or diagnostic means have lead to the discovery of "new" complications and unexpected issues. Medical imaging world has also been affected by the tattoo craze. It has been approximately 20 years when the first issues related to tattooing and permanent make-up aroused. However, cautions and questions as well as anecdotal severe case reports have sometimes led to an over-exaggerated response by some physicians such as the systematic avoidance of RMN imaging for tattooed individuals. This review is intended to summarize the risks but also the "myths" associated with tattoo in the daily practice of the radiologist for RMN, CT scan, mammography, Pet-scan and ultrasound imaging.

  8. Multimodality and nanoparticles in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of medical imaging techniques are used heavily in the provision of spatially resolved information on disease and physiological status and accordingly play a critical role in clinical diagnostics and subsequent treatment. Though, for most imaging modes, contrast is potentially enhanced through the use of contrast agents or improved hardware or imaging protocols, no single methodology provides, in isolation, a detailed mapping of anatomy, disease markers or physiological status. In recent years, the concept of complementing the strengths of one imaging modality with those of another has come to the fore and been further bolstered by the development of fused instruments such as PET/CT and PET/MRI stations. Coupled with the continual development in imaging hardware has been a surge in reports of contrast agents bearing multiple functionality, potentially providing not only a powerful and highly sensitised means of co-localising physiological/disease status and anatomy, but also the tracking and delineation of multiple markers and indeed subsequent or simultaneous highly localized therapy (“theragnostics”). PMID:21409202

  9. Scalar-vector quantization of medical images.

    PubMed

    Mohsenian, N; Shahri, H; Nasrabadi, N M

    1996-01-01

    A new coding scheme based on the scalar-vector quantizer (SVQ) is developed for compression of medical images. The SVQ is a fixed rate encoder and its rate-distortion performance is close to that of optimal entropy-constrained scalar quantizers (ECSQs) for memoryless sources. The use of a fixed-rate quantizer is expected to eliminate some of the complexity of using variable-length scalar quantizers. When transmission of images over noisy channels is considered, our coding scheme does not suffer from error propagation that is typical of coding schemes using variable-length codes. For a set of magnetic resonance (MR) images, coding results obtained from SVQ and ECSQ at low bit rates are indistinguishable. Furthermore, our encoded images are perceptually indistinguishable from the original when displayed on a monitor. This makes our SVQ-based coder an attractive compression scheme for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). PACS are currently under study for use in an all-digital radiology environment in hospitals, where reliable transmission, storage, and high fidelity reconstruction of images are desired. PMID:18285124

  10. Cerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Holland, Jason P.; Lewis, Jason S.; Grimm, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel multimodality imaging agents and techniques represents the current frontier of research in the field of medical imaging science. However, the combination of nuclear tomography with optical techniques has yet to be established. Here, we report the use of the inherent optical emissions from the decay of radiopharmaceuticals for Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of tumors in vivo and correlate the results with those obtained from concordant immuno-PET studies. Methods In vitro phantom studies were used to validate the visible light emission observed from a range of radionuclides including the positron emitters 18F, 64Cu, 89Zr, and 124I; β-emitter 131I; and α-particle emitter 225Ac for potential use in CLI. The novel radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 89Zr-desferrioxamine B-[DFO-J591 for immuno-PET of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression was used to coregister and correlate the CLI signal observed with the immuno-PET images and biodistribution studies. Results Phantom studies confirmed that Cerenkov radiation can be observed from a range of positron-,β-, and α-emitting radionuclides using standard optical imaging devices. The change in light emission intensity versus time was concordant with radionuclide decay and was also found to correlate linearly with both the activity concentration and the measured PET signal (percentage injected dose per gram). In vivo studies conducted in male severe combined immune deficient mice bearing PSMA-positive, subcutaneous LNCaP tumors demonstrated that tumor-specific uptake of 89Zr-DFO-J591 could be visualized by both immuno-PET and CLI. Optical and immuno-PET signal intensities were found to increase over time from 24 to 96 h, and biodistribution studies were found to correlate well with both imaging modalities. Conclusion These studies represent the first, to our knowledge, quantitative assessment of CLI for measuring radiotracer uptake in vivo. Many radionuclides common to both nuclear

  11. Osiris: a medical image-manipulation system.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C

    1994-01-01

    We designed a general-purpose computer program, Osiris, for the display, manipulation, and analysis of digital medical images. The program offers an intuitive, window-based interface with direct access to generic tools. Characterized by user-friendliness, portability, and extensibility, Osiris is compatible with both Unix-based and Macintosh-based platforms. It is readily modified and can be used to develop new tools. It is able to monitor the entries made during a work session and thus provide data on its use. Osiris and its source code are being distributed, free of charge, to universities and research groups around the world.

  12. Analyzing the medical image by using clustering algorithms through segmentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Papendra; Kumar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Basic aim of our study is to analyze the medical image. In computer vision, segmentationRefers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple regions. The goal ofSegmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something thatIs more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locateObjects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images.There is a lot of scope of the analysis that we have done in our project; our analysis couldBe used for the purpose of monitoring the medical image. Medical imaging refers to theTechniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) forClinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) orMedical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function).As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporatesRadiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, Medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images.

  13. Analyzing the medical image by using clustering algorithms through segmentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Papendra; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-12-01

    Basic aim of our study is to analyze the medical image. In computer vision, segmentationRefers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple regions. The goal ofSegmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something thatIs more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locateObjects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images.There is a lot of scope of the analysis that we have done in our project; our analysis couldBe used for the purpose of monitoring the medical image. Medical imaging refers to theTechniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) forClinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) orMedical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function).As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporatesRadiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, Medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images.

  14. Procedural guidance using advance imaging techniques for percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Robert A; Salcedo, Ernesto E; Carroll, John D

    2014-02-01

    The complexity of structural heart disease interventions such as edge-to edge mitral valve repair requires integration of multiple highly technical imaging modalities. Real time imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is a relatively new technique that first, allows clear volumetric imaging of target structures such as the mitral valve for both pre-procedural diagnosis and planning in patients with degenerative or functional mitral valve regurgitation. Secondly it provides intra-procedural, real-time panoramic volumetric 3D view of structural heart disease targets that facilitates eye-hand coordination while manipulating devices within the heart. X-ray fluoroscopy and RT 3D TEE images are used in combination to display specific targets and movement of catheter based technologies in 3D space. This integration requires at least two different image display monitors and mentally fusing the individual datasets by the operator. Combined display technology such as this, allow rotation and orientation of both dataset perspectives necessary to define targets and guidance of structural disease device procedures. The inherently easy concept of direct visual feedback and eye-hand coordination allows safe and efficient completion of MitraClip procedures. This technology is now merged into a single structural heart disease guidance mode called EchoNavigator(TM) (Philips Medical Imaging Andover, MA). These advanced imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of structural heart disease interventions and this experience is exemplified by a cooperative imaging approach used for guidance of edge-to-edge mitral valve repair procedures.

  15. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the originator determines that such records...

  16. MMSPix - A multimedia service (MMS) medical images weblog.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Muin, Michael; Ducut, Erick; Ackerman, Michael; Paalan-Vasquez, Franciene

    2007-01-01

    Smartphones with cameras have added a new dimension to augmenting medical image collections for education and teleconsultation. It allows healthcare personnel to instantly capture and send images through the multimedia messaging service (MMS) protocol. We developed a searchable archive, a mobile images Weblog of camera phone images for medical education. Registered users can view and comment on uploaded images. The archive is compartmentalized to allow sharing images with all viewers and by clinical specialty groups.

  17. New procedure for capturing spectral images of human portraiture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qun; Fairchild, Mark D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes a new procedure of capturing spectral images of human portraiture. The designed imaging system was calibrated directly based on real human subjects and has the capability to provide accurate spectral images of human faces, including facial skin as well as the lips, eyes, and hair, from various ethnic races. The facial spectral reflectances obtained were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA) method. Based on the results of PCA, spectral images using both three and six wide-band spectral sampling were estimated. The reconstructed spectral images for display based on an sRGB display model are evaluated. The results have proved that this new spectral imaging procedure is successful. The results also show that three basis functions are accurate enough to estimate the spectral reflectance of human faces. The derived spectral images can be applied to color-imaging system design and analysis.

  18. Integrated ultrasound and gamma imaging probe for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Polito, C.; Orlandi, C.; Fabbri, A.; De Vincentis, G.

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years, integrated multi-modality systems have been developed, aimed at improving the accuracy of medical diagnosis correlating information from different imaging techniques. In this contest, a novel dual modality probe is proposed, based on an ultrasound detector integrated with a small field of view single photon emission gamma camera. The probe, dedicated to visualize small organs or tissues located at short depths, performs dual modality images and permits to correlate morphological and functional information. The small field of view gamma camera consists of a continuous NaI:Tl scintillation crystal coupled with two multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. Both detectors were characterized in terms of position linearity and spatial resolution performances in order to guarantee the spatial correspondence between the ultrasound and the gamma images. Finally, dual-modality images of custom phantoms are obtained highlighting the good co-registration between ultrasound and gamma images, in terms of geometry and image processing, as a consequence of calibration procedures.

  19. Optimal grid point selection for improved nonrigid medical image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fookes, Clinton; Maeder, Anthony

    2004-05-01

    Non-rigid image registration is an essential tool required for overcoming the inherent local anatomical variations that exist between medical images acquired from different individuals or atlases, among others. This type of registration defines a deformation field that gives a translation or mapping for every pixel in the image. One popular local approach for estimating this deformation field, known as block matching, is where a grid of control points are defined on an image and are each taken as the centre of a small window. These windows are then translated in the second image to maximise a local similarity criterion. This generates two corresponding sets of control points for the two images, yielding a sparse deformation field. This sparse field can then be propagated to the entire image using well known methods such as the thin-plate spline warp or simple Gaussian convolution. Previous block matching procedures all utilise uniformly distributed grid points. This results in the generation of a sparse deformation field containing displacement estimates at uniformly spaced locations. This neglects to make use of the evidence that block matching results are dependent on the amount of local information content. That is, results are better in regions of high information when compared to regions of low information. Consequently, this paper presents a solution to this drawback by proposing the use of a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) statistical procedure to optimally select grid points of interest. These grid points have a greater concentration in regions of high information and a lower concentration in regions of small information. Results show that non-rigid registration can by improved by using optimally selected grid points of interest.

  20. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795

  1. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  2. New methods for image guidance and visualization for cardiac procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-03-01

    Interventional cardiac MRI has been undergoing rapid development because of the availability of MRI compatible interventional catheters, and the increased performance of the MRI systems. Intravascular techniques do not require an open access scanner, and hence higher imaging performance during procedures can be achieved. Now, with the availability of a short, relatively open cylindrical bore scanner high imaging performance is also available to guide direct surgical procedures.

  3. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Emergency Medical Care § 10.304 Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? In cases involving emergencies or... for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  4. Crystal diffraction lens for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R. K.; Roa, D. E.

    2000-02-25

    A crystal diffraction lens for focusing energetic gamma rays has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for use in medical imaging of radioactivity in the human body. A common method for locating possible cancerous growths in the body is to inject radioactivity into the blood stream of the patient and then look for any concentration of radioactivity that could be associated with the fast growing cancer cells. Often there are borderline indications of possible cancers that could be due to statistical functions in the measured counting rates. In order to determine if these indications are false or real, one must resort to surgical means and take tissue samples in the suspect area. They are developing a system of crystal diffraction lenses that will be incorporated into a 3-D imaging system with better sensitivity (factors of 10 to 100) and better spatial resolution (a few mm in both vertical and horizontal directions) than most systems presently in use. The use of this new imaging system will allow one to eliminate 90% of the false indications and both locate and determine the size of the cancer with mm precision. The lens consists of 900 single crystals of copper, 4 mm x 4 mm on a side and 2--4 mm thick, mounted in 13 concentric rings.

  5. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    SciTech Connect

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Nikkhah, Guido; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2010-07-23

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP.Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naieve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source.Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  6. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-07-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP. Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naïve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  7. Image quality characteristics of handheld display devices for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) at 1 mm(-1), while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7 × 10(-6) mm(2). Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  8. Image Quality Characteristics of Handheld Display Devices for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2×10−5 mm2 at 1 mm−1, while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7×10−6 mm2. Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  9. Automated synthesis of image processing procedures using AI planning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Mortensen, Helen

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) Planner (MVP) (Chien 1994) system, which uses artificial intelligence planning techniques (Iwasaki & Friedland, 1985, Pemberthy & Weld, 1992, Stefik, 1981) to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing subprograms) in response to image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). The MVP system allows the user to specify the image processing requirements in terms of the various types of correction required. Given this information, MVP derives unspecified required processing steps and determines appropriate image processing programs and parameters to achieve the specified image processing goals. This information is output as an executable image processing program which can then be executed to fill the processing request.

  10. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  11. Cathode-ray tube displays for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Keller, P A

    1990-02-01

    This paper will discuss the principles of cathode-ray tube displays in medical imaging and the parameters essential to the selection of displays for specific requirements. A discussion of cathode-ray tube fundamentals and medical requirements is included.

  12. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis. PMID:27526188

  13. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  14. Survey on Neural Networks Used for Medical Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenghao; He, Lifeng; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of neural networks used in medical image processing. We classify neural networks by its processing goals and the nature of medical images. Main contributions, advantages, and drawbacks of the methods are mentioned in the paper. Problematic issues of neural network application for medical image processing and an outlook for the future research are also discussed. By this survey, we try to answer the following two important questions: (1) What are the major applications of neural networks in medical image processing now and in the nearby future? (2) What are the major strengths and weakness of applying neural networks for solving medical image processing tasks? We believe that this would be very helpful researchers who are involved in medical image processing with neural network techniques. PMID:26740861

  15. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... record to USPTO's medical expert for review and a determination on whether consultation with or... be warranted, USPTO's medical expert shall so consult or transmit. Whether or not such a...

  16. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  17. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  18. Meta-analysis of the technical performance of an imaging procedure: guidelines and statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; McShane, Lisa M; Gönen, Mithat; Ye, Jingjing; Buckler, Andrew J; Kinahan, Paul E; Reeves, Anthony P; Jackson, Edward F; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Zahlmann, Gudrun

    2015-02-01

    Medical imaging serves many roles in patient care and the drug approval process, including assessing treatment response and guiding treatment decisions. These roles often involve a quantitative imaging biomarker, an objectively measured characteristic of the underlying anatomic structure or biochemical process derived from medical images. Before a quantitative imaging biomarker is accepted for use in such roles, the imaging procedure to acquire it must undergo evaluation of its technical performance, which entails assessment of performance metrics such as repeatability and reproducibility of the quantitative imaging biomarker. Ideally, this evaluation will involve quantitative summaries of results from multiple studies to overcome limitations due to the typically small sample sizes of technical performance studies and/or to include a broader range of clinical settings and patient populations. This paper is a review of meta-analysis procedures for such an evaluation, including identification of suitable studies, statistical methodology to evaluate and summarize the performance metrics, and complete and transparent reporting of the results. This review addresses challenges typical of meta-analyses of technical performance, particularly small study sizes, which often causes violations of assumptions underlying standard meta-analysis techniques. Alternative approaches to address these difficulties are also presented; simulation studies indicate that they outperform standard techniques when some studies are small. The meta-analysis procedures presented are also applied to actual [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) test-retest repeatability data for illustrative purposes. PMID:24872353

  19. Meta-analysis of the technical performance of an imaging procedure: guidelines and statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; McShane, Lisa M; Gönen, Mithat; Ye, Jingjing; Buckler, Andrew J; Kinahan, Paul E; Reeves, Anthony P; Jackson, Edward F; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Zahlmann, Gudrun

    2015-02-01

    Medical imaging serves many roles in patient care and the drug approval process, including assessing treatment response and guiding treatment decisions. These roles often involve a quantitative imaging biomarker, an objectively measured characteristic of the underlying anatomic structure or biochemical process derived from medical images. Before a quantitative imaging biomarker is accepted for use in such roles, the imaging procedure to acquire it must undergo evaluation of its technical performance, which entails assessment of performance metrics such as repeatability and reproducibility of the quantitative imaging biomarker. Ideally, this evaluation will involve quantitative summaries of results from multiple studies to overcome limitations due to the typically small sample sizes of technical performance studies and/or to include a broader range of clinical settings and patient populations. This paper is a review of meta-analysis procedures for such an evaluation, including identification of suitable studies, statistical methodology to evaluate and summarize the performance metrics, and complete and transparent reporting of the results. This review addresses challenges typical of meta-analyses of technical performance, particularly small study sizes, which often causes violations of assumptions underlying standard meta-analysis techniques. Alternative approaches to address these difficulties are also presented; simulation studies indicate that they outperform standard techniques when some studies are small. The meta-analysis procedures presented are also applied to actual [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) test-retest repeatability data for illustrative purposes.

  20. Medical imaging and consent: when is an X-ray assault?

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrea N

    2016-06-01

    New Zealand patients have rights in relation to their healthcare including the right to consent to medical treatment. Medical imaging is the third largest category of hospital procedure in New Zealand and it constitutes a circumstance where examination without consent could be assault. New Zealand assault law is unique, and medical radiation technologists (MRTs) must be educated about their responsibilities. A literature review was conducted focusing on the medicolegal aspects of consent as it relates to medical imaging. This was compared to the practical realities of practicing radiography as experienced by the author. Finally, the guidance given by the professional bodies for MRTs in New Zealand was examined to determine whether it adequately informs MRTs of the responsibilities and provides them with a framework to guide their practice. Medical imaging is a diverse area presenting a range of challenging circumstances for consent. Currently, the consent framework and guidance provided by professional bodies is insufficient and in need of updating.

  1. Reverse hierarchy theory and medical image perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, T.; Manning, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    We are unsure about what information is extracted from an image to allow a decision about pathology to be made. Our knowledge of the interplay between top down processing or bottom up, local or global perception, perceptual or cognitive processes is uncertain. However recent research has emphasised the importance of the global or holistic look in medical image perception in which recognition of abnormalities precedes search. Reverse Hierarchy Theory [1] is a useful general theory that helps to explain this. It also enables us to understand what information is extracted from an image and how this relates to expertise. Essentially the theory states that perceptual learning begins at high levels areas and progresses down to lower level areas when better signal to noise is needed. So perceptual learning, defined as an improvement in sensory abilities after training, stems from a gradual top down guided increase in usability of first high then lower level task relevant information. Evaluation of the scan paths of groups of observers with different levels of expertise when undertaking a lung nodule perception task seems to be consistent with the theory. Experts' perception is generally immediate and holistic suggesting high level representations whereas those with an intermediate level of expertise tend to be more variable in their scan paths. Interestingly naÃve observers have eye tracking metrics that are more similar to experts suggesting they take a common sense approach using perceptual skills we all have as they lack experience in being able to access the low level information from the chest radiograph.

  2. Medical image databases: a content-based retrieval approach.

    PubMed

    Tagare, H D; Jaffe, C C; Duncan, J

    1997-01-01

    Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema.

  3. Medical image fusion by wavelet transform modulus maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihong, Qu; Dali, Zhang; Pingfan, Yan

    2001-08-01

    Medical image fusion has been used to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data. In this research, we propose a novel method for multimodality medical image fusion. Using wavelet transform, we achieved a fusion scheme. Afusion rule is proposed and used for calculating the wavelet transformation modulus maxima of input images at different bandwidths and levels. To evaluate the fusion result, a metric based on mutual information (MI) is presented for measuring fusion effect. The performances of other two methods of image fusion based on wavelet transform are briefly described for comparison. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fusion scheme.

  4. Medical Images Fusion with Patch Based Structure Tensor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fen; Sun, Jiangfeng; Hou, Shouming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays medical imaging has played an important role in clinical use, which provide important clues for medical diagnosis. In medical image fusion, the extraction of some fine details and description is critical. To solve this problem, a modified structure tensor by considering similarity between two patches is proposed. The patch based filter can suppress noise and add the robustness of the eigen-values of the structure tensor by allowing the use of more information of far away pixels. After defining the new structure tensor, we apply it into medical image fusion with a multi-resolution wavelet theory. The features are extracted and described by the eigen-values of two multi-modality source data. To test the performance of the proposed scheme, the CT and MR images are used as input source images for medical image fusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method can produce better results compared to some related approaches. PMID:26628927

  5. An interventional multispectral photoacoustic imaging platform for the guidance of minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-07-01

    Precise and efficient guidance of medical devices is of paramount importance for many minimally invasive procedures. These procedures include fetal interventions, tumor biopsies and treatments, central venous catheterisations and peripheral nerve blocks. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used for guidance, but it often provides insufficient contrast with which to identify soft tissue structures such as vessels, tumors, and nerves. In this study, a hybrid interventional imaging system that combines ultrasound imaging and multispectral photoacoustic imaging for guiding minimally invasive procedures was developed and characterized. The system provides both structural information from ultrasound imaging and molecular information from multispectral photoacoustic imaging. It uses a commercial linear-array ultrasound imaging probe as the ultrasound receiver, with a multimode optical fiber embedded in a needle to deliver pulsed excitation light to tissue. Co-registration of ultrasound and photoacoustic images is achieved with the use of the same ultrasound receiver for both modalities. Using tissue ex vivo, the system successfully discriminated deep-located fat tissue from the surrounding muscle tissue. The measured photoacoustic spectrum of the fat tissue had good agreement with the lipid spectrum in literature.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  8. Physical And Medical Attributes Of Six Contemporary Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    1981-11-01

    Digital subtraction angiography(DSA)is compared to five other noninvasive imaging methods with respect to physical attributes and medical applications. 1) Digital subtraction angiography measures flow channel (vessel) anatomy and vascular leaks in regions where signals from under and overlying vascular pools do not conflict in strength with the vessel or tissue of interest. 2) X-ray computed tomography, in principle, can separate the under and overlying signals, yet presently it is limited in speed, axial coverage, and computational burden for tasks DSA can efficiently perform. Possible exceptions are the dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR) of Mayo Clinic and the system under construction at the University of California, San Francisco. 3) Heavy ion imaging measures electron density and is less sensitive to injected contrast than x-ray imaging which has the advantage of the photoelectric effect. A unique attribute of heavy ion imaging is its potential for treatment planning and the fact that beam hardening is not a physical problem. 4) Ultrasound detects surfaces, bulk tissue characteristics, and blood velocity. Doppler ultrasound competes with DSA in some regions of the body and generally involves less equipment and patient procedures. Ultrasound vessel imaging and range-gated Doppler have limitations due to sound absorption by atheromatous tissue and available imaging windows. 5) Emission tomography measures receptor site distribution, metabolism, permeability, and tissue perfusion. Resolution is limited to 7mm full width half maximum (FWHM) in the near future, and extraction of metabolic and perfusion information usually requires kinetic analyses with statistically poor data. The ability of positron tomography to measure metabolism (sugar, fatty acid, and oxygen utilization) and the ability to measure tissue perfusion with single photon tomography (17 mm FWHM) or PET (7 mm FWHM) using non-cyclotron produced radionuclides are the major unique features of emission

  9. Integrating the Radiology Information System with Computerised Provider Order Entry: The Impact on Repeat Medical Imaging Investigations.

    PubMed

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Repeat and redundant procedures in medical imaging are associated with increases in resource utilisation and labour costs. Unnecessary medical imaging in some modalities, such as X-Ray (XR) and Computed Tomography (CT) is an important safety issue because it exposes patients to ionising radiation which can be carcinogenic and is associated with higher rates of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of implementing an integrated Computerised Provider Order Entry (CPOE)/Radiology Information System (RIS)/Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) system on the number of XR and CT imaging procedures (including repeat imaging requests) for inpatients at a large metropolitan hospital. The study found that patients had an average 0.47 fewer XR procedures and 0.07 fewer CT procedures after the implementation of the integrated system. Part of this reduction was driven by a lower rate of repeat procedures: the average inpatient had 0.13 fewer repeat XR procedures within 24-hours of the previous identical XR procedure. A similar decrease was not evident for repeat CT procedures. Reduced utilisation of imaging procedures (especially those within very short intervals from the previous identical procedure, which are more likely to be redundant) has implications for the safety of patients and the cost of medical imaging services. PMID:27440300

  10. Integrating the Radiology Information System with Computerised Provider Order Entry: The Impact on Repeat Medical Imaging Investigations.

    PubMed

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Repeat and redundant procedures in medical imaging are associated with increases in resource utilisation and labour costs. Unnecessary medical imaging in some modalities, such as X-Ray (XR) and Computed Tomography (CT) is an important safety issue because it exposes patients to ionising radiation which can be carcinogenic and is associated with higher rates of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of implementing an integrated Computerised Provider Order Entry (CPOE)/Radiology Information System (RIS)/Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) system on the number of XR and CT imaging procedures (including repeat imaging requests) for inpatients at a large metropolitan hospital. The study found that patients had an average 0.47 fewer XR procedures and 0.07 fewer CT procedures after the implementation of the integrated system. Part of this reduction was driven by a lower rate of repeat procedures: the average inpatient had 0.13 fewer repeat XR procedures within 24-hours of the previous identical XR procedure. A similar decrease was not evident for repeat CT procedures. Reduced utilisation of imaging procedures (especially those within very short intervals from the previous identical procedure, which are more likely to be redundant) has implications for the safety of patients and the cost of medical imaging services.

  11. One-class kernel subspace ensemble for medical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Coenen, Frans; Xiao, Jimin; Lu, Wenjin

    2014-12-01

    Classification of medical images is an important issue in computer-assisted diagnosis. In this paper, a classification scheme based on a one-class kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) model ensemble has been proposed for the classification of medical images. The ensemble consists of one-class KPCA models trained using different image features from each image class, and a proposed product combining rule was used for combining the KPCA models to produce classification confidence scores for assigning an image to each class. The effectiveness of the proposed classification scheme was verified using a breast cancer biopsy image dataset and a 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal image set. The combination of different image features exploits the complementary strengths of these different feature extractors. The proposed classification scheme obtained promising results on the two medical image sets. The proposed method was also evaluated on the UCI breast cancer dataset (diagnostic), and a competitive result was obtained.

  12. An interface terminology for medical imaging ordering purposes.

    PubMed Central

    GRIFFON, Nicolas; SAVOYE-COLLET, Céline; MASSARI, Philippe; DANIEL, Christel; DARMONI, Stéfan J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for structured data in electronic health records has not been fully addressed by reference terminologies (RT) due to difficulties of use for end-users. Interface terminologies (IT), built for specific usage and users, and linked to RT, may solve this issue. We propose an IT for medical imaging prescription, based on the French nomenclature for procedure (CCAM), and its qualitative evaluation. The creation and evaluation processes were adapted from published guidelines. Prescription IT is available on the web (http://pts.chu-rouen.fr). It contains 290 orderable terms linked to 249 CCAM codes. The synonymy of prescription IT is significantly richer than the CCAM one and labels are significantly shorter. The main problem came from the CCAM, which is dedicated to billing purposes. We are planning to map prescription IT to other international RT such as RadLex or SNOMED. Prescription IT might quicken the adoption of computerized ordering processes in France. PMID:23304401

  13. An interface terminology for medical imaging ordering purposes.

    PubMed

    Griffon, Nicolas; Savoye-Collet, Céline; Massari, Philippe; Daniel, Christel; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2012-01-01

    The need for structured data in electronic health records has not been fully addressed by reference terminologies (RT) due to difficulties of use for end-users. Interface terminologies (IT), built for specific usage and users, and linked to RT, may solve this issue. We propose an IT for medical imaging prescription, based on the French nomenclature for procedure (CCAM), and its qualitative evaluation. The creation and evaluation processes were adapted from published guidelines. Prescription IT is available on the web (http://pts.chu-rouen.fr). It contains 290 orderable terms linked to 249 CCAM codes. The synonymy of prescription IT is significantly richer than the CCAM one and labels are significantly shorter. The main problem came from the CCAM, which is dedicated to billing purposes. We are planning to map prescription IT to other international RT such as RadLex or SNOMED. Prescription IT might quicken the adoption of computerized ordering processes in France.

  14. Peri-procedural imaging for transcatheter mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Navin; Patel, Parag; Bartel, Thomas; Kapadia, Samir; Navia, Jose; Stewart, William; Tuzcu, E Murat; Schoenhagen, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) has a high prevalence in older patient populations of industrialized nations. Common etiologies are structural, degenerative MR and functional MR secondary to myocardial remodeling. Because of co-morbidities and associated high surgical risk, open surgical mitral repair/replacement is deferred in a significant percentage of patients. For these patients transcatheter repair/replacement are emerging as treatment options. Because of the lack of direct visualization, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for these procedures. In this review, we summarize mitral valve anatomy, trans-catheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) options, and imaging in the context of TMVR. PMID:27054104

  15. Peri-procedural imaging for transcatheter mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Navin; Patel, Parag; Bartel, Thomas; Kapadia, Samir; Navia, Jose; Stewart, William; Tuzcu, E. Murat

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) has a high prevalence in older patient populations of industrialized nations. Common etiologies are structural, degenerative MR and functional MR secondary to myocardial remodeling. Because of co-morbidities and associated high surgical risk, open surgical mitral repair/replacement is deferred in a significant percentage of patients. For these patients transcatheter repair/replacement are emerging as treatment options. Because of the lack of direct visualization, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for these procedures. In this review, we summarize mitral valve anatomy, trans-catheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) options, and imaging in the context of TMVR. PMID:27054104

  16. A framework for integration of heterogeneous medical imaging networks.

    PubMed

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, Luís S; Costa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is increasing its importance in matters of medical diagnosis and in treatment support. Much is due to computers that have revolutionized medical imaging not only in acquisition process but also in the way it is visualized, stored, exchanged and managed. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an example of how medical imaging takes advantage of computers. To solve problems of interoperability of PACS and medical imaging equipment, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was defined and widely implemented in current solutions. More recently, the need to exchange medical data between distinct institutions resulted in Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative that contains a content profile especially conceived for medical imaging exchange: Cross Enterprise Document Sharing for imaging (XDS-i). Moreover, due to application requirements, many solutions developed private networks to support their services. For instance, some applications support enhanced query and retrieve over DICOM objects metadata. This paper proposes anintegration framework to medical imaging networks that provides protocols interoperability and data federation services. It is an extensible plugin system that supports standard approaches (DICOM and XDS-I), but is also capable of supporting private protocols. The framework is being used in the Dicoogle Open Source PACS.

  17. A Framework for Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Imaging Networks

    PubMed Central

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, Luís S; Costa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is increasing its importance in matters of medical diagnosis and in treatment support. Much is due to computers that have revolutionized medical imaging not only in acquisition process but also in the way it is visualized, stored, exchanged and managed. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an example of how medical imaging takes advantage of computers. To solve problems of interoperability of PACS and medical imaging equipment, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was defined and widely implemented in current solutions. More recently, the need to exchange medical data between distinct institutions resulted in Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative that contains a content profile especially conceived for medical imaging exchange: Cross Enterprise Document Sharing for imaging (XDS-i). Moreover, due to application requirements, many solutions developed private networks to support their services. For instance, some applications support enhanced query and retrieve over DICOM objects metadata. This paper proposes anintegration framework to medical imaging networks that provides protocols interoperability and data federation services. It is an extensible plugin system that supports standard approaches (DICOM and XDS-I), but is also capable of supporting private protocols. The framework is being used in the Dicoogle Open Source PACS. PMID:25279021

  18. A Comparison of Standard-Setting Procedures for an OSCE in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…

  19. Using GOMS models and hypertext to create representations of medical procedures for online display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo; Halgren, Shannon; Gosbee, John; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated two methods to improve organization and presentation of computer-based medical procedures. A literature review suggested that the GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selecton rules) model can assist in rigorous task analysis, which can then help generate initial design ideas for the human-computer interface. GOMS model are hierarchical in nature, so this study also investigated the effect of hierarchical, hypertext interfaces. We used a 2 x 2 between subjects design, including the following independent variables: procedure organization - GOMS model based vs. medical-textbook based; navigation type - hierarchical vs. linear (booklike). After naive subjects studies the online procedures, measures were taken of their memory for the content and the organization of the procedures. This design was repeated for two medical procedures. For one procedure, subjects who studied GOMS-based and hierarchical procedures remembered more about the procedures than other subjects. The results for the other procedure were less clear. However, data for both procedures showed a 'GOMSification effect'. That is, when asked to do a free recall of a procedure, subjects who had studies a textbook procedure often recalled key information in a location inconsistent with the procedure they actually studied, but consistent with the GOMS-based procedure.

  20. A virtual laboratory for medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Glatard, Tristan; de Boer, Piter T

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and usage of a virtual laboratory for medical image analysis. It is fully based on the Dutch grid, which is part of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) production infrastructure and driven by the gLite middleware. The adopted service-oriented architecture enables decoupling the user-friendly clients running on the user's workstation from the complexity of the grid applications and infrastructure. Data are stored on grid resources and can be browsed/viewed interactively by the user with the Virtual Resource Browser (VBrowser). Data analysis pipelines are described as Scufl workflows and enacted on the grid infrastructure transparently using the MOTEUR workflow management system. VBrowser plug-ins allow for easy experiment monitoring and error detection. Because of the strict compliance to the grid authentication model, all operations are performed on behalf of the user, ensuring basic security and facilitating collaboration across organizations. The system has been operational and in daily use for eight months (December 2008), with six users, leading to the submission of 9000 jobs/month in average and the production of several terabytes of data.

  1. Data Hiding Scheme on Medical Image using Graph Coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Widi; Adiwijaya; Novia Wisety, Untari

    2015-06-01

    The utilization of digital medical images is now widely spread[4]. The medical images is supposed to get protection since it has probability to pass through unsecure network. Several watermarking techniques have been developed so that the digital medical images can be guaranteed in terms of its originality. In watermarking, the medical images becomes a protected object. Nevertheless, the medical images can actually be a medium of hiding secret data such as patient medical record. The data hiding is done by inserting data into image - usually called steganography in images. Because the medical images can influence the diagnose change, steganography will only be applied to non-interest region. Vector Quantization (VQ) is one of lossydata compression technique which is sufficiently prominent and frequently used. Generally, the VQ based steganography scheme still has limitation in terms of the data capacity which can be inserted. This research is aimed to make a Vector Quantization-based steganography scheme and graph coloring. The test result shows that the scheme can insert 28768 byte data which equals to 10077 characters for images area of 3696 pixels.

  2. A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

  3. Fast and Computationally Efficient Boundary Detection Technique for Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arpita; Goswami, Partha; Sen, Susanta

    2011-03-01

    Detection of edge is a fundamental procedure of image processing. Many edge detection algorithms have been developed based on computation of the intensity gradient. In medical images, boundaries of the objects are vague for gradual change of intensities. Therefore need exists to develop a computationally efficient and accurate edge detection approach. We have presented such algorithm using modified global threshold technique. In our work, the boundaries are highlighted from the background by selecting a threshold (T) that separates object and background. In the image, where object to background or vice-verse transition occurs, pixel intensity either rises greater or equal to T (background to object transition) or falls less than T (object to background). We have marked these transition regions as object boundary and enhanced the corresponding intensity. The value of T may be specified heuristically or by following specific algorithm. Conventional global threshold algorithm computes the value of T automatically. But this approach is not computationally efficient and required a large memory. In this study, we have proposed a parameter for which computation of T is very easy and fast. We have also proved that a fixed size memory [ 256 × 4 Byte] is enough to compute this algorithm.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Image-guidance for surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Terry M.

    2006-07-01

    Contemporary imaging modalities can now provide the surgeon with high quality three- and four-dimensional images depicting not only normal anatomy and pathology, but also vascularity and function. A key component of image-guided surgery (IGS) is the ability to register multi-modal pre-operative images to each other and to the patient. The other important component of IGS is the ability to track instruments in real time during the procedure and to display them as part of a realistic model of the operative volume. Stereoscopic, virtual- and augmented-reality techniques have been implemented to enhance the visualization and guidance process. For the most part, IGS relies on the assumption that the pre-operatively acquired images used to guide the surgery accurately represent the morphology of the tissue during the procedure. This assumption may not necessarily be valid, and so intra-operative real-time imaging using interventional MRI, ultrasound, video and electrophysiological recordings are often employed to ameliorate this situation. Although IGS is now in extensive routine clinical use in neurosurgery and is gaining ground in other surgical disciplines, there remain many drawbacks that must be overcome before it can be employed in more general minimally-invasive procedures. This review overviews the roots of IGS in neurosurgery, provides examples of its use outside the brain, discusses the infrastructure required for successful implementation of IGS approaches and outlines the challenges that must be overcome for IGS to advance further.

  5. Medical image processing on the GPU - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Forsberg, Daniel; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-12-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are used today in a wide range of applications, mainly because they can dramatically accelerate parallel computing, are affordable and energy efficient. In the field of medical imaging, GPUs are in some cases crucial for enabling practical use of computationally demanding algorithms. This review presents the past and present work on GPU accelerated medical image processing, and is meant to serve as an overview and introduction to existing GPU implementations. The review covers GPU acceleration of basic image processing operations (filtering, interpolation, histogram estimation and distance transforms), the most commonly used algorithms in medical imaging (image registration, image segmentation and image denoising) and algorithms that are specific to individual modalities (CT, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, DTI, ultrasound, optical imaging and microscopy). The review ends by highlighting some future possibilities and challenges.

  6. Multiview Locally Linear Embedding for Effective Medical Image Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hualei; Tao, Dacheng; Ma, Dianfu

    2013-01-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval continues to gain attention for its potential to assist radiological image interpretation and decision making. Many approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of medical image retrieval system, among which visual features such as SIFT, LBP, and intensity histogram play a critical role. Typically, these features are concatenated into a long vector to represent medical images, and thus traditional dimension reduction techniques such as locally linear embedding (LLE), principal component analysis (PCA), or laplacian eigenmaps (LE) can be employed to reduce the “curse of dimensionality”. Though these approaches show promising performance for medical image retrieval, the feature-concatenating method ignores the fact that different features have distinct physical meanings. In this paper, we propose a new method called multiview locally linear embedding (MLLE) for medical image retrieval. Following the patch alignment framework, MLLE preserves the geometric structure of the local patch in each feature space according to the LLE criterion. To explore complementary properties among a range of features, MLLE assigns different weights to local patches from different feature spaces. Finally, MLLE employs global coordinate alignment and alternating optimization techniques to learn a smooth low-dimensional embedding from different features. To justify the effectiveness of MLLE for medical image retrieval, we compare it with conventional spectral embedding methods. We conduct experiments on a subset of the IRMA medical image data set. Evaluation results show that MLLE outperforms state-of-the-art dimension reduction methods. PMID:24349277

  7. Nonrigid Medical Image Registration Based on Mesh Deformation Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, TianShuang; Guo, DongMei

    2013-01-01

    Regularizing the deformation field is an important aspect in nonrigid medical image registration. By covering the template image with a triangular mesh, this paper proposes a new regularization constraint in terms of connections between mesh vertices. The connection relationship is preserved by the spring analogy method. The method is evaluated by registering cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image data obtained from different individuals. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good deformation ability and topology-preserving ability, providing a new way to the nonrigid medical image registration. PMID:23424604

  8. Client-side Medical Image Colorization in a Collaborative Environment.

    PubMed

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application related to collaborative medicine using a browser based medical visualization system with focus on the medical image colorization process and the underlying open source web development technologies involved. Browser based systems allow physicians to share medical data with their remotely located counterparts or medical students, assisting them during patient diagnosis, treatment monitoring, surgery planning or for educational purposes. This approach brings forth the advantage of ubiquity. The system can be accessed from a any device, in order to process the images, assuring the independence towards having a specific proprietary operating system. The current work starts with processing of DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files and ends with the rendering of the resulting bitmap images on a HTML5 (fifth revision of the HyperText Markup Language) canvas element. The application improves the image visualization emphasizing different tissue densities.

  9. Client-side Medical Image Colorization in a Collaborative Environment.

    PubMed

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application related to collaborative medicine using a browser based medical visualization system with focus on the medical image colorization process and the underlying open source web development technologies involved. Browser based systems allow physicians to share medical data with their remotely located counterparts or medical students, assisting them during patient diagnosis, treatment monitoring, surgery planning or for educational purposes. This approach brings forth the advantage of ubiquity. The system can be accessed from a any device, in order to process the images, assuring the independence towards having a specific proprietary operating system. The current work starts with processing of DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files and ends with the rendering of the resulting bitmap images on a HTML5 (fifth revision of the HyperText Markup Language) canvas element. The application improves the image visualization emphasizing different tissue densities. PMID:25991287

  10. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  11. Cavitational Iron Microparticles Generation By Plasma Procedures For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Ioan; Bunoiu, Madalin; Chirigiu, Liviu; Spunei, Marius; Juganaru, Iulius

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the experimental installation for the production, in argon plasma, of cavitational iron microparticles (pore microspheres, microtubes and octopus-shaped microparticles). Experimental results are presented and discussed and it is shown that absorbant particles with a minimum iron content are obtained by the plasma procedures

  12. An information gathering system for medical image inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Bajcsy, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present an information gathering system for medical image inspection that consists of software tools for capturing computer-centric and human-centric information. Computer-centric information includes (1) static annotations, such as (a) image drawings enclosing any selected area, a set of areas with similar colors, a set of salient points, and (b) textual descriptions associated with either image drawings or links between pairs of image drawings, and (2) dynamic (or temporal) information, such as mouse movements, zoom level changes, image panning and frame selections from an image stack. Human-centric information is represented by video and audio signals that are acquired by computer-mounted cameras and microphones. The short-term goal of the presented system is to facilitate learning of medical novices from medical experts, while the long-term goal is to data mine all information about image inspection for assisting in making diagnoses. In this work, we built basic software functionality for gathering computer-centric and human-centric information of the aforementioned variables. Next, we developed the information playback capabilities of all gathered information for educational purposes. Finally, we prototyped text-based and image template-based search engines to retrieve information from recorded annotations, for example, (a) find all annotations containing the word "blood vessels", or (b) search for similar areas to a selected image area. The information gathering system for medical image inspection reported here has been tested with images from the Histology Atlas database.

  13. Recent changes in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code relevant to medical profession.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swapnil S; Kumar, Lavlesh; Mestri, S C

    2010-02-01

    Some sections in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code have a direct binding on medical practitioner. With changing times, few of them have been revised and these changes are presented in this article.

  14. [A medical image semantic modeling based on hierarchical Bayesian networks].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunyi; Ma, Lihong; Yin, Junxun; Chen, Jianyu

    2009-04-01

    A semantic modeling approach for medical image semantic retrieval based on hierarchical Bayesian networks was proposed, in allusion to characters of medical images. It used GMM (Gaussian mixture models) to map low-level image features into object semantics with probabilities, then it captured high-level semantics through fusing these object semantics using a Bayesian network, so that it built a multi-layer medical image semantic model, aiming to enable automatic image annotation and semantic retrieval by using various keywords at different semantic levels. As for the validity of this method, we have built a multi-level semantic model from a small set of astrocytoma MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) samples, in order to extract semantics of astrocytoma in malignant degree. Experiment results show that this is a superior approach.

  15. Developing a medical image content repository for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Tien-Cheng; Chang, Jing Ning; Yang, Stephen J H; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei Chyn

    2006-09-01

    The integration of medical informatics and e-learning systems could provide many advanced applications including training, knowledge management, telemedicine, etc. Currently, both the domains of e-learning and medical image have sophisticated specifications and standards. It is a great challenge to bring about integration. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web interface for searching and viewing medical images that are stored in standard medical image servers. With the creation of a Web solution, we have reduced the overheads of integration. We have packaged Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) network services as a component that can be used via a Web server. The Web server constitutes a content repository for searching, editing, and storing Web-based medical image content. This is a simple method by which the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can be extended. We show that the content repository can easily interact and integrate with a learning system. With the integration, the user can easily generate and assign medical image content for e-learning. A Web solution might be the simplest way for system integration. The demonstration in this paper should be useful as a method of expanding the usage of medical information. The construction of a Web-based repository and integrated with a learning system may be also applicable to other domains.

  16. Developing a medical image content repository for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Tien-Cheng; Chang, Jing Ning; Yang, Stephen J H; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei Chyn

    2006-09-01

    The integration of medical informatics and e-learning systems could provide many advanced applications including training, knowledge management, telemedicine, etc. Currently, both the domains of e-learning and medical image have sophisticated specifications and standards. It is a great challenge to bring about integration. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web interface for searching and viewing medical images that are stored in standard medical image servers. With the creation of a Web solution, we have reduced the overheads of integration. We have packaged Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) network services as a component that can be used via a Web server. The Web server constitutes a content repository for searching, editing, and storing Web-based medical image content. This is a simple method by which the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can be extended. We show that the content repository can easily interact and integrate with a learning system. With the integration, the user can easily generate and assign medical image content for e-learning. A Web solution might be the simplest way for system integration. The demonstration in this paper should be useful as a method of expanding the usage of medical information. The construction of a Web-based repository and integrated with a learning system may be also applicable to other domains. PMID:16710797

  17. Metadata requirements for results of diagnostic imaging procedures: a BIIF profile to support user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas J.; Lloyd, David S.; Reynolds, Melvin I.; Plummer, David L.

    2002-05-01

    A visible digital image is rendered from a set of digital image data. Medical digital image data can be stored as either: (a) pre-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic print, or (b) un-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic negative. The appropriate image data storage format and associated header data (metadata) required by a user of the results of a diagnostic procedure recorded electronically depends on the task(s) to be performed. The DICOM standard provides a rich set of metadata that supports the needs of complex applications. Many end user applications, such as simple report text viewing and display of a selected image, are not so demanding and generic image formats such as JPEG are sometimes used. However, these are lacking some basic identification requirements. In this paper we make specific proposals for minimal extensions to generic image metadata of value in various domains, which enable safe use in the case of two simple healthcare end user scenarios: (a) viewing of text and a selected JPEG image activated by a hyperlink and (b) viewing of one or more JPEG images together with superimposed text and graphics annotation using a file specified by a profile of the ISO/IEC Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF).

  18. Ethics of Practicing Medical Procedures on Newly Dead and Nearly Dead Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jeffrey T; Rosner, Fred; Cassell, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the ethical issues raised by physicians performing, for skill development, medically nonindicated invasive medical procedures on newly dead and dying patients. DESIGN Literature review; issue analysis employing current normative ethical obligations, and evaluation against moral rules and utilitarian assessments manifest in other common perimortem practices. RESULTS Practicing medical procedures for training purposes is not uncommon among physicians in training. However, empiric information is limited or absent evaluating the effects of this practice on physician competence and ethics, assessing public attitudes toward practicing medical procedures and requirements for consent, and discerning the effects of a consent requirement on physicians' clinical competence. Despite these informational gaps, there is an obligation to secure consent for training activities on newly and nearly dead patients based on contemporary norms for informed consent and family respect. Paradigms of consent-dependent societal benefits elsewhere in health care support our determination that the benefits from physicians practicing procedures does not justify setting aside the informed consent requirement. CONCLUSION Current ethical norms do not support the practice of using newly and nearly dead patients for training in invasive medical procedures absent prior consent by the patient or contemporaneous surrogate consent. Performing an appropriately consented training procedure is ethically acceptable when done under competent supervision and with appropriate professional decorum. The ethics of training on the newly and nearly dead remains an insufficiently examined area of medical training. PMID:12390553

  19. Globus MEDICUS - federation of DICOM medical imaging devices into healthcare Grids.

    PubMed

    Erberich, Stephan G; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chervenak, Ann; Schuler, Robert; Nelson, Marvin D; Kesselman, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard defines Radiology medical device interoperability and image data exchange between modalities, image databases - Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) - and image review end-points. However the scope of DICOM and PACS technology is currently limited to the trusted and static environment of the hospital. In order to meet the demand for ad-hoc tele-radiology and image guided medical procedures within the global healthcare enterprise, a new technology must provide mobility, security, flexible scale of operations, and rapid responsiveness for DICOM medical devices and subsequently medical image data. Grid technology, an informatics approach to securely federate independently operated computing, storage, and data management resources at the global scale over public networks, meets these core requirements. Here we present an approach to federate DICOM and PACS devices for large-scale medical image workflows within a global healthcare enterprise. The Globus MEDICUS (Medical Imaging and Computing for Unified Information Sharing) project uses the standards-based Globus Toolkit Grid infrastructure to vertically integrate a new service for DICOM devices - the DICOM Grid Interface Service (DGIS). This new service translates between DICOM and Grid operations and thus transparently extends DICOM to Globus based Grid infrastructure. This Grid image workflow paradigm has been designed to provide not only solutions for global image communication, but fault-tolerance and disaster recovery using Grid data replication technology. Actual use-case of 40 MEDICUS Grid connected international hospitals of the Childerns Oncology Group and the Neuroblastoma Cancer Foundation and further clinical applications are discussed. The open-source Globus MEDICU http://dev.globus.org/wiki/Incubator/MEDICUS. PMID:17476069

  20. [3D interactive clipping technology in medical image processing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoping; Yang, Kaitai; Li, Bin; Li, Yuanjun; Liang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the methods of 3D visualization and the 3D interactive clipping of CT/MRI image sequence in arbitrary orientation based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). A new method for 3D CT/MRI reconstructed image clipping is presented, which can clip 3D object and 3D space of medical image sequence to observe the inner structure using 3D widget for manipulating an infinite plane. Experiment results show that the proposed method can implement 3D interactive clipping of medical image effectively and get satisfied results with good quality in short time.

  1. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../psychological records. 1701.13 Section 1701.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current and former ODNI employees, including... access to their medical, psychiatric or psychological testing records by writing to: Information...

  2. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../psychological records. 1701.13 Section 1701.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current and former ODNI employees, including... access to their medical, psychiatric or psychological testing records by writing to: Information...

  3. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and retrieval..., and digital memory. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  4. Tele-medical imaging conference system based on the Web.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heung-Kook; Park, Se-Myung; Kang, Jae-Hyo; Kim, Sang-Kyoon; Choi, Hang-Mook

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, a medical imaging conference system is presented, which is carried out in the Web environment using the distributed object technique, CORBA. Independent of platforms and different developing languages, the CORBA-based medical imaging conference system is very powerful for system development, extension and maintenance. With this Web client/server, one could easily execute a medical imaging conference using Applets on the Web. The Java language, which is object-oriented and independent of platforms, has the advantage of free usage wherever the Web browser is. By using the proposed system, we envisage being able to open a tele-conference using medical images, e.g. CT, MRI, X-ray etc., easily and effectively among remote hospitals.

  5. Four challenges in medical image analysis from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Weese, Jürgen; Lorenz, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    Today's medical imaging systems produce a huge amount of images containing a wealth of information. However, the information is hidden in the data and image analysis algorithms are needed to extract it, to make it readily available for medical decisions and to enable an efficient work flow. Advances in medical image analysis over the past 20 years mean there are now many algorithms and ideas available that allow to address medical image analysis tasks in commercial solutions with sufficient performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and speed. At the same time new challenges have arisen. Firstly, there is a need for more generic image analysis technologies that can be efficiently adapted for a specific clinical task. Secondly, efficient approaches for ground truth generation are needed to match the increasing demands regarding validation and machine learning. Thirdly, algorithms for analyzing heterogeneous image data are needed. Finally, anatomical and organ models play a crucial role in many applications, and algorithms to construct patient-specific models from medical images with a minimum of user interaction are needed. These challenges are complementary to the on-going need for more accurate, more reliable and faster algorithms, and dedicated algorithmic solutions for specific applications.

  6. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... professional designated by the parent or guardian in all cases. If disclosure of the record would constitute an... component of the Department. Therefore, components may follow the paragraph (b) procedure for notification... purposes. The special procedure set forth in paragraph (c) of this section relating to medical records...

  7. An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A J; Berry, E; Zinovev, N N; Walker, G C; Smith, M A; Chamberlain, J M

    2002-04-01

    Methods have recently been developed that make use of electromagnetic radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies, the region of the spectrum between millimetre wavelengths and the infrared, for imaging purposes. Radiation at these wavelengths is non-ionizing and subject to far less Rayleigh scatter than visible or infrared wavelengths, making it suitable for medical applications. This paper introduces THz pulsed imaging and discusses its potential for in vivo medical applications in comparison with existing modalities.

  8. [Orbit: Part 1: anatomy, imaging procedures and retrobulbar lesions].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this 2-part review article on diseases of the orbit is to give the reader an insight into the anatomical structure and an overview of the most important diseases in the area of the eye socket. The main focus is on a description of the imaging procedures and their individual advantages and disadvantages. The most important tumors, trauma and degenerative alterations of the orbit are also described.

  9. Managing radiation use in medical imaging: a multifaceted challenge.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig; Brenner, David J; Adelstein, S James; Frush, Donald P; Hall, Eric J; Howell, Roger W; McCollough, Cynthia H; Mettler, Fred A; Pearce, Mark S; Suleiman, Orhan H; Thrall, James H; Wagner, Louis K

    2011-03-01

    This special report aims to inform the medical community about the many challenges involved in managing radiation exposure in a way that maximizes the benefit-risk ratio. The report discusses the state of current knowledge and key questions in regard to sources of medical imaging radiation exposure, radiation risk estimation, dose reduction strategies, and regulatory options.

  10. Integration of radiographic images with an electronic medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Overhage, J. M.; Aisen, A.; Barnes, M.; Tucker, M.; McDonald, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiographic images are important and expensive diagnostic tests. However, the provider caring for the patient often does not review the images directly due to time constraints. Institutions can use picture archiving and communications systems to make images more available to the provider, but this may not be the best solution. We integrated radiographic image review into the Regenstrief Medical Record System in order to address this problem. To achieve adequate performance, we store JPEG compressed images directly in the RMRS. Currently, physicians review about 5% of all radiographic studies using the RMRS image review function. PMID:11825241

  11. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  12. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  13. A semantically-aided approach for online annotation and retrieval of medical images.

    PubMed

    Kyriazos, George K; Gerostathopoulos, Ilias Th; Kolias, Vassileios D; Stoitsis, John S; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2011-01-01

    The need for annotating the continuously increasing volume of medical image data is recognized from medical experts for a variety of purposes, regardless if this is medical practice, research or education. The rich information content latent in medical images can be made explicit and formal with the use of well-defined ontologies. Evolution of the Semantic Web now offers a unique opportunity of a web-based, service-oriented approach. Remote access to FMA and ICD-10 reference ontologies provides the ontological annotation framework. The proposed system utilizes this infrastructure to provide a customizable and robust annotation procedure. It also provides an intelligent search mechanism indicating the advantages of semantic over keyword search. The common representation layer discussed facilitates interoperability between institutions and systems, while semantic content enables inference and knowledge integration.

  14. Ontology modularization to improve semantic medical image annotation.

    PubMed

    Wennerberg, Pinar; Schulz, Klaus; Buitelaar, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Searching for medical images and patient reports is a significant challenge in a clinical setting. The contents of such documents are often not described in sufficient detail thus making it difficult to utilize the inherent wealth of information contained within them. Semantic image annotation addresses this problem by describing the contents of images and reports using medical ontologies. Medical images and patient reports are then linked to each other through common annotations. Subsequently, search algorithms can more effectively find related sets of documents on the basis of these semantic descriptions. A prerequisite to realizing such a semantic search engine is that the data contained within should have been previously annotated with concepts from medical ontologies. One major challenge in this regard is the size and complexity of medical ontologies as annotation sources. Manual annotation is particularly time consuming labor intensive in a clinical environment. In this article we propose an approach to reducing the size of clinical ontologies for more efficient manual image and text annotation. More precisely, our goal is to identify smaller fragments of a large anatomy ontology that are relevant for annotating medical images from patients suffering from lymphoma. Our work is in the area of ontology modularization, which is a recent and active field of research. We describe our approach, methods and data set in detail and we discuss our results.

  15. A survey of medical image registration - under review.

    PubMed

    Viergever, Max A; Maintz, J B Antoine; Klein, Stefan; Murphy, Keelin; Staring, Marius; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-10-01

    A retrospective view on the past two decades of the field of medical image registration is presented, guided by the article "A survey of medical image registration" (Maintz and Viergever, 1998). It shows that the classification of the field introduced in that article is still usable, although some modifications to do justice to advances in the field would be due. The main changes over the last twenty years are the shift from extrinsic to intrinsic registration, the primacy of intensity-based registration, the breakthrough of nonlinear registration, the progress of inter-subject registration, and the availability of generic image registration software packages. Two problems that were called urgent already 20 years ago, are even more urgent nowadays: Validation of registration methods, and translation of results of image registration research to clinical practice. It may be concluded that the field of medical image registration has evolved, but still is in need of further development in various aspects.

  16. [Automatic segmentation of three dimension medical image series].

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Yang, Jie; Yao, Lixiu; Xu, Qing

    2006-08-01

    We propose an improved version of regional competition algorithm in this paper, and apply it to the automatic segmentation of medical image series, particularly in the segmentation and recognition of brain tumor. The traditional regional competition is enhanced by combining the attractive aspects of fuzzy segmentation, and thus it provides an efficient approach to segment the fuzzy and heterogeneous medical images. In order to perform regional competition on medical image series, we utilize the segmentation result of a slice to initiate the next segmented slice, while the first slice is initialized using regional growing algorithm. Moreover, we develop an algorithm to recognize the tumors automatically, taking into account its characters. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs well on the segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image series with high speed and precision. PMID:17002088

  17. Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-01-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  18. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station.

  19. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing.

  20. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing. PMID:26414378

  1. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    PubMed

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  2. Intelligent retrieval of medical images from the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yau-Kuo; Chiang, Ted T.

    1996-05-01

    The object of this study is using Internet resources to provide a cost-effective, user-friendly method to access the medical image archive system and to provide an easy method for the user to identify the images required. This paper describes the prototype system architecture, the implementation, and results. In the study, we prototype the Intelligent Medical Image Retrieval (IMIR) system as a Hypertext Transport Prototype server and provide Hypertext Markup Language forms for user, as an Internet client, using browser to enter image retrieval criteria for review. We are developing the intelligent retrieval engine, with the capability to map the free text search criteria to the standard terminology used for medical image identification. We evaluate retrieved records based on the number of the free text entries matched and their relevance level to the standard terminology. We are in the integration and testing phase. We have collected only a few different types of images for testing and have trained a few phrases to map the free text to the standard medical terminology. Nevertheless, we are able to demonstrate the IMIR's ability to search, retrieve, and review medical images from the archives using general Internet browser. The prototype also uncovered potential problems in performance, security, and accuracy. Additional studies and enhancements will make the system clinically operational.

  3. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  4. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  5. General Structure of Regularization Procedures in Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titterington, D. M.

    1985-03-01

    Regularization procedures are portrayed as compromises between the conflicting aims of fidelity with the observed image and perfect smoothness. The selection of an estimated image involves the choice of a prescription, indicating the manner of smoothing, and of a smoothing parameter, which defines the degree of smoothing. Prescriptions of the minimum-penalized- distance type are considered and are shown to be equivalent to maximum-penalized-smoothness prescriptions. These include, therefore, constrained least-squares and constrained maximum entropy methods. The formal link with Bayesian statistical analysis is pointed out. Two important methods of choosing the degree of smoothing are described, one based on criteria of consistency with the data and one based on minimizing a risk function. The latter includes minimum mean-squared error criteria. Although the maximum entropy method has some practical advantages, there seems no case for it to hold a special place on philosophical grounds, in the context of image reconstruction.

  6. Medical Image Authentication Using DPT Watermarking: A Preliminary Attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. L. Dennis; Goh, Antionette W.-T.; Chua, Hong Siang

    Secure authentication of digital medical image content provides great value to the e-Health community and medical insurance industries. Fragile Watermarking has been proposed to provide the mechanism to authenticate digital medical image securely. Transform Domain based Watermarking are typically slower than spatial domain watermarking owing to the overhead in calculation of coefficients. In this paper, we propose a new Discrete Pascal Transform based watermarking technique. Preliminary experiment result shows authentication capability. Possible improvements on the proposed scheme are also presented before conclusions.

  7. Ultrasound-guided procedures in medical education: a fresh look at cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Riley; Means, Russel; Robertson, Jeffrey; Rappaport, Douglas; Schmier, Charles; Jones, Travis; Stolz, Lori Ann; Kaplan, Stephen Jerome; Adamas-Rappaport, William Joaquin; Amini, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Demand for bedside ultrasound in medicine has created a need for earlier exposure to ultrasound education during the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. Although bedside ultrasound is often used for invasive medical procedures, there is no standardized educational model for procedural skills that can provide the learner a real-life simulated experience. The objective of our study was to describe a unique fresh cadaver preparation model, and to determine the impact of a procedure-focused ultrasound training session. This study was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. A sixteen-item questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the session. Fifty-five third year medical students participated in this 1-day event during their surgical clerkship. Students were trained to perform the following ultrasound-guided procedures: internal jugular vein cannulation, femoral vein cannulation femoral artery cannulation and pericardiocentesis. Preparation of the fresh cadaver is easily replicated and requires minor manipulation of cadaver vessels and pericardial space. Fifty-five medical students in their third year participated in this study. All of the medical students agreed that US could help increase their confidence in performing procedures in the future. Eighty percent (95 % CI 70-91 %) of students felt that there was a benefit of learning ultrasound-based anatomy in addition to traditional methods. Student confidence was self-rated on a five-point Likert scale. Student confidence increased with statistical significance in all of the skills taught. The most dramatic increase was noted in central venous line placement, which improved from 1.95 (SD = 0.11) to 4.2 (SD = 0.09) (p < 0.001). The use of fresh cadavers for procedure-focused US education is a realistic method that improves the confidence of third year medical students in performing complex but critical procedures.

  8. Magnetite Nanoparticles for Medical MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Zachary R.; Kievit, Forrest M.; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology has given scientists new tools for the development of advanced materials for the detection and diagnosis of disease. Iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in particular have been extensively investigated as novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to a combination of favorable superparamagnetic properties, biodegradability, and surface properties of easy modification for improved in vivo kinetics and multifunctionality. This review discusses the basics of MR imaging, the origin of SPION’s unique magnetic properties, recent developments in MRI acquisition methods for detection of SPIONs, synthesis and post-synthesis processes that improve SPION’s imaging characteristics, and an outlook on the translational potential of SPIONs. PMID:22389583

  9. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  10. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface.

  11. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface. PMID:27577479

  12. Principal Components Analysis In Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. B.; Huddleston, A. L.

    1986-06-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is basically a data reduction technique. PCA has been used in several problems in diagnostic radiology: processing radioisotope brain scans (Ref.1), automatic alignment of radionuclide images (Ref. 2), processing MRI images (Ref. 3,4), analyzing first-pass cardiac studies (Ref. 5) correcting for attenuation in bone mineral measurements (Ref. 6) and in dual energy x-ray imaging (Ref. 6,7). This paper will progress as follows; a brief introduction to the mathematics of PCA will be followed by two brief examples of how PCA has been used in the literature. Finally my own experience with PCA in dual-energy x-ray imaging will be given.

  13. Registering multiple medical images using the shared chain mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Yi

    2007-07-01

    A new approach to the simultaneous registration of multiple medical images is proposed using shared chain mutual information (SCMI) as the matching measure. The presented method applies SCMI to measure the shared information between the multiple images. Registration is achieved by adjusting the relative position of the floating image until the SCMI between all the images is maximized. Using this measure, we registered three and four simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images using downhill simplex optimization to search for the optimal transformation parameters. Accuracy and validity of the proposed method for multiple-image registration are testified by comparing the results with that of two-image registration. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is validated by registering the real ultrasonic image sequence.

  14. Medical Operations Console Procedure Evaluation: BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Troop; Pettys, Marianne; Hurst, Victor, IV; Smaka, Todd; Paul, Bonnie; Rosenquist, Kevin; Gast, Karin; Gillis, David; McCulley, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Mission Operations are managed by multiple flight control disciplines located at the lead Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). ISS Medical Operations are supported by the complementary roles of Flight Surgeons (Surgeon) and Biomedical Engineer (BME) flight controllers. The Surgeon, a board certified physician, oversees all medical concerns of the crew and the BME provides operational and engineering support for Medical Operations Crew Health Care System. ISS Medical Operations is currently addressing the coordinated response to a crew call down for an emergent medical event, in particular when the BME is the only Medical Operations representative in MCC. In this case, the console procedure BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency will be used. The procedure instructs the BME to contact a Surgeon as soon as possible, coordinate with other flight disciplines to establish a Private Medical Conference (PMC) for the crew and Surgeon, gather information from the crew if time permits, and provide Surgeon with pertinent console resources. It is paramount that this procedure is clearly written and easily navigated to assist the BME to respond consistently and efficiently. A total of five BME flight controllers participated in the study. Each BME participant sat in a simulated MCC environment at a console configured with resources specific to the BME MCC console and was presented with two scripted emergency call downs from an ISS crew member. Each participant used the procedure while interacting with analog MCC disciplines to respond to the crew call down. Audio and video recordings of the simulations were analyzed and each BME participant's actions were compared to the procedure. Structured debriefs were conducted at the conclusion of both simulations. The procedure was evaluated for its ability to elicit consistent responses from each BME participant. Trials were examined for deviations in procedure task

  15. Fast and simple spectral FLIM for biochemical and medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Popleteeva, Marina; Haas, Kalina T; Stoppa, David; Pancheri, Lucio; Gasparini, Leonardo; Kaminski, Clemens F; Cassidy, Liam D; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Esposito, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (λFLIM) has powerful potential for biochemical and medical imaging applications. However, long acquisition times, low spectral resolution and complexity of λFLIM often narrow its use to specialized laboratories. Therefore, we demonstrate here a simple spectral FLIM based on a solid-state detector array providing in-pixel histrogramming and delivering faster acquisition, larger dynamic range, and higher spectral elements than state-of-the-art λFLIM. We successfully apply this novel microscopy system to biochemical and medical imaging demonstrating that solid-state detectors are a key strategic technology to enable complex assays in biomedical laboratories and the clinic.

  16. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  17. Medical imaging as a contributor to today's healthcare crisis.

    PubMed

    McVey, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    At the end of 2007, Medicare reported the increase in medical imaging costs overtook increases in pharmaceutical costs for the first time. Imaging costs accounted for a 20% increase, while pharmaceuticals accounted for just 10%. There are two common areas where imaging costs impact overall healthcare spending: unnecessary exams and operational management. This article does not suggest alternatives to today's imaging management practices. It provides economic information, which may be valuable to imaging managers who want to gauge the costs of operating their own departments to what is going on in the industry. PMID:18572722

  18. Assessment of Restoration Methods of X-Ray Images with Emphasis on Medical Photogrammetric Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinian, S.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  19. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  20. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described.

  1. Communication and storage of digital medical images in database.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, N; Camapum, J; Amemiya, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an application for communication and storage of clinical images based upon the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) protocol. The proposed solution is composed of three different databases servers, PostgreSQL, Firebird and Oracle, and a DICOM client software, that uses the protocol TCP/IP. It provides the communication services, transmission, storage and administration of medical images. PMID:17281491

  2. A fully automatic image-to-world registration method for image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Senhu; Sarment, David

    2016-03-01

    Image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates has made a big impact on minimally invasive surgery. Compact and mobile CT imaging device combining with current commercial available image guided navigation system is a legitimate and cost-efficient solution for a typical operating room setup. However, the process of manual fiducial-based registration between image and physical spaces (image-to-world) is troublesome for surgeons during the procedure, which results in much procedure interruptions and is the main source of registration errors. In this study, we developed a novel method to eliminate the manual registration process. Instead of using probe to manually localize the fiducials during the surgery, a tracking plate with known fiducial positions relative to the reference coordinates is designed and fabricated through 3D printing technique. The workflow and feasibility of this method has been studied through a phantom experiment.

  3. Fast volume rendering for medical image.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hu; Xin-He, Xu

    2005-01-01

    In orders to improve the rendering speed of ray casting and make this technique a practical routine in medical applications, two new and improved techniques are described in this paper. First, an integrated method using "proximity clouds" technique is applied to speed up ray casting. The second technique for speeding up the 3D rendering is done through a parallel implementation based on "single computer multi CPU" model Four groups of CT data sets have been used to validate the improvement of the rendering speed. The result shown that the interactive rendering speed is up to 6-10 fps, which is almost real-time making our algorithm practical in medical visualization routine.

  4. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  5. Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

  6. Lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster: in minor dermatological and needle puncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2010-11-12

    The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster comprises a lidocaine/tetracaine 70 mg/70 mg patch and a controlled heat-assisted drug delivery pod that increases the diffusion of lidocaine and tetracaine into the dermis. Following a 1-hour application period, systemic absorption of lidocaine or tetracaine from the plaster was minimal. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster provided effective pain relief for adult (including elderly) patients undergoing minor dermatological procedures and for adult and paediatric patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In randomized, double-blind clinical trials, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with an identical plaster containing placebo in patients undergoing minor dermatological or vascular access procedures. Furthermore, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine cream in patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In a large, randomized, double-blind trial in paediatric patients undergoing venipuncture, the overall incidence of pain was significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine plaster. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster was well tolerated, with the most frequent treatment-related adverse events resolving spontaneously.

  7. A new programming metaphor for image processing procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Most image processing systems, besides an Application Program Interface (API) which lets users write their own image processing programs, also feature a higher level of programmability. Traditionally, this is a command or macro language, which can be used to build large procedures (scripts) out of simple programs or commands. This approach, a legacy of the teletypewriter has serious drawbacks. A command language is clumsy when (and if! it attempts to utilize the capabilities of a multitasking or multiprocessor environment, it is but adequate for real-time data acquisition and processing, it has a fairly steep learning curve, and the user interface is very inefficient,. especially when compared to a graphical user interface (GUI) that systems running under Xll or Windows should otherwise be able to provide. ll these difficulties stem from one basic problem: a command language is not a natural metaphor for an image processing procedure. A more natural metaphor - an image processing factory is described in detail. A factory is a set of programs (applications) that execute separate operations on images, connected by pipes that carry data (images and parameters) between them. The programs function concurrently, processing images as they arrive along pipes, and querying the user for whatever other input they need. From the user's point of view, programming (constructing) factories is a lot like playing with LEGO blocks - much more intuitive than writing scripts. Focus is on some of the difficulties of implementing factory support, most notably the design of an appropriate API. It also shows that factories retain all the functionality of a command language (including loops and conditional branches), while suffering from none of the drawbacks outlined above. Other benefits of factory programming include self-tuning factories and the process of encapsulation, which lets a factory take the shape of a standard application both from the system and the user's point of view, and

  8. Oncological image analysis: medical and molecular image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarises the work we have been doing on joint projects with GE Healthcare on colorectal and liver cancer, and with Siemens Molecular Imaging on dynamic PET. First, we recall the salient facts about cancer and oncological image analysis. Then we introduce some of the work that we have done on analysing clinical MRI images of colorectal and liver cancer, specifically the detection of lymph nodes and segmentation of the circumferential resection margin. In the second part of the paper, we shift attention to the complementary aspect of molecular image analysis, illustrating our approach with some recent work on: tumour acidosis, tumour hypoxia, and multiply drug resistant tumours.

  9. Convex hull matching and hierarchical decomposition for multimodality medical image registration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Fu, Tianyu; Ai, Danni; Zhu, Jianjun; Li, Qin; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel hierarchical pyramid strategy for 3D registration of multimodality medical images. The surfaces of the source and target volume data are first extracted, and the surface point clouds are then aligned roughly using convex hull matching. The convex hull matching registration procedure could align images with large-scale transformations. The original images are divided into blocks and the corresponding blocks in the two images are registered by affine and non-rigid registration procedures. The sub-blocks are iteratively smoothed by the Gaussian kernel with different sizes during the registration procedure. The registration result of the large kernel is taken as the input of the small kernel registration. The fine registration of the two volume data sets is achieved by iteratively increasing the number of blocks, in which increase in similarity measure is taken as a criterion for acceptation of each iteration level. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in registering the multiple modalities of medical images.

  10. Computation of morphological texture features for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manish J.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Dougherty, Edward R.; Batman, Sinan; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Popov, Antony T.

    1998-06-01

    Texture is an important attribute which is widely used in various image analysis applications. Among texture features, morphological texture features are least utilized in medical image analysis. From a computational standpoint, extracting morphological texture features from an image is a challenging task. The computational problem is made even greater in medical imaging applications where large images such as mammograms are to be analyzed. This paper discusses an efficient method to compute morphological texture features for any geometry of a structuring element corresponding to a texture type. A benchmarking of the code on three machines (Sun SPARC 20, Pentium II based Dell 400 workstation, and SGI Power Challenge 10000XL) as well as a parallel processing implementation was performed to obtain an optimum processing configuration. A sample processed mammogram is shown to illustrate the code outcome.

  11. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  12. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  13. The oncology medical image database (OMI-DB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, P. T.; Patel, M. N.; Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Young, K. C.

    2014-03-01

    Many projects to evaluate or conduct research in medical imaging require the large-scale collection of images (both unprocessed and processed) and associated data. This demand has led us to design and implement a flexible oncology image repository, which prospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. This Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) has been created to support research involving medical imaging and contains unprocessed and processed medical images, associated annotations and data, and where applicable expert-determined ground truths describing features of interest. The process of collection, annotation and storage is almost fully automated and is extremely adaptable, allowing for quick and easy expansion to disparate imaging sites and situations. Initially the database was developed as part of a large research project in digital mammography (OPTIMAM). Hence the initial focus has been digital mammography; as a result, much of the work described will focus on this field. However, the OMI -DB has been designed to support multiple modalities and is extensible and expandable to store any associated data with full anonymisation. Currently, the majority of associated data is made up of radiological, clinical and pathological annotations extracted from the UK's National Breast Screening System (NBSS). In addition to the data, software and systems have been created to allow expert radiologists to annotate the images with interesting clinical features and provide descriptors of these features. The data from OMI-DB has been used in several observer studies and more are planned. To date we have collected 34,104 2D mammography images from 2,623 individuals.

  14. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources.

  15. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources. PMID:24906466

  16. Texture-based medical image compression.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Vinayak K; Sapkal, Ashok M; Tapaswi, Ankita

    2013-02-01

    Image processing is one of the most researched areas these days due to the flooding of the internet with an overload of images. The noble medicine industry is not left untouched. It has also suffered with an excess of patient record storage and maintenance. With the advent of automation of the industries in the world, the medicine industry has sought to change and provide a more portable feel to it, leading to the fields of telemedicine and such. Our algorithm comes in handy in such scenarios where large amount of data needs to be transmitted over the network for perusal by another consultant. We aim for a visual quality approach in our algorithm rather than pixel-wise fidelity. We utilize parameters of edges and textures as the basic parameters in our compression algorithm.

  17. Blackboard architecture for medical image interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Darryl N.; Taylor, Christopher J.

    1991-06-01

    There is a growing interest in using sophisticated knowledge-based systems for biomedical image interpretation. We present a principled attempt to use artificial intelligence methodologies in interpreting lateral skull x-ray images. Such radiographs are routinely used in cephalometric analysis to provide quantitative measurements useful to clinical orthodontists. Manual and interactive methods of analysis are known to be error prone and previous attempts to automate this analysis typically fail to capture the expertise and adaptability required to cope with the variability in biological structure and image quality. An integrated model-based system has been developed which makes use of a blackboard architecture and multiple knowledge sources. A model definition interface allows quantitative models, of feature appearance and location, to be built from examples as well as more qualitative modelling constructs. Visual task definition and blackboard control modules allow task-specific knowledge sources to act on information available to the blackboard in a hypothesise and test reasoning cycle. Further knowledge-based modules include object selection, location hypothesis, intelligent segmentation, and constraint propagation systems. Alternative solutions to given tasks are permitted.

  18. The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    1. Medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski; Part I. Historical Reflections and Theoretical Foundations: 2. A short history of image perception in medical radiology Harold Kundel and Calvin Nodine; 3. Spatial vision research without noise Arthur Burgess; 4. Signal detection theory, a brief history Arthur Burgess; 5. Signal detection in radiology Arthur Burgess; 6. Lessons from dinners with the giants of modern image science Robert Wagner; Part II. Science of Image Perception: 7. Perceptual factors in reading medical images Elizabeth Krupinski; 8. Cognitive factors in reading medical images David Manning; 9. Satisfaction of search in traditional radiographic imaging Kevin Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell and Kevin Schartz; 10. The role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation Calvin Nodine and Claudia Mello-Thoms; 11. A primer of image quality and its perceptual relevance Robert Saunders and Ehsan Samei; 12. Beyond the limitations of human vision Maria Petrou; Part III. Perception Metrology: 13. Logistical issues in designing perception experiments Ehsan Samei and Xiang Li; 14. ROC analysis: basic concepts and practical applications Georgia Tourassi; 15. Multi-reader ROC Steve Hillis; 16. Recent developments in FROC methodology Dev Chakraborty; 17. Observer models as a surrogate to perception experiments Craig Abbey and Miguel Eckstein; 18. Implementation of observer models Matthew Kupinski; Part IV. Decision Support and Computer Aided Detection: 19. CAD: an image perception perspective Maryellen Giger and Weijie Chen; 20. Common designs of CAD studies Yulei Jiang; 21. Perceptual effect of CAD in reading chest images Matthew Freedman and Teresa Osicka; 22. Perceptual issues in mammography and CAD Michael Ulissey; 23. How perceptual factors affect the use and accuracy of CAD for interpretation of CT images Ronald Summers; 24. CAD: risks and benefits for radiologists' decisions Eugenio Alberdi, Andrey Povyakalo, Lorenzo Strigini and

  19. The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    1. Medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski; Part I. Historical Reflections and Theoretical Foundations: 2. A short history of image perception in medical radiology Harold Kundel and Calvin Nodine; 3. Spatial vision research without noise Arthur Burgess; 4. Signal detection theory, a brief history Arthur Burgess; 5. Signal detection in radiology Arthur Burgess; 6. Lessons from dinners with the giants of modern image science Robert Wagner; Part II. Science of Image Perception: 7. Perceptual factors in reading medical images Elizabeth Krupinski; 8. Cognitive factors in reading medical images David Manning; 9. Satisfaction of search in traditional radiographic imaging Kevin Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell and Kevin Schartz; 10. The role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation Calvin Nodine and Claudia Mello-Thoms; 11. A primer of image quality and its perceptual relevance Robert Saunders and Ehsan Samei; 12. Beyond the limitations of human vision Maria Petrou; Part III. Perception Metrology: 13. Logistical issues in designing perception experiments Ehsan Samei and Xiang Li; 14. ROC analysis: basic concepts and practical applications Georgia Tourassi; 15. Multi-reader ROC Steve Hillis; 16. Recent developments in FROC methodology Dev Chakraborty; 17. Observer models as a surrogate to perception experiments Craig Abbey and Miguel Eckstein; 18. Implementation of observer models Matthew Kupinski; Part IV. Decision Support and Computer Aided Detection: 19. CAD: an image perception perspective Maryellen Giger and Weijie Chen; 20. Common designs of CAD studies Yulei Jiang; 21. Perceptual effect of CAD in reading chest images Matthew Freedman and Teresa Osicka; 22. Perceptual issues in mammography and CAD Michael Ulissey; 23. How perceptual factors affect the use and accuracy of CAD for interpretation of CT images Ronald Summers; 24. CAD: risks and benefits for radiologists' decisions Eugenio Alberdi, Andrey Povyakalo, Lorenzo Strigini and

  20. Use of Preclinical Drug vs. Food Choice Procedures to Evaluate Candidate Medications for Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Hutsell, Blake A; Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Drug addiction is a disease that manifests as an inappropriate allocation of behavior towards the procurement and use of the abused substance and away from other behaviors that produce more adaptive reinforcers (e.g. exercise, work, family and social relationships). The goal of treating drug addiction is not only to decrease drug-maintained behaviors, but also to promote a reallocation of behavior towards alternative, nondrug reinforcers. Experimental procedures that offer concurrent access to both a drug reinforcer and an alternative, nondrug reinforcer provide a research tool for assessment of medication effects on drug choice and behavioral allocation. Choice procedures are currently the standard in human laboratory research on medications development. Preclinical choice procedures have been utilized in biomedical research since the early 1940’s, and during the last 10–15 years, their use for evaluation of medications to treat drug addiction has increased. We propose here that parallel use of choice procedures in preclinical and clinical studies will facilitate translational research on development of medications to treat cocaine addiction. In support of this proposition, a review of the literature suggests strong concordance between preclinical effectiveness of candidate medications to modify cocaine choice in nonhuman primates and rodents and clinical effectiveness of these medications to modify either cocaine choice in human laboratory studies or metrics of cocaine abuse in patients with cocaine use disorder. The strongest evidence for medication effectiveness in preclinical choice studies has been obtained with maintenance on the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine, a candidate agonist medication for cocaine use analogous to use of methadone to treat heroin abuse or nicotine formulations to treat tobacco dependence. PMID:26009706

  1. [Civil prodedure or penal procedure in the event of medical fault].

    PubMed

    du Jardin, J

    2004-01-01

    The author specifies the rules and the vocabulary of the civil and penal procedures. He points out the characteristics of the medical act and the failures that a medical practitioner can be blamed for. He defines the notions of the duty of best efforts and the duty to achieve a specific result. The role of the expert is touched upon. The article is supplemented by significant case-law decisions and a list of recent textbooks.

  2. NCRP report 160 and what it means for medical imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain report 160 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and the significance of the report to medical imaging as a whole and nuclear medicine specifically. The implications of the findings of report 160 have had repercussions and will continue to affect all of ionizing radiation medical imaging. The nuclear medicine community should have an understanding of why and how report 160 is important. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with the main focus of report 160, the significant change that has occurred since the 1980s in the ionizing radiation exposure of people in the United States, the primary background source of ionizing radiation in the United States, the primary medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States, trends in nuclear medicine procedures and patient exposure, and a comparison of population doses between 2006 and the early 1980s as outlined in report 160.

  3. Oral antioxidants for radioprotection during medical imaging examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velauthapillai, Nivethan

    The oncogenic effect of ionizing radiation (IR) is clearly established and occurs in response to DNA damage. Many diagnostic imaging exams make use of IR and the oncogenic risk of IR-based imaging has been calculated. We hypothesized that the DNA damage sustained from IR exposure during medical imaging exams could be reduced by pre-medicating patients with antioxidants. First, we tested and validated a method for measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Afterwards, we conducted a pilot clinical study in which we administered oral antioxidants to patients undergoing bone scans, prior to radiotracer injection. We showed that oral antioxidant pre-medication reduced the number of DSBs in PBMCs induced by radiotracer injection. Our study shows proof-of-principle for this simple and inexpensive approach to radioprotection in the clinical setting.

  4. Flexible medical image management using service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Oded; Melament, Alex; Barak-Corren, Yuval; Kostirev, Igor; Shmueli, Noam; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Management of medical images increasingly involves the need for integration with a variety of information systems. To address this need, we developed Content Management Offering (CMO), a platform for medical image management supporting interoperability through compliance with standards. CMO is based on the principles of service-oriented architecture, implemented with emphasis on three areas: clarity of business process definition, consolidation of service configuration management, and system scalability. Owing to the flexibility of this platform, a small team is able to accommodate requirements of customers varying in scale and in business needs. We describe two deployments of CMO, highlighting the platform's value to customers. CMO represents a flexible approach to medical image management, which can be applied to a variety of information technology challenges in healthcare and life sciences organizations. PMID:22874344

  5. Medical Image distribution and visualization in a hospital using CORBA.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; do Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; de Sa Rebelo, Marina; Furuie, Sergio S; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2008-01-01

    In this work it is presented the solution adopted by the Heart Institute (InCor) of Sao Paulo for medical image distribution and visualization inside the hospital's intranet as part of the PACS system. A CORBA-based image server was developed to distribute DICOM images across the hospital together with the images' report. The solution adopted allows the decoupling of the server implementation and the client. This gives the advantage of reusing the same solution in different implementation sites. Currently, the PACS system is being used on two different hospitals each one with three different environments: development, prototype and production.

  6. Seeing it through: translational validation of new medical imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B.; Marshall, Milton V.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Lanza, Greg; Kotyk, John; Culver, Joseph; Wang, Lihong V.; Uddin, Jashim; Crews, Brenda C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Liao, Joseph C.; Contag, Chris; Crawford, James M.; Wang, Ken; Reisdorph, Bill; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Meyer, Charles; Wang, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging is an invaluable tool for diagnosis, surgical guidance, and assessment of treatment efficacy. The Network for Translational Research (NTR) for Optical Imaging consists of four research groups working to “bridge the gap” between lab discovery and clinical use of fluorescence- and photoacoustic-based imaging devices used with imaging biomarkers. While the groups are using different modalities, all the groups face similar challenges when attempting to validate these systems for FDA approval and, ultimately, clinical use. Validation steps taken, as well as future needs, are described here. The group hopes to provide translational validation guidance for itself, as well as other researchers. PMID:22574264

  7. Contour detect in the medical image by shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Rios, Ramiro; Simonov, Konstantin; Romanenko, Alexey

    2015-07-01

    Contour detect in the urology medical image. The investigation algorithm FFST revealed that the contours of objects can be obtained as the sum of the coefficients shearlet transform a fixed value for the last scale and the of all possible values of the shift parameter. The results of this task using a modified algorithm FFST for data processing urology image is show. In the results of the corresponding calculations for some images and a comparison with filters Sobel and Prewitt. Shows the relevant calculations for some images and a comparison with Sobel and Prewitt filters respectively.

  8. Using photoshop filters to create anatomic line-art medical images.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Geller, Brian S

    2006-08-01

    There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or presentations. This article demonstrates how to use Photoshop to alter digital radiologic images to create line-art illustrations in a quick and easy way. We present two simple to use methods; however, not every image can adequately be transformed and personal preferences and specific changes need to be applied to each image to obtain the desired result. There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or to prepare presentations. Medical illustrators have always played a major role in the radiology and medical education process. Whether used to teach a complex surgical or radiologic procedure, to define typical or atypical patterns of the spread of disease, or to illustrate normal or aberrant anatomy, medical illustration significantly affects learning (). However, if you are not an accomplished illustrator, the alternatives can be expensive (contacting a professional medical illustrator or buying an already existing stock of digital images) or simply not necessarily applicable to what you are trying to communicate. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to alter digital radiologic images we can create line-art illustrations in a quick, inexpensive, and easy way in preparation for electronic presentations and publication.

  9. Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

  10. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research

    PubMed Central

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D.; Kline, Timothy L.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Langer, Steve G.; Ryan, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26284301

  11. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research.

    PubMed

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management. PMID:26284301

  12. Medical Imaging of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is associated with documented risk factors, yet no comprehensive screening program is in place in the United States for early detection of the disease. Oral cancer often is diagnosed in more advanced stages, resulting in a poor prognosis. Dental practitioners and radiographers play an important role in the management of the disease and in helping to improve the quality of life for people who have oral cancer. This article discusses types of oral and oropharyngeal cancer, their diagnosis, treatment options, and the role of dental imaging in patients with these cancers. PMID:26538220

  13. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  14. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ. PMID:26229631

  15. Validation of the use of photogrammetry to register pre-procedure MR images to intra-procedure patient position for image-guided cardiac catheterization procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Tarte, Segolene; King, Andy; Ma, Yingliang; Chinchapatnam, Phani; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza; Hawkes, Dave; Hill, Derek; Rhode, Kawal

    2008-03-01

    A hybrid X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging system (XMR) has been proposed as an interventional guidance for cardiovascular catheterisation procedure. However, very few hospitals can benefit from the XMR system because of its limited availability. In this paper we describe a new guidance strategy for cardiovascular catheterisation procedure. In our technique, intra-operative patient position is estimated by using a chest surface reconstructed from a photogrammetry system. The chest surface is then registered with the same surface derived from pre-procedure magnetic resonance (MR) images. The catheterisation procedure can therefore be guided by a roadmap derived from the MR images. Patients were required to hold the breath at end expiration during MRI acquisition. The surface matching accuracy is improved by using a robust trimmed iterative closest point (ICP) matching algorithm, which is especially designed for incomplete surface matching. Compared to the XMR system, the proposed guidance strategy is low cost and easy to set up. Experimental data were acquired from 6 volunteers and 1 patient. The patient data were collected during an electrophysiology procedure. In 6 out of 7 subjects, the experimental results show our method is accurate in term of reciprocal residual error (range from 1.66m to 3.75mm) and constant (closed-loop TREs range from 1.49mm to 3.55mm). For one subject, trimmed ICP failed to find the optimal transform matrix (residual = 4.89, TRE = 9.32) due to the poor quality of the photogrammetry-reconstructed surface. More studies are being carried on in clinical trials.

  16. Secure public cloud platform for medical images sharing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Prigent, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing promises medical imaging services offering large storage and computing capabilities for limited costs. In this data outsourcing framework, one of the greatest issues to deal with is data security. To do so, we propose to secure a public cloud platform devoted to medical image sharing by defining and deploying a security policy so as to control various security mechanisms. This policy stands on a risk assessment we conducted so as to identify security objectives with a special interest for digital content protection. These objectives are addressed by means of different security mechanisms like access and usage control policy, partial-encryption and watermarking. PMID:25991144

  17. Optimal embedding for shape indexing in medical image databases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D

    2005-01-01

    Fast retrieval using organ shapes is crucial in medical image databases since shape is a clinically prominent feature. In this paper, we propose that 2-D shapes in medical image databases can be indexed by embedding them into a vector space and using efficient vector space indexing. An optimal shape space embedding is proposed for this purpose. Experimental results of indexing vertebral shapes in the NHANES II database are presented. The results show that vector space indexing following embedding gives superior performance than metric indexing.

  18. Medical Imaging of Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Patrick; Mazal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of protozoan, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases endemic in 149 countries causing substantial illness globally. Extreme poverty and warm tropical climates are the 2 most potent forces promoting the spread of neglected tropical diseases. These forces are prevalent in Central and South America, as well as the U.S. Gulf Coast. Advanced cases often require specialized medical imaging for diagnosis, disease staging, and follow-up. This article offers a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis (with special attention to medical imaging), and treatment of neglected tropical diseases specific to the Americas.

  19. Technical challenges for the construction of a medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Francis J.; Ammer, Kurt; Wiecek, Boguslaw; Plassmann, Peter; Jones, Carl D.; Jung, Anna; Murawski, Piotr

    2005-10-01

    Infrared thermal imaging was first made available to medicine in the early 1960's. Despite a large number of research publications on the clinical application of the technique, the images have been largely qualitative. This is in part due to the imaging technology itself, and the problem of data exchange between different medical users, with different hardware. An Anglo Polish collaborative study was set up in 2001 to identify and resolve the sources of error and problems in medical thermal imaging. Standardisation of the patient preparation, imaging hardware, image capture and analysis has been studied and developed by the group. A network of specialist centres in Europe is planned to work to establish the first digital reference atlas of quantifiable images of the normal healthy human body. Further processing techniques can then be used to classify abnormalities found in disease states. The follow up of drug treatment has been successfully monitored in clinical trials with quantitative thermal imaging. The collection of normal reference images is in progress. This paper specifies the areas found to be the source of unwanted variables, and the protocols to overcome them.

  20. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  1. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  2. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas

    1985-09-01

    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  3. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  4. Unsupervised medical image classification by combining case-based classifiers.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Thien Anh; Silander, Tomi; Su, Bolan; Gong, Tianxia; Pang, Boon Chuan; Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Lee, Cheng Kiang; Tan, Chew Lim; Leong, Tze-Yun

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an automated pathology classification system for medical volumetric brain image slices. Existing work often relies on handcrafted features extracted from automatic image segmentation. This is not only a challenging and time-consuming process, but it may also limit the adaptability and robustness of the system. We propose a novel approach to combine sparse Gabor-feature based classifiers in an ensemble classification framework. The unsupervised nature of this non-parametric technique can significantly reduce the time and effort for system calibration. In particular, classification of medical images in this framework does not rely on segmentation, nor semantic-based or annotation-based feature selection. Our experiments show very promising results in classifying computer tomography image slices into pathological classes for traumatic brain injury patients.

  5. Detectors for medical radioisotope imaging: demands and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.

    2004-10-01

    Radioisotope imaging is used to obtain information on biochemical processes in living organisms, being a tool of increasing importance for medical diagnosis. The improvement and expansion of these techniques depend on the progress attained in several areas, such as radionuclide production, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detectors and image reconstruction algorithms. This review paper will be concerned only with the detector technology. We will review in general terms the present status of medical radioisotope imaging instrumentation with the emphasis put on the developments of high-resolution gamma cameras and PET detector systems for scinti-mammography and animal imaging. The present trend to combine two or more modalities in a single machine in order to obtain complementary information will also be considered.

  6. Novel medical imaging technologies for disease diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olego, Diego

    2009-03-01

    New clinical approaches for disease diagnosis, treatment and monitoring will rely on the ability of simultaneously obtaining anatomical, functional and biological information. Medical imaging technologies in combination with targeted contrast agents play a key role in delivering with ever increasing temporal and spatial resolution structural and functional information about conditions and pathologies in cardiology, oncology and neurology fields among others. This presentation will review the clinical motivations and physics challenges in on-going developments of new medical imaging techniques and the associated contrast agents. Examples to be discussed are: *The enrichment of computer tomography with spectral sensitivity for the diagnosis of vulnerable sclerotic plaque. *Time of flight positron emission tomography for improved resolution in metabolic characterization of pathologies. *Magnetic particle imaging -a novel imaging modality based on in-vivo measurement of the local concentration of iron oxide nano-particles - for blood perfusion measurement with better sensitivity, spatial resolution and 3D real time acquisition. *Focused ultrasound for therapy delivery.

  7. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  8. A medical imaging and visualization toolkit in Java.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su; Baimouratov, Rafail; Xiao, Pengdong; Ananthasubramaniam, Anand; Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2006-03-01

    Medical imaging research and clinical applications usually require combination and integration of various techniques ranging from image processing and analysis to realistic visualization to user-friendly interaction. Researchers with different backgrounds coming from diverse areas have been using numerous types of hardware, software, and environments to obtain their results. We also observe that students often build their tools from scratch resulting in redundant work. A generic and flexible medical imaging and visualization toolkit would be helpful in medical research and educational institutes to reduce redundant development work and hence increase research efficiency. This paper presents our experience in developing a Medical Imaging and Visualization Toolkit (BIL-kit) that is a set of comprehensive libraries as well as a number of interactive tools. The BIL-kit covers a wide range of fundamental functions from image conversion and transformation, image segmentation, and analysis to geometric model generation and manipulation, all the way up to 3D visualization and interactive simulation. The toolkit design and implementation emphasize the reusability and flexibility. BIL-kit is implemented in the Java language so that it works in hybrid and dynamic research and educational environments. This also allows the toolkit to extend its usage for the development of Web-based applications. Several BIL-kit-based tools and applications are presented including image converter, image processor, general anatomy model simulator, vascular modeling environment, and volume viewer. BIL-kit is a suitable platform for researchers and students to develop visualization and simulation prototypes, and it can also be used for the development of clinical applications.

  9. Safe storage and multi-modal search for medical images.

    PubMed

    Kommeri, Jukka; Niinimäki, Marko; Müller, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Modern hospitals produce enormous amounts of data in all departments, from images, to lab results, medication use, and release letters. Since several years these data are most often produced in digital form, making them accessible for researchers to optimize the outcome of care process and analyze all available data across patients. The Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) are no exception with its daily radiology department's output of over 140'000 images in 2010, with a majority of them being tomographic slices. In this paper we introduce tools for uploading and accessing DICOM images and associated metadata in a secure Grid storage. These data are made available for authorized persons using a Grid security framework, as security is a main problem in secondary use of image data, where images are to be stored outside of the clinical image archive. Our tool combines the security and metadata access of a Grid middleware with the visual search that uses GIFT. PMID:21893790

  10. Watermarking of ultrasound medical images in teleradiology using compressed watermark.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohamad; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    The open accessibility of Internet-based medical images in teleradialogy face security threats due to the nonsecured communication media. This paper discusses the spatial domain watermarking of ultrasound medical images for content authentication, tamper detection, and lossless recovery. For this purpose, the image is divided into two main parts, the region of interest (ROI) and region of noninterest (RONI). The defined ROI and its hash value are combined as watermark, lossless compressed, and embedded into the RONI part of images at pixel's least significant bits (LSBs). The watermark lossless compression and embedding at pixel's LSBs preserve image diagnostic and perceptual qualities. Different lossless compression techniques including Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) were tested for watermark compression. The performances of these techniques were compared based on more bit reduction and compression ratio. LZW was found better than others and used in tamper detection and recovery watermarking of medical images (TDARWMI) scheme development to be used for ROI authentication, tamper detection, localization, and lossless recovery. TDARWMI performance was compared and found to be better than other watermarking schemes.

  11. Digital Topology and Geometry in Medical Imaging: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Saha, Punam K; Strand, Robin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2015-09-01

    Digital topology and geometry refers to the use of topologic and geometric properties and features for images defined in digital grids. Such methods have been widely used in many medical imaging applications, including image segmentation, visualization, manipulation, interpolation, registration, surface-tracking, object representation, correction, quantitative morphometry etc. Digital topology and geometry play important roles in medical imaging research by enriching the scope of target outcomes and by adding strong theoretical foundations with enhanced stability, fidelity, and efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive yet compact survey on results, principles, and insights of methods related to digital topology and geometry with strong emphasis on understanding their roles in various medical imaging applications. Specifically, this paper reviews methods related to distance analysis and path propagation, connectivity, surface-tracking, image segmentation, boundary and centerline detection, topology preservation and local topological properties, skeletonization, and object representation, correction, and quantitative morphometry. A common thread among the topics reviewed in this paper is that their theory and algorithms use the principle of digital path connectivity, path propagation, and neighborhood analysis.

  12. Watermarking of ultrasound medical images in teleradiology using compressed watermark.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohamad; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    The open accessibility of Internet-based medical images in teleradialogy face security threats due to the nonsecured communication media. This paper discusses the spatial domain watermarking of ultrasound medical images for content authentication, tamper detection, and lossless recovery. For this purpose, the image is divided into two main parts, the region of interest (ROI) and region of noninterest (RONI). The defined ROI and its hash value are combined as watermark, lossless compressed, and embedded into the RONI part of images at pixel's least significant bits (LSBs). The watermark lossless compression and embedding at pixel's LSBs preserve image diagnostic and perceptual qualities. Different lossless compression techniques including Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) were tested for watermark compression. The performances of these techniques were compared based on more bit reduction and compression ratio. LZW was found better than others and used in tamper detection and recovery watermarking of medical images (TDARWMI) scheme development to be used for ROI authentication, tamper detection, localization, and lossless recovery. TDARWMI performance was compared and found to be better than other watermarking schemes. PMID:26839914

  13. Shape similarity analysis of regions of interest in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Charisi, Amalia; Latecki, Longin Jan; Gee, James; Megalooikonomou, Vasilis

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a new representation technique of 2D contour shapes and a sequence similarity measure to characterize 2D regions of interest in medical images. First, we define a distance function on contour points in order to map the shape of a given contour to a sequence of real numbers. Thus, the computation of shape similarity is reduced to the matching of the obtained sequences. Since both a query and a target sequence may be noisy, i.e., contain some outlier elements, it is desirable to exclude the outliers in order to obtain a robust matching performance. For the computation of shape similarity, we propose the use of an algorithm which performs elastic matching of two sequences. The contribution of our approach is that, unlike previous works that require images to be warped according to a template image for measuring their similarity, it obviates this need, therefore it can estimate image similarity for any type of medical image in a fast and efficient manner. To demonstrate our method's applicability, we analyzed a brain image dataset consisting of corpus callosum shapes, and we investigated the structural differences between children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and controls. Our findings indicate that our method is quite effective and it can be easily applied on medical diagnosis in all cases of which shape difference is an important clue.

  14. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  15. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  16. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL... the identity of the physician, and agreement by the physician: (1) To review the documents with...

  17. Integrating medical imaging analyses through a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E. Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists.

  18. Medical Imaging for Understanding Sleep Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is essential for the health of the nervous system. Lack of sleep has a profound negative effect on cognitive ability and task performance. During sustained military operations, soldiers often suffer from decreased quality and quantity of sleep, increasing their susceptibility to neurological problems and limiting their ability to perform the challenging mental tasks that their missions require. In the civilian sector, inadequate sleep and overt sleep pathology are becoming more common, with many detrimental impacts. There is a strong need for new, in vivo studies of human brains during sleep, particularly the initial descent from wakefulness. Our research team is investigating sleep using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG). High resolution MRI combined with PET enables localization of biochemical processes (e.g., metabolism) to anatomical structures. MRI methods can also be used to examine functional connectivity among brain regions. Neural networks are dynamically reordered during different sleep stages, reflecting the disconnect with the waking world and the essential yet unconscious brain activity that occurs during sleep.[4pt] In collaboration with Linda Larson-Prior, Washington University; Alpay Ozcan, Virginia Tech; Seong Mun, Virginia Tech; and Zang-Hee Cho, Gachon University.

  19. Are Risks From Medical Imaging Still too Small to Be Observed or Nonexistent?

    PubMed

    Ulsh, Brant A

    2015-01-01

    Several radiation-related professional societies have concluded that carcinogenic risks associated with doses below 50-100 mSv are either too small to be detected, or are nonexistent. This is especially important in the context of doses from medical imaging. Radiation exposure to the public from medical imaging procedures is rising around the world, primarily due to increased utilization of computed tomography. Professional societies and advisory bodies consistently recommend against multiplying small doses by large populations to predict excess radiation-induced cancers, in large part because of the potential for sensational claims of health impacts which do not adequately take the associated uncertainties into account. Nonetheless, numerous articles have predicted thousands of future cancers as a result of CT scanning, and this has generated considerable concern among patients and parents. In addition, some authors claim that we now have direct epidemiological evidence of carcinogenic risks from medical imaging. This paper critically examines such claims, and concludes that the evidence cited does not provide direct evidence of low-dose carcinogenicity. These claims themselves have adverse public health impacts by frightening the public away from medically justified exams. It is time for the medical and scientific communities to be more assertive in responding to sensational claims of health risks.

  20. Are Risks From Medical Imaging Still too Small to Be Observed or Nonexistent?

    PubMed

    Ulsh, Brant A

    2015-01-01

    Several radiation-related professional societies have concluded that carcinogenic risks associated with doses below 50-100 mSv are either too small to be detected, or are nonexistent. This is especially important in the context of doses from medical imaging. Radiation exposure to the public from medical imaging procedures is rising around the world, primarily due to increased utilization of computed tomography. Professional societies and advisory bodies consistently recommend against multiplying small doses by large populations to predict excess radiation-induced cancers, in large part because of the potential for sensational claims of health impacts which do not adequately take the associated uncertainties into account. Nonetheless, numerous articles have predicted thousands of future cancers as a result of CT scanning, and this has generated considerable concern among patients and parents. In addition, some authors claim that we now have direct epidemiological evidence of carcinogenic risks from medical imaging. This paper critically examines such claims, and concludes that the evidence cited does not provide direct evidence of low-dose carcinogenicity. These claims themselves have adverse public health impacts by frightening the public away from medically justified exams. It is time for the medical and scientific communities to be more assertive in responding to sensational claims of health risks. PMID:26673121

  1. ['Do not worry, it hurts!'--psychological preparation for medical procedures in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Schepper, F; Schachtschabel, S; Christiansen, H

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades the chances of surviving childhood cancer have increased. Nowadays psychological and psychosocial long term side effects become more spotlighted. Especially the posttraumatic stress disorder is focused at the moment as a possible side effect of childhood cancer. Cancer as a life-threatening illness is unpredictable and associated with repeating loads, such as medical procedures or treatment. Most of the patients report anxiety, especially young children have an increased risk of making a traumatic experience while undergoing medical treatment. A psychological support before, meanwhile and after can ensure compliance as well as reducing emotional and behavioral disorders. Even preventive impact is conceivable. Therefore psychological support has become a standard in pediatric cancer treatment. The current case report of the 10 year old Tom is a practical example how to support has undergoing medical procedures. The interventions described have the aim of stabilizing the patient and reducing his anxiety and discomfort. They also show an effect on self-efficacy.

  2. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  3. The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application.

    PubMed

    Carey, M; Schofield, P; Jefford, M; Krishnasamy, M; Aranda, S

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

  4. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  5. Multi-provider architecture for cloud outsourcing of medical imaging repositories.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, the extended usage of medical imaging procedures has raised the medical community attention towards the optimization of their workflows. More recently, the federation of multiple institutions into a seamless distribution network has brought hope of increased quality healthcare services along with more efficient resource management. As a result, medical institutions are constantly looking for the best infrastructure to deploy their imaging archives. In this scenario, public cloud infrastructures arise as major candidates, as they offer elastic storage space, optimal data availability without great requirements of maintenance costs or IT personnel, in a pay-as-you-go model. However, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. This document proposes a multi-provider architecture for integration of outsourced archives with in-house PACS resources, taking advantage of foreign providers to store medical imaging studies, without disregarding security. It enables the retrieval of images from multiple archives simultaneously, improving performance, data availability and avoiding the vendor-locking problem. Moreover it enables load balancing and cache techniques.

  6. Pake Prize Talk: The Future of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelheit, Lonnie

    2001-03-01

    Discussed will be a brief history and status of the major medical imaging modalities, including X-ray Radiography and Fluoroscopy, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine (including Positron Emission Tomography). Also covered will be potential new modalities such as Optical, Magnetic and Electric Field Imaging. In addition, the presentation will include a projection of future advances of each modality along with a discussion of some of the major challenges and more speculative projections of a few game-changing possibilities.

  7. Medical Image Compression Using a New Subband Coding Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Smith, Mark J. T.; Scales, Allen; Tucker, Doug

    1995-01-01

    A recently introduced iterative complexity- and entropy-constrained subband quantization design algorithm is generalized and applied to medical image compression. In particular, the corresponding subband coder is used to encode Computed Tomography (CT) axial slice head images, where statistical dependencies between neighboring image subbands are exploited. Inter-slice conditioning is also employed for further improvements in compression performance. The subband coder features many advantages such as relatively low complexity and operation over a very wide range of bit rates. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the new subband coder is relatively good, both objectively and subjectively.

  8. Ultrasound introscopic image quantitative characteristics for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselets, Mikhail K.; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Gridko, Alexander N.; Tcheban, Anatoliy K.

    1993-09-01

    The results on computer aided extraction of quantitative characteristics (QC) of ultrasound introscopic images for medical diagnosis are presented. Thyroid gland (TG) images of Chernobil Accident sufferers are considered. It is shown that TG diseases can be associated with some values of selected QCs of random echo distribution in the image. The possibility of these QCs usage for TG diseases recognition in accordance with calculated values is analyzed. The role of speckle noise elimination in the solution of the problem on TG diagnosis is considered too.

  9. A machine learning approach to quantifying noise in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Sevinsky, Christopher J.; Yener, Bülent; Aggour, Kareem S.; Gustafson, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    As advances in medical imaging technology are resulting in significant growth of biomedical image data, new techniques are needed to automate the process of identifying images of low quality. Automation is needed because it is very time consuming for a domain expert such as a medical practitioner or a biologist to manually separate good images from bad ones. While there are plenty of de-noising algorithms in the literature, their focus is on designing filters which are necessary but not sufficient for determining how useful an image is to a domain expert. Thus a computational tool is needed to assign a score to each image based on its perceived quality. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based score and call it the Quality of Image (QoI) score. The QoI score is computed by combining the confidence values of two popular classification techniques—support vector machines (SVMs) and Naïve Bayes classifiers. We test our technique on clinical image data obtained from cancerous tissue samples. We used 747 tissue samples that are stained by four different markers (abbreviated as CK15, pck26, E_cad and Vimentin) leading to a total of 2,988 images. The results show that images can be classified as good (high QoI), bad (low QoI) or ugly (intermediate QoI) based on their QoI scores. Our automated labeling is in agreement with the domain experts with a bi-modal classification accuracy of 94%, on average. Furthermore, ugly images can be recovered and forwarded for further post-processing.

  10. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for neurosurgical procedures: anesthetic implications.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Bernadette; Walsh, Robert P

    2011-02-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) for tumor resection allows a neurosurgeon to pinpoint the exact location of the tumor before resection and to navigate to the tumor after the incision is made. Although the anesthetic management is not substantially different from that for other neurosurgical procedures, strategies to keep the patient and operating room personnel safe can be challenging. Because of the risk of injury by the strong force of the magnet, safety precautions with respect to anesthetic delivery must be taken. Ferrous objects must be removed and kept outside the operating room. Only MRI-compatible equipment is allowed in the MRI operating room. This includes the anesthesia machine, anesthesia cart, intubating equipment, monitors, stethoscopes, poles for intravenous solutions, and body warmers. Surgical equipment and instruments must be MRI-compatible. Absolute contraindications to entering the MRI suite include pacemakers, cochlear implants, certain cranial aneurysm clips, and metal joints or implants. Goals of anesthesia delivery during IMRI procedures include the following: (1) promoting the safety of patients and staff, (2) preventing MRI-associated accidents, (3) identifying potential equipment-related hazards, (4) recognizing limitations of physiologic monitoring, and (5) acknowledging other potential hazards such as noise. PMID:21473229

  11. Open source tools for standardized privacy protection of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chung-Yueh; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Kao, Tsair; Hein, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In addition to the primary care context, medical images are often useful for research projects and community healthcare networks, so-called "secondary use". Patient privacy becomes an issue in such scenarios since the disclosure of personal health information (PHI) has to be prevented in a sharing environment. In general, most PHIs should be completely removed from the images according to the respective privacy regulations, but some basic and alleviated data is usually required for accurate image interpretation. Our objective is to utilize and enhance these specifications in order to provide reliable software implementations for de- and re-identification of medical images suitable for online and offline delivery. DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images are de-identified by replacing PHI-specific information with values still being reasonable for imaging diagnosis and patient indexing. In this paper, this approach is evaluated based on a prototype implementation built on top of the open source framework DCMTK (DICOM Toolkit) utilizing standardized de- and re-identification mechanisms. A set of tools has been developed for DICOM de-identification that meets privacy requirements of an offline and online sharing environment and fully relies on standard-based methods.

  12. Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Liu, Shuaiqi; Zhuang, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally, the pixel with larger modified local contrast is selected into the fused image. The presented scheme outperforms the guided filter method in spatial domain, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based method, nonsubsampled contourlet transform-based method, and four classic fusion methods in terms of visual quality. Furthermore, the mutual information values by the presented method are averagely 55%, 41%, and 62% higher than the three methods and those values of edge based similarity measure by the presented method are averagely 13%, 33%, and 14% higher than the three methods for the six pairs of source images. PMID:26664494

  13. [New medical imaging based on electron tracking Compton camera (ETCC)].

    PubMed

    Tanimori, Toru; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for medical imaging due to its wide energy dynamic range (200-1,500keV) and wide field of view (FOV, 3 str). This camera has a potential of developing the new reagents. We have carried out several imaging reagent studies as examples; (1) 18F-FDG and 131I-MIBG simultaneous imaging for double clinical tracer imaging, (2) imaging of some minerals (Mn-54, Zn-65, Fe-59) in mouse and plants. In addition, ETCC has a potential of real-time monitoring of the Bragg peak location by imaging prompt gamma rays for the beam therapy. We carried out the water phantom experiment using 140MeV proton beam, and obtained the images of both 511 keV and high energy gamma rays (800-2,000keV). Here better correlation of the latter image to the Bragg peak has been observed. Another potential of ETCC is to reconstruct the 3D image using only one-head camera without rotations of both the target and camera. Good 3D images of the thyroid grant phantom and the mouse with tumor were observed. In order to advance those features to the practical use, we are improving the all components and then construct the multi-head ETCC system.

  14. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  15. A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Teleradiology allows medical images to be transmitted over electronic networks for clinical interpretation and for improved healthcare access, delivery, and standards. Although such remote transmission of the images is raising various new and complex legal and ethical issues, including image retention and fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc., considerations of the security measures used in teleradiology remain unchanged. Addressing this problem naturally warrants investigations on the security measures for their relative functional limitations and for the scope of considering them further. In this paper, starting with various security and privacy standards, the security requirements of medical images as well as expected threats in teleradiology are reviewed. This will make it possible to determine the limitations of the conventional measures used against the expected threats. Furthermore, we thoroughly study the utilization of digital watermarking for teleradiology. Following the key attributes and roles of various watermarking parameters, justification for watermarking over conventional security measures is made in terms of their various objectives, properties, and requirements. We also outline the main objectives of medical image watermarking for teleradiology and provide recommendations on suitable watermarking techniques and their characterization. Finally, concluding remarks and directions for future research are presented.

  16. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-23

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the 'Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1 - monochromatic and white - to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  17. Differentiation applied to lossless compression of medical images.

    PubMed

    Nijim, Y W; Stearns, S D; Mikhael, W B

    1996-01-01

    Lossless compression of medical images using a proposed differentiation technique is explored. This scheme is based on computing weighted differences between neighboring pixel values. The performance of the proposed approach, for the lossless compression of magnetic resonance (MR) images and ultrasonic images, is evaluated and compared with the lossless linear predictor and the lossless Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard. The residue sequence of these techniques is coded using arithmetic coding. The proposed scheme yields compression measures, in terms of bits per pixel, that are comparable with or lower than those obtained using the linear predictor and the lossless JPEG standard, respectively, with 8-b medical images. The advantages of the differentiation technique presented here over the linear predictor are: 1) the coefficients of the differentiator are known by the encoder and the decoder, which eliminates the need to compute or encode these coefficients, and 21 the computational complexity is greatly reduced. These advantages are particularly attractive in real time processing for compressing and decompressing medical images. PMID:18215936

  18. Gadgetron: an open source framework for medical image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2013-06-01

    This work presents a new open source framework for medical image reconstruction called the "Gadgetron." The framework implements a flexible system for creating streaming data processing pipelines where data pass through a series of modules or "Gadgets" from raw data to reconstructed images. The data processing pipeline is configured dynamically at run-time based on an extensible markup language configuration description. The framework promotes reuse and sharing of reconstruction modules and new Gadgets can be added to the Gadgetron framework through a plugin-like architecture without recompiling the basic framework infrastructure. Gadgets are typically implemented in C/C++, but the framework includes wrapper Gadgets that allow the user to implement new modules in the Python scripting language for rapid prototyping. In addition to the streaming framework infrastructure, the Gadgetron comes with a set of dedicated toolboxes in shared libraries for medical image reconstruction. This includes generic toolboxes for data-parallel (e.g., GPU-based) execution of compute-intensive components. The basic framework architecture is independent of medical imaging modality, but this article focuses on its application to Cartesian and non-Cartesian parallel magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Profile Detection in Medical and Astronomical Images by Means of the Hough Transform of Special Classes of Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massone, A. M.; Perasso, A.; Campi, C.; Beltrametti, M. C.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a formal procedure for the automated recognition of rational and elliptic curves in medical and astronomical images. The procedure is based on the extension of the Hough transform concept to the definition of Hough transform of special classes of algebraic curves. We first introduce a catalogue of curves that satisfy the conditions to be automatically extracted from an image and the recognition algorithm, then we illustrate the power of this method to identify skeleton profiles in clinical X-ray tomography maps and front ends of solar eruptions in astronomical images provided by the NASA solar dynamics observatory satellite.

  20. A Routing Mechanism for Cloud Outsourcing of Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Web-based technologies have been increasingly used in picture archive and communication systems (PACS), in services related to storage, distribution, and visualization of medical images. Nowadays, many healthcare institutions are outsourcing their repositories to the cloud. However, managing communications between multiple geo-distributed locations is still challenging due to the complexity of dealing with huge volumes of data and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. In order to improve the performance of distributed medical imaging networks, a smart routing mechanism was developed. This includes an innovative cache system based on splitting and dynamic management of digital imaging and communications in medicine objects. The proposed solution was successfully deployed in a regional PACS archive. The results obtained proved that it is better than conventional approaches, as it reduces remote access latency and also the required cache storage space.

  1. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  2. Research on medical image encryption in telemedicine systems.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yin; Wang, Huanzhen; Zhou, Zixia; Jin, Ziyi

    2016-04-29

    Recently, advances in computers and high-speed communication tools have led to enhancements in remote medical consultation research. Laws in some localities require hospitals to encrypt patient information (including images of the patient) before transferring the data over a network. Therefore, developing suitable encryption algorithms is quite important for modern medicine. This paper demonstrates a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping, which uses the no-period and no-convergence properties of a chaotic sequence to create image chaos and pixel averaging. Then, the chaotic sequence is used to encrypt the image, thereby improving data security. With this method, the security of data and images can be improved. PMID:27163302

  3. A semi-automated image analysis procedure for in situ plankton imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongsheng; Guo, Zhenhua; Benfield, Mark C; Fan, Chunlei; Ford, Michael; Shahrestani, Suzan; Sieracki, Jeffery M

    2015-01-01

    Plankton imaging systems are capable of providing fine-scale observations that enhance our understanding of key physical and biological processes. However, processing the large volumes of data collected by imaging systems remains a major obstacle for their employment, and existing approaches are designed either for images acquired under laboratory controlled conditions or within clear waters. In the present study, we developed a semi-automated approach to analyze plankton taxa from images acquired by the ZOOplankton VISualization (ZOOVIS) system within turbid estuarine waters, in Chesapeake Bay. When compared to images under laboratory controlled conditions or clear waters, images from highly turbid waters are often of relatively low quality and more variable, due to the large amount of objects and nonlinear illumination within each image. We first customized a segmentation procedure to locate objects within each image and extracted them for classification. A maximally stable extremal regions algorithm was applied to segment large gelatinous zooplankton and an adaptive threshold approach was developed to segment small organisms, such as copepods. Unlike the existing approaches for images acquired from laboratory, controlled conditions or clear waters, the target objects are often the majority class, and the classification can be treated as a multi-class classification problem. We customized a two-level hierarchical classification procedure using support vector machines to classify the target objects (< 5%), and remove the non-target objects (> 95%). First, histograms of oriented gradients feature descriptors were constructed for the segmented objects. In the first step all non-target and target objects were classified into different groups: arrow-like, copepod-like, and gelatinous zooplankton. Each object was passed to a group-specific classifier to remove most non-target objects. After the object was classified, an expert or non-expert then manually removed the

  4. Automatic segmentation of rotational x-ray images for anatomic intra-procedural surface generation in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures.

    PubMed

    Manzke, Robert; Meyer, Carsten; Ecabert, Olivier; Peters, Jochen; Noordhoek, Niels J; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Reddy, Vivek Y; Chan, Raymond C; Weese, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Since the introduction of 3-D rotational X-ray imaging, protocols for 3-D rotational coronary artery imaging have become widely available in routine clinical practice. Intra-procedural cardiac imaging in a computed tomography (CT)-like fashion has been particularly compelling due to the reduction of clinical overhead and ability to characterize anatomy at the time of intervention. We previously introduced a clinically feasible approach for imaging the left atrium and pulmonary veins (LAPVs) with short contrast bolus injections and scan times of approximately 4 -10 s. The resulting data have sufficient image quality for intra-procedural use during electro-anatomic mapping (EAM) and interventional guidance in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation procedures. In this paper, we present a novel technique to intra-procedural surface generation which integrates fully-automated segmentation of the LAPVs for guidance in AF ablation interventions. Contrast-enhanced rotational X-ray angiography (3-D RA) acquisitions in combination with filtered-back-projection-based reconstruction allows for volumetric interrogation of LAPV anatomy in near-real-time. An automatic model-based segmentation algorithm allows for fast and accurate LAPV mesh generation despite the challenges posed by image quality; relative to pre-procedural cardiac CT/MR, 3-D RA images suffer from more artifacts and reduced signal-to-noise. We validate our integrated method by comparing 1) automatic and manual segmentations of intra-procedural 3-D RA data, 2) automatic segmentations of intra-procedural 3-D RA and pre-procedural CT/MR data, and 3) intra-procedural EAM point cloud data with automatic segmentations of 3-D RA and CT/MR data. Our validation results for automatically segmented intra-procedural 3-D RA data show average segmentation errors of 1) approximately 1.3 mm compared with manual 3-D RA segmentations 2) approximately 2.3 mm compared with automatic segmentation of pre-procedural CT/MR data and 3

  5. Validation of a fiber-based confocal microscope for interventional image-guided procedures: correlation with multispectral optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzka, Daniel; Quijano, Jade; Xie, Jianwu; Krueger, Sascha; Weiss, Steffen; Abrat, Benjamin; Osdoit, Anne; Cavé, Charlotte; Burnett, Christopher; Danthi, S. Narasimhan; Li, King

    2006-03-01

    The concept of the biopsy is ubiquitous in current medical diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. The standard biopsy consists of removing a sample of tissue for evaluation and diagnosis, primarily to ascertain the presence of cancer cells by (histo)pathological analyses. However, the advent of new optical imaging modalities and targeted or "smart" agents, that have affinity for a select target, suggests the possibility of performing in vivo tissue characterization without the need for sample removal or the wait for histopathologic processing. Here we present work testing and validating a fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging system intended for combination with a larger scale imaging modality (i.e. MRI or CT) to be used in image-guided in vivo tissue characterization. Fiber-based confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging experiments were performed (Cellvizio, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) in vivo in two mouse models including: 1) EGFP-expressing mouse melanoma model and 2) M21 mouse melanoma model. Both models are known to express integrin α νβ 3, a cell-surface receptor protein. We also performed an experiment in ex vivo chicken muscle tissue labelled with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin targeted compound. In the mouse models, contrast agents that targeted the integrin were injected and the contrast agent localization in tumor was verified by a whole-body multispectral imager. The fiber-based tool was sensitive enough to detect and image the tissue of interest in all different experiments, and was found appropriate for use in interventional catheter-based procedures.

  6. Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

    1999-09-01

    An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

  7. Total variation minimization-based multimodality medical image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuelin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Mili, Lamine

    2014-09-01

    Since its recent inception, simultaneous image reconstruction for multimodality fusion has received a great deal of attention due to its superior imaging performance. On the other hand, the compressed sensing (CS)-based image reconstruction methods have undergone a rapid development because of their ability to significantly reduce the amount of raw data. In this work, we combine computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single CS-based reconstruction framework. From a theoretical viewpoint, the CS-based reconstruction methods require prior sparsity knowledge to perform reconstruction. In addition to the conventional data fidelity term, the multimodality imaging information is utilized to improve the reconstruction quality. Prior information in this context is that most of the medical images can be approximated as piecewise constant model, and the discrete gradient transform (DGT), whose norm is the total variation (TV), can serve as a sparse representation. More importantly, the multimodality images from the same object must share structural similarity, which can be captured by DGT. The prior information on similar distributions from the sparse DGTs is employed to improve the CT and MRI image quality synergistically for a CT-MRI scanner platform. Numerical simulation with undersampled CT and MRI datasets is conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed hybrid image reconstruction approach. Our preliminary results confirm that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CT and MRI reconstructions when they are applied separately.

  8. Improving medical imaging report turnaround times: the role of technolgy.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Luis O; Stewart, Howard

    2005-01-01

    At Southern Ohio Medical Center (SOMC), the medical imaging department and the radiologists expressed a strong desire to improve workflow. The improved workflow was a major motivating factor toward implementing a new RIS and speech recognition technology. The need to monitor workflow in a real-time fashion and to evaluate productivity and resources necessitated that a new solution be found. A decision was made to roll out both the new RIS product and speech recognition to maximize the resources to interface and implement the new solution. Prior to implementation of the new RIS, the medical imaging department operated in a conventional electronic-order-entry to paper request manner. The paper request followed the study through exam completion to the radiologist. SOMC entered into a contract with its PACS vendor to participate in beta testing and clinical trials for a new RIS product for the US market. Backup plans were created in the event the product failed to function as planned--either during the beta testing period or during clinical trails. The last piece of the technology puzzle to improve report turnaround time was voice recognition technology. Speech recognition enhanced the RIS technology as soon as it was implemented. The results show that the project has been a success. The new RIS, combined with speech recognition and the PACS, makes for a very effective solution to patient, exam, and results management in the medical imaging department.

  9. Predicting Semantic Descriptions from Medical Images with Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Schlegl, Thomas; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Learning representative computational models from medical imaging data requires large training data sets. Often, voxel-level annotation is unfeasible for sufficient amounts of data. An alternative to manual annotation, is to use the enormous amount of knowledge encoded in imaging data and corresponding reports generated during clinical routine. Weakly supervised learning approaches can link volume-level labels to image content but suffer from the typical label distributions in medical imaging data where only a small part consists of clinically relevant abnormal structures. In this paper we propose to use a semantic representation of clinical reports as a learning target that is predicted from imaging data by a convolutional neural network. We demonstrate how we can learn accurate voxel-level classifiers based on weak volume-level semantic descriptions on a set of 157 optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes. We specifically show how semantic information increases classification accuracy for intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC), subretinal fluid (SRF) and normal retinal tissue, and how the learning algorithm links semantic concepts to image content and geometry.

  10. Digital Pathology: Data-Intensive Frontier in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lee A. D.; Carter, Alexis B.; Farris, Alton B.; Wang, Fusheng; Kong, Jun; Gutman, David A.; Widener, Patrick; Pan, Tony C.; Cholleti, Sharath R.; Sharma, Ashish; Kurc, Tahsin M.; Brat, Daniel J.; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Pathology is a medical subspecialty that practices the diagnosis of disease. Microscopic examination of tissue reveals information enabling the pathologist to render accurate diagnoses and to guide therapy. The basic process by which anatomic pathologists render diagnoses has remained relatively unchanged over the last century, yet advances in information technology now offer significant opportunities in image-based diagnostic and research applications. Pathology has lagged behind other healthcare practices such as radiology where digital adoption is widespread. As devices that generate whole slide images become more practical and affordable, practices will increasingly adopt this technology and eventually produce an explosion of data that will quickly eclipse the already vast quantities of radiology imaging data. These advances are accompanied by significant challenges for data management and storage, but they also introduce new opportunities to improve patient care by streamlining and standardizing diagnostic approaches and uncovering disease mechanisms. Computer-based image analysis is already available in commercial diagnostic systems, but further advances in image analysis algorithms are warranted in order to fully realize the benefits of digital pathology in medical discovery and patient care. In coming decades, pathology image analysis will extend beyond the streamlining of diagnostic workflows and minimizing interobserver variability and will begin to provide diagnostic assistance, identify therapeutic targets, and predict patient outcomes and therapeutic responses. PMID:25328166

  11. Time to follow guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures in medical care and time to leap out.

    PubMed

    Kobo-Greenhut, Ayala; Notea, Amos; Ruach, Meir; Onn, Erez; Hasin, Yehunatan

    2014-01-01

    Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which "leaping" from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define "frozen patient management", when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes. Our analysis of frozen patient management is based on consideration of medical care as a process. By considering medical care processes as a closed-loop control process, it is possible to explain why, when an indication for deviation from the expected occurs, it does not necessarily attract the medical teams' attention, thereby preventing the realization that leaping to an alternative patient management is needed. We suggest that working according to GPPs intensifies the frozen patient management problem since working according to GPPs relates to "exploitation learning behavior", while leaping to new patient management relates to "exploration learning behavior". We indicate practice routines to be incorporated into GPP-guided medical care, to reduce frozen patient management.

  12. A cryptologic based trust center for medical images.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate practical solutions that can integrate cryptographic techniques and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) to improve the security of medical images. DESIGN: The PACS at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center consolidate images and associated data from various scanners into a centralized data archive and transmit them to remote display stations for review and consultation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the model of a digital trust center that integrates cryptographic algorithms and protocols seamlessly into such a digital radiology environment to improve the security of medical images. MEASUREMENTS: The timing performance of encryption, decryption, and transmission of the cryptographic protocols over 81 volumetric PACS datasets has been measured. Lossless data compression is also applied before the encryption. The transmission performance is measured against three types of networks of different bandwidths: narrow-band Integrated Services Digital Network, Ethernet, and OC-3c Asynchronous Transfer Mode. RESULTS: The proposed digital trust center provides a cryptosystem solution to protect the confidentiality and to determine the authenticity of digital images in hospitals. The results of this study indicate that diagnostic images such as x-rays and magnetic resonance images could be routinely encrypted in PACS. However, applying encryption in teleradiology and PACS is a tradeoff between communications performance and security measures. CONCLUSION: Many people are uncertain about how to integrate cryptographic algorithms coherently into existing operations of the clinical enterprise. This paper describes a centralized cryptosystem architecture to ensure image data authenticity in a digital radiology department. The system performance has been evaluated in a hospital-integrated PACS environment. PMID:8930857

  13. Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this…

  14. From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome. PMID:24663131

  15. Multimodality medical image fusion: probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue J.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Xuan, Jian Hua; Zheng, Qinfen; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Multimodality medical image fusion is becoming increasingly important in clinical applications, which involves information processing, registration and visualization of interventional and/or diagnostic images obtained from different modalities. This work is to develop a multimodality medical image fusion technique through probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration, based on statistical data mapping, multiple feature correlation, and probabilistic mean ergodic theorems. The goal of image fusion is to geometrically align two or more image areas/volumes so that pixels/voxels representing the same underlying anatomical structure can be superimposed meaningfully. Three steps are involved. To accurately extract the regions of interest, we developed the model supported Bayesian relaxation labeling, and edge detection and region growing integrated algorithms to segment the images into objects. After identifying the shift-invariant features (i.e., edge and region information), we provided an accurate and robust registration technique which is based on matching multiple binary feature images through a site model based image re-projection. The image was initially segmented into specified number of regions. A rough contour can be obtained by delineating and merging some of the segmented regions. We applied region growing and morphological filtering to extract the contour and get rid of some disconnected residual pixels after segmentation. The matching algorithm is implemented as follows: (1) the centroids of PET/CT and MR images are computed and then translated to the center of both images. (2) preliminary registration is performed first to determine an initial range of scaling factors and rotations, and the MR image is then resampled according to the specified parameters. (3) the total binary difference of the corresponding binary maps in both images is calculated for the selected registration parameters, and the final registration is achieved when the

  16. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  17. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  18. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation.

  19. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    ScienceCinema

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2016-07-12

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  20. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2010-08-28

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  1. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  2. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L.E.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  3. The IRMA code for unique classification of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Thomas M.; Schubert, Henning; Keysers, Daniel; Kohnen, Michael; Wein, Berthold B.

    2003-05-01

    Modern communication standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) include non-image data for a standardized description of study, patient, or technical parameters. However, these tags are rather roughly structured, ambiguous, and often optional. In this paper, we present a mono-hierarchical multi-axial classification code for medical images and emphasize its advantages for content-based image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA). Our so called IRMA coding system consists of four axes with three to four positions, each in {0,...9,a,...,z}, where "0" denotes "unspecified" to determine the end of a path along an axis. In particular, the technical code (T) describes the imaging modality; the directional code (D) models body orientations; the anatomical code (A) refers to the body region examined; and the biological code (B) describes the biological system examined. Hence, the entire code results in a character string of not more than 13 characters (IRMA: TTTT - DDD - AAA - BBB). The code can be easily extended by introducing characters in certain code positions, e.g., if new modalities are introduced. In contrast to other approaches, mixtures of one- and two-literal code positions are avoided which simplifies automatic code processing. Furthermore, the IRMA code obviates ambiguities resulting from overlapping code elements within the same level. Although this code was originally designed to be used in the IRMA project, other use of it is welcome.

  4. Expectation-Driven Text Extraction from Medical Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Reul, Christian; Köberle, Philipp; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Puppe, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this study an expectation-driven approach is proposed to extract data stored as pixel structures in medical ultrasound images. Prior knowledge about certain properties like the position of the text and its background and foreground grayscale values is utilized. Several open source Java libraries are used to pre-process the image and extract the textual information. The results are presented in an Excel table together with the outcome of several consistency checks. After manually correcting potential errors, the outcome is automatically stored in the main database. The proposed system yielded excellent results, reaching an accuracy of 99.94% and reducing the necessary human effort to a minimum. PMID:27577478

  5. Holography and the virtual patient: the holographic medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kathryn; Erickson, Ronald R.; Webster, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Practical holographic systems utilizing the pulsed laser are finding potential applications in medicine. Exploiting both the hologram's true 3D image and holographic interferometry these techniques enhance the physician's vision beyond the 2D radiological imaging of even the best CT and MRI. The authors describe the use of pulsed laser holography as applied to the morphological specialties: anatomy, pathology, and surgery. The authors report on the Holographic Brain Anatomy Atlas for medical education; pathologic documentation with holography, and the use of holographic interferometry in surgical planning. The techniques are outlined and a discussion on the interpretation of holographic interferometry with living subjects is provided.

  6. Patient-Centered Imaging: Shared Decision Making for Cardiac Imaging Procedures with Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.; Hendel, Robert C.; Gerber, Thomas C.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Cullom, S. James; DeKemp, Robert; Dickert, Neal; Dorbala, Sharmila; Garcia, Ernest V.; Gibbons, Raymond J.; Halliburton, Sandra S.; Hausleiter, Jörg; Heller, Gary V.; Jerome, Scott; Lesser, John R.; Fazel, Reza; Raff, Gilbert L.; Tilkemeier, Peter; Williams, Kim A.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify key components of a radiation accountability framework fostering patient-centered imaging and shared decision-making in cardiac imaging. Background An NIH-NHLBI/NCI-sponsored symposium was held in November 2012 to address these issues. Methods Symposium participants, working in three tracks, identified key components of a framework to target critical radiation safety issues for the patient, the laboratory, and the larger population of patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. Results Use of ionizing radiation during an imaging procedure should be disclosed to all patients by the ordering provider at the time of ordering, and reinforced by the performing provider team. An imaging protocol with effective dose ≤3mSv is considered very low risk, not warranting extensive discussion or written consent. However, a protocol effective dose <20mSv was proposed as a level requiring particular attention in terms of shared decision-making and either formal discussion or written informed consent. Laboratory reporting of radiation dosimetry is a critical component of creating a quality laboratory fostering a patient-centered environment with transparent procedural methodology. Efforts should be directed to avoiding testing involving radiation, in patients with inappropriate indications. Standardized reporting and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography and nuclear cardiology are important for the goal of public reporting of laboratory radiation dose levels in conjunction with diagnostic performance. Conclusions The development of cardiac imaging technologies revolutionized cardiology practice by allowing routine, noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion and anatomy. It is now incumbent upon the imaging community to create an accountability framework to safely drive appropriate imaging utilization. PMID:24530677

  7. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21860542

  8. Running medical image analysis on GridFactory desktop grid.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko; Zhou, Xin; Rosendahl, Peter; Müller, Henning; Waananen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the Geneva University Hospitals work is in progress to establish a computing facility for medical image analysis, potentially using several hundreds of desktop computers. Typically, hospitals do not have a computer infrastructure dedicated to research, nor can the data leave the hospital network for the reasons of privacy. For this purpose, a novel batch system called GridFactory has been tested along-side with the well-known batch system Condor. GridFactory's main benefits, compared to other batch systems, lie in its virtualization support and firewall friendliness. The tests involved running visual feature extraction from 50,000 anonymized medical images on a small local grid of 20 desktop computers. A comparisons with a Condor based batch system in the same computers is then presented. The performance of GridFactory is found satisfactory. PMID:19593040

  9. Applications of statistics to medical science, II overview of statistical procedures for general use.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Procedures of statistical analysis are reviewed to provide an overview of applications of statistics for general use. Topics that are dealt with are inference on a population, comparison of two populations with respect to means and probabilities, and multiple comparisons. This study is the second part of series in which we survey medical statistics. Arguments related to statistical associations and regressions will be made in subsequent papers.

  10. Optical tomography: Development of a new medical imaging modality

    SciTech Connect

    Hebden, Jeremy C.

    1998-08-28

    The demonstrated success of near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in medicine has encouraged physicists to pursue the development of an imaging technique based on the transmittance of optical wavelengths through tissue. Potential clinical applications include a means of detecting breast disease, and a cerebral imaging modality for mapping oxygenation and haemodynamics in the brain of newborn infants. Imaging of tissues with light is severely restricted by the overwhelming scatter which occurs when optical radiation propagates through tissue. However, recent innovations in technology and the development of new tomographic reconstruction procedures suggest that a clinically viable imaging modality is achievable. In this paper the recent progress in this field of research is reviewed, and the prospects for ultimate success are discussed.

  11. Fuzzy fusion of results of medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliato, Denise; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Carnielli, Walter A.; Zuffo, Joao A.; Desautels, J. E. Leo

    1999-05-01

    We propose an abstract concept of data fusion based on finite automata and fuzzy sets to integrate and evaluate different sources of information, in particular results of multiple image segmentation procedures. We give an example of how the method may be applied to the problem of mammographic image segmentation to combine results of region growing and closed- contour detection techniques. We further propose a measure of fuzziness to assess the agreement between a segmented region and a reference contour. Results of application to breast tumor detection in mammograms indicate that the fusion results agree with reference contours provided by a radiologist to a higher extent than the results of the individual methods.

  12. Integrating Medical Imaging Analyses through a High-throughput Bundled Resource Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists. PMID:21841899

  13. Adapting content-based image retrieval techniques for the semantic annotation of medical images.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Dyer, Shane; Kim, Jinman; Li, Changyang; Leong, Philip H W; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2016-04-01

    The automatic annotation of medical images is a prerequisite for building comprehensive semantic archives that can be used to enhance evidence-based diagnosis, physician education, and biomedical research. Annotation also has important applications in the automatic generation of structured radiology reports. Much of the prior research work has focused on annotating images with properties such as the modality of the image, or the biological system or body region being imaged. However, many challenges remain for the annotation of high-level semantic content in medical images (e.g., presence of calcification, vessel obstruction, etc.) due to the difficulty in discovering relationships and associations between low-level image features and high-level semantic concepts. This difficulty is further compounded by the lack of labelled training data. In this paper, we present a method for the automatic semantic annotation of medical images that leverages techniques from content-based image retrieval (CBIR). CBIR is a well-established image search technology that uses quantifiable low-level image features to represent the high-level semantic content depicted in those images. Our method extends CBIR techniques to identify or retrieve a collection of labelled images that have similar low-level features and then uses this collection to determine the best high-level semantic annotations. We demonstrate our annotation method using retrieval via weighted nearest-neighbour retrieval and multi-class classification to show that our approach is viable regardless of the underlying retrieval strategy. We experimentally compared our method with several well-established baseline techniques (classification and regression) and showed that our method achieved the highest accuracy in the annotation of liver computed tomography (CT) images.

  14. Patterns of post-operative pain medication prescribing after invasive dental procedures

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M.; McNeal, Sandre F.; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute post-operative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects 357 African-American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African-American and 78% of White patients received a post-operative narcotic prescription (p=0.56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p=0.003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with pre-existing pain (p=0.004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p=0.001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics. PMID:21371065

  15. Confidence level in performing clinical procedures among medical officers in nonspecialist government hospitals in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamad Sabri; Merican, Hassan; Lee, Yew Fong; Ch'ng, Kean Siang; Thurairatnam, Dharminy

    2015-03-01

    A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 government hospitals over 6 months to evaluate the confidence level of medical officers (MOs) to perform clinical procedure in nonspecialist government hospitals in Penang. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire in English was designed based on the elective and emergency procedures stated in the houseman training logbook. The questionnaire was distributed to the MOs from Penang State Health Department through the respective hospital directors and returned to Penang State Health Department on completion. The results showed that there was statistically significant difference between those who had undergone 12 months and 24 months as houseman in performing both elective and emergency procedures. MOs who had spent 24 months as housemen expressed higher confidence level than those who had only 12 months of experience. We also found that the confidence level was statistically and significantly influenced by visiting specialist and working together with cooperative experienced paramedics.

  16. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing. PMID:26981111

  17. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment.

    PubMed

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing. PMID:26981111

  18. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment.

    PubMed

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing.

  19. Combining image features, case descriptions and UMLS concepts to improve retrieval of medical images.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Miguel E

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates a system, UBMedTIRS, for retrieval of medical images. The system uses a combination of image and text features as well as mapping of free text to UMLS concepts. UBMedTIRS combines three publicly available tools: a content-based image retrieval system (GIFT), a text retrieval system (SMART), and a tool for mapping free text to UMLS concepts (MetaMap). The system is evaluated using the ImageCLEFmed 2005 collection that contains approximately 50,000 medical images with associated text descriptions in English, French and German. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed approach yields significant improvements in retrieval performance. Our system performs 156% above the GIFT system and 42% above the text retrieval system.

  20. ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HM; Sun, LZ; Wang, G; Yamada, T; Wang, J; Vannier, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures) of interest (ROIs) may be irregular and fuzzy. Methods A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. Results The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. Conclusion The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information. PMID:15461787

  1. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  2. 76 FR 45578 - Request for Nominations for Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. FDA... requesting nominations for voting members on the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee (the...

  3. 76 FR 25357 - Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee; Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing the ] reestablishment of the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the.... 101-635); and 21 CFR 14.40(b), FDA is announcing the reestablishment of the Medical Imaging...

  4. 76 FR 45402 - Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee; Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the re- establishment of the Medical Imaging... language for the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the Agency's list of standing...

  5. Web-based platform for collaborative medical imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Leticia; Bento, Mariana P.; Costa, André L.; Souza, Roberto M.; Machado, Rubens C.; Lotufo, Roberto A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging research depends basically on the availability of large image collections, image processing and analysis algorithms, hardware and a multidisciplinary research team. It has to be reproducible, free of errors, fast, accessible through a large variety of devices spread around research centers and conducted simultaneously by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, we propose a collaborative research environment, named Adessowiki, where tools and datasets are integrated and readily available in the Internet through a web browser. Moreover, processing history and all intermediate results are stored and displayed in automatic generated web pages for each object in the research project or clinical study. It requires no installation or configuration from the client side and offers centralized tools and specialized hardware resources, since processing takes place in the cloud.

  6. Segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures from volumetric medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jonghyun; Park, Soonyoung; Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sunworl; Kim, Gisoo; Ahn, Gukdong; Lee, Myungeun; Lim, Junsik

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method that can extract and visualize anatomical structures from volumetric medical images by using a 3D level set segmentation method and a hybrid volume rendering technique. First, the segmentation using the level set method was conducted through a surface evolution framework based on the geometric variation principle. This approach addresses the topological changes in the deformable surface by using the geometric integral measures and level set theory. These integral measures contain a robust alignment term, an active region term, and a mean curvature term. By using the level set method with a new hybrid speed function derived from the geometric integral measures, the accurate deformable surface can be extracted from a volumetric medical data set. Second, we employed a hybrid volume rendering approach to visualize the extracted deformable structures. Our method combines indirect and direct volume rendering techniques. Segmented objects within the data set are rendered locally by surface rendering on an object-by-object basis. Globally, all the results of subsequent object rendering are obtained by direct volume rendering (DVR). Then the two rendered results are finally combined in a merging step. This is especially useful when inner structures should be visualized together with semi-transparent outer parts. This merging step is similar to the focus-plus-context approach known from information visualization. Finally, we verified the accuracy and robustness of the proposed segmentation method for various medical volume images. The volume rendering results of segmented 3D objects show that our proposed method can accurately extract and visualize human organs from various multimodality medical volume images.

  7. Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D. K.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

    2000-10-01

    Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

  8. Automated semantic indexing of imaging reports to support retrieval of medical images in the multimedia electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A; Mailhot, M

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes preliminary work evaluating automated semantic indexing of radiology imaging reports to represent images stored in the Image Engine multimedia medical record system at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors used the SAPHIRE indexing system to automatically identify important biomedical concepts within radiology reports and represent these concepts with terms from the 1998 edition of the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This automated UMLS indexing was then compared with manual UMLS indexing of the same reports. Human indexing identified appropriate UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 81% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. SAPHIRE automatically identified UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 64% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. The overall conclusions of this pilot study were that the UMLS metathesaurus provided adequate coverage of the majority of the important concepts contained within the radiology report test set and that SAPHIRE could automatically identify and translate almost two thirds of these concepts into appropriate UMLS descriptors. Further work is required to improve both the recall and precision of this automated concept extraction process. PMID:10805018

  9. Automated semantic indexing of imaging reports to support retrieval of medical images in the multimedia electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A; Mailhot, M

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes preliminary work evaluating automated semantic indexing of radiology imaging reports to represent images stored in the Image Engine multimedia medical record system at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors used the SAPHIRE indexing system to automatically identify important biomedical concepts within radiology reports and represent these concepts with terms from the 1998 edition of the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This automated UMLS indexing was then compared with manual UMLS indexing of the same reports. Human indexing identified appropriate UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 81% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. SAPHIRE automatically identified UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 64% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. The overall conclusions of this pilot study were that the UMLS metathesaurus provided adequate coverage of the majority of the important concepts contained within the radiology report test set and that SAPHIRE could automatically identify and translate almost two thirds of these concepts into appropriate UMLS descriptors. Further work is required to improve both the recall and precision of this automated concept extraction process.

  10. Proposal for DICOM multiframe medical image integrity and authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Luiz O M; Furuie, Sergio S

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to successfully achieve viable integrity and authenticity addition and verification of n-frame DICOM medical images using cryptographic mechanisms. The aim of this work is the enhancement of DICOM security measures, especially for multiframe images. Current approaches have limitations that should be properly addressed for improved security. The algorithm proposed in this work uses data encryption to provide integrity and authenticity, along with digital signature. Relevant header data and digital signature are used as inputs to cipher the image. Therefore, one can only retrieve the original data if and only if the images and the inputs are correct. The encryption process itself is a cascading scheme, where a frame is ciphered with data related to the previous frames, generating also additional data on image integrity and authenticity. Decryption is similar to encryption, featuring also the standard security verification of the image. The implementation was done in JAVA, and a performance evaluation was carried out comparing the speed of the algorithm with other existing approaches. The evaluation showed a good performance of the algorithm, which is an encouraging result to use it in a real environment.

  11. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients.

  12. Medical image compression by using three-dimensional wavelet transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Huang, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) medical image compression method for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) that uses a separable nonuniform 3-D wavelet transform. The separable wavelet transform employs one filter bank within two-dimensional (2-D) slices and then a second filter bank on the slice direction. CT and MR image sets normally have different resolutions within a slice and between slices. The pixel distances within a slice are normally less than 1 mm and the distance between slices can vary from 1 mm to 10 mm. To find the best filter bank in the slice direction, the authors use the various filter banks in the slice direction and compare the compression results. The results from the 12 selected MR and CT image sets at various slice thickness show that the Haar transform in the slice direction gives the optimum performance for most image sets, except for a CT image set which has 1 mm slice distance. Compared with 2-D wavelet compression, compression ratios of the 3-D method are about 70% higher for CT and 35% higher for MR image sets at a peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of 50 dB, In general, the smaller the slice distance, the better the 3-D compression performance. PMID:18215935

  13. Managing medical images and clinical information: InCor's experience.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Sergio S; Rebelo, Marina S; Moreno, Ramon A; Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; Motta, Gustavo H M B; Pires, Fabio A; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    Patients usually get medical assistance in several clinics and hospitals during their lifetime, archiving vital information in a dispersed way. Clearly, a proper patient care should take into account that information in order to check for incompatibilities, avoid unnecessary exams, and get relevant clinical history. The Heart Institute (InCor) of São Paulo, Brazil, has been committed to the goal of integrating all exams and clinical information within the institution and other hospitals. Since InCor is one of the six institutes of the University of São Paulo Medical School and each institute has its own information system, exchanging information among the institutes is also a very important aspect that has been considered. In the last few years, a system for transmission, archiving, retrieval, processing, and visualization of medical images integrated with a hospital information system has been successfully created and constitutes the InCor's electronic patient record (EPR). This work describes the experience in the effort to develop a functional and comprehensive EPR, which includes laboratory exams, images (static, dynamic, and three dimensional), clinical reports, documents, and even real-time vital signals. A security policy based on a contextual role-based access control model was implemented to regulate user's access to EPR. Currently, more than 10 TB of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images have been stored using the proposed architecture and the EPR stores daily more than 11 GB of integrated data. The proposed storage subsystem allows 6 months of visibility for rapid retrieval and more than two years for automatic retrieval using a jukebox. This paper addresses also a prototype for the integration of distributed and heterogeneous EPR.

  14. A telemedicine system for remote cooperative medical imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E J; del Pozo, F; Quiles, J A; Arredondo, M T; Rahms, H; Sanz, M; Cano, P

    1996-01-01

    Telemedicine is changing the classical form of health care delivery, by providing efficient solutions to an increasing number of new situations: here we consider those which require some type of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) between health care professionals located in different clinical sites. This paper presents the design and development of a telemedicine system for remote computer-supported cooperative medical imaging diagnosis. The main and novel component of our system is a new CSCW distributed architecture, comprised by a collaborative toolkit to add audioconferencing, telepointing, window sharing, user's coordination and application synchronization facilities, either to existing or new medical imaging diagnosis applications. In comparison with existing CSCW products, mainly based on centralized architectures, our distributed toolkit is specially designed for telemedicine applications: to allow different levels of sharing between participants, to improve user feedback in highly interactive user interfaces, and to optimize the required communication bandwidth in order to implement a telemedicine CSCW application on almost any telecommunication network. This telemedicine CSCW system has been applied to build a cooperative medical imaging diagnosis application, in which two doctors, located in different hospitals, need to achieve a cooperative diagnosis on haemodynamic studies using cardiac angiography images. The design of the graphical user interface for this kind of telemedicine CSCW systems, a critical component which conforms any telemedicine application, is also addressed with a new methodological approach, to assure the system usability and final user acceptance. The telemedicine cardiac angiography pilot has been implemented, tested and evaluated within the Research Project 'FEST-Framework for European Services in Telemedicine' funded by EU AIM Programme.

  15. [Adverse events and near misses in medical imaging].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo; Rodrigues, Susana; Nelas, Luís; Neves, José; Alves, Vítor

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, caught the public attention documenting the magnitude of the medical error problem and the inherent patient safety: medical errors cause between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths annually in the United States. Currently, there is a growing interest in risk management on the medical field, particularly in the management of adverse events. It has been mainly due to the commitment of the World Health Organization, that this field of research has gained increasing the attention it deserves. Medical imaging is one of the high risk fields for the occurrence of errors, especially due to the multiplicity of techniques, the several stakeholders and the complexity of the whole circuit that involves the conduct of studies. Many of the methods used to analyze patient safety were adapted from risk-management techniques in high-risk industries (e.g. chemical, nuclear power and aviation industry). It is recognized that we can learn more from our mistakes than from our successes and the reporting systems in these industries have provided a valuable contribution to error prevention and risk management techniques. At a minimum, adverse events reporting systems can help to identify hazards and risks, providing important information on the system aspects that should be improved. However, the accumulation of potentially relevant data contributes little to healthcare services improvement. It is crucial to apply models to identify the underlying system failures, the root causes, and enhance the sharing of knowledge and experience. In this paper, it is suggested a solution to reduce adverse events, by identifying and eliminating the root causes that are in their source. How the Eindhoven Classification Model was adapted and extended specifically for the Medical Imaging field is also presented. The proposed approach includes the root causes analysis and introduces incomplete information concepts through

  16. Characterization of various tissue mimicking materials for medical ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenot, Audrey; Poepping, Tamie; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Tissue mimicking materials are physical constructs exhibiting certain desired properties, which are used in machine calibration, medical imaging research, surgical planning, training, and simulation. For medical ultrasound, those specific properties include acoustic propagation speed and attenuation coefficient over the diagnostic frequency range. We investigated the acoustic characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and isopropanol using a time-of-light technique, where a pulse was passed through a sample of known thickness contained in a water bath. The propagation speed in PVC is approximately 1400ms-1 depending on the exact chemical composition, with the attenuation coefficient ranging from 0:35 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 10:57 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. The propagation speed in PDMS is in the range of 1100ms-1, with an attenuation coefficient of 1:28 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 21:22 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. At room temperature (22 °C), a mixture of water-isopropanol (7:25% isopropanol by volume) exhibits a propagation speed of 1540ms-1, making it an excellent and inexpensive tissue-mimicking liquid for medical ultrasound imaging.

  17. Sensor-based architecture for medical imaging workflow analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Campos, Samuel; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of computer systems in medical institutions has been generating a tremendous quantity of data. While these data have a critical role in assisting physicians in the clinical practice, the information that can be extracted goes far beyond this utilization. This article proposes a platform capable of assembling multiple data sources within a medical imaging laboratory, through a network of intelligent sensors. The proposed integration framework follows a SOA hybrid architecture based on an information sensor network, capable of collecting information from several sources in medical imaging laboratories. Currently, the system supports three types of sensors: DICOM repository meta-data, network workflows and examination reports. Each sensor is responsible for converting unstructured information from data sources into a common format that will then be semantically indexed in the framework engine. The platform was deployed in the Cardiology department of a central hospital, allowing identification of processes' characteristics and users' behaviours that were unknown before the utilization of this solution. PMID:24957389

  18. Virtual organization of hospital medical imaging: a user satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; Paré, Guy; Bini, Kobena Kra; Moreault, Marie-Pierre; Laverdure, Guy

    2010-12-01

    A virtual medical imaging department is an innovative and demanding organizational model, to the extent that the underlying goal is to achieve a continuous and advanced organizational integration of human and physical resources, clinical data, and clienteles. To better understand the kind of benefits offered, we conducted a survey of three groups of users--radiologists, radiological technologists, and medical specialists--working in a five-site virtual organization. We received 127 valid questionnaires, for an overall response rate of 66%. The assessments vary according to the use made of the system. The scores for system quality and the quality of the data produced were markedly higher for intra-hospital use (respectively 7.9 and 8.7 out of 10) than for inter-hospital use (5.4 and 7.0). Despite the negative assessments they made of inter-hospital use, users maintained a positive attitude toward some type of virtual organization of medical imaging. Indeed, the score for Overall satisfaction with the system was very high, 8.9 out of 10. Moreover, the scores for Intended future use of the system were very high for both intra-hospital use (8.9) and inter-hospital use (8.7). We also found significant differences in perceptions among user groups.

  19. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  20. Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Clinical Development of Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa

    There has been significant progress in development of therapeutics for prevention and management of several disease areas in recent years, leading to increased average life expectancy, as well as of quality of life, globally. However, due to complexity of addressing a number of medical needs and financial burden of development of new class of therapeutics, there is a need for better tools for decision making and validation of efficacy and safety of new compounds. Numerous biological markers (biomarkers) have been proposed either as adjunct to current clinical endpoints or as surrogates. Imaging biomarkers are among rapidly increasing biomarkers, being examined to expedite effective and rational drug development. Clinical imaging often involves a complex set of multi-modality data sets that require rapid and objective analysis, independent of reviewer's bias and training. In this chapter, an overview of imaging biomarkers for drug development is offered, along with challenges that necessitate quantitative and objective image analysis. Examples of automated and semi-automated analysis approaches are provided, along with technical review of such methods. These examples include the use of 3D MRI for osteoarthritis, ultrasound vascular imaging, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for oncology. Additionally, a brief overview of regulatory requirements is discussed. In conclusion, this chapter highlights key challenges and future directions in this area.

  1. Self-Aligning Manifolds for Matching Disparate Medical Image Datasets.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian F; Gomez, Alberto; Koch, Lisa M; Housden, James R; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andy P

    2015-01-01

    Manifold alignment can be used to reduce the dimensionality of multiple medical image datasets into a single globally consistent low-dimensional space. This may be desirable in a wide variety of problems, from fusion of different imaging modalities for Alzheimer's disease classification to 4DMR reconstruction from 2D MR slices. Unfortunately, most existing manifold alignment techniques require either a set of prior correspondences or comparability between the datasets in high-dimensional space, which is often not possible. We propose a novel technique for the 'self-alignment' of manifolds (SAM) from multiple dissimilar imaging datasets without prior correspondences or inter-dataset image comparisons. We quantitatively evaluate the method on 4DMR reconstruction from realistic, synthetic sagittal 2D MR slices from 6 volunteers and real data from 4 volunteers. Additionally, we demonstrate the technique for the compounding of two free breathing 3D ultrasound views from one volunteer. The proposed method performs significantly better for 4DMR reconstruction than state-of-the-art image-based techniques. PMID:26221687

  2. In-vivo synthetic aperture flow imaging in medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-07-01

    A new method for acquiring flow images using synthetic aperture techniques in medical ultrasound is presented. The new approach makes it possible to have a continuous acquisition of flow data throughout the whole image simultaneously, and this can significantly improve blood velocity estimation. Any type of filter can be used for discrimination between tissue and blood flow without initialization, and the number of lines used for velocity estimation is limited only by the nonstationarity of the flow. The new approach is investigated through both simulations and measurements. A flow rig is used for generating a parabolic laminar flow, and a research scanner is used for acquiring RF data from individual transducer elements. A reference profile is calculated from a mass flow meter. The parabolic velocity profile is estimated using the new approach with a relative standard deviation of 2.2% and a mean relative bias of 3.4% using 24 pulse emissions at a flow angle of 45 degrees. The 24 emissions can be used for making a full-color flow map image. An in-vivo image of flow in the carotid artery for a 29-year-old male also is presented. The full image is acquired using 24 emissions.

  3. Evaluation of the use of multimodality skin markers for the registration of pre-procedure cardiac MR images and intra-procedure x-ray fluoroscopy images for image guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Kawal; Ma, Yingliang; Chandrasena, Angela; King, Andrew; Gao, Gang; Chinchapatnam, Phani; Sermesant, Maxime; Hawkes, David; Schaeffter, Tobias; Gill, Jaswinder; Razavi, Reza

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the use of multimodality skin markers for the registration of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) image data to x-ray fluoroscopy data for the guidance of cardiac electrophysiology procedures. The approach was validated using a phantom study and 3 patients undergoing pulmonary vein (PV) isolation for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In the patient study, skin markers were affixed to the patients' chest and used to register pre-procedure cardiac MR image data to intra-procedure fluoroscopy data. Registration errors were assessed using contrast angiograms of the left atrium that were available in 2 out of 3 cases. A clinical expert generated "gold standard" registrations by adjusting the registration manually. Target registration errors (TREs) were computed using points on the PV ostia. Ablation locations were computed using biplane x-ray imaging. Registration errors were further assessed by computing the distances of the ablation points to the registered left atrial surface for all 3 patients. The TREs were 6.0 & 3.1mm for patients 1 & 2. The mean ablation point errors were 6.2, 3.8, & 3.0mm for patients 1, 2, & 3. These results are encouraging in the context of a 5mm clinical accuracy requirement for this type of procedure. We conclude that multimodality skin markers have the potential to provide anatomical image integration for x-ray guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures, especially if coupled with an accurate respiratory motion compensation strategy.

  4. Generative-Discriminative Basis Learning for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batmanghelich, Nematollah K.; Taskar, Ben; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dimensionality reduction method for classification in medical imaging. The goal is to transform very high-dimensional input (typically, millions of voxels) to a low-dimensional representation (small number of constructed features) that preserves discriminative signal and is clinically interpretable. We formulate the task as a constrained optimization problem that combines generative and discriminative objectives and show how to extend it to the semi-supervised learning (SSL) setting. We propose a novel large-scale algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem. In the fully supervised case, we demonstrate accuracy rates that are better than or comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms on several datasets while producing a representation of the group difference that is consistent with prior clinical reports. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for SSL is evaluated with both benchmark and medical imaging datasets. In the benchmark datasets, the results are better than or comparable to the state-of-the-art methods for SSL. For evaluation of the SSL setting in medical datasets, we use images of subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is believed to be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as unlabeled data. AD subjects and Normal Control (NC) subjects are used as labeled data, and we try to predict conversion from MCI to AD on follow-up. The semi-supervised extension of this method not only improves the generalization accuracy for the labeled data (AD/NC) slightly but is also able to predict subjects which are likely to converge to AD. PMID:21791408

  5. Medical X-ray Image Hierarchical Classification Using a Merging and Splitting Scheme in Feature Space.

    PubMed

    Fesharaki, Nooshin Jafari; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Due to the daily mass production and the widespread variation of medical X-ray images, it is necessary to classify these for searching and retrieving proposes, especially for content-based medical image retrieval systems. In this paper, a medical X-ray image hierarchical classification structure based on a novel merging and splitting scheme and using shape and texture features is proposed. In the first level of the proposed structure, to improve the classification performance, similar classes with regard to shape contents are grouped based on merging measures and shape features into the general overlapped classes. In the next levels of this structure, the overlapped classes split in smaller classes based on the classification performance of combination of shape and texture features or texture features only. Ultimately, in the last levels, this procedure is also continued forming all the classes, separately. Moreover, to optimize the feature vector in the proposed structure, we use orthogonal forward selection algorithm according to Mahalanobis class separability measure as a feature selection and reduction algorithm. In other words, according to the complexity and inter-class distance of each class, a sub-space of the feature space is selected in each level and then a supervised merging and splitting scheme is applied to form the hierarchical classification. The proposed structure is evaluated on a database consisting of 2158 medical X-ray images of 18 classes (IMAGECLEF 2005 database) and accuracy rate of 93.6% in the last level of the hierarchical structure for an 18-class classification problem is obtained.

  6. [Experimental, innovative and standard procedures. Ethics and science in the introduction of medical technology].

    PubMed

    Pons, J M V

    2003-01-01

    The dividing lines between experimental, innovative and standard medical procedures are frequently blurred in current clinical practice. This is even more true in the fields of surgery and implantable devices. These differ substantially from pharmacological interventions, which are better regulated.However, the character of the various medical interventions applied in human subjects should be ethically and scientifically delimited as clearly as possible. This task cannot be abandoned to personal discretion and criteria, which are currently used, especially in the field of surgical innovation. External and independent review of the risk-benefit ratio of proposed innovations should enable specification of the particular features of a technique in the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the ethical and scientific requirements for more appropriate evaluation.

  7. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  8. Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Hirai, T.; Yamada, H.; Morita, M.; Takaku, J.; Nitta, T.; Takahashi, M.; Murata, K.

    2007-03-01

    The portable synchrotron "MIRRORCLE-6X" provides hard x-rays with high brightness and wide energy spectrum ranging from 10-300 keV, emitted from a micron-sized source, with wide divergence of ± 85 mrad. Correspondingly, images obtained using the "MIRRORCLE-6X" showed significantly improved characteristics compared to conventional x-ray tube images, namely, improved refraction contrast, high resolution, and high magnification. Thus, the "MIRRORCLE-6X" is considered to be a novel medical imaging source. A magnified image of a chest phantom, wherein a urethane ball of 8 mm diameter was implanted as an imitation of a cancer, was obtained. The detector used was an imaging-plate (Fujifilm imaging plate, FCR ST-IV) with 150 μm pixel size. The phantom and the detector were respectively set at 50 cm and 540 cm from the x-ray source, so that the magnification was 10.8x. The x-ray source was a Cu 25 μm rod. The resolution was about 25 μm. Images with such high resolution and magnification cannot be obtained by conventional x-ray tubes with a source size of mm order. We can see the edges of costae and of the urethane ball at the back of the costae by the refraction contrast effect. Furthermore, we also see blood vessels surrounding the urethane ball. White spots, which are cross sections of blood vessels, were also observed. Therefore, observations of the shape of a cancer without surgical resection should be possible, and accurate diagnosis can be given using the "MIRRORCLE-6X".

  9. Medical Image Fusion Based on Rolling Guidance Filter and Spiking Cortical Model

    PubMed Central

    Shuaiqi, Liu; Jie, Zhao; Mingzhu, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. Although numerous medical image fusion methods have been proposed, most of these approaches are sensitive to the noise and usually lead to fusion image distortion, and image information loss. Furthermore, they lack universality when dealing with different kinds of medical images. In this paper, we propose a new medical image fusion to overcome the aforementioned issues of the existing methods. It is achieved by combining with rolling guidance filter (RGF) and spiking cortical model (SCM). Firstly, saliency of medical images can be captured by RGF. Secondly, a self-adaptive threshold of SCM is gained by utilizing the mean and variance of the source images. Finally, fused image can be gotten by SCM motivated by RGF coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both subjectively visual performance and objective criteria. PMID:26146512

  10. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  11. Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F.; Stankova, V.; Solaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

  12. Integrating patient digital photographs with medical imaging examinations.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Senthil; Bhatti, Pamela; Arepalli, Chesnal D; Salama, Mohamed; Provenzale, James M; Tridandapani, Srini

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the concept, benefits, and general architecture for acquiring, storing, and displaying digital photographs along with medical imaging examinations. We also discuss a specific implementation built around an Android-based system for simultaneously acquiring digital photographs along with portable radiographs. By an innovative application of radiofrequency identification technology to radiographic cassettes, the system is able to maintain a tight relationship between these photographs and the radiographs within the picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. We provide a cost analysis demonstrating the economic feasibility of this technology. Since our architecture naturally integrates with patient identification methods, we also address patient privacy issues.

  13. Use of analgesic agents for invasive medical procedures in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Bauchner, H; May, A; Coates, E

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of analgesic agents for invasive medical procedures in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. The directors of 38 pediatric units and 31 neonatal units reported that analgesics were infrequently used for intravenous cannulation (10%), suprapubic bladder aspiration (8%), urethral catheterization (2%), or venipuncture (2%). Analgesics were used significantly more regularly in pediatric than in neonatal intensive care units for arterial line placement, bone marrow aspiration, central line placement, chest tube insertion, paracentesis, and lumbar puncture. PMID:1403404

  14. Visual performance in medical imaging using liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchou, Philip Marcel

    2007-12-01

    This thesis examined the contrast performance of liquid crystal display (LCD) devices for use in medical imaging. Novel experimental methods were used to measure the ability of medical LCD devices to produce just noticeable contrast. It was demonstrated that medical LCD devices are capable of high performance in medical imaging and are suitable for conducting psychovisual research experiments. Novel methods for measuring and controlling the luminance response of an LCD were presented in Chapter 3 and used to develop a software tools to apply DICOM GSDF calibrations. Several medical LCD systems were calibrated, demonstrating that the methods can be used to reliably measure luminance and manipulate fine contrast. Chapter 4 reports on a novel method to generate low contrast bi-level bar patterns by using the full palette of available gray values. The method was used in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychovisual experiment to measure the contrast threshold of human observers. Using a z-score analysis method, the results were found to be consistent with the Barten model of contrast sensitivity. Chapter 5 examined error distortion associated with using z-scores. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was presented as an alternative and was used to reevaluate the results from Chapter 4. The new results were consistent with the Barten model. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the statistical precision of the MLE method in relation to the number and distribution of trials. In Chapter 6, 2AFC tests were conducted examining contrast thresholds for complex sinusoid, white noise, and filtered noise patterns. The sinusoid test results were consistent with the Barten model while the noise patterns required more contrast for visibility. The effects of adaptation were also demonstrated. A noise visibility index (NVI) was introduced to describe noise power weighted by contrast sensitivity. Just noticeable white and filtered noise patterns exhibited similar NVI

  15. Medical image segmentation using object atlas versus object cloud models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phellan, Renzo; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-03-01

    Medical image segmentation is crucial for quantitative organ analysis and surgical planning. Since interactive segmentation is not practical in a production-mode clinical setting, automatic methods based on 3D object appearance models have been proposed. Among them, approaches based on object atlas are the most actively investigated. A key drawback of these approaches is that they require a time-costly image registration process to build and deploy the atlas. Object cloud models (OCM) have been introduced to avoid registration, considerably speeding up the whole process, but they have not been compared to object atlas models (OAM). The present paper fills this gap by presenting a comparative analysis of the two approaches in the task of individually segmenting nine anatomical structures of the human body. Our results indicate that OCM achieve a statistically significant better accuracy for seven anatomical structures, in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient and Average Symmetric Surface Distance.

  16. Adaptive stereo medical image watermarking using non-corresponding blocks.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, H; Karimi, N; Soroushmehr, S M R; Samavi, S; Najarian, K

    2015-08-01

    Today with the advent of technology in different medical imaging fields, the use of stereoscopic images has increased. Furthermore, with the rapid growth in telemedicine for remote diagnosis, treatment, and surgery, there is a need for watermarking. This is for copyright protection and tracking of digital media. Also, the efficient use of bandwidth for transmission of such data is another concern. In this paper an adaptive watermarking scheme is proposed that considers human visual system in depth perception. Our proposed scheme modifies maximum singular values of wavelet coefficients of stereo pair for embedding watermark bits. Experimental results show high 3D visual quality of watermarked video frames. Moreover, comparison with a compatible state of the art method shows that the proposed method is highly robust against attacks such as AWGN, salt and pepper noise, and JPEG compression. PMID:26737224

  17. Data acquisition for a medical imaging MWPC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, B. T. A.; Harvey, P. J.; MacPhail, J. D.

    1991-12-01

    Multiwire proportional chambers, combined with drilled Pb converter stacks, are used as position sensitive gamma-ray detectors for medical imaging at Queen's University. This paper describes novel features of the address readout and data acquisition system. To obtain the interaction position, induced charges from wires in each cathode plane are combined using a three-level encoding scheme into 16 channels for amplification and discrimination, and then decoded within 150 ns using a lookup table in a 64 Kbyte EPROM. A custom interface card in an AT-class personal computer provides handshaking, rate buffering, and diagnostic capabilities for the detector data. Real-time software controls the data transfer and provides extensive monitor and control functions. The data are then transferred through an Ethernet link to a workstation for subsequent image analysis.

  18. Dicoogle Mobile: a medical imaging platform for Android.

    PubMed

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ferreira, Daniel; Valente, Frederico; Monteiro, Eriksson; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing technologies are increasingly becoming a valuable asset in healthcare information systems. The adoption of these technologies helps to assist in improving quality of care, increasing productivity and facilitating clinical decision support. They provide practitioners with ubiquitous access to patient records, being actually an important component in telemedicine and tele-work environments. We have developed Dicoogle Mobile, an Android application that provides remote access to distributed medical imaging data through a cloud relay service. Besides, this application has the capability to store and index local imaging data, so that they can also be searched and visualized. In this paper, we will describe Dicoogle Mobile concept as well the architecture of the whole system that makes it running. PMID:22874241

  19. Adaptive stereo medical image watermarking using non-corresponding blocks.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, H; Karimi, N; Soroushmehr, S M R; Samavi, S; Najarian, K

    2015-01-01

    Today with the advent of technology in different medical imaging fields, the use of stereoscopic images has increased. Furthermore, with the rapid growth in telemedicine for remote diagnosis, treatment, and surgery, there is a need for watermarking. This is for copyright protection and tracking of digital media. Also, the efficient use of bandwidth for transmission of such data is another concern. In this paper an adaptive watermarking scheme is proposed that considers human visual system in depth perception. Our proposed scheme modifies maximum singular values of wavelet coefficients of stereo pair for embedding watermark bits. Experimental results show high 3D visual quality of watermarked video frames. Moreover, comparison with a compatible state of the art method shows that the proposed method is highly robust against attacks such as AWGN, salt and pepper noise, and JPEG compression.

  20. Medical imaging equipment service in Kaiser Permanente, Northern California.

    PubMed

    Plasse, R J; Brooks, W G

    1993-01-01

    As the largest department in Biomedical Engineering, Medical Imaging Services (MIS) provides comprehensive equipment service for all imaging modalities in Kaiser Permanente, Northern California Region. MIS is customer-focused and committed to exploring better ways to deliver service, control costs and implement business strategies to meet customers' changing needs. Service extends beyond conventional preventive/corrective maintenance to include technology assessment, regulatory compliance, education and training, and managed vendor relationships. Program enhancements include film processor and solutions service, a second-source parts program, and a machine shop. In recent years, operations expanded to the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region. Significant savings are available to any healthcare organization willing to embrace a new, expanded view of equipment management. PMID:10129805