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Sample records for medical knowledge lead

  1. Demonopolizing medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sanjeev; Thornton, Karla; Komaromy, Miriam; Kalishman, Summers; Katzman, Joanna; Duhigg, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the past 100 years, there has been an explosion of medical knowledge-and in the next 50 years, more medical knowledge will be available than ever before. Regrettably, current medical practice has been unable to keep pace with this explosion of medical knowledge. Specialized medical knowledge has been confined largely to academic medical centers (i.e., teaching hospitals) and to specialists in major cities; it has been disconnected from primary care clinicians on the front lines of patient care. To bridge this disconnect, medical knowledge must be demonopolized, and a platform for collaborative practice amongst all clinicians needs to be created. A new model of health care and education delivery called Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), developed by the first author, does just this. Using videoconferencing technology and case-based learning, ECHO's medical specialists provide training and mentoring to primary care clinicians working in rural and urban underserved areas so that the latter can deliver the best evidence-based care to patients with complex health conditions in their own communities. The ECHO model increases access to care in rural and underserved areas, and it demonopolizes specialized medical knowledge and expertise.

  2. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  3. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  4. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  5. Knowledge translation in international emergency medical care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Kristian; Alomran, Hisham; Anantharaman, V; Halpern, Pinchas; Hauswald, Mark; Malmquist, Pia; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Rajapakse, Bishan; Ranney, Megan; Razzak, Junaid

    2007-11-01

    More than 90% of the world population receives emergency medical care from different types of practitioners with little or no specific training in the field and with variable guidance and oversight. Emergency medical care is being recognized by actively practicing physicians around the world as an increasingly important domain in the overall health services package for a community. The know-do gap is well recognized as a major impediment to high-quality health care in much of the world. Knowledge translation principles for application in this highly varied young domain will require investigation of numerous aspects of the knowledge synthesis, exchange, and application domains in order to bring the greatest benefit of both explicit and tacit knowledge to increasing numbers of the world's population. This article reviews some of the issues particular to knowledge development and transfer in the international domain. The authors present a set of research proposals developed from a several-month online discussion among practitioners and teachers of emergency medical care in 16 countries from around the globe and from all economic strata, aimed at improving the flow of knowledge from developers and repositories of knowledge to the front lines of clinical care.

  6. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  7. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models. PMID:2088759

  8. Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

  9. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261

  10. Leading articles in medical journals in 1966.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Philippa J; Marks, Daniel Jb

    2016-10-01

    The British Journal of Hospital Medicine is 50 years old. This article takes a look back at articles published during the year of its inception from the British Medical Journal, the Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association.

  11. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions.

  12. Medical Teachers Conceptualize a Distinctive Form of Clinical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, J.; Yates, L.; McColl, G.

    2015-01-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the…

  13. SW Architecture for Access to Medical Information for Knowledge Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suntae; Shim, Bingu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, many approaches have been studied to author medical knowledge and verify doctor's diagnosis based on the specified knowledge. During the verification, intensive access to medical information is unavoidable. Also, the access approach should consider modifiability in order to cover diverse medical information from the variety of hospitals. This paper presents an approach to generating query language from medical knowledge, and shows software architecture for accessing medical information from hospitals by executing generated query languages. Implementation of this architecture has been deployed in a hospital of South Korea so that it shows the feasibility of the architecture.

  14. Internal Medicine Residents Do Not Accurately Assess Their Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger; Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical knowledge is essential for appropriate patient care; however, the accuracy of internal medicine (IM) residents' assessment of their medical knowledge is unknown. Methods: IM residents predicted their overall percentile performance 1 week (on average) before and after taking the in-training exam (ITE), an objective and well…

  15. Medical teachers conceptualize a distinctive form of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J; Yates, L; McColl, G

    2015-05-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the perspectives of medical teachers in hospitals are not always considered in such discourse. This study sought to generate an understanding of these teachers' values, perspectives and approaches by listening to them and seeing them in their everyday teaching work, finding and understanding the meanings they bring to the work of medical teaching in hospitals. In interviews, all of the teachers talked more about the optimal forms of knowledge that are important for students than they talked about the form of the teaching itself. Many revealed to students what knowledge they do and do not value. They had a particular way of thinking about clinical knowledge as existing in the people and the places in which the teaching and the clinical practice happen, and represented this as 'real' knowledge. By implication, there is other knowledge in medical education or in students' heads that is not real and needs to be transformed. Their values, practices and passions add texture and vitality to existing ways of thinking about the characteristics of clinical knowledge, how it is depicted in the discourse and the curriculum and how it is more dynamically related to other knowledge than is suggested in traditional conceptualizations of knowledge relationships.

  16. Polymer Coats Leads on Implantable Medical Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Langley Research Center s Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI) was discovered by accident. While researching resins and adhesives for advanced composites for high-speed aircraft, Robert Bryant, a Langley engineer, noticed that one of the polymers he was working with did not behave as predicted. After putting the compound through a two-stage controlled chemical reaction, expecting it to precipitate as a powder after the second stage, he was surprised to see that the compound remained soluble. This novel characteristic ended up making this polymer a very significant finding, eventually leading Bryant and his team to win several NASA technology awards, and an "R&D 100" award. The unique feature of this compound is the way that it lends itself to easy processing. Most polyimides (members of a group of remarkably strong and incredibly heat- and chemical-resistant polymers) require complex curing cycles before they are usable. LaRC-SI remains soluble in its final form, so no further chemical processing is required to produce final materials, like thin films and varnishes. Since producing LaRC-SI does not require complex manufacturing techniques, it has been processed into useful forms for a variety of applications, including mechanical parts, magnetic components, ceramics, adhesives, composites, flexible circuits, multilayer printed circuits, and coatings on fiber optics, wires, and metals. Bryant s team was, at the time, heavily involved with the aircraft polymer project and could not afford to further develop the polymer resin. Believing it was worth further exploration, though, he developed a plan for funding development and submitted it to Langley s chief scientist, who endorsed the experimentation. Bryant then left the high-speed civil transport project to develop LaRC-SI. The result is an extremely tough, lightweight thermoplastic that is not only solvent-resistant, but also has the ability to withstand temperature ranges from cryogenic levels to above 200 C. The thermoplastic

  17. United States medical students’ knowledge of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Brian J.; Usita, Paula M.; Edland, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A knowledge gap exists between general physicians and specialists in diagnosing and managing Alzheimer disease (AD). This gap is concerning due to the estimated rise in prevalence of AD and cost to the health care system. Medical school is a viable avenue to decrease the gap, educating future physicians before they specialize. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level of students in their first and final years of medical school. Methods: Fourteen participating United States medical schools used e-mail student rosters to distribute an online survey of a quantitative cross-sectional assessment of knowledge about AD; 343 students participated. Knowledge was measured using the 12-item University of Alabama at Birmingham AD Knowledge Test for Health Professionals. General linear models were used to examine the effect of demographic variables and previous experience with AD on knowledge scores. Results: Only 2.5% of first year and 68.0% of final year students correctly scored ten or more items on the knowledge scale. Personal experience with AD predicted higher knowledge scores in final year students (P= 0.027). Conclusion: Knowledge deficiencies were common in final year medical students. Future studies to identify and evaluate the efficacy of AD education programs in medical schools are warranted. Identifying and disseminating effective programs may help close the knowledge gap. PMID:23750313

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  19. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  20. Surveying Resident and Faculty Physician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences in Response to Public Lead Contamination.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D Kay; Lepisto, Brenda Lovegrove; Lecea, Nicolas; Ghamrawi, Ranine; Bachuwa, Ghassan; LaChance, Jenny; Hanna-Attisha, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health crises can appear anywhere and without warning. After research revealed a significant incidence of elevated pediatric blood lead levels following a water source change, Genesee County declared a public health emergency in Flint, Michigan. Hospital patients and family members began approaching Hurley Medical Center's physicians with questions regarding the health implications of the lead contamination. Many of the physicians voiced concerns about responding appropriately to patient needs and increasing demands for information. As a result, a Hurley research team decided to conduct an informal survey across training programs to determine the need for added education.Because of heightened patient anxiety, it was necessary for the timeline to progress quickly. In creating the survey, the team's objective was to assess resident and faculty physician knowledge, attitudes, and experiences concerning lead contamination. The results revealed a critical need for supplementary training. Therefore, Hurley embarked on an education campaign for its graduate medical education programs, benefiting physicians and patients alike.Patient and physician needs may change drastically following an environmental health emergency. It is the duty of medical centers to ensure their clinicians are well equipped to confront such threats. As prompt treatment is often a key to positive health outcomes, the authors stress the importance of acting quickly and suggest conducting informal surveys to identify gaps in physician knowledge. Likewise, the authors encourage medical educators nationwide to examine their environmental health curricula. It appears lead-contaminated water is not just a Flint problem but may have far-reaching implications for many cities.

  1. Knowledge Discovery Using the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Adam; Hripcsak, George; Knirsch, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge discovery and data mining is one of the most promising areas of current informatics research. However, real successes of clinical data mining have mainly been limited to algorithms research, to specific prospectively created datasets, or to administrative databases requiring manual extraction of data. Natural language processing (NLP), which extracts clinical information from text reports, increases the available data for knowledge discovery. This allows greater use of clinical data already stored in existing clinical databases. We validated a dataset using NLP and rules to extract clinical findings with a prediction rule that was validated on manually abstracted data. The outcome variables for each study were similar, indicating the potential of using NLP extracted findings to create datasets for clinical research. The study also indicated the potential for using data external data sources to determine clinical outcomes.

  2. Medication Administration: Measuring Associate Degree Nursing Student Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…

  3. Medical Students' Knowledge about Alcohol and Drug Problems: Results of the Medical Council of Canada Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Meldon; Midmer, Deana; Wilson, Lynn; Borsoi, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine knowledge of a national sample of medical students about substance withdrawal, screening and early intervention, medical and psychiatric complications of addiction, and treatment options. Methods: Based on learning objectives developed by medical faculty, twenty-two questions on addictions were included in the 1998 Canadian…

  4. [Mining medical knowledge from time-oriented clinical data using existing clinical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Shahar, Y; Moskovitich, R; Klimov, D

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of clinicaL data accumulating over time from multipLe sources, regarding a group of patients, can lead to muLtiple insights. In particular, such an analysis enables: (a) the discovery of temporal patterns repeating above a certain threshold frequency, thus essentially creating clusters of different behaviors over time of various patient sub-groups; and (b) detection amongst the temporal patterns, some of which, together with additional patient data, such as demographic data, might be able to predict future cLinically significant outcomes, such as renal dysfunction in the case of a diabetes patient. The analysis of temporal data is even more efficient when it includes not only time-stamped, point-based raw data, but also time intervals (periods) during which certain context-sensitive, abstract interpretations of the data hold, such as a period of moderate anemia instead of a series of hemoglobin values; or a degradation in liver functions, instead of a series of different enzyme values. Such an interpretation naturally requires an explicit representation of the medical knowledge involved, in a medical knowledge base, in a manner that supports automated computational tools. In this survey, we briefly introduce several of the innovative computational methods developed in our research center, for the purpose of the multivariate analysis of time-oriented clinical data. We mainly demonstrate the use of tools for exploration and knowledge discovery which are intended for use by a cLinicaL user at the point of care, and by cLinical researchers or heaLthcare policy makers. *

  5. Case-Based Tutoring from a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Homer L.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of programs that make use of large knowledge bases to assist physicians in diagnosis within the general field of internal medicine. One such program, Internist-I, contains knowledge about over 600 diseases, covering a significant proportion of internal medicine. This paper describes the process of converting a subset of this knowledge base--in the area of cardiovascular diseases--into a probabilistic format, and the use of this resulting knowledge base to teach medical diagnostic knowledge. The system (called KBSimulator--for Knowledge-Based patient Simulator) generates simulated patient cases and uses these cases as a focal point from which to teach medical knowledge. It interacts with the student in a mixed-initiative fashion, presenting patients for the student to diagnose, and allowing the student to obtain further information on his/her own initiative in the context of that patient case. The system scores the student, and uses these scores to form a rudimentary model of the student. This resulting model of the student is then used to direct the generation of subsequent patient cases. This project demonstrates the feasibility of building an intelligent, flexible instructional system that uses a knowledge base constructed primarily for medical diagnosis.

  6. Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications

    PubMed Central

    Kales, Stefanos N.; Christophi, Costas A.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Millions worldwide use Ayurvedic (traditional Indian) medicines. These medications are increasingly associated with lead poisoning, often accompanied by anemia. We compared the relative hematopoietic toxicity of Ayurvedic lead poisoning with a common form of occupational lead poisoning. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 66 adult lead intoxications: 43 published Ayurvedic cases identified in published reports by searching MEDLINE (1966 to November 2005); 4 Ayurvedic patients seen at a referral center; and 19 lead paint intoxications from the same center. We considered patients’ age, gender and blood lead at presentation, and then compared the groups with respect to hematopoietic parameters. Results Ayurvedic lead poisoning was associated with higher blood lead (p<0.001), more basophilic stippling (p<0.001), lower hemoglobin (p<0.001) and higher protoporphyrin (p<0.001). Multiple regression adjusted for blood lead and gender found Ayurvedic lead poisoning associated with a 36.2 g/L (95% CI -48.8, -23.6 g/L) greater decrement in hemoglobin (p<0.001) as compared to paint-removal poisoning. Conclusions Ayurvedic poisoning produces greater hematopoietic toxicity than paint-removal poisoning. Ayurvedic ingestion should be considered in patients with anemia. Ayurveda users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. PMID:17599022

  7. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk.

  8. The requirement for bioscience knowledge in medical education.

    PubMed

    McColl, Geoffrey J; Bilszta, Justin; Harrap, Stephen

    2012-04-02

    The recent 100-year anniversary of the Flexner review and the release of the Australian Medical Education Study have stimulated vigorous debate about the role of bioscience knowledge in medical education. Two critical questions define debate in this area: does bioscience learning assist in educating medical students to become competent doctors, and, if so, what are the most effective teaching and learning methods to facilitate this outcome? There is tacit acceptance that specific bioscience knowledge is critical for the development of clinical expertise; however, there are few empirical data to support this notion. Two differing theories have been proposed to describe the role of bioscience learning in the development of clinical reasoning skills - the "two-worlds" model and the "encapsulation" model. A series of studies provides support for the encapsulation model. Some medical programs are now integrating bioscience teaching into the clinical years of the course. Evidence of the effectiveness of this on outcomes, such as improved clinical reasoning, is inconclusive.

  9. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1‐day workshop on ‘Medical knowledge, Medical Duties’. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high‐quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed. PMID:25470528

  10. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Emma; Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-12-01

    On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'Medical knowledge, Medical Duties'. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed.

  11. Medical data mining: knowledge discovery in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed Central

    Prather, J. C.; Lobach, D. F.; Goodwin, L. K.; Hales, J. W.; Hage, M. L.; Hammond, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    Clinical databases have accumulated large quantities of information about patients and their medical conditions. Relationships and patterns within this data could provide new medical knowledge. Unfortunately, few methodologies have been developed and applied to discover this hidden knowledge. In this study, the techniques of data mining (also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases) were used to search for relationships in a large clinical database. Specifically, data accumulated on 3,902 obstetrical patients were evaluated for factors potentially contributing to preterm birth using exploratory factor analysis. Three factors were identified by the investigators for further exploration. This paper describes the processes involved in mining a clinical database including data warehousing, data query and cleaning, and data analysis. PMID:9357597

  12. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  13. Analysis of high alert medication knowledge of medical staff in Tianjin: A convenient sampling survey in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shang-feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ye; Hou, Jie; Ji, Lu; Wang, Man-li; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The current situation of medical staff's awareness about high alert medication was investigated in order to promote safe medication and standardized management of the high alert medication in China. Twenty questions were designed concerning elementary knowledge of high alert medications, storage management, medication issues and risks. In order to understand the knowledge level and education status of high alert medication, a convenient survey was conducted among 300 medical staffs in Tianjin. Medical staff's average score of high alert medication knowledge was 12.43±0.27, and the average scores of elementary knowledge of high alert medication, storage management, medication issues and risks were 3.38±0.11, 2.46±0.14, 3.17±0.11 and 3.41±0.12 respectively. Occupation (F=4.86, P=0.003), education background (F=5.57, P=0.019) and professional titles (F=13.44, P≤0.001) contributed to the high alert medications knowledge scores. Currently, the most important channel to obtain high alert medication knowledge was hospital files or administrative rules, and clinical pharmacist seminars were the most popular education form. It was suggested that the high alert medication knowledge level of the medical staff needs to increase, and it might benefit from targeted, systematic and diverse training to the medical staff working in the different circulation nodes of the medications. Further research to develop and validate the instrument is needed.

  14. Semantic Health Knowledge Graph: Semantic Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Knowledge and Services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoran; Qi, Jiaheng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Binbin

    2017-01-01

    With the explosion of healthcare information, there has been a tremendous amount of heterogeneous textual medical knowledge (TMK), which plays an essential role in healthcare information systems. Existing works for integrating and utilizing the TMK mainly focus on straightforward connections establishment and pay less attention to make computers interpret and retrieve knowledge correctly and quickly. In this paper, we explore a novel model to organize and integrate the TMK into conceptual graphs. We then employ a framework to automatically retrieve knowledge in knowledge graphs with a high precision. In order to perform reasonable inference on knowledge graphs, we propose a contextual inference pruning algorithm to achieve efficient chain inference. Our algorithm achieves a better inference result with precision and recall of 92% and 96%, respectively, which can avoid most of the meaningless inferences. In addition, we implement two prototypes and provide services, and the results show our approach is practical and effective. PMID:28299322

  15. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  16. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants’ biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. Results A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Conclusion Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health. PMID:27303588

  17. [Design and application of medical knowledge model on SAGE].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Bin-fei; Ye, Feng; Lv, Xu-dong

    2009-01-01

    As an methodology for promoting the quality and efficiency of health care, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have gained much improvement. The knowledge base (KB) plays an important role in DSS. For CDSSs, the construction of KB means modeling the medical knowledge based on a suitable model. This study analyzes the SAGE model, then implements it on knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and improves the SAGE to enhance its expression ability. The model is constructed as the KB in CDSS, and be applied in hospital. The evaluation result of CDSS reveals that the SAGE model should be useful in clinical application. Finally, this study propounds some points yet to be improved in the SAGE.

  18. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  19. Today's medical knowledge. Evolution of data exchange between tradition and globalization.

    PubMed

    Paparo, Francesco; Francesco, Paparo; Giovannetti, Filippo; Filippo, Giovannetti; Caratelli, Roberto; Roberto, Caratelli; Cascone, Piero; Piero, Cascone

    2006-05-01

    The authors historically review bibliographic research concepts and define globalization in time. Moreover, recent free online data exchange is important in terms of medical progress, scientific updating and patient-care improving. In the author's opinion, data globalization is favoring medical knowledge flow even more. The concept of a traditional library has radically changed over time, gradually missing their pivotal role in research activity. To date, the birth of the Internet and its sudden development has given a great boost to the spread of worldwide information, quickly and cheaply. Nevertheless, besides the advantages, the Internet also hides misleading risks. In this paper, the professional Medline source is compared to common Internet sources. The authors state that Internet sources have a great importance in the spread of medical knowledge. They conclude, however, that the risk of too much available information could lead to a decrease in quality.

  20. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored <60%. To assess the number of teaching hours dedicated to sleep medicine in the undergraduate curricula, the organizers of the major courses on sleep disorders were contacted to obtain the curricula for those courses and to determine the obstacles to education. Results A total of 348 students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of

  1. Medication communication through documentation in medical wards: knowledge and power relations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals communicate with each other about medication information using different forms of documentation. This article explores knowledge and power relations surrounding medication information exchanged through documentation among nurses, doctors and pharmacists. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in 2010 in two medical wards of a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Data collection methods included participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, document retrieval and video reflexive focus groups. A critical discourse analytic framework was used to guide data analysis. The written medication chart was the main means of communicating medication decisions from doctors to nurses as compared to verbal communication. Nurses positioned themselves as auditors of the medication chart and scrutinised medical prescribing to maintain the discourse of patient safety. Pharmacists utilised the discourse of scientific judgement to guide their decision-making on the necessity of verbal communication with nurses and doctors. Targeted interdisciplinary meetings involving nurses, doctors and pharmacists should be organised in ward settings to discuss the importance of having documented medication information conveyed verbally across different disciplines. Health professionals should be encouraged to proactively seek out each other to relay changes in medication regimens and treatment goals.

  2. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    PubMed

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  3. [Medical examination of workers exposed to lead in the Philippines].

    PubMed

    Makino, S; Matsuno, K; Hisanaga, N; Seki, Y; Ortega, V S; Villanueva, M B; Cucueco, M T; Yu-Sison, S; Castro, F T

    1994-03-01

    The medical examination of workers exposed to lead was conducted as part of the activity of the Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHC) Project in the Philippines (JICA Project). The subjects of the medical examination were 21 male and 193 female workers of a semi-conductor plant (abbreviated A company), 59 male and 6 female workers of a refrigerator manufacture (B company); 199 male workers of a storage battery manufacturer (C company); and 107 male and 6 female workers of a lead smelter (D company). Among the examination items were questions regarding occupational history, subjective complaints and objective signs, determination of blood lead levels, urine delta aminolevulinic acid levels, and examination for anemia. The survey was conducted from June to September in 1990. The following results were obtained: 1) The mean age of the workers ranged from 21.8 to 33.8 years. Those of companies A and B were younger than those of companies C and D. The mean employment duration of males at C company was 10.7 yr, and the longest among the four companies. That in both sexes for A company was 1.8 yr and the shortest among the above mentioned companies. 2) The blood lead geometric mean levels of companies C and D showed the highest concentration. The level in males of C company was 64.5 micrograms/dl and that of D company was 80.8 micrograms/dl. The level in females of A company was 9.9 micrograms/dl and the lowest in concentration. The urine delta aminolevulinic acid geometric mean levels were less than 6.0 mg/l in the four companies. There was no company having hemoglobin mean values less than 14.0 g/dl in males or less than 12.0 g/dl in females. 3) The proportion of blood lead levels of 60 micrograms/dl or more was 67.3% in males of C company, and 89.7% in males and 16.7% in females of D company. The proportion of urine delta aminolevulinic acid levels of 6 mg/l or more was 1.0% in females of A company, 20.1% in males of C company, and 43.0% in males of D company

  4. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  5. A vertically integrated geriatric curriculum improves medical student knowledge and clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.

  6. Evaluation of the Unified Medical Language System as a Medical Knowledge Source

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Oliver; Burgun, Anita; Botti, Geneviève; Fieschi, Marius; Beux, Pierre Le; Kohler, François

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system. Design: MAOUSSC, a multiaxial coding system, was used for the representation of 1500 procedures from 15 clinical specialties, using UMLS concepts (augmented by full sources for three new vocabularies being added to the UMLS) and relationships whenever possible. Evaluation criteria for the UMLS included (1) completeness of representation of concepts and of inter-concept relationships, (2) consistency in the categorization of both concepts and inter-concept relationships, and (3) usability, including adaptability of the UMLS to a foreign language (French), its suitability to a geographic region with different medical practices than the USA, and issues relative to the annual update changes in the test vocabularies. Results: During the MAOUSSC trial, the number of missing concepts or relationships identified in the augmented UMLS sources was deemed to be inconsequential relative to overall project goals. “Missing” UMLS inter-concept relationships were identified, although they were small in number. Some inconsistencies in the UMLS were noted, especially in the area of hierarchic relationships. Conclusion: After UMLS was used for five years as a knowledge source for representing 1500 complex medical procedures in MAOUSSC, its value is considered significant. Future editions of the UMLS are expected to improve representation of inter-concept relationships and global consistency. PMID:9452987

  7. Impact of Standardized New Medication Education Program on Postdischarge Patients' Knowledge and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tammie R; Coke, Lola

    2016-10-01

    This study, implemented on 2 medical-surgical units, evaluated the impact of a standardized, evidence-based new medication education program. Outcomes evaluated included patient postdischarge knowledge of new medication purpose and side effects, patient satisfaction with new medication, and Medicare reimbursement earn-back potential. As a result, knowledge scores for new medication purpose and side effects were high post intervention. Patient satisfaction with new medication education increased. Value-based purchasing reimbursement earn-back potential improved.

  8. A multi-agent intelligent environment for medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Rosa M; Flores, Cecilia D; Silvestre, André M; Seixas, Louise J; Ladeira, Marcelo; Coelho, Helder

    2003-03-01

    AMPLIA is a multi-agent intelligent learning environment designed to support training of diagnostic reasoning and modelling of domains with complex and uncertain knowledge. AMPLIA focuses on the medical area. It is a system that deals with uncertainty under the Bayesian network approach, where learner-modelling tasks will consist of creating a Bayesian network for a problem the system will present. The construction of a network involves qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative part concerns the network topology, that is, causal relations among the domain variables. After it is ready, the quantitative part is specified. It is composed of the distribution of conditional probability of the variables represented. A negotiation process (managed by an intelligent MediatorAgent) will treat the differences of topology and probability distribution between the model the learner built and the one built-in in the system. That negotiation process occurs between the agents that represent the expert knowledge domain (DomainAgent) and the agent that represents the learner knowledge (LearnerAgent).

  9. 'Medical Knowledge' and 'Tradition' of Colonial Korea: Focused on Kudo's "Gynecology"-based Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang Hee

    2013-08-01

    This article attempts to illuminate the ways in which Kudo's medical knowledge based on 'gynecological science' constructed the cultural 'traditions' of colonial Korea. Kudo appears to have been quite an influential figure in colonial Korea in that his writings on the relationship between women's crime, gynecological science and the Chosŏn society granted a significant amount of intellectual authority. Here, I examine Kudo's position within colonial Korea as a producer and propagator of medical knowledge, and then see how women's bodies were understood according to his gynecological knowledge. It also traces the ways in which Kudo's gynecological knowledge represents Chosŏn society and in turn invents the 'traditions' of Chosŏn. Kudo's knowledge of "gynecology" which had been formed while it traveled the states such as Japan, Germany and France served as an important reference for his representation of colonial Korean society. Kudo was a proponent of biological evolution, particularly the rules of 'atavism' put forth by the criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, and argued that an unique social environment caused 'alteration of sexual urges' and primitive cruelty in Chosŏn women. According to Kudo, The social environment was none other than the practice of 'early marriage,' which went against the physiology of women. To Kudo, 'early marriage' was an old 'tradition' of Chosŏn and the cause of heinous crimes, as well as an unmistakable indicator of both the primitiveness and savageness of Chosŏn. While Lombroso considered personal factors such as stress as the cause of women's crimes, Kudo saw Chosŏn women's crimes as a national characteristic. Moreover, he compared the occurrence rate of husband murders by provinces, based on which he categorized the northern population of Chosŏn as barbaric Manchurian and the southern population as the superior Japanese, a combination of racism and scientific knowledge. Kudo's writings provide an insight into the

  10. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  11. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  12. Knowledge-based topographic feature extraction in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, JianZhong; Khair, Mohammad M.

    1995-08-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging often contains variations of patient anatomies, camera mispositioning, or other imperfect imaging condiitons. These variations contribute to uncertainty about shapes and boundaries of objects in images. As the results sometimes image features, such as traditional edges, may not be identified reliably and completely. We describe a knowledge based system that is able to reason about such uncertainties and use partial and locally ambiguous information to infer about shapes and lcoation of objects in an image. The system uses directional topographic features (DTFS), such as ridges and valleys, labeled from the underlying intensity surface to correlate to the intrinsic anatomical information. By using domain specific knowledge, the reasoning system can deduce significant anatomical landmarks based upon these DTFS, and can cope with uncertainties and fill in missing information. A succession of levels of representation for visual information and an active process of uncertain reasoning about this visual information are employed to realiably achieve the goal of image analysis. These landmarks can then be used in localization of anatomy of interest, image registration, or other clinical processing. The successful application of this system to a large set of planar cardiac images of nuclear medicine studies has demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy.

  13. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  14. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  15. Self-monitoring and its relationship to medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific problem with which one is faced). Indeed, previous research has shown that, when responding to both short answer and multiple choice questions, individuals are able to assess the likelihood of answering questions correctly on a moment-by-moment basis, even though they are not able to generate an accurate self-assessment of overall performance on the test. These studies, however, were conducted in the context of low-stakes tests of general "trivia". The purpose of the present study was to further this line of research by investigating the relationship between self-monitoring and performance in the context of a high stakes test assessing medical knowledge. Using a recent administration of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I, we examined three measures intended to capture self-monitoring: (1) the time taken to respond to each question, (2) the number of questions a candidate flagged as needing to be considered further, and (3) the likelihood of changing one's initial answer. Differences in these measures as a function of the accuracy of the candidate's response were treated as indices of each candidate's ability to judge his or her likelihood of responding correctly. The three self-monitoring indices were compared for candidates at three different levels of overall performance on the exam. Relative to correct responses, when examinees initially responded incorrectly, they spent more time answering the question, were more likely to flag the question for future consideration, and were more likely to change their answer before committing to a final answer. These measures of self-monitoring were modulated by

  16. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  17. [Medical doctors driving technological innovation: questions about and innovation management approaches to incentive structures for lead users].

    PubMed

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn

    2010-01-01

    Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models.

  18. An effective intervention to improve the cleanliness of medical lead clothes in an orthopedic specialized hospital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Xu, YingJun; Zhang, Fengxia; Yang, Qingfeng; Yuan, Juxiang

    2016-11-01

    Dirty medical lead clothes, contaminated with blood or other infected material, may carry ongoing bioburden, which increase the risk of hospital-acquired infection. In this study, we investigated medical lead clothes contamination levels and assessed the effectiveness of the intervention that was constructed to improve the cleanliness of lead clothes.

  19. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å2 (25–60 Å2), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740–970 Å3, (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460–580 Å2, and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The

  20. Lead toxicity as a result of herbal medication.

    PubMed

    Ravi Raja, A; Vishal Babu, G N; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2008-04-01

    Awareness about the toxic effects of non-essential metals is still lacking in developing countries. Lead is one among them, which ranks second in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry' s top 20 lists of toxic metals. Some of the herbal medicines prepared from certain roots and leaves are known to contain this toxic metal at alarming levels. We have a case of a person who suffered from the toxic effects of lead such as vomiting and colicky abdominal pain after consuming a herbal remedy for Jaundice treatment. This went unrecognized initially because of the presence of multiple problems like Malaria and Renal calculi. Lead poisoning as causative factor for anemia, vomiting and colic were confirmed only when blood lead concentration was estimated. A combination of chelation therapy and nutritional supplementation was found to be useful in reducing the body lead burden.

  1. Cadmium and Lead in Bio-Medical Waste Incinerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse If necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and...catheters Urinal catheters Colostomi bags Hypodermic needles IV tubing Packaging material 1 Morrison (1987) REGULATION OF BIO-MEDICAL INCINERATORS

  2. Nursing, Pharmacy, and Prescriber Knowledge and Perceptions of High-Alert Medications in a Large, Academic Medical Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-alert medications pose a greater risk of causing significant harm to patients if used in error. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals define institution-specific high-alert medications and implement processes to ensure safe medication use. Method: Nursing, pharmacy, and prescribers were asked to voluntarily complete a 34-question survey to assess their knowledge, experience, and perceptions regarding high-alert medications in an academic hospital. Results: The majority of respondents identified the organization’s high-alert medications, the consequences of an error involving a high-alert medication, and the reversal agent. Most of the risk-reduction strategies within the institution were viewed as being effective by respondents. Forty-five percent of the respondents utilized a high-alert medication in the previous 24 hours. Only 14.2% had experienced an error with a high-alert medication in the previous 12 months, with 46% being near misses. The survey found the 5 rights for medication administration were not being utilized consistently. Respondents indicated that work experience or hospital orientation is the preferred learning experience for high-alert medications. Conclusions: This study assessed all disciplines involved in the medication use process. Perceptions about high-alert medications differ between disciplines. Ongoing discipline-specific education is required to ensure that individuals accept accountability in the medication use process and to close knowledge gaps on high-alert medications and risk-reduction strategies. PMID:26446747

  3. Persistent threat of lead: medical and sociological issues

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L.

    1988-12-01

    Lead exposure is an ancient malady. Its history serves as a useful paradigm through which to understand many other pollutants that our technological society has inserted into the human environment and may guide preventive steps for other agents. Lead poisoning was first recognized in workers exposed to high doses. The discovery of childhood toxicity occurred a century ago in Australia, when children with striking symptoms of paralysis, ophthalmoplegia, or meningitis were found to be highly lead exposed. Encephalopathy generally occurs at blood lead levels of 80 micrograms/dL or more, but unequivocal brain damage has been demonstrated at doses well below this level. At lower doses, the neurocognitive effects of lead are expressed as diminished psychometric intelligence, attention deficits, conduct problems, alterations in the electroencephalogram, school failure, and increased referral rates for special needs. Careful epidemiologic studies, which have controlled for the important confounders, have set the effect level at 10-15 micrograms/dL. Elegant animal studies in which confounding is not an issue have confirmed these findings. Although blood lead levels in the population have dropped over time for a number of reasons, there are some 3-4 million American children with blood lead levels of more than 15 micrograms/dL. Biochemical and functional changes have been demonstrated in the heme biosynthetic pathway and in the renal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. The threshold for effect depends on the sensitivity of the methods used. A no-effect level has not been found. Further, this is not a disease of the poor alone. But the poor are exposed to much more lead than are the more economically favored. Deficiencies in body calcium, zinc, iron, and protein stores are associated with increased uptake. Optimizing nutrition enhances the resistance to lead. 110 references.

  4. Leading to Learn: Knowledge Management Enables Administrators to Excel as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weischadle, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses knowledge management as a means of changing the way administrators carry out their role as instructional leaders. Knowledge management utilizes many concepts from learning organizations, encourages the formation of communities of practice, and employs best practices as a means of leading others to improve learning. Instead of…

  5. Medical knowledge in Hebrew: manuscripts and early printed books.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Navas, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a short survey of the Hebrew textual production on medical literature during the Middle Ages in the West. It explores diverse trends in the writing and diffusion of medical texts from the creation of the Hebrew medical corpus, as well as the fortuna that the transmission of this genre had after the introduction of printing.

  6. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  7. Instructor Quality Affecting Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Preparedness: A LEADS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This represents one of a series of studies of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS) being undertaken by the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This secondary analysis of the LEADS database, which provides a…

  8. Using a Quasi-Experimental Research Design to Assess Knowledge in Continuing Medical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…

  9. Medical surveillance and biological monitoring of lead exposed employees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    Employee health protection is an employer responsibility. The multi-faceted aspects of employee protection from the potentially harmful effects of inorganic lead sometimes stress the relationships of several employer units. These include supervision and management, safety, operations and maintenance, engineering, environmental health, environmental management, and occupational medicine. The administrative aspects of program development are discussed. The purpose is to emphasize the opportunity for cooperation by all of the employee health components in developing an optimum surveillance and protection program.

  10. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  11. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  12. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: A case study from Transylvania (1770–1830)

    PubMed Central

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration’s initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the ‘nations’ living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. PMID:22595134

  13. Medical School Hotline: Developing communication skills for leading family meetings.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Michiko; Bell, Christina; Tamura, Bruce; Kasuya, Richard; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-06-01

    Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawai'i Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients' families.

  14. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  15. Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

  16. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education.

  17. Does the patients’ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    PubMed Central

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous

  18. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sprawls, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  19. Infectious diseases publications in leading medical journals--a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fätkenheuer, G; Roer, F; Hirschel, B; Cornely, O A; Salzberger, B

    2012-10-01

    The representation of medical disciplines in leading journals may provide valuable information on their respective importance for both researchers and funding agencies. We were interested in the scientific contribution of infectious diseases to leading medical journals and their ranking compared to other medical disciplines. Original articles and short communications in three leading medical journals from 2003 to 2009 were analyzed by contributing medical discipline and by nation: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), The Lancet, and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The medical disciplines were selected according to a standard textbook (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine). Each article was categorized into one to three medical disciplines. The most frequently represented disciplines in 3,953 articles were cardiology (19.5 %), infectious diseases (18.6 %), and hematology/oncology (15.9 %). Each of the journals had another leading discipline: cardiology in JAMA, hematology/oncology in NEJM, and infectious diseases in The Lancet. In the American journals, contributions from US researchers dominated the field (52.6 % in NEJM, 73.6 % in JAMA), while the majority of papers in The Lancet originated from non-US residents (76.5 %). This study underlines the importance of infectious diseases as a medical discipline in clinical research.

  20. Medical and psychology students' knowledge and attitudes regarding aging and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Rachel J; Zweig, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and sexuality, and contact with elders. The current study found that psychology students demonstrated greater aging knowledge than medical students; however, both groups showed gaps in knowledge about sexuality. Married students had greater academic/clinical exposure and greater knowledge about aging but less permissive attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Generally, knowledge about aging was the strongest correlate of knowledge about sexuality. Level of knowledge about sexuality was not associated with attitudes. Attitudes toward sexuality and aging may be more strongly tied to demographic variables reflective of religious beliefs or adherence to sociocultural norms.

  1. Biopiracy and the ethics of medical heritage: the case of India's traditional knowledge digital library'.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2012-09-01

    Medical humanities have a central role to play in combating biopiracy. Medical humanities scholars can articulate and communicate the complex structures of meaning and significance which human beings have invested in their ways of conceiving health and sickness. Such awareness of the moral significance of medical heritage is necessary to ongoing legal, political, and ethical debates regarding the status and protection of medical heritage. I use the Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a case study of the role of medical humanities in challenging biopiracy by deepening our sense of the moral value of medical heritage.

  2. Knowledge Based Components of Expertise in Medical Diagnosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    the psychology of reason- irg have been mirrored in artificial intelligence re- search which has shown an evolution from systems in which knowledge...that is. hypertrophies. An example protocol showing this argument ap- plied to left atrial enlargement and prominent pulmon - ary vasculature (the x...art of artificial intelligence, Themes and case studies of knowledge engineering. Proceedings IJCAI-5, 1977, 1014-1029. Fikes, R. A heuristic pro m

  3. Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients. PMID:26538940

  4. Medical Operations Support for ISS Operations - The Role of the BME Operations Team Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janney, Rob; Sabatier, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the biomedical flight controllers (BMEs), and BME Operations Team Leads (OTLs) in providing medical support for personnel on the International Space Station. This presentation will concentrate on role of the BME OTLs, who provide the integration function across the integration function across all Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) disciplines for operational products and medical procedures.

  5. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access.

  6. Medication knowledge of patients hospitalized for heart failure at admission and after discharge

    PubMed Central

    Custodis, Florian; Rohlehr, Franziska; Wachter, Angelika; Böhm, Michael; Schulz, Martin; Laufs, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Background A substantial aspect of health literacy is the knowledge of prescribed medication. In chronic heart failure, incomplete intake of prescribed drugs (medication non-adherence) is inversely associated with clinical prognosis. Therefore, we assessed medication knowledge in a cohort of patients with decompensated heart failure at hospital admission and after discharge in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and eleven patients presenting at the emergency department with acute decompensated heart failure were included (mean age 78.4±9.2, 59% men) in the study. Patients’ medication knowledge was assessed during individual interviews at baseline, course of hospitalization, and 3 months after discharge. Individual responses were compared with the medical records of the referring general practitioner. Results Median N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide plasma concentration in the overall population at baseline was 4,208 pg/mL (2,023–7,101 pg/mL [interquartile range]), 20 patients died between the second and third interview. The number of prescribed drugs increased from 8±3 at baseline to 9±3 after 3 months. The majority of patients did not know the correct number of their drugs. Medication knowledge decreased continuously from baseline to the third interview. At baseline, 37% (n=41) of patients stated the correct number of drugs to be taken, whereas only 18% (n=16) knew the correct number 3 months after discharge (P=0.008). Knowledge was inversely related to N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels. Conclusion Medication knowledge of patients with acute decompensated heart failure is poor. Despite care in a university hospital, patients’ individual medication knowledge decreased after discharge. The study reveals an urgent need for better strategies to improve and promote the knowledge of prescribed medication in these very high-risk patients. PMID:27877025

  7. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  8. Data mining and intelligent queries in a knowledge-based multimedia medical database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhua; Coleman, John D.

    2000-04-01

    Multimedia medical databases have accumulated large quantities of data and information about patients and their medical conditions. Patterns and relationships within this data could provide new knowledge for making better medical decisions. Unfortunately, few technologies have been developed and applied to discover and use this hidden knowledge. We are currently developing a next generation knowledge-based multimedia medical database, named MedBase, with advanced behaviors for data analysis and data fusion. As part of this R&D effort, a knowledge-rich data model is constructed to incorporate data mining techniques/tools to assist the building of medical knowledge bases, and to facilitate intelligent answering of users' investigative and knowledge queries in the database. Techniques such as data generalization, classification, clustering, semantic structures, and concept hierarchies, are used to acquire and represent both symbolic and spatial knowledge implicit in the database. With the availability of semantic structures, concept hierarchies and generalized knowledge, queries may be posed and answered at multiple levels of abstraction. In this article we provide a general description of the approaches and efforts undertaken so far in the MedBase project.

  9. The Impact of Curriculum Design in the Acquisition of Knowledge of Oncology: Comparison Among Four Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Aalders, Wytze S; Bremers, André J A; Tio, René A; de Vries, Jakob

    2017-04-03

    Over the past 5 years, cancer has replaced coronary heart disease as the leading cause of death in the Netherlands. It is thus paramount that medical doctors acquire a knowledge of cancer, since most of them will face many patients with cancer. Studies, however, have indicated that there is a deficit in knowledge of oncology among medical students, which may be due not only to the content but also to the structure of the curriculum. In this study, we compared students' knowledge acquisition in four different undergraduate medical programs. Further, we investigated possible factors that might influence students' knowledge growth as related to oncology. The participants comprised 1440 medical students distributed over four universities in the Netherlands. To measure students' knowledge of oncology, we used their progress test results from 2007 to 2013. The progress test consists of 200 multiple-choice questions; this test is taken simultaneously four times a year by all students. All questions regarding oncology were selected. We first compared the growth of knowledge of oncology using mixed models. Then, we interviewed the oncology coordinator of each university to arrive at a better insight of each curriculum. Two schools showed similar patterns of knowledge growth, with a slight decrease in the growth rate for one of them in year 6. The third school had a faster initial growth with a faster decrease over time compared to other medical schools. The fourth school showed a steep decrease in knowledge growth during years 5 and 6. The interviews showed that the two higher-scoring schools had a more focused semester on oncology, whereas in the others, oncology was scattered throughout the curriculum. Furthermore, the absence of a pre-internship training program seemed to hinder knowledge growth in one school. Our findings suggest that curricula have an influence on students' knowledge acquisition. A focused semester on oncology and a pre-internship preparatory training

  10. Self-Monitoring and Its Relationship to Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Meghan M.; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J.; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific…

  11. Friends of the National Library of Medicine - How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... Michael Spencer, NIH How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge You can be a part ...

  12. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  13. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  14. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Errea, Renato A.; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D.; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  15. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  16. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. PMID:26556558

  17. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  18. Innovative Computer-based Medical Knowledge Resources for Primary Care (SIG MED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Polin P.; McCain, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    Describes three innovative projects for a proposed session that address the information needs of primary care physicians: a standardized assessment method for information systems to integrate knowledge resources into clinical practice; a Web-based resource with clinical medical information from primary medical literature; and videotaped medical…

  19. Knowledge of Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians About Opiate Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shine, Daniel, Demas, Penelope

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire concerning knowledge of opiate abuse and attitudes about abusers was administered to 94 randomly selected physicians and medical students at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. The results indicated that physicians might benefit from improved teaching in the area of opiate abuse. (Author/MLW)

  20. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  2. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  3. Staff Knowledge of the Side Effects of Anti-Psychotic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretwell, Christine; Felce, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anti-psychotic medications are widely prescribed to people with intellectual disabilities and have a range of negative side effects. The aim was to identify the level of knowledge of anti-psychotic medications and their side effects among key carers or home managers of adults with intellectual disabilities living in residential group…

  4. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    PubMed

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  5. Unsupervised knowledge discovery in medical databases using relevance networks.

    PubMed Central

    Butte, A. J.; Kohane, I. S.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing amounts of data exist in medical databases. When multiple variables are measured for each case in a data set, there exists an underlying relationship between all pairs of variables, some highly correlated and some not. This report describes a technique that creates networks of related variables, or relevance networks, by dropping links with either too weak correlation or too few data points to defend the relationship. The paper describes how applying this methodology to the domain of laboratory results allows the generation of meaningful relations between types of laboratory tests. These relations could be used as the basis of further exploratory research. PMID:10566452

  6. Unsupervised knowledge discovery in medical databases using relevance networks.

    PubMed

    Butte, A J; Kohane, I S

    1999-01-01

    Increasing amounts of data exist in medical databases. When multiple variables are measured for each case in a data set, there exists an underlying relationship between all pairs of variables, some highly correlated and some not. This report describes a technique that creates networks of related variables, or relevance networks, by dropping links with either too weak correlation or too few data points to defend the relationship. The paper describes how applying this methodology to the domain of laboratory results allows the generation of meaningful relations between types of laboratory tests. These relations could be used as the basis of further exploratory research.

  7. Knowledge based acquisition of rules for medical diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Drastal, G.A.; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Medical consultation systems in the expert framework contain rules written under the guidance of expert physicians. The authors present a methodology and preliminary implementation of a system which learns compiled rule chains from positive case examples of a diagnostic class and negative examples of alternative diagnostic classes. Rule acquisition is guided by the constraints of physiological process models represented in the system. Evaluation of the system is proceeding in the area of glaucoma diagnosis, and an example of an experiment in this domain is included. 9 references.

  8. High-fidelity medical simulation training improves medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels in septic shock resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Vattanavanit, Veerapong; Kawla-ied, Jarernporn; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2017-01-01

    Background Septic shock resuscitation bundles have poor compliance worldwide partly due to a lack of knowledge and clinical skills. High-fidelity simulation-based training is a new teaching technology in our faculty which may improve the performance of medical students in the resuscitation process. However, since the efficacy of this training method in our institute is limited, we organized an extra class for this evaluation. Purpose The aim was to evaluate the effect on medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels after the high-fidelity medical simulation training in septic shock management. Methods A retrospective study was performed in sixth year medical students during an internal medicine rotation between November 2015 and March 2016. The simulation class was a 2-hour session of a septic shock management scenario and post-training debriefing. Knowledge assessment was determined by a five-question pre-test and post-test examination. At the end of the class, the students completed their confidence evaluation questionnaire. Results Of the 79 medical students, the mean percentage score ± standard deviation (SD) of the post-test examination was statistically significantly higher than the pre-test (66.83%±19.7% vs 47.59%±19.7%, p<0.001). In addition, the student mean percentage confidence level ± SD in management of septic shock was significantly better after the simulation class (68.10%±12.2% vs 51.64%±13.1%, p<0.001). They also strongly suggested applying this simulation class to the current curriculum. Conclusion High-fidelity medical simulation improved the students’ knowledge and confidence in septic shock resuscitation. This simulation class should be included in the curriculum of the sixth year medical students in our institute. PMID:28053558

  9. Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

  10. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  11. [Current knowledge among students of the Silesian Medical Academy about the importance and role of medical care funds].

    PubMed

    Tyrpień, Mirosław; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Steplewski, Zygmunt; Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Woźniak, Joanna; Malara, Beata

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was verification and comparison of the present state of knowledge among the students of different departments and years of study. The questions concerned the role of Medical Care Funds in the up-to-now healthcare system and the patient's rights as far as the students' future professions as doctors, dentists, healthcare managers and medical rescuers is concerned. The questionnaire included 15 questions referring to the problem of functioning of the medical care institutions after the reform of healthcare services introduced in 1999. Distinct from most of the published works of this kind, the authors adopted a uniform "assessment" method following the principles of didactic measurement. The researchers calculated: Range, Modal, Mediana, Arithmetic Average, Variance, Standard Deviation, Easiness of the Task, Difficulty of the Task, Skip Fraction, the Task's Differentiating Power, Reliability Coefficient of the Test. The calculation was conducted with the use of the Excel programme modified by the researchers to suit the needs of didactic measurement. The survey included 104 students of the 3rd year of Dental Department, 116 of the students 4th year of Dental Department, 31 students of Bachelor's Medical Rescue Studies by the Medical Department in Zabrze, 18 students of Post-Graduate Management and Administration in Healthcare by the Medical Department in Zabrze and Silesian Technical University, 151 4th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze and 121 6th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze. It has been proved that between the particular groups there are significant differences as far as the students' knowledge is concerned ("the healthcare managers" demonstrated quite a high knowledge ratio). And that the questions were at different difficulty levels depending on the branch and year of study represented by the respondents.

  12. Patient knowledge and pulmonary medication adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ann Hsu-An; Kendrick, Jennifer G; Wilcox, Pearce G; Quon, Bradley S

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Patient knowledge of lung function (ie, forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]% predicted) and the intended benefits of their prescribed pulmonary medications might play an important role in medication adherence, but this relationship has not been examined previously in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods All patients diagnosed with CF and without prior lung transplantation were invited to complete knowledge and self-reported medication adherence questionnaires during routine outpatient visits to the Adult CF Clinic, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada from June 2013 to August 2014. Results A total of 142 out of 167 (85%) consecutive adults attending CF clinic completed patient knowledge and medication adherence survey questionnaires. Sixty-four percent of the patients recalled their last FEV1% predicted value within 5%, and 70% knew the intended benefits of all their prescribed medications. Self-reported adherence rates were highest for inhaled antibiotics (81%), azithromycin (87%), and dornase alpha (76%) and lowest for hypertonic saline (47%). Individuals who knew their FEV1% predicted value within 5% were more likely to self-report adherence to dornase alpha (84% vs 62%, P=0.06) and inhaled antibiotics (88% vs 64%, P=0.06) compared to those who did not, but these associations were not statistically significant. There were no significant associations observed between patient knowledge of intended medication benefits and self-reported medication adherence. Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, disease- and treatment-related knowledge was not associated with self-reported medication adherence. This suggests other barriers to medication adherence should be targeted in future studies aiming to improve medication adherence in adults with CF.

  13. ['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

    2014-12-01

    Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual

  14. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results.

  15. Collaborative work and medical talk: opportunities for learning through knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Line Lundvoll; Ludvigsen, Sten R

    2010-01-01

    Teleconsultations provide new opportunities for learning in medical settings. This study explores the conditions under which learning among physicians takes place. The empirical context is 47 real-time video conferences carried out to examine collaborative work and the medical talk involved. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein general practitioners (GPs) and specialists shared knowledge with the purpose of solving a medical problem related to a patient under treatment. In this exploratory study, the learning opportunities are seen as what medical practitioners with different types of expertise achieve through interaction while working with patients over periods of time. The analysis of medical talk in consultations shows that collaborative work among GPs and specialists creates a shared understanding of the patient's clinical history and treatment trajectory. As knowledge is demanded and attributed and gaps of knowledge become shared, consultations create a work tool that expands the medical work and talk. Collaborative work in and between different levels of the health care service expands knowledge, creates opportunities for learning in everyday settings, and improves the quality of knowledge distribution in the health care system.

  16. Negotiating science and experience in medical knowledge: gynaecologists on endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyses the gynaecological literature on endometriosis, particularly endometriosis classification, to evaluate the epistemological concepts it uses. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on a sample of gynaecological literature published between 1985 and 2000, a period that witnessed the explosion of both evidence-based and patient-centred models of medicine, with their dwelling emphases on science and experience. It was found that the discourse of science is used strategically in this literature as a formal epistemology to lend weight to authors' claims and to guide medical thinking and research. However, gynaecologists also use the notion of experience to assert their own credibility and to question the credibility of other experts. In fact, accounts of their own experience and the experiential accounts of their patients are foundational to gynaecologists' claims-making activities, including their engagement with scientific research.

  17. Clinical and basic science teachers' opinions about the required depth of biomedical knowledge for medical students.

    PubMed

    Koens, Franciska; Custers, Eugène J F M; ten Cate, Olle T J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether basic scientists and physicians agree on the required depth of biomedical knowledge of medical students at graduation. A selection of basic science and clinical teachers rated the relevance of biomedical topics for students at graduation, illustrated by 80 example items. The items were derived from ten organ systems and designed at four levels: clinical, organ, cellular and molecular. Respondents were asked to identify for each item to what extent recently graduated medical students should have knowledge about it. In addition, they were asked to indicate whether the content of the item should be included in the medical curriculum. Analysis showed that basic scientists and physicians do not diverge at the clinical level. At the organ, cellular and molecular levels however, basic scientists judge that medical students should have more active knowledge. As expected, basic scientists also indicate that more deep level content should be included. Explanations for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  18. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghaddos, Elaheh; Hejazi, Mehdi; Safari, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been vastly used in ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging. In this paper, firstly, the most promising lead-free compositions with perovskite structure for medical imaging applications have been reviewed. The electromechanical properties of various lead-free ceramics, composites, and single crystals based on barium titanate, bismuth sodium titanate, potassium sodium niobate, and lithium niobate are presented. Then, fundamental principles and design considerations of ultrasonic transducers are briefly described. Finally, recent developments in lead-free ultrasonic probes are discussed and their acoustic performance is compared to lead-based transducers. Focused transducers with different beam focusing methods such as lens focusing and mechanical shaping are explained. Additionally, acoustic characteristics of lead-free probes including the pulse-echo results as well as their imaging capabilities for various applications such as phantom imaging, in vitro intravascular ultrasound imaging of swine aorta, and in vivo or ex vivo imaging of human eyes and skin are reviewed.

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors on medical ethics in a teaching hospital, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Brogen, Akoijam S; Rajkumari, Bishwalata; Laishram, Jalina; Joy, Akoijam

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge of and attitudes to, medical ethics among doctors in the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur. It also looked at the association between levels of knowledge and selected variables. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to all doctors working in RIMS, Imphal between September and October 2007. 315 of 440 (71.6%) doctors contacted, responded. 62.2% of respondents (196) were below 35 years of age. 22.5% (71) were faculty members. 98.7% (311) had heard of the Code of Medical Ethics but only 188 (59.7%) had read it, even in part. 69.2% (218) felt that the undergraduate curriculum on medical ethics was not adequate. 10.5% (33) could describe what medical professionalism meant. Knowledge of medical ethics was higher among those who were over 35 years of age, those who graduated before 1999 and those having higher educational qualifications. The doctors in this survey lacked adequate and detailed knowledge on the code of ethics, though most of them had read it once. There is a need to sensitise doctors on medical ethics and professionalism.

  20. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS ON THE USE OF COUGH AND COLD MEDICATIONS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged < or =6 years in selected kindergartens. The overall knowledge of the parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged <2 years. Age of the parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (p<0.05). Spearman's rank-order correlation between knowledge and attitude scores showed a statistically significant positive linear relationship (r(s), = 0.290, p<0.05). The study provides some insights into the use of cough and cold medications in children from the parents' perspectives.

  1. Unsupervised method for extracting machine understandable medical knowledge from a large free text collection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Das, Amar K; Garber, Alan M

    2009-11-14

    Definitions of medical concepts (e.g diseases, drugs) are essential background knowledge for researchers, clinicians and health care consumers. However, the rapid growth of biomedical research requires that such knowledge continually needs updating. To address this problem, we have developed an unsupervised pattern learning approach that extracts disease and drug definitions from automatically structured randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts. In addition, each extracted definition is semantically classified without relying on external medical knowledge. When used to identify definitions from 100 manually annotated RCT abstracts, our medical definition knowledge base has precision of 0.97, recall of 0.93, F1 of 0.94 and semantic classification accuracy of 0.96.

  2. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  3. Medical literature as a potential source of new knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Specialized biomedical literatures have been found that are implicitly linked by arguments that they respectively contain, but which nonetheless do not cite or refer to each other. The combined arguments lead to new inferences and conclusions that cannot be drawn from the separate literatures. One such analysis identified one set of articles showing that dietary fish oils lead to certain blood and vascular changes, and a second set containing evidence that similar changes might benefit patients with Raynaud's syndrome. Yet these two literatures had no articles in common and had never before been cited together; neither literature mentioned the other or suggested that dietary fish oil might benefit Raynaud patients. Two years after publication of that analysis, the first clinical trial demonstrating such a beneficial effect was reported independently by others. A second example of literature synthesis, based on eleven indirect connections, led to an inference that magnesium deficiency might be a causal factor in migraine headache. A third example calls attention to implicit connections between arginine intake and blood levels of somatomedins, a potentially fruitful but neglected area of research with implications for the decline with age of thymic function and protein synthesis. A model and an online search strategy to aid in identifying other logically related noninteractive literatures is described. Such structures are probably not rare and may provide the foundation for a literature-based approach to scientific discovery. PMID:2403828

  4. [Books and medical knowledge in the ancient world].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Guglielmo

    2002-01-01

    Books have been used by medici in Antiquity - different kind of books for different kind of medici. Galen is the best example of a medicus with a strong interest not only in theoretical medicine, but also in a material crafting of the books, as well as in the making of the text. But he is an exception. Books in late Antiquity came in two different formats: the codex and the rotulus. The former was to be the one to survive: by the late IV century A.D., rotuli - difficult to handle and to read - had virtually disappeared. Codices were diffused in medical milieux, as well as in other milieux where culture was popularized (e.g. Christianity), probably because they were more user-friendly and manageable even for a non-cultivated public. Codices were used for practical purposes and for practical therapeutics, and allowed the reader to write on margins, thus enhancing their practical usefulness. On the contrary, books had a scanty use for didactic purposes, learning from the voice of the magister being the privileged form of transmission.

  5. Knowledge Discovery in Medical Mining by using Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Medical Data mining could be thought of as the search for relationships and patterns within the medical data, which facilitates the acquisition of useful knowledge for effective medical diagnosis. Consequently, the predictability of disease will become more effective and the early detection of disease certainly facilitates an increased exposure to required patient care with focused treatment, economic feasibility and improved cure rates. So, the present investigation is carried on medical data(PIMA) using DM and GA based Neural Network technique and the results predict that the methodology is not only reliable but also helps in furthering the scope of the subject.

  6. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  7. Knowledge of Palliative Care Among Medical Interns in a Tertiary Health Institution in Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Daniel Chukwunyere; Singh, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14) years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1%) of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4%) to 14/49 (28.6%) while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4%) to 19/49 (38.8%). This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009). Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum. PMID:27559266

  8. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals-Iran.

    PubMed

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-11-01

    Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians' competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students' curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject.The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05.Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%-52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%-63.55%) had not heard the term "medical professionalism" before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67.The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to have a proper knowledge of

  9. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals—Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians’ competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students’ curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject. The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05. Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%–52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%–63.55%) had not heard the term “medical professionalism” before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67. The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to

  10. A JAVA implementation of a medical knowledge base for decision support.

    PubMed

    Ambrosiadou, V; Goulis, D; Shankararaman, V; Shamtani, G

    1999-01-01

    Distributed decision support is a challenging issue requiring the implementation of advanced computer science techniques together with tools of development which offer ease of communication and efficiency of searching and control performance. This paper presents a JAVA implementation of a knowledge base model called ARISTOTELES which may be used in order to support the development of the medical knowledge base by clinicians in diverse specialised areas of interest. The advantages that are evident by the application of such a cognitive model are ease of knowledge acquisition, modular construction of the knowledge base and greater acceptance from clinicians.

  11. Health care in its right mind: medical harm and the knowledge revolution part one--the state of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Wendell W

    2012-01-01

    The "Tao of Medicine" is patient-centeredness and is most succinctly summarized by W.W. Mayo, MD, as, "the best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered, and in order that the sick may have the benefit of advancing knowledge, union of forces is necessary". This calling, also known by its more familiar designation, the Art of Medicine, is true for all times and all places, serving as our ideal, our law and our conscience. It, therefore, meets the definition of a universal. It is only a culture of safety that will support the Art of Medicine and sustain improvement within the deeply complex, tightly coupled and highly contextual world of health care delivery.

  12. Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons.

  13. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029

  14. The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C

    2016-07-01

    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations in their understanding. For passive expertise (familiar topics), miscalibration is moderated by education; those with more education are accurate in their self-assessments (Experiment 1). But when those with more education consider topics related to their area of concentrated study (college major), they also display an illusion of understanding (Experiment 2). This "curse of expertise" is explained by a failure to recognize the amount of detailed information that had been forgotten (Experiment 3). While expertise can sometimes lead to accurate self-knowledge, it can also create illusions of competence.

  15. The Surgeon General's Policy Statement on Medical Aspects of Childhood Lead Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Jesse L.

    This document is a policy statement written by the Bureau of Community Environmental Management and approved by the Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose is to assist in the development and implementation of programs for the control of lead poisoning in children. Information included covers the medical aspects of…

  16. Disciplined doctors: the electronic medical record and physicians' changing relationship to medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the effects of the electronic medical record (EMR) on the power of the medical profession. It is based on twenty-five in-depth interviews with administrators and physicians across three departments of a large, U.S. integrated health system, as well as ethnographic observation, all of which took place between September of 2009 and December of 2010. While scholarship on professional power has tended toward the opposite poles of professional dominance and deprofessionalization or proletarianization, I find that doctors' interactions with the EMR reconcile these perspectives by making physicians' professional identities consistent with their subordination to bureaucratic authority. After examining the electronic medical record as a disciplinary technology, the paper analyzes variation in the extent to which practitioners' professional identities are reconciled with bureaucratic subordination across the different departments studies.

  17. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  18. [The informed patient and medical knowledge: a virtual ethnography study of Facebook communities of the infirm].

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto, André; Barbosa, Letícia; Silva, Adriano da; Dantas, Monica Lucia Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Today's world has brought the emergence of the "informed patient:" someone who becomes well-informed about his or her medical condition through extensive research and information-sharing on the Internet. The article explores the following question: Do informed patients foster citizen empowerment or do they expand the command of existing biomedical knowledge? Using virtual ethnography, an exploratory study was conducted on three online Facebook groups of people with diabetes, hepatitis C, and Aids. Findings suggest points of tension between Facebook members and their healthcare providers. It may be that the empowerment fostered by the Internet and the validity of current medical knowledge are not mutually exclusive.

  19. Knowledge translation in the emergency medical services: a research agenda for advancing prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about knowledge translation in the practice of out-of-hospital medicine. It is generally accepted that much work is needed regarding "getting the evidence straight" in emergency medical services, given the substantial number of interventions that are performed regularly in the field but lack meaningful scientific support. Additional attention also needs to be given to "getting the evidence used," because there is some evidence that evidence-based practices are being incompletely or incorrectly applied in the field. In an effort to help advance a research agenda for knowledge translation in emergency medical services, nine recommendations are put forth to help address the problems identified.

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics among physician residents of University of Alexandria Hospitals, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Ghanem, M A; Kassem, A

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics of physician residents at university hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for knowledge and perceptions and a checklist for observations of doctor-patient interactions in the outpatient setting. Only 18.0% ofthe 128 participating residents had obtained their knowledge from their medical education and 29.9% were dissatisfied with the roles played by the ethics committee. Most of the residents had satisfactory knowledge and 60.2% had satisfactory perceptions regarding ethical issues. The lowest perception score was in the domain of disclosing medical errors. Only 48.0% of the residents were compliant with the principles of medical ethics in practice and 52.0% of patients were dissatisfied with their treating physicians. The study identified areas of unsatisfactory knowledge and practices towards ethical issues so as to devise means to sensitize residents to these issues and train them appropriately.

  1. Knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey about the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic health.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Zekeriya; Alkan, Banu Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and systemic health (SH) is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey with regard to the association between PD and SH. This study was carried out using self-reported questionnaires that were sent to medical doctors who work at various universities and public and private hospitals in different cities in Turkey. The questionnaires consisted of questions about the demographic information of the medical doctors, as well as the knowledge of those doctors about the relationship between PD and SH. In total, 1,766 responses were received and 90.8% of the participants agreed that there was a relationship between PD and SH. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent systemic disease (66.8%) known to be related to PD. Of the participants, 56.5% of the medical doctors referred their patients to periodontists for different reasons. Gingival bleeding was the most frequent reason for patient referrals, with 44% of doctors giving such referrals. Doctors who worked in basic medical sciences were significantly less aware of the relationship between PD and SH than the doctors in other specialties. Although the vast majority of the medical doctors reported that they knew the relationship between PD and SH, the findings of this study showed that this awareness was not supported by precise knowledge, and often failed to translate into appropriate clinical practice.

  2. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  3. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem (“Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb”) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17th century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  4. The networks from medical knowledge and clinical practice have small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachimori, Yutaka; Iwanaga, Hiroaki; Tahara, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Here, we constructed and analyzed a network (henceforth, “medical knowledge network”) derived from a commonly used medical text. We show that this medical knowledge network has small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features. We then constructed a network from data from a hospital information system that reflected actual clinical practice and found that this network also had small-world, scale-free, and hierarchical features. Moreover, we found that both the diagnosis frequency distribution of the hospital network and the diagnosis degree distribution of the medical knowledge network obeyed a similar power law. These findings suggest that the structure of clinical practice may emerge from the mutual influence of medical knowledge and clinical practice, and that the analysis of a medical knowledge network may facilitate the investigation of the characteristics of medical practice.

  5. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  6. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  7. Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

  8. Enhancing Nursing Students' Medication Knowledge: The Effect of Learning Materials Delivered by Short Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using mobile phone short message service (SMS) to enhance knowledge of medications among nursing students. A quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 111 nursing students who were taking a pharmacology course at a university in southern Taiwan received an invitation to…

  9. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  10. Medical Students' Personal Knowledge, Searching Proficiency, and Database Use in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between personal knowledge in a domain and online searching proficiency in that domain, and the relationship between searching proficiency and database-assisted problem-solving performance based on a study of medical students. Search results, selection of terms, and efficiency were found to be related to problem-solving…

  11. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  12. Prescribing knowledge and skills of final year medical students in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, K.A.; Bello, J.A.; Ayorinde, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge of final year medical students in Nigeria, about good prescribing and the application of this knowledge to their prescribing skills. Materials and Methods: Thirty four final year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM), Ikeja, were interviewed with a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the principles of good prescribing. They were also requested to write a prescription, based on a paediatric clinical scenario of malaria and upper respiratory tract infection. The prescription was used to assess their prescribing skills. Results: Thirty one (91.18%) students knew that rational prescribing involved prescribing correct dosage of an appropriate medicine formulation. Factors considered important by the students to prescribe rationally were: Potential benefit: risk ratio of a medicine - 33 (97.06%); good knowledge of pharmacology - 29 (85.29%) and pathophysiology of the disease to be treated - 24 (70.59%); and safety of an alternative medicine to be used - 24 (70.59%). An average of 3.71 medicines was prescribed for a child suspected to have malaria. Antimalarials (38.24%) and paracetamol (20%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. The name and signature of the prescriber were available in 51.61% and 58.06% prescriptions, respectively. Less than 50% prescriptions had the name, case file number, age and gender of the patient. Conclusion: The final year medical students of LASUCOM would require theoretical and practical teaching of principles of rational prescribing to improve their prescribing knowledge and skills. PMID:21279180

  13. Combining Task Execution and Background Knowledge for the Verification of Medical Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommersom, Arjen; Groot, Perry; Lucas, Peter; Balser, Michael; Schmitt, Jonathan

    The use of a medical guideline can be seen as the execution of computational tasks, sequentially or in parallel, in the face of patient data. It has been shown that many of such guidelines can be represented as a 'network of tasks', i.e., as a number of steps that have a specific function or goal. To investigate the quality of such guidelines we propose a formalization of criteria for good practice medicine a guideline should comply to. We use this theory in conjunction with medical background knowledge to verify the quality of a guideline dealing with diabetes mellitus type 2 using the interactive theorem prover KIV. Verification using task execution and background knowledge is a novel approach to quality checking of medical guidelines.

  14. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home Find a Lead-Safe Certified firm Before you renovate Before you buy or rent a home built before 1978 Test your home's drinking water Test for lead in paint, dust or soil ...

  15. Physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding management of medications in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M

    2014-02-11

    To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area.

  16. Knowledge about cancer screening among medical students and internal medicine residents in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; García-Aceituno, Luis; Villa, Antonio R; Perfecto-Arroyo, Miguel; Rojas-Flores, Miriam; León-Rodríguez, Eucario

    2010-12-01

    It is extremely important that physicians are aware of cancer screening precise indications. We sought to explore its knowledge among Mexican medical students and internal medicine residents. Students and residents completed a questionnaire-based survey about breast, cervical, colon, and prostate cancer screening. Four hundred fifty-one individuals answered the survey: 64.52% students and 35.48% residents. Mean knowledge score was 63.97 ± 14.97. Residents scored higher than students (p = 0.0001). No difference in the education concerning cervical and colon cancer screening was found. Knowledge of screening guidelines is suboptimal among medical students and residents. Further efforts should be targeted to educational and training programs in this country.

  17. Science attitudes and knowledge among preclinical medical students in Pokhara, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Upadhyay, Dinesh K; Subish, P; Mishra, Pranaya

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge of science and the scientific method are important in learning about and using evidence-based medicine in practice. Courses in research methodology have been introduced for both medical students and practicing doctors. In Pokhara, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Studies on students' attitudes towards and knowledge of science are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Hence the study was carried out to obtain information on students' attitude towards and knowledge of science and scientific methodology among preclinical medical students and note the association, if any, of students' attitudes and their demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in March 2005 among the students of the first four semesters at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using a questionnaire developed by Hren and coworkers. Two hundred and twenty students (overall response rate 73.3%) successfully completed the questionnaire. Seventy-five respondents were Nepalese, 115 were Indians, 27 were Sri Lankans and 3 belonged to other nationalities. The X +/- SD total attitude score was 147.4 +/- 10.8 (neutral score 135). The X +/- SD scores on the subscales, value of science to humanity, value of scientific methodology and value of science to medicine were 51.3 +/- 5.4, 39.6 +/- 3.7 and 58.5 +/- 5.9 (neutral scores were 36, 51 and 48 respectively). The knowledge score measured using a set of 8 multiple choice questions was 3.3 +/- 1.4. The attitude scores were lower and the knowledge score was comparable to that reported previously in a study in Croatia but higher than that reported from Southeast Europe.

  18. Medication-indication knowledge bases: a systematic review and critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tran H; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medication-indication information is a key part of the information needed for providing decision support for and promoting appropriate use of medications. However, this information is not readily available to end users, and a lot of the resources only contain this information in unstructured form (free text). A number of public knowledge bases (KBs) containing structured medication-indication information have been developed over the years, but a direct comparison of these resources has not yet been conducted. Material and Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all medication-indication KBs and critically appraised these resources in terms of their scope as well as their support for complex indication information. Results We identified 7 KBs containing medication-indication data. They notably differed from each other in terms of their scope, coverage for on- or off-label indications, source of information, and choice of terminologies for representing the knowledge. The majority of KBs had issues with granularity of the indications as well as with representing duration of therapy, primary choice of treatment, and comedications or comorbidities. Discussion and Conclusion This is the first study directly comparing public KBs of medication indications. We identified several gaps in the existing resources, which can motivate future research. PMID:26335981

  19. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  20. Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %), acupuncture (80.8 %), hypnosis (78.8 %), body-based practices including massage (77 %) and meditation (65.2 %), respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p < 0.05). Females and first year students, generally had more positive attitudes. A larger proportion of female students compared to male students reported that a doctor should be knowledgeable about CAM (p = 0.001), and this knowledge would be helpful in their future professional lives (p = 0.015). Positive attitudes towards and willingness to receive training declined as the number of years spent in the faculty of medicine increased. Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards. PMID:22862993

  1. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M. J.; Barnett, G. O.; Morgan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807600

  2. A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ayurvedic medications consist of herbs that may be intentionally combined with metals, such as lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. Ayurvedic practitioners and their patients believe that the toxic properties of the metals are reduced or eliminated during preparation and processing. Case report A 69 year old Caucasian male retired professional with a prior history of stroke presented for evaluation of new onset depression, fatigue, generalized weakness, constipation, anorexia, and weight loss. History revealed that his symptoms were temporally related to initiation of an Ayurvedic herbal medication. The patient had been previously admitted to another hospital for these symptoms and was found to have a severe anemia for which no etiology was found. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated blood lead level and a diagnosis of symptomatic lead toxicity was made. The patient was treated with intramuscular, intravenous, and oral chelation therapy to promote lead excretion. Because of complaints of continued poor mental function, neuropsychological tests were administered before and after one of the chelation treatments and showed improvement in measures of attention and other cognitive domains. In addition, the patient was able to discontinue use of antidepressant medication after chelation. Discussion A high index of suspicion of metal toxicity is necessary among persons with characteristic symptoms and signs in the absence of occupational exposure. Despite limited evidence for chelation in adults and in those with modest blood lead levels, this patient appeared to benefit from repeated chelation therapy. Both allopathic and alternative medicine practitioners and public health specialists need to be aware of the potential for contamination of and side effects from alternative pharmacologic and herbal therapies. PMID:24083830

  3. Pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Kate; Footman, Katharine; Akora, Vitalis; Liambila, Wilson; Ngo, Thoai D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharmacy workers had limited knowledge of correct medical abortion regimens, side effects and complications and the legal status of abortion drugs. 49.8% of pharmacy workers reported providing abortion information to clients and 4.3% reported providing abortion methods. 75.2% of pharmacies referred mystery clients to another provider, though 64.2% of pharmacies advised mystery clients to continue with their pregnancy. Pharmacy workers reported that they were experiencing demand for abortion services from clients. Conclusions Pharmacy workers are important providers of information and referrals for women seeking abortion, however their medical abortion knowledge is limited. Training pharmacy workers on medical abortion may improve the quality of information provided and access to safe abortion. PMID:26869694

  4. Managing knowledge and technology to foster innovation at the Ohio State University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Cain, Timothy J; Rodman, Ruey L; Sanfilippo, Fred; Kroll, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Biomedical knowledge is expanding at an unprecedented rate-one that is unlikely to slow anytime in the future. While the volume and scope of this new knowledge poses significant organizational challenges, it creates tremendous opportunities to release and direct its power to the service of significant goals. The authors explain how the Center for Knowledge Management at The Ohio State University Medical Center, created during the academic year 2003-04, is doing just that by integrating numerous resource-intensive, technology-based initiatives-including personnel, services and infrastructure, digital repositories, data sets, mobile computing devices, high-tech patient simulators, computerized testing, and interactive multimedia-in a way that enables the center to provide information tailored to the needs of students, faculty and staff on the medical center campus and its surrounding health sciences colleges. The authors discuss how discovering, applying, and sharing new knowledge, information assets, and technologies in this way is a collaborative process. This process creates open-ended opportunities for innovation and a roadmap for working toward seamless integration, synergy, and substantial enhancement of the academic medical center's research, educational, and clinical mission areas.

  5. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  6. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians’ Assistants

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Christopher J.; Le Ngoc, Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Nguyen Viet, Ha; Larson Williams, Anna; Nguyen Van, Tan; McNabb, Marion; Tran Thi Ngoc, Lien; Falconer, Ariel; An Phan Ha, Hai; Rohr, Julia; Hoang, Hai; Michiel, James; Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tam; Bird, Liat; Pham Vu, Hoang; Yeshitla, Mahlet; Ha Van, Nhu; Sabin, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW’s clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician’s Assistants–CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations. Methods The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy. Results 638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did

  7. Physician assisted suicide: knowledge and views of fifth-year medical students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More than a third of the students viewed PAS in certain situations to be ethically acceptable whereas a smaller proportion thought that it should be legal. Compared with German physicians the medical students taking part in this study were less opposed to PAS. The majority perceived the undergraduate training concerning ethical aspect of assisted death as deficient.

  8. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  9. Mother's Health Knowledge and Its Links with the Illness and Medical Care of Their Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patra, Shraboni; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The level of mother's health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children's health and medical care, and spending on medical care. This relationship has not yet been empirically assessed in India. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of health knowledge of mothers in India and its…

  10. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  11. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace...

  12. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  13. Intelligent Physiologic Modeling: An Application of Knowledge Based Systems Technology to Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kunstaetter, Robert

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes the design and implementation of a knowledge based physiologic modeling system (KBPMS) and a preliminary evaluation of its use as a learning resource within the context of an experimental medical curriculum -- the Harvard New Pathway. KBPMS possesses combined numeric and qualitative simulation capabilities and can provide explanations of its knowledge and behaviour. It has been implemented on a microcomputer with a user interface incorporating interactive graphics. The preliminary evaluation of KBPMS is based on anecdotal data which suggests that the system might have pedagogic potential. Much work remains to be done in enhancing and further evaluating KBPMS.

  14. The politics of healthcare informatics: knowledge management using an electronic medical record system.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Shirly

    2015-03-01

    The design and implementation of an electronic medical record system pose significant epistemological and practical complexities. Despite optimistic assessments of their potential contribution to the quality of care, their implementation has been problematic, and their actual employment in various clinical settings remains controversial. Little is known about how their use actually mediates knowing. Employing a variety of qualitative research methods, this article attempts an answer by illustrating how omitting, editing and excessive reporting were employed as part of nurses' and physicians' political efforts to shape knowledge production and knowledge sharing in a technologically mediated healthcare setting.

  15. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  16. Effect of a medical care evaluation program on physician knowledge and performance.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J A; Sandlow, L J; Bashook, P G

    1984-01-01

    A model program designed to increase the educational value of medical care evaluation committee meetings was studied to determine its effect on the knowledge and clinical performance of participating physicians. The members of hospital committees in which the program was successfully implemented showed a statistically significant gain in knowledge of the topics discussed by their committees. In addition, several members made substantial changes in their patient care practices. These changes resulted not so much from the acquisition of new medical information as from a rethinking of patient management strategies, stimulated by peer discussion during committee meetings. A structure that encourages such discussions can be incorporated in other types of patient-care-oriented committee activities as well.

  17. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  18. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-17

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, among medical doctors. Data was collected from consenting individuals in the age group of 25-65 years by convenience sampling method. A semi-structured, pretested, questionnaire designed to assess KAP regarding whole body donation was provided to the study population (n = 106); 97 individuals returned the completed questionnaire. Results showed that 8% of the medical professionals were unaware of the term body donation and 85% believed that donated bodies were misused. A large proportion of the respondents did not know about the authority that oversaw body donation, or its criteria for accepting donated bodies and diseases for which bodies were screened before acceptance. Only 22% of polled physicians were willing to donate their bodies for medical education, but 68% expected the public to do the same. While only 7% had already registered their own names for body donation, 64% were not aware of any known person having registered and 72% indicated that their decision would not be influenced even if they knew of friends who had registered. These results suggest that educating medical students and professionals regarding the altruistic act of body donation is as important as educating the general public.

  20. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical... replacement of a lost or destroyed medical certificate must be made: (1) By letter to the Department...

  1. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... place and date of the medical exam, name of the Airman Medical Examiner (AME), and the circumstances... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.29 Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or...

  2. Knowledge-based image understanding and classification system for medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Gaborski, Roger S.; Acharya, Raj S.

    2002-05-01

    With the advent of Computer Radiographs(CR) and Digital Radiographs(DR), image understanding and classification in medical image databases have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based image understanding and classification system for medical image databases. An object-oriented knowledge model has been introduced and the idea that content features of medical images must hierarchically match to the related knowledge model is used. As a result of finding the best match model, the input image can be classified. The implementation of the system includes three stages. The first stage focuses on the match of the coarse pattern of the model class and has three steps: image preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network classification. Once the coarse shape classification is done, a small set of plausible model candidates are then employed for a detailed match in the second stage. Its match outputs imply the result models might be contained in the processed images. Finally, an evaluation strategy is used to further confirm the results. The performance of the system has been tested on different types of digital radiographs, including pelvis, ankle, elbow and etc. The experimental results suggest that the system prototype is applicable and robust, and the accuracy of the system is near 70% in our image databases.

  3. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002

  4. Relationship between patients’ knowledge and medication adherence among patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge on arterial hypertension (AH) and its management, and adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. Methods The study included 233 patients diagnosed with AH and treated with hypotensive drugs for at least 1 year. The 8-item © Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) were used. Results Sixty-three percent of the patients had a low level of knowledge on AH, with the smallest proportion of correct answers provided for items related to non-pharmaceutical treatment, diet, hypertension definition, and drug adherence. When compared to patients with a high level of knowledge, those with a low knowledge had lower scores in the MMAS (6.45±1.45 vs 7.08±1.04; P=0.038). Multiple-factor analysis showed that statistically significant independent determinants of good adherence included a high level of knowledge (β=0.208; P=0.001), non-pharmaceutical treatment (β=0.182; P=0.006), and frequent blood pressure measurements (β=0.183; P=0.004). The most significant factor in MMAS was knowledge in the “drug adherence” domain (ρ=0.303; P<0.001). Conclusion Patients’ knowledge on hypertension is a significant independent determinant of good adherence. Other independent determinants include non-pharmaceutical treatment and regular blood pressure measurements. Implication for practice The identification of knowledge deficits as a factor contributing to lack of adherence and poor hypertension control remains a key challenge for multidisciplinary team caring for patients with hypertension. PMID:27994443

  5. Medical students' knowledge of indications for imaging modalities and cost analysis of incorrect requests, shiraz, iran 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Jalli, Reza; Danaei, Mina; Khajavian, Shiva; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff). Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  6. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  7. Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eseigbe, E E; Nuhu, F T; Sheikh, T L; Eseigbe, P; Sanni, K A; Olisah, V O

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ≥15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of malaysian medical and pharmacy students towards human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Hesham H; Saat, Nur Zakiah N Mohd; Abd Manan, Dahlia Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students.

  9. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  11. Safe paediatric intensive care. Part 1: Does more medical care lead to improved outcome?

    PubMed

    Frey, Bernhard; Argent, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    Neonatal and paediatric intensive care has improved the prognosis for seriously sick infants and children. This has happened because of a pragmatic approach focused on stabilisation of vital functions and immense technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, the belief that more medical care must inevitably lead to improved health is increasingly being questioned. This issue is especially relevant in developing countries where the introduction of highly specialised paediatric intensive care may not lead to an overall fall in child mortality. Even in developed countries, the complexity and availability of therapeutics and invasive procedures may put seriously ill children at additional risk. In both developing and industrialised countries the use of safe and simple procedures for appropriate periods, particular attention to drug prescription patterns and selection of appropriate aims and modes of therapy, including non-invasive methods, may minimise the risks of paediatric intensive care.

  12. Voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide: knowledge and attitudes of Dutch medical students.

    PubMed

    Muller, M T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Kriegsman, D M; van der Wal, G

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the study was to gain insight into the knowledge of and attitudes towards voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide (EEDAS) of Dutch medical students, and to determine whether knowledge and attitudes change after a 1-day informative conference about EDAS. Data were collected by means of two self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 had to be completed before the start of the conference and questionnaire 2 after the conference. In both questionnaires, students were asked by means of two open-ended questions to define euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide. They were also asked to indicate which of eight statements met with the requirements for prudent practice. Finally, the students were asked to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of seven statements about attitudes towards EDAS. To determine if a selection occurred among students who returned both questionnaires, their background characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes towards EDAS were compared with those who returned only the first questionnaire. Forty-seven students returned only the first questionnaire, while both questionnaires were returned by 137 students. No differences were found between students who returned both questionnaires and those who returned only the first questionnaire with regard to age, religion, knowledge of and attitudes towards EDAS. Students' knowledge of the definitions of EDAS and the requirements for prudent practice improved significantly. Students' reactions to the statements on attitudes towards EDAS showed that a large majority had a fairly positive attitude towards EDAS. There was no significant difference before and after the conference. Male students and students with a religion were more opposed to EDAS than female students and students without a religion. The fact that the students' knowledge of EDAS improved after a 1-day conference does not imply sufficient understanding of the issue. Because EDAS is allowed only under

  13. Efficacy of HBM-Based Dietary Education Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Dini-Talatappeh, Hossein; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Using various models of behavior change, a number of studies in the area of nutrition education have confirmed that nutrition habits and behaviors can be improved. Objectives This study sought to determine the effects of education on patterns of dietary consumption among medical students at the military university of Tehran, with a view to correcting those patterns. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 242 medical students from the Military University of Tehran were chosen by convenience sampling and then divided into control (n = 107) and intervention groups (n = 135) by block randomization. The self-administered questionnaire involving six categories of item (knowledge, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived threats, self-efficacy and behavior) has been validated (Cronbach alpha > 0.7 for each). Results Following the educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge, health belief model (HBM) structure, and behavior of students in relation to healthy patterns of food intake increased significantly (P < 0.05). The mean pre-intervention knowledge score was 6.76 (1.452), referring to threats to HBM constructs including perceived threat 2.93 (1.147), perceived benefits 7.28 (1.07), perceived barriers 5.44 (1.831), self- efficacy 4.28 (1.479), and behavior 8.84 (2.527). The post-intervention scores all improved as follows: knowledge 8.3 (1.503), perceived threats 3.29 (1.196), perceived benefits 7.71 (0.762), perceived barriers 5.9 (1.719), self- efficacy 4.6 (1.472), and behavior 9.45 (2.324). This difference in mean scores for knowledge, health belief structures and employee behavior before and after educational intervention was significant (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions The significant improvement in the experimental group’s mean knowledge, HBM structures , and behavior scores indicates the positive effect of the intervention. PMID:28210498

  14. The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): The First 10 Years and a Look at Public Perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

    PubMed

    Crowe, Remle P; Bentley, Melissa A; Levine, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Crowe RP , Bentley MA , Levine R . The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): the first 10 years and a look at public perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s1-s6.

  15. [Is human behavior the leading cause of complications in medical practice?].

    PubMed

    Renouard, Franck; Perrault-Pierre, Edith

    2016-03-01

    Medical errors and the resulting complications are most often analyzed from a purely technical viewpoint. The impact of human behavior is very seldom raised among the major causes of severe undesirable events (SUE) in the medical field. When human responsibility is advanced, the thrust is always negative and critical, i.e. the "culprit" did not comply with the rules. However, in other risk-related human activities, such as aeronautics or the nuclear energy sector, the influence of human behavior in triggering SUEs has been examined and is now acknowledged to be one of the main causes of complications and problems. Specific protocols have been devised to reduce the number of mistakes made and to eliminate repercussions when errors inevitably occur. This novel approach has considerably reduced the accident rate in this type of industry. The aim of this article is to show that the same approach can be adopted in medicine and that taking human factors into account when analyzing medical practices can lead to significant improvements in safety and security.

  16. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  17. Assessment of knowledge and perceptions toward generic medicines among basic science undergraduate medical students at Aruba

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P. Ravi; Herz, Burton L.; Dubey, Arun K.; Hassali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent’s agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t-test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. Conclusions: There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents’ level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years. PMID:28031604

  18. Traditional Knowledge and Formulations of Medicinal Plants Used by the Traditional Medical Practitioners of Bangladesh to Treat Schizophrenia Like Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia. PMID:25101175

  19. Traditional knowledge and formulations of medicinal plants used by the traditional medical practitioners of bangladesh to treat schizophrenia like psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global problem. Health professionals are poorly prepared in weight management, which has an effect on their attitudes and management skills with regard to overweight and obese patients. Aim and setting To assess the knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 48 medical practitioners at Odi Hospital between 01 October and 31 October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitudes and management skills in weight management. The SPSS® statistical software (Version 22) was used for data analysis. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Fifty medical practitioners were recruited, 48 consented to participate and 28 (58.3%) were male. Their categories were community service doctors (3), medical officers (21), registrars (22) and others (2). Thirty-seven (77.1%) never received training in weight management (p < 0.001). Thirty-two (66.7%) regarded weight management as not confined to a dietician (p < 0.001) and 27 (56.2%) regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful (p = 0.004). Forty-seven (97.9%) provided lifestyle modifications and 43 (89.6%) involved the patient’s family in weight management (p < 0.001). More non-registrars [14 (77.8%)] than registrars [8 (38.1%)] measured the body mass index (BMI) routinely (p = 0.013). Conclusion Few medical practitioners received training in weight management. They regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful and lacked confidence in the same owing to lack of training. They provided lifestyle modifications and involved the patient’s family in weight management. Non-registrars measured the BMI routinely. There is a need for training in weight management at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. PMID:28155319

  1. Medical Student Attitudes Toward Communication Skills Training and Knowledge of Appropriate Provider-Patient Communication: A Comparison of First-Year and Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma; Ware, Jennifer; Parker, Patricia; Query, Jim L; Baile, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Drawing upon Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives as a theoretical framework, this study examines attitudes toward communication skills training, knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, and confidence communicating with patients between first-year and fourth-year medical students at a large medical school in the southern United States. The study findings indicate that fourth-year medical students do not differ from first-year medical students in terms of attitudes towards communication skills training or knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, but they have significantly higher confidence scores about communicating with patients. In addition, positive attitudes towards communication skills training are significantly related to perceived importance of communication skills and confidence when communicating with patients. Finally, female medical students have more positive attitudes towards communication skills training than male medical students. The implications of the study findings and directions for future research are also discussed.

  2. Medical students' knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions towards the H1N1 influenza, swine flu, in Pakistan: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zara A; Hussain, Sarah A; Hussain, Faisal A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of H1N1 among medical students, their perceptions, and behavioral intentions in the wake of the H1N1 pandemic influenza. There were significant gaps in important self-isolation protocols and preventive measures. Increased contact with both patients and colleagues can lead to unintentional transmission and contraction of influenza. Universities should introduce and encourage infection control guidelines into routine curriculum.

  3. Managing proposals and evaluations of updates to medical knowledge: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Anselma, Luca; Bottrighi, Alessio; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The process of keeping up-to-date the medical knowledge stored in relational databases is of paramount importance. Since quality and reliability of medical knowledge are essential, in many cases physicians' proposals of updates must undergo experts' evaluation before possibly becoming effective. However, until now no theoretical framework has been provided in order to cope with this phenomenon in a principled and non-ad hoc way. Indeed, such a framework is important not only in the medical domain, but in all Wikipedia-like contexts in which evaluation of update proposals is required. In this paper we propose GPVM (General Proposal Vetting Model), a general model to cope with update proposal⧹evaluation in relational databases. GPVM extends the current theory of temporal relational databases and, in particular, BCDM - Bitemporal Conceptual Data Model - "consensus" model, providing a new data model, new operations to propose and accept⧹reject updates, and new algebraic operators to query proposals. The properties of GPVM are also studied. In particular, GPVM is a consistent extension of BCDM and it is reducible to it. These properties ensure consistency with most relational temporal database frameworks, facilitating implementation on top of current frameworks and interoperability with previous approaches.

  4. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    PubMed

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  5. Patients' Knowledge About Analgesic-Antipyretic Medications Purchased in Community Pharmacies: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Grézy-Chabardès, Claire; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Dupouy, Julie; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Oustric, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, and aspirin of subjects who purchased nonprescription medications containing one of these drugs. We conducted this cross-sectional descriptive study in 42 community pharmacies located in southwestern France between July and November 2013. A six-item self-administered questionnaire was used. Participants were asked to identify the active ingredient contained in 14 brand-name analgesic-antipyretics, to state the maximum daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin, the recommended first-line analgesic, and precautions of use or contraindications for paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin. Among 576 participants, the identification of paracetamol ranged from 58% (for Dafalgan or Efferalgan) to 90% (for Doliprane), the identification of ibuprofen from 34% (for Nureflex) to 63% (for Nurofen), and the identification of aspirin was 70% (for Aspegic). The maximum recommended daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin was known by 58.3%, 17.7%, and 19.3% of participants, respectively, whereas 6.8%, 17.2%, and 13.2% stated supratherapeutic daily doses. Paracetamol was correctly stated as the first-line analgesic-antipyretic by 76.2% of participants. Knowledge on major precautions of use or contraindications was poor (45.8% and 53.6% for ibuprofen and aspirin use during pregnancy, and 14.1% for concurrent use of anticoagulants and ibuprofen). Purchasers of nonprescription analgesic-antipyretics had poor knowledge on the medication they purchased.

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    PubMed

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  7. Estimating personalized risk ranking using laboratory test and medical knowledge (UMLS).

    PubMed

    Patil, Meru A; Bhaumik, Sandip; Paul, Soubhik; Bissoyi, Swarupananda; Roy, Raj; Ryu, Seungwoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Concept Graph Engine (CG-Engine) that generates patient specific personalized disease ranking based on the laboratory test data. CG-Engine uses the Unified Medical Language System database as medical knowledge base. The CG-Engine consists of two concepts namely, a concept graph and its attributes. The concept graph is a two level tree that starts at a laboratory test root node and ends at a disease node. The attributes of concept graph are: Relation types, Semantic types, Number of Sources and Symmetric Information between nodes. These attributes are used to compute the weight between laboratory tests and diseases. The personalized disease ranking is created by aggregating the weights of all the paths connecting between a particular disease and contributing abnormal laboratory tests. The clinical application of CG-Engine improves physician's throughput as it provides the snapshot view of abnormal laboratory tests as well as a personalized disease ranking.

  8. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750.

  9. Intelligent technique for knowledge reuse of dental medical records based on case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong-Xiao; Liang, Chang-Yong; Li, Xing-Guo; Yang, Shan-Lin; Zhang, Pei

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of both information technology and the management of modern medical regulation, the generation of medical records tends to be increasingly intelligent. In this paper, Case-Based Reasoning is applied to the process of generating records of dental cases. Based on the analysis of the features of dental records, a case base is constructed. A mixed case retrieval method (FAIES) is proposed for the knowledge reuse of dental records by adopting Fuzzy Mathematics, which improves similarity algorithm based on Euclidian-Lagrangian Distance, and PULL & PUSH weight adjustment strategy. Finally, an intelligent system of dental cases generation (CBR-DENT) is constructed. The effectiveness of the system, the efficiency of the retrieval method, the extent of adaptation and the adaptation efficiency are tested using the constructed case base. It is demonstrated that FAIES is very effective in terms of reducing the time of writing medical records and improving the efficiency and quality. FAIES is also proven to be an effective aid for diagnoses and provides a new idea for the management of medical records and its applications.

  10. Addressing gaps in physician knowledge regarding transgender health and healthcare through medical education

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Deborah; Rountree-James, Marina; Whetter, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgender people (those people whose sex at birth does not “match” their felt gender identity) are a priority group for healthcare as they experience high rates of discrimination and related illnesses. Despite this, there is a trend of poor healthcare access for trans people due, in large part, to the denial of care on the part of physicians. A small body of literature is beginning to suggest that this denial of care may be due to a lack of physician knowledge as well as, in some cases, to transphobia. There is a dearth of research in Canada, however, exploring whether and/or how knowledge gaps create barriers to quality care, and whether medical education can attend to these gaps while and through addressing gender normativity. Methods To fill these gaps in the literature, we undertook a qualitative study with 30 trans identified people and 11 physicians (N=41) in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Data were transcribed and analyzed with NVivo qualitative data software using iterative methods. Results An overwhelming finding of this study was a lack of physician knowledge, as reported both by trans people and by physicians, that resulted in a denial of trans-specific care and also impacted general care. Transphobia was also identified as a barrier to quality care by both trans people and physicians. Physicians were open to learning more about trans health and healthcare. Conclusions The findings suggest a pressing need for better medical education that exposes students to basic skills in trans health so that they can become competent in providing care to trans people. This learning must take place alongside anti-transphobia education. Based on these findings, we suggest key recommendations at the close of the paper for providing quality trans health curriculum in medical education. PMID:28344694

  11. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381

  12. Factors influencing medication knowledge and beliefs on warfarin adherence among patients with atrial fibrillation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shujuan; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Xianpei; Gao, Chuanyu; Qin, Yuhua; Cai, Haixia; Chen, Boya; Cao, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin is often used for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the factors affecting patient adherence to warfarin therapy have not been fully understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in AF patients undergoing warfarin therapy at least 6 months prior to the study. The clinical data collected using questionnaires by phone interviews included the following: 1) self-reported adherence measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8©; 2) beliefs about medicines surveyed by Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ); and 3) drug knowledge as measured by the Warfarin Related Knowledge Test (WRKT). Demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin adherence were identified using a logistic regression model. Results Two hundred eighty-eight patients completed the survey and 93 (32.3%) of them were classified as nonadherent (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 score <6). Major factors predicting warfarin adherence included age, cardiovascular disorders, WRKT, and BMQ; WRKT and BMQ were independently correlated with adherence to warfarin therapy by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adherents were more likely to have greater knowledge scores and stronger beliefs in the necessity of their specific medications ([odds ratio {OR} =1.81, 95% confidence interval {CI} =1.51–2.15] and [OR =1.17, 95% CI =1.06–1.29], respectively). Patients with greater concerns about adverse reactions and more negative views of general harm were more likely to be nonadherent ([OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.69–0.84] and [OR =0.82, 95% CI =0.73–0.92], respectively). Conclusion BMK and WRKT are related with patient behavior toward warfarin adherence. BMQ can be applied to identify patients at increased risk of nonadherence. PMID:28223782

  13. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S; de Wildt, Dick J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical curriculum was investigated. Methods The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of cohorts of students, from years before, during and after implementation of a WHO-6-step-based integrated learning programme were tested using a standardized assessment containing 50 items covering knowledge of basic (n = 25) and clinical (n = 24) pharmacology, and pharmacotherapy skills (n = 1 open question). All scores are expressed as a percentage of the maximum score possible per (sub)domain. Results In total, 1652 students were included between September 2010 and July 2014 (participation rate 89%). The WHO-6-step-based learning programme improved students’ knowledge of basic pharmacology (mean score ± SD, 60.6 ± 10.5% vs. 63.4 ± 10.9%, P < 0.01) and clinical or applied pharmacology (63.7 ± 10.4% vs. 67.4 ± 10.3%, P < 0.01), and improved their pharmacotherapy skills (68.8 ± 26.1% vs. 74.6% ± 22.9%, P 0.02). Moreover, satisfaction with education increased (5.7 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 on a 10-point scale, P < 0.01) and as did students’ confidence in daily practice (from −0.81 ± 0.72 to −0.50 ± 0.79 on a −2 to +2 scale, P < 0.01). Conclusions The WHO-6-step method was successfully implemented in a medical curriculum. In this observational study, the integrated learning programme had positive effects on students’ knowledge of basic and applied pharmacology, improved their pharmacotherapy skills, and increased satisfaction with education and self-confidence in prescribing. Whether this training method leads to better patient care remains to be established. PMID:25556708

  14. Knowledge-Based Analysis And Understanding Of 3D Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Juvvadi, Sridhar

    1988-06-01

    The anatomical three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT and MRI, have been well recognized in the diagnostic radiology for several years while the nuclear medicine modalities, such as PET, have just started making a strong impact through functional imaging. Though PET images provide the functional information about the human organs, they are hard to interpret because of the lack of anatomical information. Our objective is to develop a knowledge-based biomedical image analysis system which can interpret the anatomical images (such as CT). The anatomical information thus obtained can then be used in analyzing PET images of the same patient. This will not only help in interpreting PET images but it will also provide a means of studying the correlation between the anatomical and functional imaging. This paper presents the preliminary results of the knowledge based biomedical image analysis system for interpreting CT images of the chest.

  15. An expert-guided decision tree construction strategy: an application in knowledge discovery with medical databases.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y. S.; King, P. H.; Higgins, M. S.; Pierce, D.; Patel, N. P.

    1997-01-01

    With the steady growth in electronic patient records and clinical medical informatics systems, the data collected for routine clinical use have been accumulating at a dramatic rate. Inter-disciplinary research provides a new generation of computation tools in knowledge discovery and data management is in great demand. In this study, an expert-guided decision tree construction strategy is proposed to offer an user-oriented knowledge discovery environment. The strategy allows experts, based on their expertise and/or preference, to override inductive decision tree construction process. Moreover, by reviewing decision paths, experts could focus on subsets of data that may be clues to new findings, or simply contaminated cases. PMID:9357618

  16. The Digital Anatomist Distributed Framework and Its Applications to Knowledge-based Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  17. Medical students' learning from patient-led teaching: experiential versus biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing a patient-centred approach, and acknowledged the importance of the PIs' individual perspectives and experiential knowledge. On the other hand, representing the scientific biomedical perspective and traditional step-by step teaching, students expressed unfamiliarity with the unstructured experiential learning and scepticism regarding the credibility of the patients' knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of the complexity of involving patients as teachers in healthcare education and initiates a discussion on how to complement faculty-led teaching with patient-led teaching involving varying degrees of patient autonomy in the planning and delivering of the teaching.

  18. The Impact of Pediatric Palliative Care Education on Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN). Before the programme, students' knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p); DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p), and, in addition, there were differences (P < 0.001) between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p). Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation. PMID:24501581

  19. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  20. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  1. Patient-Centered Medical Home Knowledge and Attitudes of Residents and Faculty: Certification Is Just the First Step

    PubMed Central

    El Rayess, Fadya; Goldman, Roberta; Furey, Christopher; Chandran, Rabin; Goldberg, Arnold R.; Anandarajah, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Background The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an accepted framework for delivering high-quality primary care, prompting many residencies to transform their practices into PCMHs. Few studies have assessed the impact of these changes on residents' and faculty members' PCMH attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The family medicine program at Brown University achieved Level 3 PCMH accreditation in 2010, with training relying primarily on situated learning through immersion in PCMH practice, supplemented by didactics and a few focused clinical activities. Objective To assess PCMH knowledge and attitudes after Level 3 PCMH accreditation and to identify additional educational needs. Methods We used a qualitative approach, with semistructured, individual interviews with 12 of the program's 13 postgraduate year 3 residents and 17 of 19 core faculty. Questions assessed PCMH knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness for practicing, teaching, and leading within a PCMH. Interviews were analyzed using the immersion/crystallization method. Results Residents and faculty generally had positive attitudes toward PCMH. However, many expressed concerns that they lacked specific PCMH knowledge, and felt inadequately prepared to implement PCMH principles into their future practice or teaching. Some exceptions were faculty and resident leaders who were actively involved in the PCMH transformation. Barriers included lack of time and central roles in PCMH activities. Conclusions Practicing in a certified PCMH training program, with passive PCMH roles and supplemental didactics, appears inadequate in preparing residents and faculty for practice or teaching in a PCMH. Purposeful curricular design and evaluation, with faculty development, may be needed to prepare the future leaders of primary care. PMID:26692970

  2. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Among Dental and Medical Students in Eastern India – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Harish; Behura, Shyam Sundar; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Nishat, Roquaiya; Dash, Kailash C.; Mohiddin, Gouse

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among dental and medical students in a Health care centre at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty BDS and MBBS students each from Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences and Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences of KIIT University, Bhubaneswar respectively, were invited to participate in this survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire in English comprising 27 questions, which was designed to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices. The obtained data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software. Results: On comparison of the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice, the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among dental students than medical students. The study also showed that female students (both dental and medical) had better oral health knowledge and showed better oral health practices than male students. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test showed that, although dental students had better knowledge and attitude towards oral health, there was a lack of adequate practice among them. Conclusion: Further emphasis on oral health is necessary in undergraduate training to improve oral health knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental and medical students as they will act as role models for oral health education among individuals and community at large. PMID:28316951

  3. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  4. Comparison of Knowledge Scores of Medical Students in Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Curriculum on Public Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurpinar, Erol; Musal, Berna; Aksakoglu, Gazanfer; Ucku, Reyhan

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the knowledge scores of medical students in Problem-based Learning and traditional curriculum on public health topics. Methods: We planned a cross-sectional study including the fifth and sixth year medical students of Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. The fifth year students (PBL group, n = 56)…

  5. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  6. Dentists’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Treating Patients Taking Oral Antithrombotic Medications – A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Ritvi K; Mohan, Anusha; Kandaswamy, Eswar; Chandrasekaran, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction India lists high on patients suffering from diabetes, hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction. Hence, a large proportion of the population is on long term Oral Antithrombotic Medications (OAM). Though several guidelines exist on dental management of these patients, previous surveys have shown variation among the dentists. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists in Chennai, India, towards dental management of patients taking OAM using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted among 256 dentists in Chennai, India using a printed questionnaire containing 16 questions, at their university location. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Of the final population of dentists who were included in the survey (n =212), majority of them were aware about drugs such as warfarin and aspirin compared to other newer drugs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban). Most participants took physician’s opinion before proceeding with any invasive dental procedure and thromboembolic events were their major concern while treating patients on OAM. Conclusion The survey revealed dentists are knowledgeable about management of patients on OAM. However, they tend to overestimate the bleeding risk, thus being cautious in their treatment approach. Based on the results of the study, the authors suggest that continuing dental education programs and further training on management of such medically complex patients will be beneficial in order to provide optimum dental care to people taking OAM. PMID:28274053

  7. Use of a continuing medical education course to improve fellows' knowledge and skills in esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Pandolfino, J E; Komanduri, S; Hirano, I; Cohen, E R; Wayne, D B

    2011-08-01

    Advanced esophageal endoscopic procedures such as stricture dilation, hemostasis tools, and stent placement as well as high-resolution manometry (HRM) interpretation are necessary skills for gastroenterology fellows to obtain during their training. Becoming proficient in these skills may be challenging in light of higher complication rates compared with diagnostic procedures and infrequent opportunities to practice these skills. Our aim was to determine if intensive training during a continuing medical education (CME) course boosts the knowledge and skills of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal diagnostic test interpretation and performance of therapeutic procedures. This was a pretest-posttest design without a control group of a simulation-based, educational intervention in esophageal stricture balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. The participants were 24 gastroenterology fellows from 21 accredited US training programs. This was an intensive CME course held in Las Vegas, Nevada from August 7 to August 9, 2009. The research procedure had two phases. First, the subjects were measured at baseline (pretest) for their knowledge and procedural skill. Second, the fellows received 6 hours of education sessions featuring didactic content, instruction in HRM indications and interpretation, and deliberate practice using an esophageal stricture dilation model. After the intervention, all of the fellows were retested (posttest). A 17-item checklist was developed for the esophageal balloon dilation procedure using relevant sources, expert opinion, and rigorous step-by-step procedures. Nineteen representative HRM swallow studies were obtained from Northwestern's motility lab and formed the pretest and posttest in HRM interpretation. Mean scores on the dilation checklist improved 81% from 39.4% (standard deviation [SD]= 33.4%) at pretest to 71.3% (SD = 29.5%) after simulation training (P < 0.001). HRM mean examination scores increased from 27.2% (SD = 16.4%) to 46.5% (SD

  8. SHRIF, a General-Purpose System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, Applied to Medical Knowledge Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findler, Nicholas V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes SHRIF, a System for Heuristic Retrieval of Information and Facts, and the medical knowledge base that was used in its development. Highlights include design decisions; the user-machine interface, including the language processor; and the organization of the knowledge base in an artificial intelligence (AI) project like this one. (57…

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  10. ‘A Most Protean Disease’: Aligning Medical Knowledge of Modern Influenza, 1890–1914

    PubMed Central

    Bresalier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article reconstructs the process of defining influenza as an infectious disease in the contexts of British medicine between 1890 and 1914. It shows how professional agreement on its nature and identity involved aligning different forms of knowledge produced in the field (public health), in the clinic (metropolitan hospitals) and in the laboratory (bacteriology). Two factors were crucial to this process: increasing trust in bacteriology and the organisation of large-scale collective investigations into influenza by Britain’s central public authority, the Medical Department of the Local Government Board. These investigations integrated epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological evidence into a new definition of influenza as a specific infection, in which a germ – Bacillus influenzae – was determined as playing a necessary but not sufficient role in its aetiology, transmission and pathogenesis. In defining ‘modern influenza’, bacteriological concepts and techniques were adapted to and selectively incorporated into existing clinical, pathological and epidemiological approaches. Mutual alignment thus was crucial to its construction and, more generally, to shaping developing relationships between laboratory, clinical and public health medicine in turn-of-the-century Britain. While these relationships were marked by tension and conflict, they were also characterised by important patterns of convergence, in which the problems, interests and practices of public health professionals, clinicians and laboratory pathologists were made increasingly commensurable. Rather than retrospectively judge the late nineteenth-century definition of influenza as being based on the wrong microbe, this article argues for the need to examine how it was established through a particular alignment of medical knowledge, which then underpinned medical approaches to the disease up to and beyond the devastating 1918–19 pandemic. PMID:23112382

  11. Development of a standardized knowledge base to generate individualized medication plans automatically with drug administration recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Send, Alexander F J; Al-Ayyash, Adel; Schecher, Sabrina; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Klein, Ulrike; Schaier, Matthias; Pruszydlo, Markus G; Witticke, Diana; Lohmann, Kristina; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Seidling, Hanna M

    2013-01-01

    Aims We aimed to develop a generic knowledge base with drug administration recommendations which allows the generation of a dynamic and comprehensive medication plan and to evaluate its comprehensibility and potential benefit in a qualitative pilot study with patients and physicians. Methods Based on a literature search and previously published medication plans, a prototype was developed and iteratively refined through qualitative evaluation (interviews with patients and focus group discussions with physicians). To develop the recommendations for safe administration of specific drugs we screened the summary of product characteristics (SmPC) of different exemplary brands, allocated the generated advice to groups with brands potentially requiring the same advice, and reviewed these allocations regarding applicability and appropriateness of the recommendations. Results For the recommendations, 411 SmPCs of 140 different active ingredients including all available galenic formulations, routes of administrations except infusions, and administration devices were screened. Finally, 515 distinct administration recommendations were included in the database. In 926 different generic groups, 29 879 allocations of brands to general advice, food advice, indications, step-by-step instructions, or combinations thereof were made. Thereby, 27 216 of the preselected allocations (91.1%) were confirmed as appropriate. In total, one third of the German drug market was labelled with information. Conclusions Generic grouping of brands according to their active ingredient and other drug characteristics and allocation of standardized administration recommendations is feasible for a large drug market and can be integrated in a medication plan. PMID:24007451

  12. Knowledge discovery from data as a framework to decision support in medical domains

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge discovery from data (KDD) is a multidisciplinary discipline which appeared in 1996 for “non trivial identifying of valid, novel, potentially useful, ultimately understandable patterns in data”. Pre-treatment of data and post-processing is as important as the data exploitation (Data Mining) itself. Different analysis techniques can be properly combined to produce explicit knowledge from data. Methods Hybrid KDD methodologies combining Artificial Intelligence with Statistics and visualization have been used to identify patterns in complex medical phenomena: experts provide prior knowledge (pK); it biases the search of distinguishable groups of homogeneous objects; support-interpretation tools (CPG) assisted experts in conceptualization and labelling of discovered patterns, consistently with pK. Results Patterns of dependency in mental disabilities supported decision-making on legislation of the Spanish Dependency Law in Catalonia. Relationships between type of neurorehabilitation treatment and patterns of response for brain damage are assessed. Patterns of the perceived QOL along time are used in spinal cord lesion to improve social inclusion. Conclusion Reality is more and more complex and classical data analyses are not powerful enough to model it. New methodologies are required including multidisciplinarity and stressing on production of understandable models. Interaction with the experts is critical to generate meaningful results which can really support decision-making, particularly convenient transferring the pK to the system, as well as interpreting results in close interaction with experts. KDD is a valuable paradigm, particularly when facing very complex domains, not well understood yet, like many medical phenomena.

  13. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  14. Effects of a patient’s name and image on medical knowledge acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Guajardo, Jesus R.; Petershack, Jean A.; Caplow, Julie A.; Littlefield, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether there are differences in medical students’ (MS) knowledge acquisition after being provided a virtual patient (VP) case summary with a patient’s name and facial picture included compared to no patient’s name or image. Method 76 MS from four clerkship blocks participated. Blocks one and three (Treatment group) were provided case materials containing the patient’s name and facial picture while blocks two and four (Control group) were provided similar materials without the patient’s name or image. Knowledge acquisition was evaluated with a multiple-choice-question examination (CQA_K). Results Treatment group CQA_K scores were 64.6% (block one, n = 18) and 76.0% (block three, n = 22). Control group scores were 71.7%, (block two, n = 17) and 68.4% (block four, n = 19). ANOVA F-test among the four block mean scores was not significant; F (3, 72) = 1.68, p = 0.18, η2=0.07. Only 22.2% and 27.3% of the MS from blocks one and three respectively correctly recalled the patient’s name while 16.7% and 40.9% recalled the correct final diagnosis of the patient. Conclusions These results suggest that including a patient’s name and facial picture on reading materials may not improve MS knowledge acquisition. Corroborating studies should be performed before applying these results to the design of instructional materials. PMID:27004072

  15. Could Externalized St. Jude Medical Riata® Lead Be a Culture Medium of a Polymicrobial Endocarditis? A Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Roberta; Mandurino, Cosimo; Pinto, Mariangela; Luzzi, Giovanni; Favale, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a man affected by polymicrobial endocarditis developed on a St. Jude Medical Riata lead with a malfunction because of the outsourcing of conductors. The patient was treated with antibiotic targeted therapy and showed different bacteria at the blood cultures and then underwent transvenous leads extraction. Vegetations were highlighted on the caval, atrial, and ventricular tracts of the Riata lead, but the cultures were all negative. The externalization of Riata lead may cause the malfunction but it could also promote bacterial colonies and vegetations. In conclusion, looking for early signs of infection is mandatory during Riata leads follow-up checks. PMID:28191354

  16. The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations…

  17. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  18. Assessing the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica J; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Objective : We assessed the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after a 1-hour educational intervention. Methods : A mixed-methods approach was used with a 52-item cross-sectional paper survey and 1 focus group of third-year medical students. The views of these medical students towards chiropractic were assessed previously in their second-year of medical school. ANOVA and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to assess between-group differences between the medical students' views before and after the educational intervention. The constant comparative method for analyzing qualitative data was used to identify emergent themes from the focus group transcript. Results : Of 112 third-year medical students, 58 completed the survey (51.7% response rate). The focus group consisted of 6 medical students. Self-reported understanding of chiropractic and number of attitude-positive responses were significantly higher in the group after the educational session. The average number of correct responses assessing knowledge on chiropractic also was significantly higher. Focus group themes were that medical students wanted exposure to chiropractic in clinical settings, had negative attitudes towards chiropractic formed from hidden curriculum, had concerns regarding evidence and safety of chiropractic, and thought that timing of the session on chiropractic was too late in the curriculum. Conclusions : The attitudes and knowledge of medical students towards chiropractic improved immediately after a 1-hour educational intervention. Formally educating medical students on chiropractic may help minimize hidden curriculum issues regarding chiropractic, as identified by the medical students, and facilitate collaboration between medical and chiropractic providers.

  19. Embrittlement phenomenon of Ag core MP35N cable as lead conductor in medical device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Bernie; Zhang, Haitao

    2013-02-01

    Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960 °C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed.

  20. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  1. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  2. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  3. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  4. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  5. NLP techniques associated with the OpenGALEN ontology for semi-automatic textual extraction of medical knowledge: abstracting and mapping equivalent linguistic and logical constructs.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, M B; Roberts, A; Rector, A L

    2000-01-01

    This research project presents methodological and theoretical issues related to the inter-relationship between linguistic and conceptual semantics, analysing the results obtained by the application of a NLP parser to a set of radiology reports. Our objective is to define a technique for associating linguistic methods with domain specific ontologies for semi-automatic extraction of intermediate representation (IR) information formats and medical ontological knowledge from clinical texts. We have applied the Edinburgh LTG natural language parser to 2810 clinical narratives describing radiology procedures. In a second step, we have used medical expertise and ontology formalism for identification of semantic structures and abstraction of IR schemas related to the processed texts. These IR schemas are an association of linguistic and conceptual knowledge, based on their semantic contents. This methodology aims to contribute to the elaboration of models relating linguistic and logical constructs based on empirical data analysis. Advance in this field might lead to the development of computational techniques for automatic enrichment of medical ontologies from real clinical environments, using descriptive knowledge implicit in large text corpora sources.

  6. Characterizing job satisfaction and intent to leave among nationally registered emergency medical technicians: an analysis of the 2005 LEADS survey.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity G; Sanddal, Nels D; Wingrove, Gary; LaCroix, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to characterize job satisfaction with opportunities for advancement, job satisfaction with pay and benefits, and intent to leave the EMS profession among Nationally Registered EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics. A secondary data analysis was performed on the National Registry of EMTs Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study Project (LEADS) 2005 core survey. We used chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses to test for differences in job satisfaction with opportunities for advancement, job satisfaction with pay and benefits, and intent to leave the EMS profession across years of experience and work location. Among 11 measures of job satisfaction, NREMT-Basics and NREMT-Paramedics were least satisfied with opportunities for advancement and pay and benefits (67.8 and 55.2%, respectively). Nearly 6% of respondents reported intentions of leaving the profession within 12 months. In univariate analyses, job satisfaction with advancement opportunities varied across years of experience and work location. Job satisfaction with pay and benefits varied across years of experience and work location. The proportion reporting intentions of leaving the profession did not vary across the two independent variables of interest. In multivariable logistic regression, statistical differences observed in univariate analyses were attenuated to non-significance across all outcome models. Income, personal health, level of EMS certification, and type of EMS work were significant in several outcome models. EMS workforce research is at its infancy, thus our study adds to a limited but growing body of knowledge. In future and replicated research, one will need to consider different person and organizational variables in predicting different measures of job satisfaction among EMS personnel.

  7. Ageism and its clinical impact in oncogeriatry: state of knowledge and therapeutic leads

    PubMed Central

    Schroyen, Sarah; Adam, Stéphane; Jerusalem, Guy; Missotten, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem that is widespread in elderly people. Paradoxically, older people suffering from cancer are often excluded from clinical trials and are undertreated when compared to younger patients. One explanation for these observations is age stigma (ie, stereotypes linked to age, and thus ageism). These stigmas can result in deleterious consequences for elderly people’s mental and physical health in “normal” aging. What, then, is the impact in a pathological context, such as oncology? Moreover, health care professionals’ attitudes can be tainted with ageism, thus leading to undesirable consequences for patients. To counter these stigmas, we can apply some possible interventions emerging from research on normal aging and from social psychology, such as intergenerational contact, activation of positive stereotypes, self-affirmation, and so on; these tools can improve opinions of aging among the elderly people themselves, as well as health care professionals, thus affecting patients’ mental and physical health. PMID:25678781

  8. Ageism and its clinical impact in oncogeriatry: state of knowledge and therapeutic leads.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, Sarah; Adam, Stéphane; Jerusalem, Guy; Missotten, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem that is widespread in elderly people. Paradoxically, older people suffering from cancer are often excluded from clinical trials and are undertreated when compared to younger patients. One explanation for these observations is age stigma (ie, stereotypes linked to age, and thus ageism). These stigmas can result in deleterious consequences for elderly people's mental and physical health in "normal" aging. What, then, is the impact in a pathological context, such as oncology? Moreover, health care professionals' attitudes can be tainted with ageism, thus leading to undesirable consequences for patients. To counter these stigmas, we can apply some possible interventions emerging from research on normal aging and from social psychology, such as intergenerational contact, activation of positive stereotypes, self-affirmation, and so on; these tools can improve opinions of aging among the elderly people themselves, as well as health care professionals, thus affecting patients' mental and physical health.

  9. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  10. USE AND KNOWLEDGE ON THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION -BOSNIAN AND HERZEGOVINIAN EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Begic, Nedim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Information technologies (IT) are becoming a tool without which further education of both medical students and doctors would not be possible. Aim: The aim of this paper was to analyze the use of IT in the prism of two systems, the old system and the Bologna system. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students (2012/13–2015/16 generation) were analyzed. Results: The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). About 92% of students of the old system and 98% of students of the Bologna system use computer in everyday work (only 36% of old system and 47% of the Bologna system are using “faculties” computers). The computer is used for entertainment, education, information (via Internet) and for communication (e-mail, chat, social networks) (68.5% of the old system and 84% of students of the Bologna system have chosen all 4 offered answers). MS Word and MS Power Point are significantly more used compared to the use of MS Excel in both systems (p <0.05). The knowledge necessary to use their computers student of both systems have acquired through individual work. Students feel that they need to improve knowledge of the treatment of sub-base (76% of students of the old system and 62% of students of the Bologna system). Having analyzed the generation of 2015/16, 84.5% of students of the Bologna system and 75% of students of the old system used smartphones or tablets. The purpose of using a smartphone is, in most cases for accessing the social networks. 77.4% of smartphone users of the Bologna system, or 73.3% of the users of the old system have installed an application from the medical field. We analyzed the opinions of the availability of online course content and the degree of computerization of the study process and the possibility of electronic access to the literature - the results are not at the appropriate level. Conclusion: Education in software solutions that are connected

  11. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  12. Assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among medical and nursing students: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Methods: Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. Results: The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. Conclusion: There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups. PMID:27551407

  13. Discovering knowledge on pediatric fluid therapy and dysnatremias from quantitative data found in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Pham, Steve L; Bickel, Jonathan P; Moritz, Michael L; Levin, James E

    2010-11-13

    It is accepted that intravenous fluid (IVF) therapy can result in hospital-acquired dysnatremias in pediatric patients, with associated morbidity and mortality. There is interest in improving IVF therapy to prevent dysnatremias, but the optimal approach is controversial. In this study, we develop Natremia Deviation and Intravenous Renderer (NaDIR), a tool that preprocesses large volumes of electronic medical record data obtained from an academic pediatric hospital in order to analyze (1) IVF therapy, (2) the epidemiology of dysnatremias, and (3) the impact of IVFs on changes in serum sodium (ΔS(Na)). We then applied NaDIR to 3,256 inpatient records over a 3 month period, which revealed (1) a 19.9% incidence of dysnatremias, (2) a significant increase in lengths of stay associated with dysnatremias, and (3) a novel linear relationship between ΔS(Na) and IVF tonicity. This demonstrates that EMR data that can be readily analyzed to discover epidemiologic and predictive knowledge.

  14. Medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT prior to and after viewing ECT scenes from movies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; McDonald, Andrew; Rey, Joseph M; Rosen, Alan

    2002-03-01

    We surveyed samples of medical students in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia, prior to their psychiatry placement, to ascertain views about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the effect on those views of watching ECT scenes in movies. A 26-item questionnaire was constructed by the authors and administered to the students. At set times during the questionnaire, students were asked to view five movie clips showing, or making reference to, ECT. The clips were from Return to Oz, The Hudsucker Proxy, Ordinary People, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Beverly Hillbillies. Ninety-four students participated in the study. Levels of knowledge about the indications, side effects, and mode of administration were poor, and attitudes were generally negative. Viewing the ECT scenes influenced attitudes toward the treatment; after viewing, one-third of the students decreased their support for ECT, and the proportion of students who would dissuade a family member or friend from having ECT rose from less than 10% to almost 25%.

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Senior Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bashawri, Jamil; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in medical students in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it evaluated their views on the incorporation of CAM in their medical syllabus. Methods. The study was conducted by selecting a cross-sectional sample of senior medical students in the Faculty of Medicine. A validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire was used to explore the knowledge, attitude, and benefits of CAM. It was distributed to a sample of 273 students. Results. The study included 242 students, making the response rate 88.6%. Only two-thirds of students (62.4%) were aware of acupuncture principles and only 17.4% recognized that chiropractic is associated with pain management. The knowledge of common herbs such as St. John's Wort, Echinacea, and Ginkgo biloba was limited among the students. Older students had a positive CAM attitude compared to younger students (p = 0.027). Conclusion. Students attitudes toward CAM learning were encouraging regardless of their limited knowledge on the subject. A high percentage of students agreed that CAM in combination with conventional therapy is beneficial in treating unusual cases, but the choice of CAM should be based on evidence. Furthermore, medical students are still reluctant to have CAM practitioners in their referral network. PMID:27066102

  16. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  17. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Filho, Paulo Cesar; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire’s self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil. PMID:28273238

  18. Dental Hygiene, Dental, and Medical Students' OMFS/Hospital Dentistry-Related Knowledge/Skills, Attitudes, and Behavior: An Exploration.

    PubMed

    Munz, Stephanie M; Kim, Roderick Y; Holley, Tyler J; Donkersloot, John N; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-02-01

    Engaging other health care providers in oral health-related activities and interprofessional care (IPC) could increase access to oral health care for underserved populations in the U.S. The aims of this study were to assess dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' intra- and interprofessional and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS)/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills, attitudes, and behavior; determine whether first and second year vs. third and fourth year cohorts' responses differed; and explore how intra- and interprofessional knowledge was related to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional attitudes and behavior. Data were collected between April 2014 and May 2015 from 69 dental hygiene, 316 dental, and 187 medical students. Response rates across classes for the dental hygiene students ranged from 85% to 100%; 24% to 100% for the dental students; and 13% to 35% for the medical students. The results showed that the medical students had lower oral health-related and interprofessional knowledge and less positive attitudes about oral health-related behavior, IPE, and interprofessional teamwork than the dental hygiene and dental students. While third- and fourth-year medical students' interprofessional knowledge/skills and behavior were higher than those of first- and second-year students, the two groups' IPE-related and interprofessional attitudes did not differ. The students' knowledge correlated with their IPE and interprofessional communication-related skills and behavior, but not with their interprofessional attitudes. These dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' OMFS/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills and behavior increased over the course of their academic programs, while their IPE-related and intra- and interprofessional attitudes, especially for medical students, did not improve over time. OMFS and hospital dentistry units in medical centers offer distinctive opportunities for IPE and IPC. Utilizing these units

  19. Personal and organizational predictors of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to medical waste management in Mazandaran province (northern Iran).

    PubMed

    Jabbari, H; Farokhfar, M; Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Taghipour, H; Bakhshian, F; Rohane, S

    2012-07-01

    Medical waste management (MWM) is an important public health concern worldwide. Although physicians must participate in medical waste management, their personal and organizational predictors in this process are unknown. This study aimed to the determinants of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to MWM in eight hospitals of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A validated, reliable self-administered questionnaire was used including 30 questions about the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and personal and professional variables. Of a total of 200 physicians, 150 persons completed the questionnaire (response rate of 75%). The average score (± SD) for physicians' knowledge was 6.50 (± 1.50) out of 10, whereas those for attitudes and practices were 4.44 (± 0.88) and 4.02 (± 1.35) out of 5, respectively. Surgeons and orthopaedists had the lowest scores, whereas para-clinical specialists and internal medicine specialists had the highest scores. The score of knowledge showed significant differences among speciality groups and the various speciality groups' scores differed significantly only for knowledge (P = 0.024) and the mean of total KAP was significantly different between educational and non-educational hospitals (P < 0.05). As hospital type and physician speciality was related to the KAP concerning MWM, therefore it is recommend that all hospitals should develop appropriate protocols for medical waste management based on the this variables using a participatory process with teamwork and continuous training.

  20. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  1. What Do Physicians Believe About the Way Decisions Are Made? A Pilot Study on Metacognitive Knowledge in the Medical Context

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Paola; Perucca, Valeria; Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition relative to medical decision making has been poorly investigated to date. However, beliefs about methods of decision making (metacognition) play a fundamental role in determining the efficiency of the decision itself. In the present study, we investigated a set of beliefs that physicians develop in relation to the modes of making decisions in a professional environment. The Solomon Questionnaire, designed to assess metacognitive knowledge about behaviors and mental processes involved in decision making, was administered to a sample of 18 emergency physicians, 18 surgeons, and 18 internists. Significant differences in metacognitive knowledge emerged among these three medical areas. Physicians’ self-reports about the decision process mirrored the peculiarities of the context in which they operate. Their metacognitive knowledge demonstrated a reflective attitude that is an effective tool during the decision making process. PMID:27247686

  2. A survey of attitudes, practices, and knowledge regarding drug-drug interactions among medical residents in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2017-04-05

    Background When prescribing medications, physicians should recognize clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To improve medication safety, it is important to understand prescribers' knowledge and opinions pertaining to DDIs. Objective To determine the current DDI information sources used by medical residents, their knowledge of DDIs, their opinions about performance feedback on co-prescription of interacting drugs. Setting Academic hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in Iran. Methods A questionnaire containing questions regarding demographic and practice characteristics, DDI information sources, ability to recognize DDIs, and opinions about performance feedback was distributed to medical residents of 22 specialties in eight academic hospitals in Iran. We analyzed their perception pertaining to DDIs, their performance on classifying drug pairs, and we used a linear regression model to assess the association of potential determinants on their DDI knowledge. Main Outcome Measure prescribers' knowledge and opinions pertaining to DDIs. Results The overall response rate and completion rate for 315 distributed questionnaires were 90% (n = 295) and 86% (n = 281), respectively. Among DDI information sources, books, software on mobile phone or tablet, and Internet were the most commonly-used references. Residents could correctly classify only 41% (5.7/14) of the drug pairs. The regression model showed no significant association between residents' characteristics and their DDI knowledge. An overwhelming majority of the respondents (n = 268, 95.4%) wished to receive performance feedback on co-prescription of interacting drugs in their prescriptions. They mostly selected information technology-based tools (i.e. short text message and email) as their preferred method of receiving feedback. Conclusion Our findings indicate that prescribers may have poor ability to prevent clinically relevant potential DDI occurrence, and they

  3. Investigating Knowledge Management Status among Faculty Members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka Model in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Yunes; Okhovati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 165 faculty members at the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, who were selected from seven faculties as weighted using a random stratified sampling method. The Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge management questionnaire consists of 26 questions in four dimensions of socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. Scoring of questions was conducted using the five-point Likert scale. To analyze data, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed. Results The four dimensions in the Nonaka and Takeuchi model are based on optimal indicators (3.5), dimensions of combination, and externalization with an average of 3.3 were found in higher ranks and internalization and socialization had averages of 3.1 and 3. According to the findings of this study, the average knowledge management among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences was estimated to be 3.1, with a bit difference compared to the average. According to the results of t-tests, there was no significant relationship between gender and various dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). The findings of Kruskal-Wallis showed that there is no significant relationship between variables of age, academic rank, and type of faculty with regard to dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). In addition

  4. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Medical Research amongst the Postgraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Purushottam A.; Bangal, Vidyadhar B.; Phalke, Deepak B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices towards health research amongst the postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from August to October 2012. A total of 116 postgraduate students were interviewed. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to health research were assessed using a predesigned, pretested and validated questionnaire. Results were analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions whenever appropriate. Results: In present study, the concept of research hypothesis was known to only 18.9% of the postgraduate students, whereas 17.2 and 21.5% students knew the full form of MEDLARS and MEDLINE respectively. Majority (91.4%) students believed that patient outcome improves with continued medical research and 70.7% are willing to participate in workshop for research methodology. Lack of time due to vast curriculum of postgraduate subjects (59.5%), lack of research curriculum (25%), and inadequate facilities (25.8%) were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusion: Postgraduate students have inadequate knowledge, but have positive attitudes towards health research. Postgraduate training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by postgraduate trainees. PMID:24791231

  6. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods Students applying for medical school (N=311) completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01). Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile. PMID:27079886

  7. Brief Report: Knowledge and Confidence of Emergency Medical Service Personnel Involving Treatment of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wachob, David; Pesci, Louis J

    2016-12-01

    In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD. The results found that autism-specific training and resources were associated with higher comfort levels, but not knowledge. It was also determined that newer and younger professionals had higher knowledge and comfort when compared to the more experienced and older professionals.

  8. Are expectations too high for transitioning adolescents with IBD? Examining adult medication knowledge and self-management skills

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Laurie N.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Lakin, Paul R.; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Methods Patients with IBD, aged 25–55 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. Results The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn’s disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor’s questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, while 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by gender, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, while fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Conclusions Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empiric data from this study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. This study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult IBD patients. PMID:27280748

  9. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  10. Leading change: introducing an electronic medical record system to a paramedic service.

    PubMed

    Baird, Shawn; Boak, George

    2016-05-03

    Purpose Leaders in health-care organizations introducing electronic medical records (EMRs) face implementation challenges. The adoption of EMR by the emergency medical and ambulance setting is expected to provide wide-ranging benefits, but there is little research into the processes of adoption in this sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the introduction of EMR in a small emergency care organization and identify factors that aided adoption. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with selected paramedics were followed up with a survey issued to all paramedics in the company. Findings The user interfaces with the EMR, and perceived ease of use, were important factors affecting adoption. Individual paramedics were found to have strong and varied preferences about how and when they integrated the EMR into their practice. As company leadership introduced flexibility of use, this enhanced both individual and collective ability to make sense of the change and removed barriers to acceptance. Research limitations/implications This is a case study of one small organization. However, there may be useful lessons for other emergency care organizations adopting EMR. Practical implications Leaders introducing EMR in similar situations may benefit from considering a sense-making perspective and responding promptly to feedback. Originality/value The study contributes to a wider understanding of issues faced by leaders who seek to implement EMRs in emergency medical services, a sector in which there has been to date very little research on this issue.

  11. New Minimum Relative Humidity Requirements Are Expected to Lead to More Medical Device Failures.

    PubMed

    Kohani, Mehdi; Pecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, the Addendum D to ASHRAE Standard 170, "Ventilation of healthcare facilities," lowered the minimum relative humidity (RH) requirement of anesthetizing locations (including operating rooms, operating/surgical cystoscopic rooms, delivery rooms (Caesarean), recovery rooms, critical and intensive care, newborn intensive care, treatment rooms, trauma rooms (crisis or shock), laser eye rooms, newborn nursery suites, and endoscopy rooms) from 30 % to 20 %. The new minimum limit was adopted based on the results of a review paper that suggested that lowering humidity levels will have little or no impact on providing a safe environment for patients, staff, or medical equipment. That review paper reached this conclusion by assuming that there were no medical device failures due to electrostatic discharge (ESD). However, in an examination of the FDA's MAUDE database of reported defects and recalls, we identified numerous medical device failures explicitly due to ESD. This paper presents technical reliability and safety concerns regarding the new guidelines and recommends that such changes should not be implemented and that the guidelines should be revoked.

  12. Historical continuity in the methodology of modern medical science: Leonardo leads the way.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2014-02-01

    Early modern medical science did not arise ex nihilo, but was the culmination of a long history stretching back through the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, Byzantium and Roman times, into Greek Antiquity. The long interval between Aristotle and Galen and Harvey and Descartes was punctuated by outstanding visionaries, including Leonardo, the ultimate Renaissance man. His attitude and mindset were based on Aristotelian pursuit of empirical fact and rational thought. He declared himself to be a "man without letters" to underscore his disdain for those whose culture was only mnemonics and philosophical inferences from authoritative books. Leonardo read the Book of Nature with the immense curiosity of the pioneering scientist, ushering in the methodology of modern medical science with help from forerunners. He left no publications, but extensive personal Notebooks: on his scientific research, hydrodynamics, physiological anatomy, etc. Apparently, numerous successors availed themselves of his methodologies and insights, albeit without attribution. In his Notebooks, disordered and fragmentary, Leonardo manifests the exactitude of the engineer and scientist, the spontaneous freshness of one speaking of what he has at heart and that he knows well. His style is unrefined, but intensely personal, rich with emotion and, sometimes, poetic. Leonardo, the visionary anatomist, strived consistently not merely to imitate nature by depicting body structures, but to perceive through analysis and simulations the intimate physiologic processes; i.e., the biomechanics underlying the workings of all bodily organs and components, even the mysterious beating heart. It is fitting to regard him as the first modern medical scientist.

  13. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  14. Comparison of clinical knowledge management capabilities of commercially-available and leading internally-developed electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have carried out an extensive qualitative research program focused on the barriers and facilitators to successful adoption and use of various features of advanced, state-of-the-art electronic health records (EHRs) within large, academic, teaching facilities with long-standing EHR research and development programs. We have recently begun investigating smaller, community hospitals and out-patient clinics that rely on commercially-available EHRs. We sought to assess whether the current generation of commercially-available EHRs are capable of providing the clinical knowledge management features, functions, tools, and techniques required to deliver and maintain the clinical decision support (CDS) interventions required to support the recently defined "meaningful use" criteria. Methods We developed and fielded a 17-question survey to representatives from nine commercially available EHR vendors and four leading internally developed EHRs. The first part of the survey asked basic questions about the vendor's EHR. The second part asked specifically about the CDS-related system tools and capabilities that each vendor provides. The final section asked about clinical content. Results All of the vendors and institutions have multiple modules capable of providing clinical decision support interventions to clinicians. The majority of the systems were capable of performing almost all of the key knowledge management functions we identified. Conclusion If these well-designed commercially-available systems are coupled with the other key socio-technical concepts required for safe and effective EHR implementation and use, and organizations have access to implementable clinical knowledge, we expect that the transformation of the healthcare enterprise that so many have predicted, is achievable using commercially-available, state-of-the-art EHRs. PMID:21329520

  15. Evaluation of lead equivalence of patient and hardware materials in medical diagnostic x-ray shielding.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2005-02-01

    In the estimation of additional shielding requirements for primary beam apart from that provided by patient and hardware in the x-ray beam, there is the need to distinguish between attenuation and hardening properties of materials in comparison. In this work, numerical comparison of attenuation and hardening properties of phantom (Lucite, soft tissue, water) and hardware (aluminum and steel) materials with those of lead have been carried out. Results presented show that the shielding affordable by lead attenuation equivalent thicknesses (LAE) and lead hardening equivalent thicknesses (LHE) is not strictly equivalent to that affordable by thicknesses of substitutes (phantom materials, aluminum and steel) when there are differences in attenuation and hardening properties. Even though beams through LAE that are not "exact" have equal exposure values, the half value layers are higher than those through thicknesses of lead substitutes. Example calculations show that the use of lead thickness (LAE) that are not "exact" to account for the shielding afforded by the thickness of the patient (water phantom) produces lesser reduction of the primary radiation level in the area indicated for shielding. The "exact" LAE that will reduce the primary radiation level equally as the patient and radiographic table may be higher by close to 20% or more of that which is not "exact."

  16. Medical Knowledge Assessment by Hematology and Medical Oncology In-Training Examinations Are Better Than Program Director Assessments at Predicting Subspecialty Certification Examination Performance.

    PubMed

    Collichio, Frances A; Hess, Brian J; Muchmore, Elaine A; Duhigg, Lauren; Lipner, Rebecca S; Haist, Steven; Hawley, Janine L; Morrison, Carol A; Clayton, Charles P; Raymond, Marilyn J; Kayoumi, Karen M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2016-02-20

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System requires training programs to demonstrate that fellows are achieving competence in medical knowledge (MK), as part of a global assessment of clinical competency. Passing American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examinations is recognized as a metric of MK competency. This study examines several in-training MK assessment approaches and their ability to predict performance on the ABIM Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Results of a Hematology In-Service Examination (ISE) and an Oncology In-Training Examination (ITE), program director (PD) ratings, demographic variables, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) Certification Examination were compared. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses evaluated these assessment approaches as predictors of performance on the Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Hematology ISE scores were the strongest predictor of Hematology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.41) (passing odds ratio [OR], 1.012; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.015), and the Oncology ITE scores were the strongest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.45) (passing OR, 1.013; 95 % CI, 1.011-1.016). PD rating of MK was the weakest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.07) and was not significantly predictive of Hematology Certification Examination scores. Hematology and Oncology ITEs are better predictors of certification examination performance than PD ratings of MK, reinforcing the effectiveness of ITEs for competency-based assessment of MK.

  17. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

  18. Using an eye tracker during medication administration to identify gaps in nursing students' contextual knowledge: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Amster, Brian; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth; Fisher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    In this clinical simulation study using an eye-tracking device, 40% of senior nursing students administered a contraindicated medication to a patient. Our findings suggest that the participants who did not identify the error did not know that amoxicillin is a type of penicillin. Eye-tracking devices may be valuable for determining whether nursing students are making rule- or knowledge-based errors, a distinction not easily captured via observations and interviews.

  19. From cards to computers: the National Library of Medicine and the transmission of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, John

    2002-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the world's largest medical Library. Its collections total some 6 million items and NLM also sponsors a variety of key databases in the medical field. This article traces the history and the strategies of the Library from the origins until today.

  20. Antipsychotic Medication and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Knowledge and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rachel; Withers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are the most frequently prescribed psychotropic medication for people with intellectual disabilities. Many people are prescribed this medication for "challenging behaviours" without having had a formal diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Antipsychotics have been reported to have severe side-effect profiles, which can…

  1. The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

    2009-01-01

    This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

  2. Cultural Adaptation of a Survey to Assess Medical Providers’ Knowledge of and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shane D.; Rashidi, Vania; Banushi, Vilson H.; Barbhaiya, Namrata J.; Gashi, Valbona H.; Sarnquist, Clea; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers’ lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers’ knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population. PMID:23544101

  3. Combining knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) and case-based reasoning (CBR) to support diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranieri, Andrew; Yearwood, John; Pham, Binh

    1999-07-01

    The development of data warehouses for the storage and analysis of very large corpora of medical image data represents a significant trend in health care and research. Amongst other benefits, the trend toward warehousing enables the use of techniques for automatically discovering knowledge from large and distributed databases. In this paper, we present an application design for knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) techniques that enhance the performance of the problem solving strategy known as case- based reasoning (CBR) for the diagnosis of radiological images. The problem of diagnosing the abnormality of the cervical spine is used to illustrate the method. The design of a case-based medical image diagnostic support system has three essential characteristics. The first is a case representation that comprises textual descriptions of the image, visual features that are known to be useful for indexing images, and additional visual features to be discovered by data mining many existing images. The second characteristic of the approach presented here involves the development of a case base that comprises an optimal number and distribution of cases. The third characteristic involves the automatic discovery, using KDD techniques, of adaptation knowledge to enhance the performance of the case based reasoner. Together, the three characteristics of our approach can overcome real time efficiency obstacles that otherwise mitigate against the use of CBR to the domain of medical image analysis.

  4. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  5. ADHD and the Role of Medication: Knowledge and Perceptions of Qualified and Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Gazala; Thomson, A. H.; Boyter, A. C.; McLarty, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to affect 3-5% of school-aged children. A sound knowledge of both the disorder and its treatment would appear to be useful for school teachers. This study compared the knowledge and attitudes of Scottish qualified and student teachers towards ADHD and its pharmacological treatment. Data…

  6. Knowledge and perception regarding clinical trials among doctors of government medical colleges: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology. PMID:27141476

  7. An open-source, mobile-friendly search engine for public medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Hanbury, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has become an important source of information for medical practitioners. To complement the capabilities of currently available web search engines we developed FindMeEvidence, an open-source, mobile-friendly medical search engine. In a preliminary evaluation, the quality of results from FindMeEvidence proved to be competitive with those from TRIP Database, an established, closed-source search engine for evidence-based medicine.

  8. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Anneser, Johanna; Jox, Ralf J.; Thurn, Tamara; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any “regular, repetitive offer” (even on a non-profit basis) of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on “physician-assisted suicide,” “euthanasia” and “palliative sedation,” based on a fictitious case vignette study. Method: The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering). The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures. Results: Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80%) participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering) and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering). The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal) and euthanasia (illegal) correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively), while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the assessment of

  9. Pharmacy Educators’ Knowledge of Medication Safety and Their Perception Toward Its Integration into the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bustami, Rami; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.; Almodaimegh, Hind; Alghamdi, Sahar; Alharbi, Shemylan; Khalidi, Nabil; Murphy, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy educators’ knowledge of medication safety and their perception toward its integration into the PharmD curriculum in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A survey was administered to pharmacy educators at a college of pharmacy and its affiliate hospital. Knowledge, training, and perception toward integrating medication safety into the PharmD curriculum were evaluated. Results. More than 50% of respondents indicated that medication safety should be covered within selected courses, and 65% indicated that such courses should be mandatory. Pharmacy practice educators had significantly higher levels of knowledge about medication safety than their nonpractice counterparts. Perceptions toward medication safety integration into the curriculum varied significantly by general discipline, academic degree, years of experience, and gender. Conclusion. Pharmacy educators in Saudi Arabia understand the importance of medication safety and its integration into the curriculum. Further studies are needed to guide curricular change to achieve this integration. PMID:28381890

  10. Advertisements for medicines in leading medical journals in 18 countries: a 12-month survey of information content and standards.

    PubMed

    Herxheimer, A; Lundborg, C S; Westerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    The information content of 6,710 advertisements for medicines in medical journals was surveyed to provide a baseline for monitoring the effect of WHO's Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion. The advertisements (ads) appeared during 12 months (1987-1988) in 23 leading national medical journals in 18 countries. Local participants, mostly doctors or pharmacists, examined them. The presence or absence in each ad of important information was noted. In most ads the generic name appeared in smaller type than the brand name. Indications were mentioned more often than the negative effects of medicines. The ads gave less pharmacological than medical information. However, important warnings and precautions were missing in half, and side effects and contraindications in about 40 percent. Prices tended to be given only in countries where a social security system pays for the medicines. The information content of ads in the developing countries differed surprisingly little from that in the industrialized countries. Almost all the ads (96 percent) included one or more pictures; 58 percent of these were considered irrelevant. The authors believe it is a mistake to regard ads as trivial. If they are not considered seriously they will influence the use of medicines as they are intended to do, but read critically they can provide useful information.

  11. Lead Poisoning and Anemia Associated with Use of Ayurvedic Medications Purchased on the Internet--Wisconsin, 2015.

    PubMed

    Meiman, Jon; Thiboldeaux, Robert; Anderson, Henry

    2015-08-21

    On April 30, 2015, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) was notified by a local health department of an elevated blood lead level (BLL) in a female patient aged 64 years. All Wisconsin laboratories are required to provide BLL testing results performed on any state resident to WDPH, and WDPH and local health departments are statutorily mandated to investigate any single BLL ≥20 µg/dL or BLLs that are persistently ≥15 µg/dL. Review of medical records revealed that the patient had developed progressive fatigue and shortness of breath during a period of multiple weeks that prompted inpatient medical evaluation. Hemoglobin level was 8.3 g/dL (normal range for age and sex of patient = 12.5-15.0 g/dL), and peripheral blood smear showed normochromic, normocytic red blood cells with basophilic stippling. A BLL was obtained and found to be 85.8 µg/dL. Urine toxic metals tests revealed mercury and aluminum levels in the normal range. Combined methylated and inorganic urine arsenic levels were slightly elevated at 53.3 µg/L (normal = <18.9 µg/L). The patient was discharged for outpatient lead chelation therapy with oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid.

  12. Non medical prescribing leads views on their role and the implementation of non medical prescribing from a multi-organisational perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, non-medical prescribing (NMP) has been identified as one way to improve healthcare quality and efficiency. Healthcare organisations are charged with overseeing the clinical governance of NMP and guidance recommends the identification of a lead director to be responsible for its implementation. While over twelve million items are prescribed each year by the 50,000 qualified NMPs its uptake is inconsistent. Several studies have explored the barriers to NMP at a practice level, however little is known about the role the NMP lead and the implementation of NMP from an organisational perspective. The aim of this research was to explore the role of the organisational NMP lead across a range of practice settings within one Strategic Health Authority (SHA) and consider the development of NMP from a multi-organisational perspective. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 28 NMP leads across one SHA were undertaken by a trained qualitative researcher. Interviews addressed the purpose of the role and difficulties encountered; audiotapes were transcribed, coded and themes were identified. Results The NMP lead role comprised of four main functions; communication, coordinating, clinical governance and support. Factors hampering progress in overseeing the safe development of NMP included lack of clarity about the NMP lead role and responsibilities, strategic support and a lack of protected time. The extent to which clinical governance systems were in place across organisations was inconsistent. Where a strategic approach to its development was adopted, fewer barriers were encountered and NMP was more likely to become embedded within organisations. Conclusions The significant contribution that NMP leads play in embedding NMP within organisations should be acknowledged by clearer national guidance for this role and its responsibilities. Greater standardisation and consistency is required of clinical governance systems if quality and

  13. Towards improved knowledge sharing: assessment of the HL7 Reference Information Model to support medical logic module queries.

    PubMed

    Jenders, R A; Sujansky, W; Broverman, C A; Chadwick, M

    1997-01-01

    Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of queries impairs sharing of MLMs, an impediment that has come to be known as the "curly braces problem." As a first step in solving this problem, we evaluated the proposed HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a foundation for a standard query model for the Arden Syntax. Specifically, we analyzed the MLM knowledge base at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and compared the queries in these MLMs to the RIM. We studied 488 queries in 104 MLMs, identifying 674 total query data elements. Laboratory tests accounted for 45.8% of these elements, while demographic and ADT data accounted for 37.6%. Pharmacy orders accounted for 10.5%, medical problems for 4.3% and MLM output messages for 1.6%. We found that the RIM encompasses all but those data elements signifying MLM output (1.6% of the total). We conclude that the majority of queries in the CPMC knowledge base access a relatively small set of data elements and that the RIM encompasses these elements. We propose extensions of this analysis to continue construction of an Arden query model capable of solving the "curly braces problem."

  14. Perceptions and knowledge of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in traditionally non-circumcising communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob Robin; Arendse, Kirsten D; Larbi, Carl; Johnson, Naomi; Vivian, Lauraine M H

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recommended for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Uptake of the campaign has been relatively poor, particularly in traditionally non-circumcising regions. This study evaluates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical male circumcision (MC) of 104 community members exposed to promotional campaigns for VMMC for five years. Results show that 93% of participants have heard of circumcision and 72% have heard of some health benefit from the practice. However, detailed knowledge of the relationship with HIV infection is lacking: 12.2% mistakenly believed you could not get HIV after being circumcised, while 75.5% believe that a circumcised man is still susceptible and another 12.2% do not know of any relationship between HIV and MC. There are significant barriers to the uptake of the practice, including misperceptions and fear of complications commonly attributed to traditional, non-medical circumcision. However, 88.8% of participants believe circumcision is an acceptable practice, and community-specific promotional campaigns may increase uptake of the service.

  15. Preliminary report of a Web-based instrument to assess and teach knowledge and clinical thinking to medical student

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Hironobu; Ando, Hirotaka; Obika, Mikako; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Bautista, Miho; Kataoka, Hitomi; Terasawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We report the preliminary development of a unique Web-based instrument for assessing and teaching knowledge and developing clinical thinking called the “Sequential Questions and Answers” (SQA) test. Included in this feasibility report are physicians’ answers to the Sequential Questions and Answers pre- and posttests and their brief questionnaire replies. Methods The authors refined the SQA test case scenario for content, ease of modifications of case scenarios, test uploading and answer retrieval. Eleven geographically distant physicians evaluated the SQA test, taking the pretest and posttest within two weeks. These physicians completed a brief questionnaire about the SQA test. Results Eleven physicians completed the SQA pre- and posttest; all answers were downloaded for analysis. They reported the ease of website login and navigating within the test module together with many helpful suggestions. Their average posttest score gain was 53% (p=0.012). Conclusions We report the successful launch of a unique Web-based instrument referred to as the Sequential Questions and Answers test. This distinctive test combines teaching organization of the clinical narrative into an assessment tool that promotes acquiring medical knowledge and clinical thinking. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of geographically distant physicians to access the SQA instrument. The physicians’ helpful suggestions will be added to future SQA test versions. Medical schools might explore the integration of this multi-language-capable SQA assessment and teaching instrument into their undergraduate medical curriculum. PMID:25341203

  16. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    PubMed Central

    Roex, Ann; Clarebout, Geraldine; Dory, Valerie; Degryse, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epistemological beliefs (EB) are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions). Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18) were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11) met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI), participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify knowledge are likely to be

  17. Does knowledge about bloodborne pathogens influence the reuse of medical injection syringes among women in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Mahmood, Bushra; Imran Khan, M

    2014-01-01

    Injections with re-used syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Pakistan. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) to describe the distribution of injections administered with newly opened syringes and assessed the association of knowledge about bloodborne pathogens with syringe reuse in Pakistan. In the PDHS, women aged 12-49 years were enrolled through a multistage stratified cluster-sampling strategy across Pakistan. Approximately 10,000 women were interviewed to collect information regarding receiving injections, the use of syringes taken out of new unopened packages for their last injections, and knowledge regarding the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HBV and HCV through the re-use of syringes and transfusion of unscreened blood. Of the 5126/10,023 women who provided information concerning their last injection, 4342 (86%) received this injection with a new syringe taken out of an unopened package. The proportion of injections received with a new syringe increased with the education level, wealth, HIV knowledge and knowledge about HCV/HBV transmission through the re-use of syringes. In the multivariable model, respondents in the 4th (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.0) and 5th (AOR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5) wealth quintiles, with some education (AOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9), those in the 4th quartile of the HIV knowledge score (AOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.0), and those with the knowledge that a new syringe protects against HCV/HBV and HIV (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.5) were more likely to receive injections with a newly opened syringe. The patients' knowledge regarding the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is an important factor in receiving injections with a new syringe.

  18. Knowledge and practices of obtaining informed consent for medical procedures among specialist physicians: questionnaire study in 6 Croatian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomic Juraga, Ana

    2009-12-01

    AIM. To assess physicians' knowledge and practices for obtaining patients' informed consent to medical procedures. METHODS. An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. RESULTS. Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P=0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P=0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P<0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P<0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P> or =0.05 for all questions). CONCLUSION. Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and perception/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners in India towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kharkar, Mala; Bowalekar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude and perceptions/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners (MPs) in India towards Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for assessment of KAP of medical practitioners in India toward ADR reporting. This questionnaire was administered to 2-3 medical practitioners from each zone prior to administering final questionnaire which was approved by Disha Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. 1200 medical practitioners (about 300 from each zone) from India were selected randomly. Results: 1000 medical practitioners out of 1200 (90%), selected at random were approached. A total of 870 provided responses to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73% of 1200 selected randomly. A total of 47.5% respondents reported that they were aware of Government ADR centers. A total of 59.2% reported that they are familiar with the procedure of reporting ADRs to Government centers. However, only 18.5% of MPs have reported the observed ADRs to Government ADR centers. As against this relatively large number of MPs (87.9%) have reported ADRs observed during their routine practice to medical representatives of pharmaceutical company and NGOs (non-Govt. Organizations). A total of 80.5% of respondents agreed that safety plays an important role and 96% reported that ADR centers are useful. However, only 55.6% of respondents have reported that there is a need for ADR centers. Conclusion: The study reveals that practitioners are aware of ADR reporting; their perception toward ADR reporting is right but it is not reflected when it comes to the act of reporting of ADRs. In our sample of 870 respondents only 18.5 % reported ADRs to some organizations. Only 5% of respondents recorded the details of ADR and reported to the manufacturer and 1% of respondents to government health ministry. Thus, medical practitioners in India appear to have a good knowledge about ADR reporting, the right

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Comparison of Current Knowledge, Attitudes and Interest among German Medical Students and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Münstedt, Karsten; Harren, Hildegard; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been agreed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be included in the German medical curriculum, there is no consensus on which methods and how it should be taught. This study aimed to assess needs for CAM education by evaluating current knowledge, attitudes and interests of medical students, general physicians and gynecologists. Two instruments based on established and validated questionnaires were developed. One was given to seventh semester medical students and the other to office-based doctors. Data were analyzed by bivariate correlation and cross-tabulation. Altogether 550 questionnaires were distributed—280 to doctors and 270 to medical students. Completed questionnaires were returned by 80.4% of students and 78.2% of doctors. Although 73.8% (160/219) of doctors and 40% (87/217) of students had already informed themselves about CAM, neither group felt that they knew much about CAM. Doctors believed that CAM was most useful in general medicine, supportive oncology, pediatrics, dermatology and gynecology, while students believed that dermatology, general medicine, psychiatry and rheumatology offered opportunities; both recommended that CAM should be taught in these areas. Both groups believed that CAM should be included in medical education; however, they believed that CAM needed more investigation and should be taught “critically". German doctors and students would like to be better informed about CAM. An approach which teaches fundamental competences to students, chooses specific content based on evidence, demographics and medical conditions and provides students with the skills they need for future learning should be adopted. PMID:19098296

  1. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  2. A Knowledge-based Learning and Testing System for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Siobhan

    The traditional medical curriculum and internships must be supplemented by standardized teaching modalities, such as computer-assisted instruction using patient simulators. A patient simulator is defined as a representation of a clinical situation in which an individual conducts the diagnosis and management of a patient. Advantages include…

  3. Medical Students' Learning from Patient-Led Teaching: Experiential versus Biomedical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…

  4. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  5. Comparative effectiveness research and the psychology of medical practice: the vicissitudes of knowledge implementation.

    PubMed

    Kassirer, Jerome P; Wong, John B

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research should provide much-needed information about the benefits and risks of different current treatment options in the community. Taking the perspective of medical care providers, we consider many of the psychological, social and behavioural hurdles to implementation of comparative effectiveness analyses and explain why these obstacles should not be ignored.

  6. Assessment of Genetics Knowledge and Skills in Medical Students: Insight for a Clinical Neurogenetics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Pettiford, Jennifer M.; Combs, Susan E.; Heffron, Ari; Healton, Sean; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Macri, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The pace of discovery in biochemistry and genetics and its effect on clinical medicine places new curricular challenges in medical school education. We sought to evaluate students' understanding of neurogenetics and its clinical applications to design a pilot curriculum into the clinical neurology clerkship. We utilized a needs assessment and a…

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p < .0005). Users were younger (p = .027) and drank alcohol more frequently (p = .008) than "non-users." Forty-nine percent consumed alcohol associated with energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol.

  8. Regulating medical bodies? The consequences of the 'modernisation' of the NHS and the disembodiment of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Burrows, Roger; Watt, Ian

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the consequences of modernisation and regulatory processes for the everyday lives of doctors working the UK National Health Service. We do this by reporting on interview data generated as part of a qualitative investigation into the working lives of 47 doctors. The analysis of the empirical findings is informed by two literatures: that which has sought to theorise the contemporary thrust of regulation and audit and that which has developed a sociology of embodiment. Doctors' views are presented in relation to four areas of work which hav--in the loosest sense of the word--been subject to regulation. Drawing on work from the sociology of embodiment we argue that changes in the institutional and cultural context of medical work could be altering both the 'field' and the 'habitus'--to use Bourdieu's terms--of medicine, with a consequence that medical knowledge is becoming less embodied.

  9. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  10. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    PubMed

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  11. Usefulness of case reports to improve medical knowledge regarding trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe the discovery of the trigemino-cardiac reflex by Schaller in 1999 and the continued improvement of the knowledge about the trigemino-cardiac reflex involved in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery, during the past several years. The achieved medical progress could be gained only by the practical experience described by different case reports and later case series that have been published in several principal scientific journals. Additionally, we explain the scientific as well as clinical importance of the communication of the case reports on TCR. Special reference has been given to the validity of the case reports for new phenomena in clinical medicine. PMID:21496216

  12. The Thought Style of Physicians: Strategies for Keeping Up with Medical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochel de Camargo, Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study on how doctors (n=14) select and assess information in practice. The data produced from open-ended interviews was interpreted though a conceptual framework derived from Ludwick Fleck. Concludes that doctors lack adequate resources to assess knowledge. (Contains 52 references.) (DDR)

  13. HIV-Related Knowledge and Attitudes among First Year Medical Students in Mumbai, India Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samant, Yogindra; Mankeshwar, Ranjit; Sankhe, Lalit; Parker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The total number of people with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection in India is estimated to be 10% of all global cases. People living with HIV in India often experience discrimination while receiving health care due to inadequate knowledge and fear among health care professionals. Data presented in this paper represents the…

  14. Maths for medications: an analytical exemplar of the social organization of nurses' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dyjur, Louise; Rankin, Janet; Lane, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Within the literature that circulates in the discourses organizing nursing education, there are embedded assumptions that link student performance on maths examinations to safe medication practices. These assumptions are rooted historically. They fundamentally shape educational approaches assumed to support safe practice and protect patients from nursing error. Here, we apply an institutional ethnographic lens to the body of literature that both supports and critiques the emphasis on numeracy skills and medication safety. We use this form of inquiry to open an alternate interrogation of these practices. Our main argument posits that numeracy skills serve as powerful distraction for both students and teachers. We suggest that they operate under specious claims of safety and objectivity. As nurse educators, we are captured by taken-for-granted understandings of practices intended to produce safety. We contend that some of these practices are not congruent with how competency actually unfolds in the everyday world of nursing practice. Ontologically grounded in the materiality of work processes, we suggest there is a serious disjuncture between educators' assessment and evaluation work where it links into broad nursing assumptions about medication work. These underlying assumptions and work processes produce contradictory tensions for students, teachers and nurses in direct practice.

  15. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge.

  16. Sharing Wisdom(s) to Enrich Knowledge: Working in a Transdisciplinary Research Team in Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Carceller-Maicas, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.

  17. Knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease among medical students of Rawalpindi: A preventable threat not yet confronted

    PubMed Central

    Hisam, Aliya; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Mahmood-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS. The data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The response rate was 77% (308/400). About 244 (79.2%) of students had heard about EVD before. One hundred and sixty four (53.2%) of the students correctly identified that no treatment is available for EVD as yet. Also 163 (52.9%) said that no vaccine was available against the virus either. Washing hands every time after touching a patient in clinics/wards was important for 151 (49.0%) while 223 (72.4%) claimed to use proper techniques to dispose off used injections. Conclusion: Students have basic knowledge regarding EVD. However, there is deficient information regarding the diagnosis and precautionary measures required to control it. PMID:27648059

  18. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    PubMed

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  19. Visual Search of Experts in Medical Image Reading: The Effect of Training, Target Prevalence, and Expert Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Maeda, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are (a) To determine the effect of training on the multiple-target lesion search performance; and (b) To examine the effect of target prevalence on the performance of radiologists and novices. We conducted four sessions of 500 trials in a lesion search on a medical image task in which participants searched for three different target lesions. Participants were 10 radiologists and novices. In each session, the prevalence of the different target lesions varied from low (2%) to high (40%). The sensitivity of novices was higher in the later sessions than in the first session, whereas there were no differences among sessions in radiologists. The improvement on sensitivity of novices was largely due to attenuations of false alarm (FA) errors. In addition, miss rates of the three targets did not differ in data of novices, whereas radiologists produced a higher miss rate for the highest prevalence target lesion (non-serious lesion) than for the other two lesions (serious lesions). The conclusions are (a) The training for the multiple-target lesion search task can be effective to reduce FA errors; and (b) The prevalence effect on lesion search can be attenuated by the multiple-target identification and the knowledge about seriousness of lesions. This suggests that acquired knowledge about normal cases and serious lesions is an important aspect of a radiologists’ skill in searching for medical lesions and their high performance levels. PMID:23576997

  20. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  1. [Soldiers and HIV: impact of medical knowledge on the analysis of discrimination in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Pou Giménez, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Mexican Supreme Court issued several opinions dealing with military personnel dismissed from the Army because of their being HIV-positive. The author describes the main questions under discussion and the core arguments developed by the Court, and stresses three reasons why these cases deserve close attention: positively, because they reinforced the use of the proportionality principle as a tool for identifying discriminatory norms and because they opened the door to the use of specialized scientific knowledge in constitutional adjudication; negatively, because they failed to build on the direct normative efficacy of the right to health.

  2. Conceptual Knowledge Foundations for Naval Medical Training: A Scheme for Directed Curricular Planning and Instructional Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-14

    Lactase deficiency (retroceal) Absorption (Idiopathic) NEURO Intracranial Central Nervous Brain tumor Hematoma System (Glioma) 23 Important...1.9 NEURO 9 Hematoma number of [9] [6] subjects Final Dx 2.0 1.5 Note: There were no significant differences As part of the clinical case vignettes that...subjects Evaluative 22 2.1 1.6 Assessment Self knowledge 2 0.44 0.43 Clinical 18 Assessment 2.3 33 NEURO Hematoma number of [91 (61 subjects Evaluative 5

  3. Knowledge and Practices of Obtaining Informed Consent for Medical Procedures among Specialist Physicians: Questionnaire Study in 6 Croatian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jukić, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomić, Ana; Juraga

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess physicians’ knowledge and practices for obtaining patients’ informed consent to medical procedures. Methods An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. Results Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P = 0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P = 0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P < 0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P < 0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P ≥ 0.05 for all questions). Conclusion Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process. PMID:20017225

  4. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. Setting A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. Method The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Results Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to ‘always’ practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40–96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Conclusion Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers’ knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations. PMID:27711173

  5. Reconfiguring or reproducing intra-professional boundaries? Specialist expertise, generalist knowledge and the 'modernization' of the medical workforce.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael

    2009-04-01

    Efforts to 'modernize' the clinical workforce of the English National Health Service have sought to reconfigure the responsibilities of professional groups in pursuit of more effective, joined-up service provision. Such efforts have met resistance from professions eager to protect their jurisdictions, deploying legitimacy claims familiar from the insights of the sociology of professions. Yet to date few studies of professional boundaries have grounded these insights in the specific context of policy challenges to the inter- and intra-professional division of labour, in relation to the medical profession and other health-related occupations. In this paper we address this gap by considering the experience of newly instituted general practitioners with a special interest (GPSIs) in genetics, introduced to improve genetics knowledge and practice in primary care. Using qualitative data from four comparative case studies, we discuss how an established intra-professional division of labour within medicine-between clinical geneticists and general practitioners-was opened, negotiated and reclosed in these sites. We discuss the contrasting attitudes towards the nature of genetics knowledge and its application of GPSIs and geneticists, and how these were used to advance conflicting visions of what the nascent GPSI role should involve. In particular, we show how the claims to knowledge of geneticists and GPSIs interacted with wider policy pressures to produce a rather more conservative redistribution of power and responsibility across the intra-professional boundary than the rhetoric of modernization might suggest.

  6. Modeling and Encoding Clinical Causal Relationships in a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the computer modeling and encoding of clinical causal relationships (CR's). This method draws on the theory of multivariate linear models and path analysis. The representation was used to encode medical CR's derived empirically from a clinical database by the RX computer project described in SCAMC82. The emphasis in the representation is on capturing the intensities of effects and the variation in the effects across a patient population. This information is used by RX in determining the validity of other CR's. The representation uses a directed graph formalism in which the nodes are frames and the arcs contain seven descriptive features of individual CR's: intensity, distribution, direction, mathematical form, setting, validity, and evidence. Because natural systems (such as the human body) are inherently probabilistic, linear models are useful in representing causal flow in them.

  7. Knowledge of primary health care and career choice at primary health care settings among final year medical students - challenges to human resources for health in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hien, Nguyen Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of medical doctors in primary health care (PHC) settings in Vietnam. Evidence about the knowledge medical students have about PHC and their career decision-making is important for making policy in human resources for health. The objective of this study was to analyse knowledge and attitudes about PHC among medical students in their final year and their choice to work in PHC after graduation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year general medical students from Hanoi Medical University. Self-administered interviews were conducted. Key variables were knowledge, awareness of the importance of PHC and PHC career choices. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed. Students had essential knowledge of the concept and elements of PHC and were well aware of its importance. However, only one-third to one half of them valued PHC with regard to their professional development or management opportunities. Less than 1% of students would work at commune or district health facilities after graduation. This study evidences challenges related to increasing the number of medical doctors working in PHC settings. Immediate and effective interventions are needed to make PHC settings more attractive and to encourage medical graduates to start and continue a career in PHC.

  8. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without

  9. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  10. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative.

  11. Application of knowledge management and the intelligence continuum for medical emergencies and disaster scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2006-01-01

    The world has recently witnessed several large scale natural disasters. These include the Asian tsunami which devastated many of the countries around the rim of the Indian Ocean in December 2004, extensive flooding in many parts of Europe in August 2005, hurricane katrina (September 2005), the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in many regions of Asia and Canada in 2003 and the Pakistan earthquake (towards the end of 2005). Such emergency and disaster situations (E&DS) serve to underscore the utter chaos that ensues in the aftermath of such events, the many casualties and lives lost not to mention the devastation and destruction that is left behind. One recurring theme that is apparent in all these situations is that, irrespective of the warnings of imminent threats, countries have not been prepared and ready to exhibit effective and efficient crisis management. This paper examines the application of the tools, techniques and processes of the knowledge economy to develop a prescriptive model that will support superior decision making in E&DS, thereby enabling effective and efficient crisis management.

  12. Integrated approach for designing medical decision support systems with knowledge extracted from clinical databases by statistical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Krusinska, E.; Babic, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Wigertz, O.; Bodemar, G.; Mathiesen, U.

    1991-01-01

    In clinical research data is often studied by a particular method without previous analysis of quality or semantic contents which could link clinical database and data analytical (e.g. statistical) procedures. In order to avoid bias caused by this situation, we propose that the analysis of medical data should be divided into two main steps. In the first one we concentrate on conducting the quality, semantic and structure analyses. In the second step our aim is to build an appropriate dictionary of data analysis methods for further knowledge extraction. Methods like robust statistical techniques, procedures for mixed continuous and discrete data, fuzzy linguistic approach, machine learning and neural networks can be included. The results may be evaluated both using test samples and applying other relevant data-analytical techniques to the particular problem under the study. PMID:1807621

  13. Vaccination and the politics of medical knowledge in nineteenth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Trambaiolo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of the cowpox vaccine in nineteenth-century Japan has often been seen as a more straightforward development than its introduction to other non-Western countries. However, the research leading to this conclusion has been based primarily on sources written by Japanese practitioners of Westernstylemedicine (ranpoˉ), while the perspectives of Chinese-style (kanpoˉ) practitioners,who were more numerous than ranpoˉ practitioners but less likely to have shown immediate enthusiasm for vaccination, have been largely neglected. Kanpoˉdoctors typically learned about vaccination from Chinese rather than European sources and often held an ambivalent attitude toward the vaccine’s foreign origins.This article develops an analysis of kanpoˉ writings on vaccination and suggests that skepticism about the vaccine remained widespread for at least a decade after its initial arrival in Japan, providing new insights into both the initial opposition and the subsequent acceptance of the technique.

  14. A method and knowledge base for automated inference of patient problems from structured data in an electronic medical record

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Justine; Feblowitz, Joshua C; Maloney, Francine L; Wilcox, Allison R; Ramelson, Harley Z; Schneider, Louise I; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate knowledge of a patient's medical problems is critical for clinical decision making, quality measurement, research, billing and clinical decision support. Common structured sources of problem information include the patient problem list and billing data; however, these sources are often inaccurate or incomplete. Objective To develop and validate methods of automatically inferring patient problems from clinical and billing data, and to provide a knowledge base for inferring problems. Study design and methods We identified 17 target conditions and designed and validated a set of rules for identifying patient problems based on medications, laboratory results, billing codes, and vital signs. A panel of physicians provided input on a preliminary set of rules. Based on this input, we tested candidate rules on a sample of 100 000 patient records to assess their performance compared to gold standard manual chart review. The physician panel selected a final rule for each condition, which was validated on an independent sample of 100 000 records to assess its accuracy. Results Seventeen rules were developed for inferring patient problems. Analysis using a validation set of 100 000 randomly selected patients showed high sensitivity (range: 62.8–100.0%) and positive predictive value (range: 79.8–99.6%) for most rules. Overall, the inference rules performed better than using either the problem list or billing data alone. Conclusion We developed and validated a set of rules for inferring patient problems. These rules have a variety of applications, including clinical decision support, care improvement, augmentation of the problem list, and identification of patients for research cohorts. PMID:21613643

  15. [The formation of medical knowledges in Russia before 1800: contributions of German speaking physicians].

    PubMed

    Henning, Aloys

    2004-01-01

    Under the Moscovian grand duke VASILIJ III (1505-1533) the physician NICOLAUS BüLOW from Lübeck translated into Russian "Gaerde der Suntheit" (The garden of health), printed at Lübeck in 1492. Many German oral and literal medical transfers to Russia are documented since, amongst those from whole Europe, which SABINE DUMSCHAT has actually investigates (1998; 2003). At the end of the 16th century the German translation fo JOHANN REMMELINS (1583-1632) "catoptron microcosmicum" (1661) was translated into Russian for teaching the first Russian military surgeons (fel'dshery). JOSIAS WEITBRECHT (1702-1747) from Württemberg, member of the Imperial Academy of Science at St Petersburg since 1725, created a catalog of the anatomical preparations in the Petersburg Chamber of Arts, which Peter I let buy from FREDERIK RUYSCH in 1717 at Amersterdamn. WEITBRECHT lectured on anatomy and physiology at the Academy since 1730, what DANIEL BERNOULLI (1700-1782) had done there before. JOHANN BLATHASAR HANHART (1704-1739) from Winterthur, surgeon since 1733 at the new Petersburg Admiralty's hospital was ordered to create the Latin terminology for the first anatomical atlas, ever printed in Russia (1744). When HANHART had died, the surgeon from Petersburg Army's hospital CHRISTOPH JAKOB VON MELLEN (1705-1765) from Lübeck finished his work. In 1757 and 1761 the chief-surgeon at the Admiralty's hospital MARTIN SHEIN (1712-1762) published the first textbooks on anatomy and surgery in Russian, having translated JOHANN ZACHARIAS PLATNERS 'Institutiones chirurgicae", Lipsiae 1745. In 1764 the accoucheur-surgeon JOHANN PAGENKAMPF, Personal surgeon of EKATERINA II, translated and published a German textbook from JOHANN HORN for accoucheuses into Russian for teaching at the Moscow school for accoucheuses under JOHANN FRIEDRICH ERASMUS from Strasburg, founded in 1757.

  16. Traditional-medical knowledge and perception of pangolins (manis sps) among the awori people, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals have been used as medicinal resources throughout human history. Majority of wildlife used in traditional medicines is taken from the wild; hence demand by traditional medicine is a cause of over-exploitation of wild animals. Indiscriminate use of endangered species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation. This study investigated the dynamics of the use of pangolin in trado-medicinal preparations amongst the Awori people. Methods Forty traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps) selected through stratified random-sampling technique were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. Various aspects of the utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicinal practices were investigated. Data collected were analysed using simple frequencies and percentages. Results An average of 1.6 pangolins were utilised per tymp per month. About 43% of respondents contracted hunters for deliberate searches for the animals. More than 92% believed that pangolins' abundance is steadily decreasing. Above 97% reported a continuous decline in the size of pangolin. Pangolin was used in treating 47 conditions. Situations accommodated included those that can be treated by orthodox medicine like rheumatism and venereal diseases as well as some that are out of range for orthodox medicine including kleptomania and good luck charms. Some substitute animals like gorilla are under a greater conservation threat than pangolin. Conclusions Utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicine has no consideration for sustainability. Awareness should be created on people as regards the implications of unsustainable depletion of medicinal resources. Efforts should be intensified on ex-situ breeding of pangolin while subjecting the scales and other parts to laboratory studies to determine the bioactive constituents. PMID:21884607

  17. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  18. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  19. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270

  20. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  1. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  2. Assessing Health Practitioner Knowledge of Appropriate Psychotropic Medication Use in Nursing Homes: Validation of the Older Age Psychotropic Quiz.

    PubMed

    Brown, Donnamay Tegan; Westbury, Juanita Louise

    2016-07-05

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS XX contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Assessing Health Practitioner Knowledge of Appropriate Psychotropic Medication Use in Nursing Homes: Validation of the Older Age Psychotropic Quiz" found on pages XX-XX, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until MONTH XX, 20XX. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. XXX 2. XXX DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P.; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Background Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. Methods A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. Results The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15–5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing “the best age to perform MMC” as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Conclusion Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health

  4. The Benefits and Costs of Accreditation of Undergraduate Medical Education Programs Leading to the MD Degree in the United States and Its Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhtadi, Dalal J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the value of accreditation of all 126 fully-accredited four-year undergraduate medical education programs leading to the MD degree in the US through two lenses, "perceived benefits and costs" from the perspective of the leadership of internal stakeholders of the aforementioned programs. The online survey was sent to a…

  5. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre-and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Mansour, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Bedah, Abdullah MN; AlRukban, Mohammed Othman; Elsubai, Ibrahim S; Mohamed, Elsadiq Yousif; El Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Asim AH; Khalil, Mohamed KM; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; Almudaiheem, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Waqas Sami; Medani, Khalid Altohami; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development. Objective and setting This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Methods The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013) and second (year 2013–2014) intake (n=26 and 39, respectively) were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Results Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items including their views on CAM practices. Conclusion CAM course tends to have a positive impact on KAP of medical students. The preliminary results of this study call for further research with a larger sample in academic settings across the nation. PMID:26082671

  6. Disconnected in a connected world: knowledge and understanding of Web 2.0 tools at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Joanna Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines five Web 2.0 resources and looks at the use of these tools among medical and nursing professionals and students at the Hospital, Medical School, and Nursing School of the University of Pennsylvania. Questionnaires showed that a majority of the individuals surveyed were unfamiliar with Web 2.0 resources. Additional respondents recognized the tools but did not use them in a medical or nursing context, with a minimal number using any tools to expand their medical or nursing knowledge. A lack of time to set up and use the resources, difficulty of set-up and use, skepticism about the quality of user-generated medical content, and a lack of perceived need for Web 2.0 resources contributed substantially to non-use. The University of Pennsylvania Biomedical Library is responding by increasing the availability of basic, quick, and easy-to-use instructional materials for selected Web 2.0 resources.

  7. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

  8. Identification of factors involved in medication compliance: incorrect inhaler technique of asthma treatment leads to poor compliance

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; Sicras, Antoni; García-Bujalance, Laura; Torvinen, Saku; Sánchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of delivery device of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) on asthma medication compliance, and investigate other factors associated with compliance. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries of asthmatic patients treated with ICS/LABA combinations (n=2,213) whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs, such as Accuhaler®, Turbuhaler®, and NEXThaler®) or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). Medication compliance included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on potential confounders of treatment compliance such as asthma exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also explored. Results The probability of asthma medication compliance in case of DPIs was lower compared to pMDIs, which suggests that inhaler devices influence inhalation therapies. There were additional confounding factors that were considered as explanatory variables of compliance. A worse measure of airflow obstruction (forced expiration volume in 1 second), comorbidities and general practitioner (GP) consultations more than once per month decreased the probability of compliance. Within comorbidities, alcoholism was positively associated with compliance. Patients of 29–39, 40–50, and 51–61 age groups or suffering from more than two exacerbations during the study period were more likely to comply with their medication regime. The effects of DPIs toward compliance varied with the different DPIs. For instance, Accuhaler® had a greater negative effect on compliance compared to Turbuhaler® and Nexthaler® in cases of patients who suffered exacerbations. We found that GP consultations reduced the probability of medication compliance for patients treated with formoterol/budesonide combination. For retired patients, visiting the GP increased the

  9. Academic Performance on First-Year Medical School Exams: How Well Does It Predict Later Performance on Knowledge-Based and Clinical Assessments?

    PubMed

    Krupat, Edward; Pelletier, Stephen R; Dienstag, Jules L

    2017-01-01

    Number of appearances in the bottom quartile of 1st-year medical school exams were used to represent the extent to which students were having academic difficulties. Medical educators have long expressed a desire to have indicators of medical student performance that have strong predictive validity. Predictors traditionally used fell into 4 general categories: demographic (e.g., gender), other background factors (e.g., college major), performance/aptitude (e.g., medical college admission test scores), and noncognitive factors (e.g., curiosity). These factors, however, have an inconsistent record of predicting student performance. In comparison to traditional predictive factors, we sought to determine the extent to which academic performance in the 1st-year of medical school, as measured by examination performance in the bottom quartile of the class in 7 required courses, predicted later performance on a variety of assessments, both knowledge based (e.g., United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and Step IICK) and clinical skills based (e.g., clerkship grades and objective structured clinical exam performance). Of all predictors measured, number of appearances in the bottom quartile in Year 1 was the most strongly related to performance in knowledge-based assessments, as well as clinically related outcomes, and, for each outcome, bottom-quartile performance accounted for additional variance beyond that of the traditional predictors. Low academic performance in the 1st year of medical school is a meaningful risk factor with both predictive validity and predictive utility for low performance later in medical school. The question remains as to how we can incorporate this indicator into a system of formative assessment that effectively addresses the challenges of medical students once they have been identified.

  10. The medical examination in United States immigration applications: the potential use of genetic testing leads to heightened privacy concerns.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, A Maxwell

    2005-01-01

    The medical examination has been an integral part of the immigration application process since the passing of the Immigration Act of 1891. Failing the medical examination can result in denial of the application. Over the years the medical examination has been expanded to include questioning about diseases that are scientifically shown to be rooted in an individual's genetic makeup. Recent advances in the fields of genomics and bioinformatics are making accurate and precise screening for these conditions a reality. Government policymakers will soon be faced with decisions regarding whether or not to sanction the use of these newly-developed genetic tests in the immigration application procedure. The terror threat currently facing the United States may ultimately bolster the argument in favor of genetic testing and/or DNA collection of applicants. However, the possibility of a government mandate requiring genetic testing raises a host of ethical issues; including the threat of eugenics and privacy concerns. Genetic testing has the ability to uncover a wealth of sensitive medical information about an individual and currently there are no medical information privacy protections afforded to immigration applicants. This article examines the potential for genetic testing in the immigration application process and the ethical issues surrounding this testing. In particular, this article explores the existing framework of privacy protections afforded to individuals living in the United States and how this and newly-erected standards like those released by the Health and Human Services (HHS) might apply to individuals seeking to immigrate to the United States.

  11. Improving Medication Knowledge among Older Adults with Heart Failure: A Patient-Centered Approach to Instruction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Weiner, Michael; Young, James; Steinley, Douglas; Deer, Melissa; Murray, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether patient-centered instructions for chronic heart failure medications increase comprehension and memory for medication information in older adults diagnosed with chronic heart failure. Design and Methods: Patient-centered instructions for familiar and unfamiliar medications were compared with instructions for the…

  12. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  13. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning.

  14. Knowledge and attitudes of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis amongst first- and second-year medical students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, Willem A.J.; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, with 68% of infected people residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is used as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent infection in cases of occupational exposure, and use has recently been expanded to non-occupational exposure. Studies have demonstrated a lack of awareness of non-occupational PEP (NO-PEP) in the general population. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards availability of, access to and use of NO-PEP amongst first- and second-year medical students. Setting Participants were medical undergraduates of Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape of South Africa who were registered in 2013. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of 169 students was performed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires handed out in a classroom in August 2013. Self-reported knowledge and attitudes towards NO-PEP and barriers to access to and use of NO-PEP were analysed using frequency tables. Associations between self-reported and objective knowledge of NO-PEP were analysed by odds ratios. Results Over 90% of students had good knowledge on HIV transmission, and about 75% knew how it can be prevented. Twenty eight per cent (n = 47) of students reported knowledge of NO-PEP; 67% reported hearing about it from lecturers, whilst 1% reported hearing about it from their partner. Students who knew the correct procedure to take when a dose is forgotten were 2.4 times more likely to report knowledge of NO-PEP than those who did not know what to do when a dose is forgotten (p = 0.029). No other associations were statistically significant. Conclusion Students had positive attitudes towards the use of NO-PEP and also identified barriers to its use. Despite good knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission, knowledge on NO-PEP was poor. PMID:26245421

  15. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9 months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9 months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  16. Cases from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation: What's Knowledge Got to Do with It? Ethics, Epistemology, and Intractable Conflicts in the Medical Setting.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Bryan; Ford, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This article utilizes the case of Ms H. to examine the contrasting ways that surrogate decision makers move from simply hearing information about the patient to actually knowing and understanding the patient's medical condition. The focus of the case is on a family's request to actually see the patient's wounds instead of being told about the wounds, and the role of clinical ethicists in facilitating this request. We argue that clinical ethicists have an important role to play in the work of converting information into knowledge and that this can serve as a valuable way forward in the midst of seemingly intractable conflicts in the medical setting.

  17. Medication Error When Switching from Warfarin to Rivaroxaban Leading to Spontaneous Large Ecchymosis of the Abdominal and Chest Wall

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Flavio; Targa, Federica; Unterholzner, Ivan; Grant, Russell P.; Herrmann, Markus; Wiedermann, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy may be inappropriate if prescription was incorrect, the patient’s physiological parameters change, or interacting concomitant medications are erroneously added. The aim of this report was to illustrate inappropriate NOAC prescription in a 78-year-old woman with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and borderline renal dysfunction who was switched from warfarin to rivaroxaban and subsequently developed bruising with hemorrhagic shock and acute on chronic renal failure. Administration of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate effectively reversed coagulopathy and stopped bleeding. Retrospective determination of circulating plasma levels of rivaroxaban and warfarin confirmed that excessive anticoagulation was likely due to warfarin that the patient probably continued to take although rivaroxaban was initiated. Pharmacodynamic interaction between rivaroxaban and warfarin may not only be additive but synergistic. In patients at high risk of complications, judicious prescribing and dosing of NOACs, and regular monitoring of concomitant medications and renal function are highly recommended. PMID:27777713

  18. [National Consultant in Cardiology Experts' Group Guidelines on dealing with patients implanted with some St. Jude Medical Riata and Riata ST leads].

    PubMed

    Mitkowski, Przemysław; Grabowski, Marcin; Kowalski, Oskar; Kutarski, Andrzej; Mojkowski, Włodzimierz; Przybylski, Andrzej; Sterliński, Maciej; Trusz-Gluza, Maria; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In December 2010 St. Jude Medical informed about higher incidence of silicone insulation abrasion in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads Riata/Riata ST. The manifestation of this phenomenon is the externalisation of conductors outside the body of the lead, which is visible in a fluoroscopy. The abrasion could also involve an insulation under high-voltage coil and in the worst case could result in a short circuit within high voltage part of the system. The incidence of this phenomenon varies from part of to several dozen percent according to published papers and becomes higher in a longer follow-up. The highest probability of malfunction in 8 F single coil and the lowest in 7 F dual-coil leads is observed. For the needs of this guidelines all Riata/Riata ST leads were divided into: functioning, damaged but active (visible externalisation but electrically functioning), malfunctioning. In the last case the lead should be removed and a new one implanted (class of indication I) ,although only implantation of a new lead with abandoning malfunctioning one is allowed and should be considered (IIa). In patients with functioning lead extraction with a new lead implantation may be considered during elective replacement only in high risk patients (IIb). In case of damaged but active lead its extraction with the implantation of a new lead during elective replacement of the device should be considered in high risk population (IIa) and may be considered in other patients (IIb). The final decision related to Riata/Riata ST should be individualised and undertaken in co-operation with the patient after detailed assessment of the risk related to each treatment option.

  19. Key opinion leaders and the corruption of medical knowledge: what the Sunshine Act will and won't cast light on.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, in its marketing efforts, often turns to "key opinion leaders" or "KOLs" to disseminate scientific information. Drawing on the author's fieldwork, this article documents and examines the use of KOLs in pharmaceutical companies' marketing efforts. Partly due to the use of KOLs, a small number of companies with well-defined and narrow interests have inordinate influence over how medical knowledge is produced, circulated, and consumed. The issue here, as in many other cases of institutional corruption, is that a few actors have accumulated the power to shape the information on which many others base their decisions. Efforts to address this corruption should focus on correcting large imbalances in the current political economy of medical knowledge. A sequestration of pharmaceutical research and development on one hand from pharmaceutical marketing on the other, though difficult to achieve, would address this and many other problems.

  20. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  1. A study of the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained in year 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS students at AIMST University, Malaysia. Clinical scenarios (25) were constructed and administered to student volunteers, making sure at least one question from each system of year 2 was represented. Feedback was obtained on a five-point Likert scale regarding perception of learning biochemistry in MBBS year 1 versus 2. Mean score of test was 18 (72.11%). Performance was comparatively better in questions related to topics learnt in year 1 and reinforced in year 2 compared to those learnt for first time in year 2. In the feedback obtained, 31% strongly agreed and 56% agreed understanding the subject was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than in year 1. Likewise, 36% strongly agreed and 56% agreed appreciating the importance of biochemistry in patient diagnosis was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than year 1. Thirty one percent strongly agreed and 54% agreed that year 1 biochemistry would have been more relevant if case discussions were done simultaneously. Students retain basic science subjects better and appreciate the importance of basic sciences in patient diagnosis if they are reinforced in the context of clinical situations.

  2. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  3. A Study of the Use, Knowledge, and Beliefs About Cigarettes and Alternative Tobacco Products Among Students at One U.S. Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sherry; Van Devanter, Nancy; Fenstermaker, Michael; Cawkwell, Philip; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the United States, the prevalence of the use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) (e.g., hookahs, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos) has increased sharply. As future health care providers, medical students will play a critical role in health promotion and disease prevention. This study investigated medical students’ use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs. Method In 2014, the authors surveyed all students enrolled at one medical school in New York City. The survey included questions about personal use of tobacco products, perceptions about the harms of ATPs and their role in disease causation, education about ATPs, and cessation training and practices related to ATPs and cigarettes. The authors compared results across medical school classes. Results Of 720 students, 431 (59.9%) completed the survey. Of those, 64 (14.7%) were current users of tobacco or smoking products, including cigarettes (17, 3.9%), ATPs (21, 4.8%), or marijuana (39, 8.9%). Many believed that ATPs contributed less than cigarettes to various diseases. Respondents received less cessation intervention training regarding ATPs than cigarettes (P < .0001). They felt less confident providing ATP cessation counseling than cigarette cessation counseling (P < .0001) and were less likely to report counseling patients on ATP cessation than cigarette cessation (46, 10.7% vs. 280, 64.8%, P < .0001). Conclusions A concerning percentage of surveyed medical students use tobacco products, including ATPs, and lack the knowledge, education, and cessation counseling skills to provide accurate information about them to patients. ATP education should be added to medical school curricula to address this gap. PMID:26308126

  4. Association of Knowledge of HIV and Other Factors with Individuals’ Attitudes toward HIV Infection: A National Cross-Sectional Survey among the Japanese Non-Medical Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoqin; Wada, Koji; Hoshi, Keika; Sasaki, Nanae; Ezoe, Satoshi; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. Methods An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals’ attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. Results Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9±3.3 from 15 points), only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31–0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge), whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50–2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness). Conclusion Knowledge neutralizes peoples’ negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions. PMID:23874644

  5. Knowledge of Staff Members of Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability on Medication Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, E.; Mehuys, E.; Van Bocxlaer, J.; Remon, J. P.; Van Winckel, M.; Boussery, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for the safe administration of drugs through enteral feeding tube (EFT) are an important tool to minimise the risk of errors. This study aimed to investigate knowledge of these guidelines among staff of residential care facilities (RCF) for people with ID. Method: Knowledge was assessed using a 13-item self-administered…

  6. Simultaneous determination of ultratrace lead and cadmium by square wave stripping voltammetry with in situ depositing bismuth at Nafion-medical stone doped disposable electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Li, Jing; Yang, Zhanjun; Xu, Qin; Hou, Chuantao; Peng, Jinyun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2011-07-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical method for simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium was first developed using the novel bismuth-Nafion-medical stone doped disposable electrode (an improved wax-impregnated graphite electrode). Through the synergistic sensitization effect of the resulting composite material, the disposable electrode showed remarkable electrochemical responses to lead and cadmium. The oxidation of the two metals produced two well-defined and separated square wave peaks at about -0.62 V for Pb(2+) and -0.85 V for Cd(2+), respectively. The effects of the amount of medical stone, concentration of Nafion, thickness of bismuth, pH of buffer solution, deposition potential, accumulation time, voltammetric measurement and possible interferences were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated electrode exhibited linear ranges from 2.0 to 12.0 μg L(-1) with detection limit of 0.07 μg L(-1) for lead and 2.0-12.0 μg L(-1) with detection limit of 0.47 μg L(-1) for cadmium. The assay results of heavy metals in wastewater with the proposed method were in acceptable agreement with the atomic absorption spectroscopy method.

  7. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Leadless Quad Flat No-Lead/bottom Termination Components (QFN/BTC) Package Trends and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Bottom terminated components and quad flat no-lead (BTC/QFN) packages have been extensively used by commercial industry for more than a decade. Cost and performance advantages and the closeness of the packages to the boards make them especially unique for radio frequency (RF) applications. A number of high-reliability parts are now available in this style of package configuration. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the status of BTC/QFN and their advanced versions of multi-row QFN (MRQFN) packaging technologies. The report provides a comprehensive review of packaging trends and specifications on design, assembly, and reliability. Emphasis is placed on assembly reliability and associated key design and process parameters because they show lower life than standard leaded package assembly under thermal cycling exposures. Inspection of hidden solder joints for assuring quality is challenging and is similar to ball grid arrays (BGAs). Understanding the key BTC/QFN technology trends, applications, processing parameters, workmanship defects, and reliability behavior is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-on packages for evaluation and testing, as well as for the low risk insertion in high-reliability applications.

  8. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Leadless Quad Flat No-Lead/Bottom Termination Components (QFN/BTC) Package Trends and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Bottom terminated components and quad flat no-lead (BTC/QFN) packages have been extensively used by commercial industry for more than a decade. Cost and performance advantages and the closeness of the packages to the boards make them especially unique for radio frequency (RF) applications. A number of high-reliability parts are now available in this style of package configuration. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the status of BTC/QFN and their advanced versions of multi-row QFN (MRQFN) packaging technologies. The report provides a comprehensive review of packaging trends and specifications on design, assembly, and reliability. Emphasis is placed on assembly reliability and associated key design and process parameters because they show lower life than standard leaded package assembly under thermal cycling exposures. Inspection of hidden solder joints for assuring quality is challenging and is similar to ball grid arrays (BGAs). Understanding the key BTC/QFN technology trends, applications, processing parameters, workmanship defects, and reliability behavior is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-on packages for evaluation and testing, as well as for the low risk insertion in high-reliability applications.

  9. Assessments of the Veteran Medication Allergy Knowledge Gap and Potential Safety Improvements with the Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Eric; Botts, Nathan; Jordan, Harmon; Olinger, Lois; Donahue, Margaret; Hsing, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE, formerly Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record, or VLER) had been deployed at all VA sites and used to exchange clinical information with private sector healthcare partners nationally. This paper examined VHIE’s effect on allergy documentation. Review of all inbound VHIE transactions in FY14 showed that VHIE use was associated with a nearly eight-fold increase in allergy documentation rate. Preliminary manual document review further showed that VA and partners had shared knowledge of only 38% ofpatient allergies, while VA had exclusive knowledge of another 58% ofpatient allergies, and partners had exclusive knowledge of the last 5% of patient allergies. To our knowledge, this is the first study that examined the effect of HIE on allergy documentation. PMID:28269897

  10. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 1. A retrospective medical, neurological and personality trait study.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Y; Edman, G; Murelius, O; Oreland, L; Sachs, C

    1990-10-01

    Sweden banned professional boxing in 1969 and has also considered banning amateur boxing. We therefore analysed possible chronic brain damage in 47 former amateur boxers who started their careers after the introduction of stricter Swedish amateur boxing rules. The boxers were compared with three control groups--25 soccer players, 25 track and field athletes and 19 conscripts. All athletes were interviewed about their sports career, medical history and social variables. They then underwent a physical and a neurological examination, including a mini-mental state examination. Personality traits were investigated and related to their platelet MAO activity in the athletes as well as in the conscripts. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the physical or neurological examinations. All had a normal mini-mental state examination. Thus, results from these test methods did not reveal any signs of chronic brain damage from Swedish amateur boxing. Neither were any significant differences found with regard to platelet MAO activity, while significant differences were found in some of the social and personality traits variables.

  11. [Advances in research of complementary and integrative medicine: a review of recent publications in some of the leading medical journals].

    PubMed

    Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for effectiveness, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies, as reflected in publications in high impact factor medical journals during the years 2012-2014. The search detected 13 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and 14 meta-analyses, which collectively assessed results of 191 RCTs involving the participation of several thousand patients. Pain was the major focus of acupuncture research in both clinical and fMRI studies, which demonstrated that the effect of acupuncture is beyond the placebo effect. In addition, RCTs supported the use of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in moderate to severe depression. A promising trend was reported for the ameliorating effect of acupuncture in gout. Spinal manipulations may be helpful in cervical pain and yoga may be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain and for pain-related disability. Beneficial effects of adding hypnosis and massage therapy to the treatment of fibromyalgia patients were also documented. Tai-chi may reduce balance impairment in mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease and improve symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis. Products containing cranberry are associated with protective effects in some subgroups of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Chinese herbs may assist in glycemic control of diabetes patients and improve survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some of the complementary therapies were found to be cost-effective. Physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects of these treatments and of possible drug-herb interactions. Further larger scale trials are justified.

  12. Lack of language skills and knowledge of local culture in international medical graduates: Implications for the NHS.

    PubMed

    Hamarneh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) form a coherent part of the National Health Service (NHS). Nearly 25% of the doctors working in the NHS are IMGs who obtained their primary medical degree from outside the EU. Moving to a different country that holds a different set of values and belief systems can be very challenging for IMGs, which in turn could have a significant effect on the service provided to NHS patients. This article will address the issue of effective communication skills within the IMG population and will explore the underlying issues behind this problem.

  13. Cancer Knowledge and Opportunities for Education Among HIV-Infected Patients in an Urban Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Lydia H; Stafford, Kristen A; Fantry, Lori E; Gilliam, Bruce L; Riedel, David J

    2015-06-01

    HIV-infected patients frequently present with advanced stage cancer. It is possible that late stage presentation may be related to lack of cancer knowledge and/or barriers to care. Questionnaires were administered to 285 adult HIV-infected patients to evaluate knowledge of cancer risk factors and symptoms and barriers to care between 2011 and 2012. Differences in mean and percent scores by group were assessed using a t test for independent samples and chi-square analysis, respectively. Respondents were predominantly male (64%), African-American (86%), and low income (60% < $10,000/year). Thirty-four (12%) had been diagnosed with cancer, and 169 (59%) had a family history of cancer. The mean knowledge score was 17.5 out of 24 questions (73%). Mean scores were not significantly different by sex, age, race, or income. Respondents with a college education scored significantly higher than those with less than a high school education (p < 0.01). In unadjusted analysis, a higher proportion of patients with a personal/family history of cancer (74%) scored in the highest quartile (>70% correct) compared to those without any personal history of cancer (62%) (p = 0.03). There was a higher level of cancer knowledge in this population compared to studies that have evaluated the HIV-uninfected population. Nevertheless, there were knowledge deficits, suggesting the need for further education about cancer to improve earlier detection rates and, ultimately, outcomes.

  14. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.

  15. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  16. How to Achieve Synergy between Medical Education and Cognitive Neuroscience? An Exercise on Prior Knowledge in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Dirk J.; van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of…

  17. Psychotropic Medications: An Investigation of the Knowledge of Counseling Graduate Students and Attitudes toward Coursework of Counselor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez; Beamish, Patricia M.; Stump, Earl; Krause, Naomi

    Counselors working in clinical settings are frequently confronted with clients taking psychotropic medications. Counselors working in non-clinical school and industrial settings are often required to identify clients who need referral for psychopharmacological support. If counselors are to assist their clients in exploring treatment options, it is…

  18. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  19. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  20. Health Knowledge and Behavior of Junior High School Students: Nebraska Regional Medical Program. Final Report: Project 0013.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This paper reports on a survey conducted to assist the health education faculty of the Nebraska Center for Health Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The objectives of the study were to: (1) gather base line data on the health knowledge and behavior of a sample of Nebraska junior high school students; (2) compare Nebraska junior high school…

  1. Yaws, syphilis, sexuality, and the circulation of medical knowledge in the British Caribbean and the Atlantic world.

    PubMed

    Paugh, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This history of the disease categories "yaws" and "syphilis" explores the interplay between European and African medical cultures in the early modern Atlantic world. The assertion made by both early modern and modern medical authorities, that yaws and syphilis are the same disease, prompts a case study of the history of disease that reflects on a variety of issues in the history of medicine: the use of ideas about contagion to demarcate racial and sexual difference at sites around the British Empire; the contrast between persistently holistic ideas about disease causation in the Black Atlantic and the growth of ontological theories of disease among Europeans and Euro-Americans; and the controversy over the African practice of yaws inoculation, which may once have been an effective treatment but was stamped out by plantation owners who viewed it as a waste of their enslaved laborers' valuable time.

  2. Effectiveness of current teaching methods in Cardiology: the SKILLS (medical Students Knowledge Integration of Lower Level clinical Skills) study

    PubMed Central

    Lavranos, G; Koliaki, C; Briasoulis, A; Nikolaou, A; Stefanadis, C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess reported changes in medical students’ capacity to attain five basic cardiological clinical skills, following a one-month intensive cardiology course provisioned in the core curriculum. Materials and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire comprising self reported performance in the five skills, namely 1) arterial blood pressure measurement, 2) cardiac auscultation, 3) electrocardiogram (ECG) carry out, 4) ECG interpretation and 5) defibrillation, was distributed to 177 fifth year students of the Athens Medical School upon initiating the cardiology course (pre-training group) and to 59 students matched for sex, age, year of study and training centre, following completion of the course (post training group). Comparison of pre- and post- training performance was evaluated using the χ2 test. Results: No change was noted with regards to blood pressure measurement, cardiac auscultation or defibrillation. By contrast, a statistically significant improvement was reported for ECG execution (54.3 versus 81.4%; p<0.001) and interpretation (from 33.1 to 89.8%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in the execution and interpretation of ECGs seems to be among the strengths of the cardiology training program. Further studies including larger samples from multiple medical schools and objective assessment of skill execution might facilitate accurate training evaluation and define opportunities for improvement. PMID:23935341

  3. Diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury: deficiencies in the knowledge base of non-specialist, trainee medical staff.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, T M; Lillicrap, M H; Horrocks, J L; Fisher, J M; Clark, R M W; Kanagasundaram, N S

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced education has been recommended to improve non-specialist management of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the extent of any gaps in knowledge has yet to be defined fully. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of trainee doctors in the prevention, diagnosis and initial management of AKI. An anonymised questionnaire was completed by hospital-based trainees across Newcastle Renal Unit's catchment area. Responses were evaluated against a panel of pre-defined ideal answers. The median score was 9.5 out of 20 (n = 146; range 0-17) and was lower in more junior trainees. Fifty percent of trainees could not define AKI, 30% could not name more than two risk factors for AKI and 37% could not name even one indication for renal referral. These serious gaps in knowledge highlight the need for enhanced education aimed at all training grades. Organisational changes may also be required to optimise patient safety.

  4. FORECAST 2000: a prediction of skills, knowledge, and abilities required by senior medical treatment facility leaders into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed.

  5. Forging the Future: Establishing Core Competencies and the Skills, Knowledge and Abilities of Navy Junior Medical Service Corps Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-08

    Public Speaking 1 •Risk Communication 1 Clinical/Scientific (12) 10 •Clinical Aptitude 2 •Optometrist 2 •Clinical Expertise 1 • Forensic Practices 1...2.53% 1850 Entomology 3 2 0.54% 1860 Environmental Health 18 2 3.25% 1861 Industrial Hygiene 23 2 4.16% 1862 Audiology 6 0 1.08% 1865 Medical...clinical reasoning skills, clinical research skills 4.58 ± 1.74 Strategic Management COCOM structures 4.55 ±1.48 Maintaining correct forensics

  6. Relation between the Global Burden of Disease and Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Latin America Published in the Five Leading Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Perel, Pablo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ortiz, Zulma; Casas, Juan Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1990 non communicable diseases and injuries account for the majority of death and disability-adjusted life years in Latin America. We analyzed the relationship between the global burden of disease and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) conducted in Latin America that were published in the five leading medical journals. Methodology/Principal Findings We included all RCTs in humans, exclusively conducted in Latin American countries, and published in any of the following journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We described the trials and reported the number of RCTs according to the main categories of the global burden of disease. Sixty-six RCTs were identified. Communicable diseases accounted for 38 (57%) reports. Maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 19 (29%) trials. Non-communicable diseases represent 48% of the global burden of disease but only 14% of reported trials. No trial addressed injuries despite its 18% contribution to the burden of disease in 2000. Conclusions/Significance A poor correlation between the burden of disease and RCTs publications was found. Non communicable diseases and injuries account for up to two thirds of the burden of disease in Latin America but these topics are seldom addressed in published RCTs in the selected sample of journals. Funding bodies of health research and editors should be aware of the increasing burden of non communicable diseases and injuries occurring in Latin America to ensure that this growing epidemic is not neglected in the research agenda and not affected by publication bias. PMID:18301772

  7. [Knowledge, attitudes and opinions about conventional and electronic cigarette smoking among University of Pavia medical students (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Glenda; Varetta, Alessia; Macchi, Marcello; Gallotti, Cristina; Laddomada, Maria Stella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes and awareness about conventional and electronic cigarettes in a sample of students attending the Faculty of Medicine of Pavia University (Italy). An anonymous and self-reported questionnaire was administered to 226 students attending either the first or third years of medical school during the 2013 to 2014 school year. Participation was voluntary and required signing an informed consent form. The prevalence of smokers was 12%. Sixty-seven percent of smokers reported smoking less than 5 cigarettes/day, and 15% more than 10 cigarettes/day. Most smokers (63%) prefer packaged cigarettes and 33% handmade cigarettes; 86% began to smoke between the ages of 15 and 20 years and 45% were influenced by friends. Almost all the students are aware of electronic cigarettes but only one reported regularly using them. Prevalence of smokers and average number of cigarettes smoked per day were both found to be lower than that of the Italian population. Preference of packaged versus handmade cigarettes is the same as national data. E-cigarette use is lower than that reported in the Italian population. This study highlights the need for health education interventions aimed at medical students and family physicians.

  8. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (rs = 0.5052, p < .01). Addressing gender identity and sexuality issues within medical curricula may remove barriers to accessing health care and improve encounters for LGBTQ patients.

  9. A workshop to teach medical students communication skills and clinical knowledge about end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Torke, Alexia M; Quest, Tammie E; Kinlaw, Kathy; Eley, J William; Branch, William T

    2004-05-01

    We describe a half-day workshop to teach third-year medical students three focused end-of-life care skills: breaking bad news, discussing advance directives, and assessing and managing pain. Our workshop included a readers' theater exercise and three role-play exercises. In two of the workshops, faculty members played the role of patients. We used readers' theater to engage the students on an emotional level and set a reflective tone for the workshop. Evaluations reflected that most respondents felt that the workshop enhanced their understanding and ability to address these skills with patients. By 6 months, many students reported applying these skills to patient care in a way they thought was effective.

  10. Evaluation of clinicians' knowledge and practices regarding medical radiological exposure: findings from a mixed-methods investigation (survey and qualitative study)

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, B; Vilar, J; González-Álvarez, I; Guilabert, M; Parker, L A; Pastor-Valero, M; Domingo, M L; Fernández-Lorente, M F; Hernández-Aguado, I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of initiatives aiming to increase clinician awareness of radiation exposure; to explore the challenges they face when communicating with patients; to study what they think is the most appropriate way of communicating the long-term potential risks of medical radiological exposure to patients. Design A quantitative and qualitative evaluation through a survey and focal groups. Setting San Juan Hospital and Dr Peset Hospital (Southeast Spain) and clinicians from Spanish scientific societies. Participants The surveys were answered (a) in person (216: all the radiologists (30), urologists (14) and surgeons (44) working at both participant hospitals; a sample of general practitioners from the catchment area of one hospital (45), and a consecutive sample of radiologists attending a scientific meeting (60)) or (b) electronically through Spanish scientific societies (299: radiologists (45), pneumologists (123), haematologists (75) and surgeons (40)). Clinicians were not randomly selected and thus the results are limited by the diligence of the individuals filling out the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Clinicians' knowledge and practices regarding medical radiological exposure, and what they considered most appropriate for communicating information to patients. Results Nearly 80% of the clinicians surveyed had never heard of the European recommendations. Fewer than 20% of the clinicians surveyed identified correctly the radiation equivalence dose of intravenous urography or barium enema. It was reported by 31.7% that they inform patients about the long-term potential risks of ionising radiation. All participants agreed that the most appropriate way to present information is a table with a list of imaging tests and their corresponding radiation equivalence dose in terms of chest X-rays and background radiation exposure. Conclusions Medical radiological exposure is frequently underestimated and rarely explained to patients. With a

  11. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    PubMed

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-08-30

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.

  12. [Medication rule for treatment of functional dyspepsia: an analysis of traditional Chinese medicine literature based on China National Knowledge Internet].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-ling; Wu, Yuan-jie; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yi-fang; Fang, Zheng-qing

    2015-10-01

    By retrieving the clinical research literature of treatment functional dyspepsia by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from January 2004 to December 2014 based on China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), we would establish a TCM decoction database for treating functional dyspepsia in this study. One hundred and sixty-four literature were included, involving 159 prescriptions, 377 medicines, in a total of 1 990 herbs. These herbs can be divided into 18 categories according to the effectiveness; and qi-regulating herbs, blood circulation herbs, and antipyretic herbs ranked top three ones according to the frequency of usage of the herbs, whose medicine usage frequency accounted for 51.81%. Usage frequency of 16 herbs was over 30, and Atractylodes, Radix, Poriaranked top three according to the usage frequency. Medicinal properties were divided into 9 kinds according to the frequency statistics, and the top three were warm, flat, and cold. Taste frequency statistics were classifiedinto 9 kinds, and the top three were acrid, sweet, and bitter. In frequency statistics of the meridian tropism of herbs, it was classifiedinto 11 kinds, and the top three were spleen, stomach, lung. The analysis can provide a reference for treatment and study of TCM of functional dyspepsia.

  13. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in “making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis.” The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  14. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™).

  15. Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873): His work as a medical missionary and influence on the practice of medicine and knowledge of anatomy in China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Patel, Toral R; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-03-01

    Benjamin Hobson was a British missionary and physician who lived in China for twenty years. He founded multiple hospitals in Southern China and used his knowledge of Western medicine to educate Chinese doctors. He wrote several medical textbooks in Chinese of which the first was the A New Theory of the Body (1851). The illustrations from his book were renditions and originals from William Cheselden's Anatomical Tables (1730) and Osteographia (1733).The Japanese version of Hobson's work appeared in Japan during the bakumatsu period (1853-1867), when Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy and began opening itself to the West. During this time, many books from Europe were translated into Chinese to then find their way into Japan. The Chinese anatomy textbook by Hobson (Quanti Xinlun) was instrumental in introducing Western anatomic knowledge to the Chinese and thereby catalyzing a significant change in the practice of medicine in China. A Japanese translation (Zen Tai Shin Ron) of this text published in the 19th century is reviewed.

  16. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Ira B.; Kurth, Ann E.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Gallagher, Donna; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART) and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited. Methods Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices. Results Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample), 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01–1.34) and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98–11.2) were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.71) was associated

  17. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p < .0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.

  18. Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The course produced statistically significant gains in teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science and a significant decrease in misconceptions about evolution and natural selection. Nevertheless, teachers’ postcourse preference positions remained unchanged; the majority of science teachers still preferred that antievolutionary ideas be taught in school.

  19. Do they know too little? An inter-institutional study on the anatomical knowledge of upper-year medical students based on multiple choice questions of a progress test.

    PubMed

    Brunk, Irene; Schauber, Stefan; Georg, Waltraud

    2017-01-01

    The depth of medical students' knowledge of human anatomy is often controversially discussed. In particular, members of surgical disciplines raise concerns regarding deficits in the factual anatomical and topographical knowledge of upper-year students. The question often raised is whether or not medical students have sufficient anatomical and topographical knowledge when they graduate from medical school. Indeed, this question is highly relevant for curricular planners. Therefore, we have addressed it by evaluating the performance of students in the 5th and 6th years of their studies on anatomical multiple choice questions from the Berlin Progress Test Medicine performed at 10 German university medical schools. Results were compared to a reference based on a standard setting (modified Angoff-procedure). The reference was established independently by 5 panels of anatomists at different universities across Germany. As the ratings were independent of university affiliation, teaching-experience or training of the anatomists, an overall cut off score could be calculated which corresponded to 60.4% correct answers for the question set used in this study. In the progress test, on average only 29.9% of the students' answers were correct, reflecting that the performance was significantly below the expected standard. On the basis of the test results it remained unclear whether acquisition or retention of anatomical information was insufficient. Further evaluation by item characteristics revealed that the students had major difficulty in applying their theoretical knowledge to practical problems in the context of a clinical setting. Thus, our results reveal deficits in the anatomical knowledge of medical students in their final years. Therefore medical curricula should not only focus on enhancing the acquisition and retention of core anatomical knowledge, but aim at improving skills applying this in a clinical setting.

  20. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  1. Preparing the Next Generations of Technology Project Managers to Lead through Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at a Large Transportation Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge transfer gaps and current practices, prepare current project managers to accept the challenges associated with leadership opportunities that are coming available due to retirements through cross training efforts and succession planning, and to identify the proper management of knowledge…

  2. Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

  3. [Medical knowledge in immunological security of red blood cells transfusion in Tunisia: evaluation of a CD-ROM of auto-learning].

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, N; El Borgi, W; Aounallah Skhiri, H; Ben Lakhal, F; Mouelhi, H; Zoueri, B; Gouider, E; Hafsia, R

    2013-09-01

    In Tunisia, red blood cells (RBC) transfusion joins in a statutory frame but remains subject to failures because of the misunderstanding of legislation and regulations. Our purpose is to estimate the knowledge of the medical staff in the immunological safety of RBC transfusion before and after reading an auto-education CD-ROM. It is a study of evaluation of an intervention. Eighty physicians participated to the study. The evaluation was done using an anonymous questionnaire, containing seven questions with multiple choices (QMC) relating to several items. The rate of good answers (RGA) calculated by questions and by items took into account the impact of the CD-ROM on the improvement of the answers after reading. The global average mark is 2.9/7. The RGA to questions varies from 22.5 % to 76.3%. All participants answered correctly to more than 50% of all items. Two answered correctly to all items. Among the participants, 31.3% answered to all "important" items, concerning ABO blood groups compatibility and ultimate bedside test. The rate of participation to the final evaluation was 83%. The impact of the CD-ROM was important and statistically significant. In the final evaluation, the global mark raised from 2.9 to 5.8/7, 31.5% (vs 2%) answered correctly all the questions and 95.5% (vs 31.3%) answered correctly all "important" items. This study revealed a misunderstanding of the doctors in immunological safety of RBC transfusions. Auto-teaching by CD-ROM was efficient. An improvement of the knowledge by continuous training is necessary in our country.

  4. Forge into the Future: Identifying Core Competencies and Important Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities (SKAs) for Junior Navy Medical Service Corps Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-20

    Work Medical Service Corps Healthcare Sciences Aerospace Physiology Biochemistry Entomology Environmental Health Industrial Hygiene Medical...Medical Service Corps officers was "Maintaining correct forensic practices at DOD drug testing laboratory" found only with the Scientists, rating...34 "Professional affiliation," "Forecasting Homeland Security Medical Planning Expeditionary Medicine," "Maintaining correct forensic practices at DOD

  5. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  6. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  7. Medical education: creating physicians or medical technicians?

    PubMed

    Berkow, Robert

    2002-02-01

    The 20th century witnessed phenomenal growth in scientific medical knowledge and technology, enabling physicians to more accurately diagnose and effectively treat a wide range of diseases. However, these advances led to longer and more complex training periods for physicians and increasing specialization and dependence on the new technology. An adverse outcome of these changes has been the development of many physicians who are less able to communicate with their patients and deal with them in a humanistic and personally caring manner; ie, the development of finely trained medical technologists as opposed to caring physicians. Their behavior and their blind trust in science and technology without understanding the patients in whom illness occurs often leads to making incorrect, incomplete, or inappropriate diagnoses or to unnecessary failures of treatment. It also results in excessive costs, hazardous procedures, and ill will from patients. Unfortunately, such technologically oriented physicians are often the primary role models for students. The best hope for a remedy to the problem lies in recognizing that it exists, understanding its causes, and modifying medical education accordingly. Providing students with good role models and some rudimentary techniques can lead to significant gains, but sophisticated programs have been designed only in some schools.

  8. Knowledge and Distributed computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    convincing evidence that reasoning in terms of knowledge can lead to .. n... uif.yi ...... lts" about diStfibuLuc computation, and we extend the standard...can be made precise in the context of computer science. In this thesis, we pro- vide convincing evidence that reasoning in terms of knowledge can lead ...against different adversaries. We show how different adversaries lead to different definitions of probabilistic knowledge, and given a particular adversary

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Show that Carbapenem Use and Medical Devices Are the Leading Risk Factors for Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Voor in ‘t holt, Anne F.; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Lesaffre, Emmanuel M. E. H.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to identify sources and reservoirs for the pathogen. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases from 1 January 1987 until 27 January 2012 identified 1,662 articles, 53 of which were included in a systematic review and 38 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The use of carbapenem, use of fluoroquinolones, use of vancomycin, use of other antibiotics, having medical devices, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, having underlying diseases, patient characteristics, and length of hospital stay were significant risk factors in multivariate analyses. The meta-analyses showed that carbapenem use (odds ratio [OR] = 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.43 to 9.25) and medical devices (OR = 5.11; 95% CI = 3.55 to 7.37) generated the highest pooled estimates. Cumulative meta-analyses showed that the pooled estimate of carbapenem use was stable and that the pooled estimate of the risk factor “having medical devices” increased with time. We conclude that our results highlight the importance of antibiotic stewardship and the thoughtful use of medical devices in helping prevent outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:24550343

  10. Healthcare providers’ knowledges, attitudes and practices towards medical male circumcision and their understandings of its partial efficacy in HIV prevention: Qualitative research in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Cecilia; Rambally, Letitia; Mantell, Joanne E.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Mosery, Nzwakie F.; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision has been shown to reduce HIV transmission to an uninfected male partner. In South Africa, medical male circumcision programs were rolled-out in 2010. Objectives Prior to roll-out, we explored healthcare providers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices about medical male circumcision and their understandings of partial efficacy for HIV prevention. Design We conducted qualitative research, using in-depth interviews. Setting Participants were from three rural and three urban primary healthcare clinics, randomly selected in eThekwini District, KwaZulu-Natal. Participants 25 healthcare providers (including nurse managers, nurses and counselors) were purposively selected from the clinics. Methods In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated. Independent researchers reviewed the transcripts and developed a codebook based on emergent themes, using thematic analysis. NVivo 8 was used to facilitate data management, coding and analysis. Results Although most providers had heard that medical male circumcision can reduce risk of HIV acquisition in men, most did not have accurate scientific understandings of this. Some providers had misperceptions about the limited/partial protection medical male circumcision offers. Many had concerns that their communities would misunderstand it, causing increased risky sexual behavior. Conclusions These data provide a baseline of providers’ understandings of medical male circumcision prior to roll-out, and can be used to compare current data and ensure accurate messaging to clients. Healthcare provider messaging should build client understandings of the meaning of partially efficacious technologies. PMID:26302657

  11. The ancestors of Norman Bethune (1890-1939) traced back to the Bethunes of Skye, leading members of the MacBeth/Beaton medical dynasty.

    PubMed

    Munro, A; Macintyre, I M C

    2013-01-01

    Norman Bethune became famous through his work in the Spanish Civil War, his advocacy of socialised medicine in North America and his association with Mao Zedong's revolutionary movement in China. It has been suggested that he may have been descended from the Bethune or Beaton medical dynasty, who for generations served as physicians to kings of Scotland, the Lords of the Isles and to some of the larger Scottish clans. This paper traces his lineage back to the Isle of Skye. In the absence of old parish records as aids to tracing genealogy, other available evidence has confirmed that Bethune was indeed in the direct line of descent from the Bethunes or Beatons of Husabost, in Skye, one of the largest branches of this medical kindred, who were physicians to the MacLeods of Dunvegan.

  12. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  13. Evaluating Currency of the Medical Sciences Collection Available on Public Library Shelves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Peggy S.

    Because advances in medical science can lead to rapid changes in current health knowledge, a library collection of medical science materials can become dated rather quickly. This factor, as well as the many variables of library use and operation which impact the availability of current materials on the library shelves--loan periods, weeding…

  14. [Knowledge on drugs phenomenon by students and faculty from the Medical School at Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Navia-Bueno, Maria del Pilar; Farah-Bravo, Jacqueline; Yaksic-Feraudy, Nina; Philco-Lima, Patrícia; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the degree of knowledge of students and health educators on licit and illicit drugs, related to the type, classification, action, mechanisms damages, consequences and adverse effects, besides use and consumption. A cross-sectional methodological design was used, with a sample of 172 students, professors and residents in medicine and nursing at Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Bolivia. The results reveal weak knowledge on the classification of psychotropic substances according to structure, chemical property and effects for health, highlighting significant difference with knowledge on licit and illicit drugs use, with high percentages. In conclusion, there is lack of knowledge in all groups studied on licit and illicit drugs regarding the consequences and adverse effects. This confirms the need to improve teaching on this content in health schools.

  15. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  16. Policy Levers Key for Primary Health Care Organizations to Support Primary Care Practices in Meeting Medical Home Expectations: Comparing Leading States to the Australian Experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several countries with highly ranked delivery systems have implemented locally-based, publicly-funded primary health care organizations (PHCOs) as vehicles to strengthen their primary care foundations. In the United States, state governments have started down a similar pathway with models that share similarities with international PHCOs. The objective of this study was to determine if these kinds of organizations were working with primary care practices to improve their ability to provide comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible patient-centered care that met quality, safety, and efficiency outcomes—all core attributes of a medical home. This qualitative study looked at 4 different PHCO models—3 from the United States and 1 from Australia—with similar objectives and scope. Primary and secondary data included semi-structured interviews with 26 PHCOs and a review of government documents. The study found that the 4 PHCO models were engaging practices to meet a number of medical home expectations, but the US PHCOs were more uniform in efforts to work with practices and focused on arranging services to meet the needs of complex patients. There was significant variation in level of effort between the Australian PHCOs. These differences can be explained through the state governments' selection of payment models and use of data frameworks to support collaboration and incentivize performance of both PHCOs and practices. These findings offer policy lessons to inform health reform efforts under way to better capitalize on the potential of PHCOs to support a high-functioning primary health foundation as an essential component to a reformed health system. PMID:26636485

  17. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ... herbs or foods that contain lead Breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or swallowing or touching dirt that ...

  18. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  19. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  20. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to evidence-based dentistry among dental students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health that requires the application and examination of relevant scientific data related to the patient's oral health and his priorities. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students of Isfahan about EBD. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 168 dental students in 3 final years of their education who engaged in clinical practice by consensus sampling were recruited. For data collection, a validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was consisted of demographic questions and some questions about four issues: Knowledge of self-assess (KSA), evidence-based practice, actual knowledge and attitude about EBD. Data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear regression with SPSS 16. Results: One hundred and thirty-six students from 168 students were filled the questionnaire. The mean of KSA was 13 ± 4.3, mean of usage of useful references in EBD was 16.9 ± 7.6. One-third of students were studied their last article in last 6 months before. The mean of actual knowledge and attitude was 7.4 ± 2.3 and 24 ± 3.8, respectively. The relation between 4 main issues was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: By considering overall interest and positive attitude toward learning EBD in dental students, it is highly recommended that practical educational courses about EBD be planned by dental faculties. PMID:27500165

  1. Impact of an Online Medical Internet Site on Knowledge and Practice of Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Study of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Project

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Townson, Andrea F; Higgins, Caroline E; Rogers, Jess; Wolfe, Dalton L

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether ongoing access to a broad-based Internet knowledge resource can influence the practice of health care providers. We undertook a study to evaluate the impact of a Web-based knowledge resource on increasing access to evidence and facilitating best practice of health care providers. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence (SCIRE) project on access to information for health care providers and researchers and (2) how SCIRE influenced health care providers' management of clients. Methods A 4-part mixed methods evaluation was undertaken: (1) monitoring website traffic and utilization using Google Analytics, (2) online survey of users who accessed the SCIRE website, (3) online survey of targeted end-users, that is, rehabilitation health care providers known to work with spinal cord injury (SCI) clients, as well as researchers, and (4) focus groups with health care providers who had previously accessed SCIRE. Results The online format allowed the content for a relatively specialized field to have far reach (eg, 26 countries and over 6500 users per month). The website survey and targeted end-user survey confirmed that health care providers, as well as researchers perceived that the website increased their access to SCI evidence. Access to SCIRE not only improved knowledge of SCI evidence but helped inform changes to the health providers’ clinical practice and improved their confidence in treating SCI clients. The SCIRE information directly influenced the health providers’ clinical decision making, in terms of choice of intervention, equipment needs, or assessment tool. Conclusions A Web-based knowledge resource may be a relatively inexpensive method to increase access to evidence-based information, increase knowledge of the evidence, inform changes to the health providers’ practice, and influence their clinical decision making. PMID:25537167

  2. Can Online Consumers Contribute to Drug Knowledge? A Mixed-Methods Comparison of Consumer-Generated and Professionally Controlled Psychotropic Medication Information on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Ongoing initiatives to filter online health searches exclude consumer-generated content from search returns, though its inferiority compared with professionally controlled content is not demonstrated. The antidepressant escitalopram and the antipsychotic quetiapine have ranked over the last 5 years as top-selling agents in their respective drug classes. Both drugs have various off-label mental health and non–mental health uses, ranging from the relief of insomnia and migraines to the treatment of severe developmental disorders. Objective Our objective was to describe the most frequently reported effects of escitalopram and quetiapine in online consumer reviews, to compare them with effects described in professionally controlled commercial health websites, and to gauge the usability of online consumer medication reviews. Methods A stratified simple random sample of 960 consumer reviews was selected from all 6998 consumer reviews of the two drugs in 2 consumer-generated (www.askapatient.com and www.crazymeds.us) and 2 professionally controlled (www.webmd.com and www.revolutionhealth.com) health websites. Professional medication descriptions included all standard information on the medications from the latter 2 websites. All textual data were inductively coded for medication effects, and intercoder agreement was assessed. Chi-square was used to test for associations between consumer-reported effects and website origination. Results Consumers taking either escitalopram (n = 480) or quetiapine (n = 480) most frequently reported symptom improvement (30.4% or 146/480, 24.8% or 119/480) or symptom worsening (15.8% or 76/480, 10.2% or 49/480), changes in sleep (36% or 173/480, 60.6% or 291/480) and changes in weight and appetite (22.5% or 108/480, 30.8% or 148/480). More consumers posting reviews on consumer-generated rather than professionally controlled websites reported symptom worsening on quetiapine (17.3% or 38/220 versus 5% or 11/220, P < .001), while

  3. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  4. Medicalization, medical necessity, and feminist medicine.

    PubMed

    Purdy, L

    2001-06-01

    New and proposed medical technologies continually challenge our vision of what constitutes appropriate medical treatment. As scholars and consumers grapple with the meaning of innovation, one common critical theme to surface is that it constitutes undesirable medicalization. But we are embodied creatures who can often benefit from medical knowledge; in addition, rejection of medicalization may be in some cases based on an untenable appeal to nature. Harnessing the power of medicine for women's welfare requires us to rethink the goals of medicine as well as implement fundamental reforms.

  5. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  6. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from lead poisoning in New Hampshire and in Alabama. Lead poisoning has also been associated with juvenile ... for decades—after it first enters the blood stream. (The same process can occur with the onset ...

  7. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure at school Hearing problems Kidney damage Reduced IQ Slowed body growth The symptoms of lead poisoning ... can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater ...

  8. [Medical geography].

    PubMed

    Hauri, D

    2007-10-17

    Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.

  9. "Peer2Peer" – A university program for knowledge transfer and consultation in dealing with psychosocial crises in med-school and medical career

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical students are exposed to various psychosocial problems and challenges. Specific consultations services and programs can support them. “Peer2Peer” is such a consultation program and was implemented at the Medical University of Graz. It focusses on crisis intervention, psychosocial stress management, junior mentoring as well as student education in this field. Besides, it also offers student tutors of the program practical skills trainings. The program was restructured in winter term 2014/15. Methods: On the one hand, “Peer2Peer” gives insights into topics such as the current state of research concerning the students’ psychological strain and psychosocial crises in acutely stressful situations and preventive approaches for coping with these kinds of situations on the other hand. These aspects are taught by means of elective courses, lectures and workshops. Furthermore, “Peer2Peer” provides consultation services by student tutors who give face-to-face advice if required. These tutors receive ongoing training in organizational and professional issues. Results: Since the summer term of 2015, 119 students have been trained (via lectures and elective courses), while 61 contacts (short consultation) and 33 contacts (full consultation) have been supervisied. In total, two psychotherapeutic and one psychosocial follow ups were recommended. There are seven students who participate as tutors in the program. Conclusions: The “Peer2Peer” program is intended to enable a low-threshold access for medical students facing psychosocial crises situations and to help them in dealing with stress and learning problems. An increase in support contacts from the summer term of 2015 to the winter term of 2015/16 can be considered a success. A first evaluation of the different components of the program started in the winter semester of 2015/16. The student tutors have not only acquired practical skills in dealing with students in crises situations but also

  10. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  11. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  12. Neuro psychiatry 1943: the role of documentary film in the dissemination of medical knowledge and promotion of the U.K. psychiatric profession.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war.

  13. Neuro Psychiatry 1943: The Role of Documentary Film in the Dissemination of Medical Knowledge and Promotion of the U.K. Psychiatric Profession

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war. PMID:23134695

  14. The Intersection of Medical Child Abuse and Medical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Petska, Hillary W; Gordon, John B; Jablonski, Debra; Sheets, Lynn K

    2017-02-01

    Children with medical complexity and victims of medical child abuse may have similar clinical presentations. Atypical or unexplained signs and symptoms due to rare diseases may lead providers to suspect medical child abuse when not present. Conversely, medical child abuse may be the cause of or coexist with medical complexity. Careful consideration of whether or not medical child abuse is present is essential when assessing a child with medical complexity since either diagnosis has significant consequences for children and families.

  15. Evaluation of a health education intervention on knowledge and attitudes of food handlers working in a medical college in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rahul; Lal, Panna; Prakash, S Krishna; Daga, M K; Kishore, Jugal

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed change in knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported hand-washing practices of 136 food handlers 3 months after providing them health education using posters and interactive sessions using a flip chart. There was a significant change in the proportion of study participants who named food borne or waterborne diseases, including gastroenteritis (79.4% to 91.9%), worm infestation (39.0% to 55.9%), cholera (16.2% to 42.7%), and typhoid (9.6% to 28.7%). Significant increase in knowledge about hand hygiene measures, namely, washing hands before handling food (23.5% to 65.4%) and keeping nails cut and clean (8.1% to 57.4%), was observed. Baseline self-reported hand-washing practices revealed low figures for washing hands after micturition (82.4%) and smoking (52.8%) and consistent use of soap at the workplace (24.3%) and after micturition (14.0%), which improved after health education but not to the desired extent. Findings highlight the importance of providing health education in food and personal hygiene to food handlers and incorporating the same in existing guidelines for food establishments laid down by civic agencies in Delhi and elsewhere.

  16. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

    2013-03-01

    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p < 0.001). This research highlighted that for many students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e).

  17. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A Medical Ethics Tutorial Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kenneth B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A program designed to help first-year medical students understand basic medical ethical issues and view these issues as a essential component of their knowledge base in clinical medicine is described. (Author/MLW)

  19. Relationships between Knowledge(s): Implications for "Knowledge Integration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to a critical dialogue about what is currently called "knowledge integration" in environmental research and related educational programming. Indigenous understandings in particular are seen as offering (re)new(ed) ways of thinking that have and will lead to innovative practices for addressing complex environmental issues.…

  20. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  1. Certification and Career Success: A LEADS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Dickison, Phil; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between certification examination test results and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) career success. The sample was drawn from the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). LEADS participants were matched with National Registry of Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT)…

  2. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level.

    PubMed

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  3. Unequal Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

  4. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  5. Medication errors: definitions and classification.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2009-06-01

    1. To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. 2. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey-Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). 3. A medication error is 'a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. 4. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is 'a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient'. The converse of this, 'balanced prescribing' is 'the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm'. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. 5. A prescription error is 'a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription'. The 'normal features' include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. 6. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies.

  6. Broadening medical horizons.

    PubMed

    Harper, C Mark

    2003-02-01

    In the rush to acquire ever more and detailed knowledge, the medical profession appears to have forgotten that there are other academic disciplines, the study of which would benefit both doctors and patients.

  7. Are Providers More Likely to Contribute to Healthcare Disparities Under High Levels of Cognitive Load? How Features of the Healthcare Setting May Lead to Biases in Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of healthcare disparities suggest that clinicians’ diagnostic and therapeutic decision making varies by clinically irrelevant characteristics, such as patient race, and that this variation may contribute to healthcare disparities. However, there is little understanding of the particular features of the healthcare setting under which clinicians are most likely to be inappropriately influenced by these characteristics. This study delineates several hypotheses to stimulate future research in this area. It is posited that healthcare settings in which providers experience high levels of cognitive load will increase the likelihood of racial disparities via 2 pathways. First, providers who experience higher levels of cognitive load are hypothesized to make poorer medical decisions and provide poorer care for all patients, due to lower levels of controlled processing (H1). Second, under greater levels of cognitive load, it is hypothesized that healthcare providers’ medical decisions and interpersonal behaviors will be more likely to be influenced by racial stereotypes, leading to poorer processes and outcomes of care for racial minority patients (H2). It is further hypothesized that certain characteristics of healthcare settings will result in higher levels of cognitive load experienced by providers (H3). Finally, it is hypothesized that minority patients will be disproportionately likely to be treated in healthcare settings in which providers experience greater levels of cognitive load (H4a), which will result in racial disparities due to lower levels of controlled processing by providers (H4b) and the influence of racial stereotypes (H4c).The study concludes with implications for research and practice that flow from this framework. PMID:19726783

  8. Which Form of Medical Training is the Best in Improving Interns’ knowledge Related to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Drugs Pharmacology? An Educational Analytical Intervention Study Between Electronic Learning and Lecture-Based Education

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Ala, Alireza; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ebrahimian, Kimia; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad EJ; Salek Ranjbarzadeh, Fariba; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional educational systems seem to be improper throughout the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching process. The most common causes of failed resuscitation are unfamiliarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithms, poor performance of leader of the CPR team and lack of skilled personnel, coordination among members during resuscitation, and responsibility of staff. Objectives: Electronic learning, as a new educational method is controversial issue in medical education for improving physicians’ practical knowledge and it is inevitable that further research on its effectiveness should be done. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective, pre- and post-educational, cross-sectional research, in which 84 interns were randomly divided into two groups. pre- and post- educational interventions that took place in the Department of Emergency Medicine, interns were evaluated by 21 multiple choice questions related to American Heart Association guidelineson cardiopulmonary resuscitation drugs. Questions were assessed in terms of routes for CPR drugs administration, CPR drug dosage forms, clinical judgment and appropriate CPR drug administration, and the alternative drugs in emergency situations. Data were analyzed by generalized estimating equations regression models and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Evaluating the effectiveness of both educational methods revealed that the mean answering score for 21 questions before education was 7.5 ± 2.6 and no significant difference was observed in groups (P = 0.55). However, after education, the average scores significantly increased to 11.0 ± 3.9 (P < 0.001). Electronic learning method was not associated with considerable increase in the knowledge of interns in this group compared with the lecture-based group (P = 0.49). Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between electronic learning and lecture-based education in improving interns

  9. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  10. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  11. Communicating Medical Needs to Non-Medical Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Differences in communication styles and languages between groups often lead to miscommunication, confusion, and/or frustration. Engineers, computer specialists, clinicians, and managers often utilize the English language in very different ways, with different groups using the same words to represent different concepts ("complaint" is a typical example). In addition, medical issues are often perceived as "off-nominal" and not "primary mission tasks" by managers, which can cause them to assign lower priorities to medical training time and resources. Knowledge bases differ due to variations in training and skill sets, and the goals (both immediate and long-term) of the communicators may also vary, with managers being primarily concerned with overall mission objectives, while clinicians focus on individual or group health issues. Furthermore, true communication is only possible when clinicians possess a deep understanding of mission requirements as well as the ability to communicate medical requirements on a priority basis using risk assessment, added value, and cost benefit analysis. These understandable differences may contribute to difficulties in expressing concerns and ideas in an efficient manner, particularly in projects, such as the space program or many military operations, where these varied groups must collaborate, and where the final decisions must be made by fully informed mission commanders. Methods: Three scenario-based approaches were developed utilizing decision trees and problem based learning, to help define and integrate these concepts. Results: Use of these techniques by NASA and military personnel will be presented. Discussion: To enhance communication, particularly of medical needs, one must identify the concerns and motivating factors for the other groups; for example, members of management may focus on financial concerns, a desire for risk mitigation, public perceptions, mission objectives, etc. Training clinicians to frame issues in these

  12. Teaching law in medical schools: first, reflect.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"?

  13. Visual Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    Visual knowledge is an enormously important part of our total knowledge. The psychological study of learning and knowledge has focused almost exclusively on verbal materials. Today, the advance of technology is making the use of visual communication increasingly feasible and popular. However, this enthusiasm involves the illusion that visual…

  14. Preserving Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taintor, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Every year, teachers leave the profession and take valuable experience and knowledge with them. An increasing retirement rate makes schools vulnerable to a significant loss of knowledge. This article describes how implementing a knowledge management process will ensure that valuable assets are captured and shared. (Contains 3 online resources.)

  15. Standards for Medical Library Technicians, Medical Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medical Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    A medical library technician is a semiprofessional library employee whose duties require knowledge and skill based on a minimum of two years' general college education that includes library instruction beyond the clerical level. The medical library technician must have a practical knowledge of library functions and services, an understanding of…

  16. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates.

  18. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  19. Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong; Suk, Heung-Il

    2017-03-09

    This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications. We introduce the fundamentals of deep learning methods and review their successes in image registration, detection of anatomical and cellular structures, tissue segmentation, computer-aided disease diagnosis and prognosis, and so on. We conclude by discussing research issues and suggesting future directions for further improvement. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 19 is June 4, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  1. Experts’ and Novices’ Perception of Ignorance and Knowledge in Different Research Disciplines and Its Relation to Belief in Certainty of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Isabelle; Buratti, Sandra; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2017-01-01

    Assessments of the extent of knowledge in a domain can be important since non-identified lack of knowledge may lead to decisions that do not consider the effect of relevant factors. Two studies examined experts’ and novices’ perception of their own ignorance and knowledge out of everything there is to know within their own and other disciplines and their assessments of their discipline’s, and other disciplines’ knowledge of all there is to know in each discipline. In total 380 experts and 401 students from the disciplines of history, medicine, physics, and psychology participated. The results for ignorance and knowledge assessments of one’s own knowledge were similar. Novices reported more ignorance and less knowledge in their own discipline than experts, but no differences were found in the assessments of how much is known in each discipline. General belief in certainty of knowledge was associated with the knowledge assessments and level of expertise. Finally, disciplinary differences were found both for the knowledge assessments and for belief in certainty of knowledge. Historians and physicists assessed that less was known in their own discipline out of all there is to know (approximately 40%), compared to the medics (about 50%). Historians believed least in certainty of knowledge and physicists most. Our results have practical implications for higher educational teaching and interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:28367132

  2. Vision, knowledge, and assertion.

    PubMed

    Turri, John

    2016-04-01

    I report two experiments studying the relationship among explicit judgments about what people see, know, and should assert. When an object of interest was surrounded by visibly similar items, it diminished people's willingness to judge that an agent sees, knows, and should tell others that it is present. This supports the claim, made by many philosophers, that inhabiting a misleading environment intuitively decreases our willingness to attribute perception and knowledge. However, contrary to stronger claims made by some philosophers, inhabiting a misleading environment does not lead to the opposite pattern whereby people deny perception and knowledge. Causal modeling suggests a specific psychological model of how explicit judgments about perception, knowledge, and assertability are made: knowledge attributions cause perception attributions, which in turn cause assertability attributions. These findings advance understanding of how these three important judgments are made, provide new evidence that knowledge is the norm of assertion, and highlight some important subtleties in folk epistemology.

  3. Leading Work with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…

  4. Self-medication for Acne among Undergraduate Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Karamata, Varshaben Vejabhai; Gandhi, A M; Patel, P P; Desai, M K

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and pattern of self-medication for acne among undergraduate medical students at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in II MBBS (Group A), III MBBS Part I (Group B), and III MBBS Part II (Group C) students. Prevalidated questionnaire about knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication were administered to participants. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 582 students who responded to questionnaire, 518 suffered from acne. Self-medication practice was observed in 59.2% students. Significantly higher number of female students practiced self-medication (P < 0.0001). Most common source of information was seniors/friends/family members (34.2%). The mildness of illness (42.3%) was the most common reason of self-medication. A total mean score of knowledge was significantly higher in Group C as compared to Group A (P < 0.001) and Group B (P < 0.05). Allopathic medication was preferred by 69.8% students. Seventy-five percentage students read leaflet/package insert/label instruction and expiry date of the medicines. Conclusions: The participating students lack the knowledge about self-medication for acne. Adequate knowledge and awareness about the appropriate use of medication will reduce the practice of self-medication and improve rational prescribing.

  5. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

  6. [Knowledge regarding Proper Use Guidelines for Benzodiazepines].

    PubMed

    Inada, Ken

    2016-01-01

      Benzodiazepines (BZs) work by agonising gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-BZ-receptor complex and thereby produce sedation and anti-anxiety effects. BZs are commonly used in several clinical areas as hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs. However, these drugs once supplied by medical institutions often lead to abuse and dependence. Thus it is important for institutions to supply and manage BZs properly. At Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital educational activities about proper use of BZs are performed by not only medical doctors but also pharmacists. We coordinate distribution of leaflets and run an educational workshop. As a result of these activities, the number of patients receiving BZ prescriptions was reduced. Performing these activities, pharmacists were required to work for patients, doctors, and nurses; they acquired knowledge about BZs such as action mechanisms, efficacy, adverse effects, problems about co-prescription, and methods of discontinuing BZs, as well as information on coping techniques other than medication. The most important point to attend the patients is to answer their anxieties.

  7. Medical Terminology of the Musculoskeletal System. Medical Records. Instructional Unit for the Medical Transcriber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, Minna L.

    Following an analysis of the task of transcribing as practiced in a health facility, this study guide was developed to teach the knowledge and skills required of a medical transcriber. The medical record department was identified as a major occupational area, and a task inventory for medical records was developed and used as a basis for a…

  8. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  9. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  10. Mental Health Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... antipsychotic medications during pregnancy can lead to birth defects, especially if they are taken during the first trimester and in combination with other drugs, but the risks vary widely and depend on ...

  11. [The diffusion of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  12. Comparing syntactic complexity in medical and non-medical corpora.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D A; Johnson, S B

    2001-01-01

    With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques as solutions in Medical Informatics, the need to quickly and efficiently create the knowledge structures used by these systems has grown concurrently. Automatic discovery of a lexicon for use by an NLP system through machine learning will require information about the syntax of medical language. Understanding the syntactic differences between medical and non-medical corpora may allow more efficient acquisition of a lexicon. Three experiments designed to quantify the syntactic differences in medical and non-medical corpora were conducted. The results show that the syntax of medical language shows less variation than non-medical language and is likely simpler. The differences were great enough to question the applicability of general language tools on medical language. These differences may reduce the difficulty of some free text machine learning problems by capitalizing on the simpler nature of narrative medical syntax.

  13. What is a 21st-century doctor? Rethinking the significance of the medical degree.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle

    2014-07-01

    The undergraduate medical degree, leading to a license to practice, has traditionally been the defining professional milestone of the physician. Developments in health care and medical education and training, however, have changed the significance of the medical degree in the continuum of education toward clinical practice. The author discusses six questions that should lead us to rethink the current status and significance of the medical degree and, consequently, that of the physician. These questions include the quest for core knowledge and competence of the doctor, the place of the degree in the education continuum, the increasing length of training, the sharing of health care tasks with other professionals, and the nature of professional identity in a multitasking world. The author concludes by examining ways to redefine what it means to be a "medical doctor."

  14. Teaching transfusion medicine: current situation and proposals for proper medical training

    PubMed Central

    Flausino, Gustavo de Freitas; Nunes, Flávio Ferreira; Cioffi, Júnia Guimarães Mourão; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The current curricula in medical schools and hospital residence worldwide lack exposure to blood transfusion medicine, and require the reformulation of academic programs. In many countries, training in blood transfusion is not currently offered to medical students or during residency. Clinical evidence indicates that blood transfusions occur more frequently than recommended, contributing to increased risk due to this procedure. Therefore, the rational use of blood and its components is essential, due to the frequent undesirable reactions, to the increasing demand of blood products and the cost of the process. Significant improvements in knowledge of and skills in transfusion medicine are needed by both students and residents. Improvements are needed in both background knowledge and the practical application of this knowledge to improve safety. Studies prove that hemovigilance has an impact on transfusion safety and helps to prevent the occurrence of transfusion-related adverse effects. To ensure that all these aspects of blood transfusion are being properly addressed, many countries have instituted hospital transfusion committees. From this perspective, the interventions performed during the formation of medical students and residents, even the simplest, have proven effective in the acquisition of knowledge and medical training, thereby leading to a reduction in inappropriate use of blood. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the importance of the exposure of medical students and residents to blood services and transfusion medicine in order for them to acquire adequate medical training, as well as to discuss some changes in the current medical curricula regarding transfusion medicine that we judge critical. PMID:25638770

  15. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  16. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

  17. Leading change: 2--planning.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  18. Foundations of medical librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerhoff, E

    1977-01-01

    The development of medical librarianship during the last forty years is examined as reflected in the changes of its resources, technology, education, and knowledge base. A shift from historical to scientific inquiry constitutes the direction of medical librarianship. Its nexus is the gathering of information and the transfer of knowledge. The social and human resources for this ongoing change and the basis for a quest for excellence is seen in the pool of talent represented by hospital librarians and the aspirations of the women's movement for equality. PMID:332265

  19. Childhood lead poisoning: the torturous path from science to policy

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David C.; Bellinger, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The long history of lead poisoning provides many lessons about the process by which scientific knowledge is translated into public health policy. In the United States, lead was added to paint and to gasoline in enormous quantities long after medical evidence clearly showed that excessive lead exposure caused considerable morbidity in the population. This article discusses some of the factors that contributed to the slow pace of efforts to address this problem, including the ubiquity and magnitude of lead exposure during much of the twentieth century, which produced a distorted notion about the blood lead level that can be considered “normal”; the prevailing model of disease during this period, notably the novelty of the concept of subclinical disease; the fact that childhood lead poisoning affected mostly families that were politically and economically disenfranchised, fostering a “blame the victim” attitude; and that controlling lead exposure would have impeded efforts to achieve other desirable goals, illustrating the role that value trade-offs often play in policy decisions. PMID:16585952

  20. Childhood lead poisoning: the torturous path from science to policy.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C; Bellinger, Andrew M

    2006-04-01

    The long history of lead poisoning provides many lessons about the process by which scientific knowledge is translated into public health policy. In the United States, lead was added to paint and to gasoline in enormous quantities long after medical evidence clearly showed that excessive lead exposure caused considerable morbidity in the population. This article discusses some of the factors that contributed to the slow pace of efforts to address this problem, including the ubiquity and magnitude of lead exposure during much of the twentieth century, which produced a distorted notion about the blood lead level that can be considered "normal"; the prevailing model of disease during this period, notably the novelty of the concept of subclinical disease; the fact that childhood lead poisoning affected mostly families that were politically and economically disenfranchised, fostering a "blame the victim" attitude; and that controlling lead exposure would have impeded efforts to achieve other desirable goals, illustrating the role that value trade-offs often play in policy decisions.

  1. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  2. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  3. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  4. Lead toxicity in battery workers.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Saeeda Fouzia; Baloch, Malka

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Routes of exposure include contaminated air, water, soil, food and consumer products. Occupational exposure is the main cause of lead poisoning in the adults. Two cases of occupational lead poisoning in adult battery workers are hereby presented. Both male patients had initial non-specific symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain, fatigue and headache for 6 - 8 years. Later on, they developed psychosis, slurred speech, tremors of hands and initially underwent treatment for Parkinsonism and Wilson's disease because of clinical misdiagnosis. They were diagnosed with lead poisoning later and were treated successfully with lead chelator (CaNa2 EDTA).

  5. Style in medical journals.

    PubMed Central

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-01-01

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed. PMID:6414596

  6. [Medical societies in modern China-China Medical Missionary Association].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Ming

    2011-07-01

    In modern times, the development and exchange of scientific research were promoted greatly by establishments of scientific societies in the west. In the second half of the 17(th) century, medical societies such as the Berlin Royal Society of Medicine, the Paris Surgical Society, the Edinburgh Medical Society and the London Medical Society appeared in sequence, which promoted the progress of European medicine greatly by means of medical conferences and journals. At the end of the 19(th) century, in order to promote medical missions and education, western missionaries drew lessons from the medical society system and founded the China Medical Missionary Association (CMMA). The association was dedicated to work in four fields: terminology standardization, missionary hospitals, medical education and study on endemic disease. CMMA accelerated the development of medical missions and the spread of western medicine. As members of CMMA must be of religious orders, many scholars were not qualified to join in, which resulted in limitation of academic research and exchange. With the return of overseas students, Chinese scholars majoring in western medicine enhanced the awareness of medical knowledge. As a result, western medical societies were established one by one, including the Shanghai Medical Association, the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, the Chinese Medical Association and the Society of Chinese Medicines of the Republic of China. Established in 1915, the Chinese Medical Association had members who also belonged to the CMMA, so the Chinese Medical Association made reference to the CMMA for its organization, function, operating mechanism, journals, etc..

  7. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and…

  8. Emerging Standards for Medical Logic

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Paul D.; Hripcsak, George; Pryor, T. Allan

    1990-01-01

    Sharing medical logic has traditionally occurred in the form of lectures, conversations, books and journals. As knowledge based computer systems have demonstrated their utility in the health care arena, individuals have pondered the best way to transfer knowledge in a computer based representation (1). A simple representation which allows the knowledge to be shared can be constructed when the knowledge base is modular. Within this representation, units have been named Medical Logic Modules (MLM's) and a syntax has emerged which would allow multiple users to create, criticize, and share those types of medical logic which can be represented in this format. In this paper we talk about why standards exist and why they emerge in some areas and not in others. The appropriateness of using the proposed standards for medical logic modules is then examined against this broader context.

  9. Using knowledge maintenance for preference assessment.

    PubMed

    Jain, N L; Kahn, M G

    1995-01-01

    Most real-life decisions require the decision maker to make trade-offs in order to fulfill multiple conflicting objectives. This is especially true in medical decision making while selecting the optimal therapy plan from among competing therapy plans for a patient. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a framework to specify these trade-offs for optimal decision making based on the preferences of the decision maker. However traditional preference-assessment techniques are difficult to implement and rarely elicit the true preferences of the decision maker. We describe a new preference-assessment method based on the concept of knowledge maintenance where the preference model is changed each time it makes an incorrect recommendation. The method is implemented in a decision-theoretic system to evaluate competing three-dimensional radiation treatment plans. The preference-assessment method leads to preference models which perform better than preference models elicited using traditional assessment techniques.

  10. Using knowledge maintenance for preference assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, N. L.; Kahn, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Most real-life decisions require the decision maker to make trade-offs in order to fulfill multiple conflicting objectives. This is especially true in medical decision making while selecting the optimal therapy plan from among competing therapy plans for a patient. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a framework to specify these trade-offs for optimal decision making based on the preferences of the decision maker. However traditional preference-assessment techniques are difficult to implement and rarely elicit the true preferences of the decision maker. We describe a new preference-assessment method based on the concept of knowledge maintenance where the preference model is changed each time it makes an incorrect recommendation. The method is implemented in a decision-theoretic system to evaluate competing three-dimensional radiation treatment plans. The preference-assessment method leads to preference models which perform better than preference models elicited using traditional assessment techniques. PMID:8563281

  11. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  12. The Costs of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  13. Patient Disclosure of Medical Misdeeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Clara; Stivers, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Modern patients walk a tightrope between respecting medical authority and acting as knowledgeable advocates regarding health issues, with the agency and responsibilities that come with this. This article uses conversation analysis to explore this balance in relation to patient disclosures of medical misdeeds in video-recorded primary care medical…

  14. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead...

  15. Immediate and 8-Month Impact of a Medical Educational Course for General Practitioners on Knowledge About Schizophrenia and Its Treatment: Results of a 3-Phase Study From Brescia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Turrina, Cesare; Valsecchi, Paolo; Mosca, Alessandra; Parrinello, Giovanni; Tabaglio, Erminio; Brignoli, Ovidio; Sacchetti, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the efficacy of a training course on the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, tailored for the general practitioner. Method: A course, in a 3-session format, was given to 215 primary care doctors from the city of Brescia and its province, in Italy. All 706 doctors working in primary care were asked to participate. Of these doctors, 30.5% took part in the study. The first session (215 doctors) assessed baseline knowledge of schizophrenia (June 2002), the second (173 doctors) gave formal teaching and assessed post-lesson knowledge (October 2002), and the third (130 doctors) evaluated the retention of knowledge after 8 months (July 2003). The main outcome measures were total number of schizophrenia symptoms identified, total number of antipsychotics identified, and knowledge about antipsychotic-related adverse events. Results: Post-lesson, general practitioners could identify 6.5 more symptoms (p < .001) and 4.9 more antipsychotics (p < .001). Compared to baseline, 71.5% vs. 15.4% of doctors had a good knowledge of antipsychotic-related adverse events. Although a loss of knowledge was found after the 8-month follow-up, knowledge at the endpoint was significantly higher than at baseline for the 3 main outcome variables (p < .001). Conclusion: The teaching course on schizophrenia for general practitioners was effective, and the knowledge gained after teaching was stable across time. PMID:19287555

  16. Who will lead?

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R P; Schlosser, J R

    1997-01-01

    A recent survey conducted by the UCLA Center for Health Services Management and the Physician Executive Practice of Heidrick & Struggles, an executive search firm, sheds light on the emerging physician executive's role. The goal of the research was to identify success factors as a means of evaluating and developing effective industry leaders. Respondents were asked to look at specific skills in relation to nine categories: Communication, leadership, interpersonal skills, self-motivation/management, organizational knowledge, organizational strategy, administrative skills, and thinking. Communication, leadership, and self-motivation/management emerged, in that order, as the three most important success factors for physician executives. An individual's general competencies, work styles, and ability to lead others through organizational restructuring defines his or her appropriateness for managerial positions in the health care industry.

  17. The relationship between immediate relevant basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge: physiology knowledge and transthoracic echocardiography image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-10-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent research has implied that a more complex relationship between the two knowledge bases exists. In this study, we explore the relationship between immediate relevant basic science (physiology) and clinical knowledge within a specific domain of medicine (echocardiography). Twenty eight medical students in their 3rd year and 45 physicians (15 interns, 15 cardiology residents and 15 cardiology consultants) took a multiple-choice test of physiology knowledge. The physicians also viewed images of a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination and completed a checklist of possible pathologies found. A total score for each participant was calculated for the physiology test, and for all physicians also for the TTE checklist. Consultants scored significantly higher on the physiology test than did medical students and interns. A significant correlation between physiology test scores and TTE checklist scores was found for the cardiology residents only. Basic science knowledge of immediate relevance for daily clinical work expands with increased work experience within a specific domain. Consultants showed no relationship between physiology knowledge and TTE interpretation indicating that experts do not use basic science knowledge in routine daily practice, but knowledge of immediate relevance remains ready for use.

  18. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... at every age for those with spina bifida. Spina Bifida Videos The Spina Bifida Experience Managing Medical Care ...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1025 - Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall assure that lunchroom facilities have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air... examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice. The content of medical examinations made... Identification A. Substance: Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure and is a...

  20. [Medical informatics education at the Medical School in Tuzla].

    PubMed

    Sabanović, Zekerijah; Mujcinagić, Alija

    2004-01-01

    Medical informatics is a specific and interdisciplinary science which involves many participants of the health system like: patients, physicians, nurses, managers, administrators, computer experts, students, with the different level of education and understanding, different approaches and expectations. Education of medical informatics requests organization solutions of high quality and necessary equipment for its realization. Educational programs are also limited by student's basic knowledge of informatics from secondary schools. For assessment of this knowledge we have conducted special designed questionnaire at the first year of undergraduate study which results confirm our thesis that great number of students entered the faculty with the lack of basic knowledge from informatics area. In this paper was presented level of organization and education of medical informatics at the Medical faculty and University Clinical Center of Tuzla, with its characteristics through which this system has been passed since 1990.