Science.gov

Sample records for medical subject headings

  1. Ranking Medical Subject Headings using a factor graph model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    Automatically assigning MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) to articles is an active research topic. Recent work demonstrated the feasibility of improving the existing automated Medical Text Indexer (MTI) system, developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Encouraged by this work, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses semantic distances in the MeSH ontology for automated MeSH assignment. Specifically, we developed a graphical model to propagate belief through a citation network to provide robust MeSH main heading (MH) recommendation. Our preliminary results indicate that this approach can reach high Mean Average Precision (MAP) in some scenarios.

  2. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD. PMID:27213780

  3. A case study: using social tagging to engage students in learning Medical Subject Headings.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Lauren A; Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David B; Harzbecker, Joseph; Blanchard, Mary; Ginn, David

    2009-04-01

    In exploring new ways of teaching students how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), librarians at Boston University's Alumni Medical Library (AML) integrated social tagging into their instruction. These activities were incorporated into the two-credit graduate course, "GMS MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information," required for all students in the graduate medical science program. Hands-on assignments and in-class exercises enabled librarians to present MeSH and the concept of a controlled vocabulary in a familiar and relevant context for the course's Generation Y student population and provided students the opportunity to actively participate in creating their education. At the conclusion of these activities, students were surveyed regarding the clarity of the presentation of the MeSH vocabulary. Analysis of survey responses indicated that 46% found the concept of MeSH to be the clearest concept presented in the in-class intervention.

  4. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library. PMID:26877832

  5. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  6. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs. PMID:23017167

  7. COEXPEDIA: exploring biomedical hypotheses via co-expressions associated with medical subject headings (MeSH).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Chan Yeong; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Kim, Hyojin; Shim, Hongseok; Lee, Insuk

    2017-01-04

    The use of high-throughput array and sequencing technologies has produced unprecedented amounts of gene expression data in central public depositories, including the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The immense amount of expression data in GEO provides both vast research opportunities and data analysis challenges. Co-expression analysis of high-dimensional expression data has proven effective for the study of gene functions, and several co-expression databases have been developed. Here, we present a new co-expression database, COEXPEDIA (www.coexpedia.org), which is distinctive from other co-expression databases in three aspects: (i) it contains only co-functional co-expressions that passed a rigorous statistical assessment for functional association, (ii) the co-expressions were inferred from individual studies, each of which was designed to investigate gene functions with respect to a particular biomedical context such as a disease and (iii) the co-expressions are associated with medical subject headings (MeSH) that provide biomedical information for anatomical, disease, and chemical relevance. COEXPEDIA currently contains approximately eight million co-expressions inferred from 384 and 248 GEO series for humans and mice, respectively. We describe how these MeSH-associated co-expressions enable the identification of diseases and drugs previously unknown to be related to a gene or a gene group of interest.

  8. COEXPEDIA: exploring biomedical hypotheses via co-expressions associated with medical subject headings (MeSH)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Chan Yeong; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Kim, Hyojin; Shim, Hongseok; Lee, Insuk

    2017-01-01

    The use of high-throughput array and sequencing technologies has produced unprecedented amounts of gene expression data in central public depositories, including the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The immense amount of expression data in GEO provides both vast research opportunities and data analysis challenges. Co-expression analysis of high-dimensional expression data has proven effective for the study of gene functions, and several co-expression databases have been developed. Here, we present a new co-expression database, COEXPEDIA (www.coexpedia.org), which is distinctive from other co-expression databases in three aspects: (i) it contains only co-functional co-expressions that passed a rigorous statistical assessment for functional association, (ii) the co-expressions were inferred from individual studies, each of which was designed to investigate gene functions with respect to a particular biomedical context such as a disease and (iii) the co-expressions are associated with medical subject headings (MeSH) that provide biomedical information for anatomical, disease, and chemical relevance. COEXPEDIA currently contains approximately eight million co-expressions inferred from 384 and 248 GEO series for humans and mice, respectively. We describe how these MeSH-associated co-expressions enable the identification of diseases and drugs previously unknown to be related to a gene or a gene group of interest. PMID:27679477

  9. Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no

  10. Indexing Publicly Available Health Data with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Evaluation of Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Marc, David T; Zhang, Rui; Beattie, James; Gatewood, Laël C; Khairat, Saif S

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Open Government Initiative, the United States federal government published datasets to increase collaboration, transparency, consumer participation, and research, and are available online at HealthData.gov. Currently, HealthData.gov does not adequately support the accessibility goal of the Open Government Initiative due to issues of retrieving relevant data because of inadequately cataloguing and lack of indexing with a standardized terminology. Given the commonalities between the HealthData.gov and MEDLINE metadata, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) may offer an indexing solution, but there needs to be a formal evaluation of the efficacy of MeSH for covering the dataset concepts. The purpose of this study was to determine if MeSH adequately covers the HealthData.gov concepts. The noun and noun phrases from the HealthData.gov metadata were extracted and mapped to MeSH using MetaMap. The frequency of no exact, partical and no matches with MeSH terms were determined. The results of this study revealed that about 70% of the HealthData.gov concepts partially or exactly matched MeSH terms. Therefore, MeSH may be a favorable terminology for indexing the HealthData.gov datasets.

  11. Creating Better Subject Access with Multiple Vocabularies: Upgrading the Subject Heading List for the Alzheimer's Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Cochrane, Pauline Atherton

    1999-01-01

    A new subject list was generated for the Alzheimer's Association's Green-Field Library catalog, resulting in a mix of Medical Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings, augmented by local- and reviewer-supplied terms. The list gives the Library authoritative terms to use for original and copy cataloging. It can also be placed with…

  12. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level.

    PubMed

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  13. Subject Heading Revision: A System for Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibtag, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the processes involved in improving the subject catalog at a medical library. Policy decisions concerning heading sources and revision methodology and plans for analyzing, weeding, and increasing the relevance of subject terms is discussed. The making of catalog changes and the results of catalog revision are also described. (JL)

  14. Punctuation in Library of Congress Subject Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Hilda

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the punctuation of the eighth edition Library of Congress Subject Headings reveals that the hyphen, coma and parentheses are most often used. Examples of these and the use of the apostrophe, dash, and period are discussed. (Author/MBR)

  15. Subject Heading Patterns in OCLC Monographic Records. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Aluri, Rao

    An analysis of a sample of 33,455 monographic records taken from the OCLC (Ohio College Library Center) database found that 94 percent of the sample's 50,213 subject headings were Library of Congress (LC) subject headings. Each record had an average of 1.4 LC subject headings; however, 18.6 percent of the records had no LC subject headings…

  16. Library of Congress Subject Heading Patterns in OCLC Monographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Aluri, Rao

    1981-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of subject headings found in OCLC cataloging records. The study analyzed a sample of 33,455 monographic records taken from the OCLC database, and found that 94 percent of the subject headings used were Library of Congress subject headings. Twenty-seven references are cited. (Author/FM)

  17. Bobbling head in a young subject

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Deb, Sumit; Ghosh, S. N.; Mondal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Bobble-head Doll Syndrome is a rare and unique movement disorder found in children. Clinically, it is characterized by a to and fro or side to side movement of the head at the frequency of 2 to 3 Hz. It is mostly associated with cystic lesions around the third ventricle, choroid plexus papilloma, aqueductal stenosis and other rare disorders. An eleven year old child presented in the outpatient department with continuous to and fro movement of the head and declining vision for the last one month. MRI Scan showed a large contrast-enhanced lesion in the region of the third ventricle along with gross hydrocephalus. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted and the movements of the head disappeared completely. Bobble-head doll syndrome is a rare condition and therefore this case is presented and the literature reviewed. PMID:25506155

  18. Public Library Subject Headings for 16mm Motion Pictures. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Library Association, Sacramento.

    Suggested subject headings for 16mm motion pictures are listed. The intent of the list is to provide audiovisual librarians with a tool which will aid them in making subject indexes for their printed catalogs. It is also intended as an authority for professional catalogers who may be called upon to catalog 16mm motion pictures. (Author/KKC)

  19. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  20. Parent-Reported Medication Use in a Head Start Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Tara M.; Carlson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of medication use within a Head Start population. Parent-reported data (N = 1,397) from initial enrollment information indicated 6.8% of children were taking 34 different types of medication. More than two thirds (69%) of those on medication were prescribed more than one medication, and more than one third…

  1. [Quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology].

    PubMed

    Digue, Laurence; Pedeboscq, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    In medical oncology, how can we be sure that the right drug is being administered to the right patient at the right time? The implementation of quality assurance criteria is important in medical oncology, in order to ensure that the patient receives the best treatment safely. There is very little literature about quality assurance in medical oncology, as opposed to radiotherapy or cancer surgery. Quality assurance must cover the entire patient care process, from the diagnosis, to the therapeutic decision and drug distribution, including its selection, its preparation and its delivery to the patient (administration and dosage), and finally the potential side effects and their management. The dose-intensity respect is crucial, and its reduction can negatively affect overall survival rates, as shown in breast and testis cancers for example. In head and neck medical oncology, it is essential to respect the few well-standardized recommendations and the dose-intensity, in a population with numerous comorbidities. We will first review quality assurance criteria for the general medical oncology organization and then focus on head and neck medical oncology. We will then describe administration specificities of head and neck treatments (chemoradiation, radiation plus cetuximab, postoperative chemoradiation, induction and palliative chemotherapy) as well as their follow-up. Lastly, we will offer some recommendations to improve quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology.

  2. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised.

    PubMed Central

    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E

    1985-01-01

    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL). PMID:3995203

  3. The Hidden Classification in Library of Congress Subject Headings for Judaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the Library of Congress Classification for the area of Judaica. The hierarchy of LCSH is analyzed to expose the hidden classification; and tree structures are created based on Joseph Galron's compilation, "Library of Congress Subject Headings in Jewish…

  4. Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad

    PubMed Central

    Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041

  5. African Studies Thesaurus. Subject Headings for Library Users. Bibliographies and Indexes in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otchere, Freda E.

    This thesaurus identifies nearly 4,000 subject heading terms that pertain specifically to the 41 countries that make up Africa south of the Sahara. The process of identifying these terms began with a search through the "Library of Congress Subject Headings," followed by searches of other subject heading materials and bibliographic…

  6. Mapping Laborline Thesaurus Terms to Library of Congress Subject Headings: Implications for Vocabulary Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplan, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study for assessing automatic vocabulary switching from a thesaurus to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) revealed that a maximum 61%, but a more realistic 41.5%, of the terms could be switched automatically; as long as LCSH is used for subject descriptions in online catalogs, interfaces for vocabulary switching can only be partially…

  7. Abusive head trauma in Spanish language medical literature.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M Townsend; Szyld, Edgardo; Darden, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Anecdotal experiences raise concerns that abusive head trauma (AHT) is significantly underdiagnosed and perhaps poorly recognized in Latin American settings. With increasing interest in international collaboration in pediatrics, differences in perspectives regarding complex diagnoses should be explored to facilitate a productive exchange of knowledge and ideas. The purpose of this study was to describe the medical literature pertaining to AHT available to physicians who read only in Spanish. In this review, LILACS, SciELO (major Spanish language databases) and Pubmed were searched with appropriate terms and filters in English, Spanish, and Portuguese for Spanish language articles on AHT. Identified articles' reference lists were then examined for possible additional articles on AHT. All relevant articles were sorted by country and examined for article type and content. Thirty-four unique articles were located for review from 8 of 21 countries. Most of the articles identified were case reports, case series, or educational, and there were no studies regarding overall incidence or prevalence of AHT. Some scientific information contained in the articles varied considerably from that in the English language literature in the areas of etiology and preventive strategies. This survey highlights that the Spanish language literature regarding AHT is sparse and variable. This must be considered when working collaboratively in a global setting. Additionally, identification of this gap presents an opportunity for education and information exchange among global medical communities.

  8. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  9. Haemodynamic responses in young and elderly, healthy subjects during ambient and warm head-up tilt.

    PubMed

    Lye, M; Walley, T

    1998-05-01

    1. Postural hypotension is common in elderly people and is usually multifactorial in origin. In young subjects increased ambient temperature is associated with postural symptoms. We hypothesized that such increases in skin temperature due to the use of bed clothes might contribute to nocturnal postural hypotension in the elderly. We therefore studied haemodynamic responses to head-up tilt in healthy elderly and young subjects, with and without passive heating induced by covering with blankets. 2. Nine young (28.7 +/- 1.5 years; mean +/- S.E.M.) and nine elderly (71.9 +/- 1.8 years) subjects were studied. All had been carefully screened to exclude factors likely to affect responses to tilt. All subjects underwent a standard head-up tilt procedure at ambient room temperature while haemodynamic responses were monitored. The subjects were then covered in blankets for 55 min and the tilt repeated. Skin temperature before the second tilt had increased from approximately 32.5 degrees C to approximately 35.2 degrees C (P < 0.001). 3. The elderly subjects maintained higher blood pressures throughout both tilts (P < 0.001) and both groups showed similar qualitative responses to tilt. Supine heart rates were higher in the elderly group (P < 0.01) with a tendency to increase more in the young group in response to tilt, especially while warm (P = 0.370). Stroke volumes and cardiac indices were consistently higher in the young group who showed larger changes during both head-up tilts. In both groups the haemodynamic responses to ambient and warm tilt were essentially the same. 4. Healthy elderly subjects, who are carefully screened to exclude individuals with cardiovascular pathology, respond to head-up tilt in the same qualitative fashion as young subjects. Quantitative responses in older subjects are 'damped'. Short-term natural body warming does not impair the reflexes in young or old subjects.

  10. A Method for Correcting Typographical Errors in Subject Headings in OCLC Records. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Aluri, Rao

    The error-correcting algorithm described was constructed to examine subject headings in online catalog records for common errors such as omission, addition, substitution, and transposition errors, and to make needed changes. Essentially, the algorithm searches the authority file for a record whose primary key exactly matches the test key. If an…

  11. Subject searching of monographs online in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, F A

    1988-01-01

    Searching by subject for monographic information online in the medical literature is a challenging task. The NLM database of choice is CATLINE. Other NLM databases of interest are BIOTHICSLINE, CANCERLIT, HEALTH, POPLINE, and TOXLINE. Ten BRS databases are also discussed. Of these, Books in Print, Bookinfo, and OCLC are explored further. The databases are compared as to number of total records and number and percentage of monographs. Three topics were searched on CROSS to compare hits on BBIP, BOOK, and OCLC. The same searches were run on CATLINE. The parameters of time coverage and language were equalized and the resulting citations were compared and analyzed for duplication and uniqueness. With the input of CATLINE tapes into OCLC, OCLC has become the database of choice for searching by subject for medical monographs.

  12. Medication Nonadherence, "Professional Subjects," and Apparent Placebo Responders: Overlapping Challenges for Medications Development.

    PubMed

    McCann, David J; Petry, Nancy M; Bresell, Anders; Isacsson, Eva; Wilson, Ellis; Alexander, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Nonadherence is a major problem in clinical trials of new medications. To evaluate the extent of nonadherence, this study evaluated pharmacokinetic sampling from 1765 subjects receiving active therapy across 8 psychiatric trials conducted between 2001 and 2011. With nonadherence defined as greater than 50% of plasma samples below the limit of quantification for study drug, the percentage of nonadherent subjects ranged from 12.8% to 39.2%. There was a trend toward increased nonadherence in studies with greater numbers of subjects, but an association with nonadherence was not apparent for other study design parameters or subject characteristics. For 2 trials with multiple recruitment sites in geographical proximity, several subjects attempted to simultaneously enroll at separate site locations. The construct of "professional subjects," those who enroll in trials only for financial gain, is gaining attention, and we therefore modeled the impact of professional subjects on medication efficacy trials. The results indicate that enrollment of professional subjects who are destined to succeed (those who will appear to achieve treatment success regardless of study drug assignment) can substantially increase both the apparent placebo response rate and the sample size requirement for statistical power, while decreasing the observed effect size. The overlapping nature of nonadherence, professional subjects, and placebo response suggests that these issues should be considered and addressed together. Following this approach, we describe a novel clinical trial design to minimize the adverse effects of professional subjects on trial outcomes and discuss methods to monitor adherence.

  13. Development and validation of two subject-specific finite element models of human head against three cadaveric experiments.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Long Bin; Lee, Shu Jin; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    Head injury, being one of the main causes of death or permanent disability, continues to remain a major health problem with significant socioeconomic costs. Numerical simulations using the FEM offer a cost-effective method and alternative to experimental methods in the biomechanical studies of head injury. The present study aimed to develop two realistic subject-specific FEMs of the human head with detailed anatomical features from medical images (Model 1: without soft tissue and Model 2: with soft tissue and differentiation of white and gray matters) and to validate them against the intracranial pressure (ICP) and relative intracranial motion data of the three cadaver experimental tests. In general, both the simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental measured ICP and relative displacements, despite slight discrepancy in a few neutral density targets markers. Sensitivity analysis showed some variations in the brain's relative motion to the material properties or marker's location. The addition of soft tissue in Model 2 helped to damp out the oscillations of the model response. It was also found that, despite the fundamental anatomical differences between the two models, there existed little evident differences in the predicted ICP and relative displacements of the two models. This indicated that the advancements on the details of the extracranial features would not improve the model's predicting capabilities of brain injury.

  14. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture.

  15. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  16. Estimating formation properties from early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.; Oki, D.S.; Greene, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to interpret the early-time recovering water level following the termination of pumping in wells subject to turbulent head losses. The model assumes that turbulent head losses dissipate immediately when pumping ends. In wells subject to both borehole storage and turbulent head losses, the early-time recovery exhibits a slope equal to 1/2 on log-log plots of the recovery versus time. This half-slope response should not be confused with the half-slope response associated with a linear flow regime during aquifer tests. The presence of a borehole skin due to formation damage or stimulation around the pumped well alters the early-time recovery in wells subject to turbulent head losses and gives the appearance of borehole storage, where the recovery exhibits a unit slope on log-log plots of recovery versus time. Type curves can be used to estimate the formation storafivity from the early-time recovery data. In wells that are suspected of having formation damage or stimulation, the type curves can be used to estimate the 'effective' radius of the pumped well, if an estimate of the formation storativity is available from observation wells or other information. Type curves for a homogeneous and isotropic dual-porosity aquifer are developed and applied to estimate formation properties and the effect of formation stimulation from a single-well test conducted in the Madison limestone near Rapid City, South Dakota.A mathematical model is developed to interpret the early-time recovering water level following the termination of pumping in wells subject to turbulent head losses. The model assumes that turbulent head losses dissipate immediately when pumping ends. In wells subject to both borehole storage and turbulent head losses, the early-time recovery exhibits a slope equal to 1/2 on log-log plots of the recovery versus time. This half-slope response should not be confused with the half-slope response associated with a linear flow regime during

  17. PROJECT HEAD START MEDICAL--A GUIDE FOR DIRECTION OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    HEALTH SERVICES OF PROJECT HEAD START CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS PROVIDE--A MEDICAL EVALUATION OF EACH CHILD INCLUDING MEDICAL HISTORY, DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT, AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, SCREENING TESTS FOR VISION, HEARING, SPEECH, AND TUBERCULOSIS, LABORATORY TESTS OF URINE FOR ALBUMIN AND TESTS OF SUGAR AND BLOOD FOR ANEMIA, DENTAL ASSESSMENT,…

  18. Human sound localization: measurements in untrained, head-unrestrained subjects using gaze as a pointer.

    PubMed

    Populin, Luis C

    2008-09-01

    Studies of sound localization in humans have used various behavioral measures to quantify the observers' perceptions; a non-comprehensive list includes verbal reports, head pointing, gun pointing, stylus pointing, and laser aiming. Comparison of localization performance reveals that in humans, just as in animals, different results are obtained with different experimental tasks. Accordingly, to circumvent problems associated with task selection and training, this study used gaze, an ethologically valid behavior for spatial pointing in species with a specialized area of the fovea, to measure sound localization perception of human subjects. Orienting using gaze as a pointer does not require training, preserves the natural link between perception and action, and allows for direct behavioral comparisons across species. The results revealed, unexpectedly, a large degree of variability across subjects in both accuracy and precision. The magnitude of the average angular localization errors for the most eccentric horizontal targets, however, were very similar to those documented in studies that used head pointing, whereas the magnitude of the localization errors for the frontal targets were considerably larger. In addition, an overall improvement in sound localization in the context of the memory-saccade task, as well as a lack of effect of initial eye and head position on perceived sound location were documented.

  19. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  20. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-03-25

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  1. Non-Agricultural Databases and Thesauri: Retrieval of Subject Headings and Non-Controlled Terms in Relation to Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to assess the utility of non-agriculture-specific information systems, databases, and respective controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in organising and retrieving agricultural information. The purpose is to identify thesaurus-linked tree structures, controlled subject headings/terms (heading words, descriptors), and principal…

  2. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  3. Development of a high resolution voxelised head phantom for medical physics applications.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, V; Guatelli, S; Bazalova-Carter, M; Rosenfeld, A B; Schulte, R W

    2017-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms have become an important investigation tool for medical imaging and dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection. The development of computational phantoms with realistic anatomical features contribute significantly to the development of novel methods in medical physics. For many applications, it is desirable that such computational phantoms have a real-world physical counterpart in order to verify the obtained results. In this work, we report the development of a voxelised phantom, the HIGH_RES_HEAD, modelling a paediatric head based on the commercial phantom 715-HN (CIRS). HIGH_RES_HEAD is unique for its anatomical details and high spatial resolution (0.18×0.18mm(2) pixel size). The development of such a phantom was required to investigate the performance of a new proton computed tomography (pCT) system, in terms of detector technology and image reconstruction algorithms. The HIGH_RES_HEAD was used in an ad-hoc Geant4 simulation modelling the pCT system. The simulation application was previously validated with respect to experimental results. When compared to a standard spatial resolution voxelised phantom of the same paediatric head, it was shown that in pCT reconstruction studies, the use of the HIGH_RES_HEAD translates into a reduction from 2% to 0.7% of the average relative stopping power difference between experimental and simulated results thus improving the overall quality of the head phantom simulation. The HIGH_RES_HEAD can also be used for other medical physics applications such as treatment planning studies. A second version of the voxelised phantom was created that contains a prototypic base of skull tumour and surrounding organs at risk.

  4. Estimation of partial optical path length in the brain in subject-specific head models for near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kotaro; Kurihara, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional head models with the structures constructed from the MR head images of 40 volunteers were constructed to analyze light propagation in the subject-specific head models. The mean optical path length in the head and the partial optical path length in the brain at 13 fiducial points for each volunteer were estimated to evaluate the intersubject and spatial variability in the optical path lengths. Although the intersubject variability in the optical path lengths is very high, the spatial variability in the average of the mean optical path length and partial optical path length is similar to the previously reported data. The mean optical path length in the head increases, whereas the partial optical path length in the brain decreases with an increase in the depth of the brain surface. The partial optical path length is highly correlated with the depth of the brain surface in comparison to the mean optical path length in the head.

  5. Changes in prevalence of subjective fatigue during 14-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayanagi, Kaname; Natsuno, Toyoki; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Yoriko; Suzuki, Satomi; Iwase, Satoshi; Mano, Tadaaki; Yajima, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of subjective fatigue in young healthy males during 14 days of 6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) by using a multidimensional questionnaire. Forty-one subjects completed the Subjective Fatigue Scale questionnaire to assess the fatigue-related complaints and symptoms. The questionnaire is composed of three sections, with 10 items each. The sections measured drowsiness and dullness (Section 1), difficulty in concentration (Section 2), and the projection of physical disintegration (Section 3). The subjects answered simple questions between 1400 and 1700 on 6 measurement days before and during the HDBR period. The prevalence rate of low back pain was markedly high (80.5%) on the second day and more than 50% in the first half of the HDBR period, and any complaints related to either a lack of sleep or a deterioration in the quality of sleep continued until the end of the HDBR period. Our findings may be useful in developing preventive strategies against physical and mental fatigue associated with prolonged HDBR, horizontal bed rest, and microgravity environments.

  6. Critical Views of LCSH--the Library of Congress Subject Headings; A Bibliographic and Bibliometric Essay and An Analysis of Vocabulary Control in the Library of Congress List of Subject Headings (LCSH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; Kirtland, Monika

    A comprehensive guide to the literature published between World War II and 1979 which critically evaluates the Library of Congress list of Subject Headings (LCSH), this bibliography has been prepared for information personnel involved with subject authority files, thesauri, or vocabulary control. A brief bibliometric analysis of the literature…

  7. Characteristics of Cervical Position Sense in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hae-Yong; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward head posture (FHP) on proprioception by determining the cervical position-reposition error. [Subjects and Methods] A sample population was divided into two groups in accordance with the craniovertebral angle: the FHP group and the control group. We measured the craniovertebral angle, which is defined as the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The error value of the cervical position sense after cervical flexion, extension, and rotation was evaluated using the head repositioning accuracy test. [Results] There were significant differences in the error value of the joint position sense (cervical flexion, extension, and rotation) between the FHP and control groups. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between the craniovertebral angle and error value of the joint position sense. [Conclusion] FHP is associated with reduced proprioception. This result implies that the change in the muscle length caused by FHP decreases the joint position sense. Also, proprioception becomes worse as FHP becomes more severe. PMID:25435690

  8. Comparison of smooth pursuit and combined eye-head tracking in human subjects with deficient labyrinthine function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Thurston, S. E.; Sharpe, J. A.; Ranalli, P. J.; Hamid, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of deficient labyrinthine function on smooth visual tracking with the eyes and head were investigated, using ten patients with bilateral peripheral vestibular disease and ten normal controls. Active, combined eye-head tracking (EHT) was significantly better in patients than smooth pursuit with the eyes alone, whereas normal subjects pursued equally well in both cases. Compensatory eye movements during active head rotation in darkness were always less in patients than in normal subjects. These data were used to examine current hypotheses that postulate central cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during EHT. A model that proposes summation of an integral smooth pursuit command and VOR/compensatory eye movements is consistent with the findings. Observation of passive EHT (visual fixation of a head-fixed target during en bloc rotation) appears to indicate that in this mode parametric gain changes contribute to modulation of the VOR.

  9. Uneasy subjects: medical students' conflicts over the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kelly

    2014-08-01

    In this article I report on an investigation of the pharmaceutical industry's influence in medical education. Findings are based on fifty semi-structured interviews with medical students in the United States and Canada conducted between 2010 and 2013. Participant responses support the survey-based literature demonstrating that there is clear and pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in medical education. They also challenge the theory that medical students feel entitled to industry gifts and uncritically accept industry presence. I investigate how medical students who are critical of the pharmaceutical industry negotiate its presence in the course of their medical education. Findings suggest that these participants do not simply absorb industry presence, but interpret it and respond in complex ways. Participants were uncomfortable with industry influence throughout their medical training and found multifaceted ways to resist. They struggled with power relations in medical training and the prevailing notion that industry presence is a normal part of medical education. I argue that this pervasive norm of industry presence is located in neoliberal structural transformations within and outside both education and medicine. The idea that industry presence is normal and inevitable represents a challenge for students who are critical of industry.

  10. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  11. Development of a point-of-care medical device to measure head impact in contact sports.

    PubMed

    Ambekar, Dhanashree; Al-Deneh, Zakaria; Dao, Triet; Dziech, Alexander L; Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a wireless, point-of-care medical device to measure head impacts in contact or collision sports. The device is currently capable of measuring linear acceleration, time, and the duration of impact. The location of the impact can also be recorded by scaling the prototype design to multiple devices. An experimental apparatus was built to simulate head impacts and to verify the data from the device. Preliminary results show that the biomechanical measures from the device are sufficiently accurate.

  12. [The head of battlefronts medical service during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Gribovskaia, G A

    2014-05-01

    The article is dedicated to unrenowned moments of life of the outstanding organizer of the system of military healthcare general-lieutenant of medical service Arsenii Yakovlevich Barabanov (1901-1952). His outstanding organizing skills and deep knowledge in the field of military medicine revealed during the Second World War, when he was the head of medical service of 31st Army of the Western Front and 34th Army of North-Western Front and since 1942 he has helmed medical service of Donskoy, Central, 1st Belorussian Fronts. His experience in organization of collecting of PW, system medical treatment for PW acquired during the battle of Stalingrad and afterwards was used and improved during further offensive operations, especially during the final stage of the Second World War and also in organization of medical aid for prisoners of war from the Soviet Union and allied states freed from Nazi extermination camps.

  13. Differences in managerial behaviour between head nurses and medical directors in intensive care units in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pepermans, R; Mentens, C; Goedee, M; Jegers, M; van Roy, K

    2001-01-01

    We attempt to determine whether differences appear between the managerial behaviour of European intensive care head nurses on the one side and medical directors on the other. In order to come up with a managerial job and competency analysis of ICU managers, observations and interviews were performed. Additionally, focus groups consisting of ICU experts were organized. The results are discussed according to managerial behaviour taxonomies and existing competency models. There seems to be some differentiation between the two managerial positions studied. Head nurses are more involved in planning/coordinating and motivating/reinforcing activities, whereas medical directors are more involved in socializing/politicking, decision making/problem solving, interaction with others and disciplining.

  14. Gender and line size factors modulate the deviations of the subjective visual vertical induced by head tilt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The subjective visual vertical (SVV, the visual estimation of gravitational direction) is commonly considered as an indicator of the sense of orientation. The present study examined the impact of two methodological factors (the angle size of the stimulus and the participant's gender) on deviations of the SVV caused by head tilt. Forty healthy participants (20 men and 20 women) were asked to make visual vertical adjustments of a light bar with their head held vertically or roll-tilted by 30° to the left or to the right. Line angle sizes of 0.95° and 18.92° were presented. Results The SVV tended to move in the direction of head tilt in women but away from the direction of head tilt in men. Moreover, the head-tilt effect was also modulated by the stimulus' angle size. The large angle size led to deviations in the direction of head-tilt, whereas the small angle size had the opposite effect. Conclusions Our results showed that gender and line angle size have an impact on the evaluation of the SVV. These findings must be taken into account in the growing body of research that uses the SVV paradigm in disease settings. Moreover, this methodological issue may explain (at least in part) the discrepancies found in the literature on the head-tilt effect. PMID:22420467

  15. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  16. Changes in the perceived head transversal plane and the subjective visual horizontal induced by Coriolis stimulation during gondola centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2006-01-01

    For studying the influence of the vertical semicircular canals on spatial orientation in roll, the subjective visual horizontal (SVH) and the subjective transversal plane of the head (STP) were measured in a situation where the vertical canals sense a roll-velocity stimulus while the otolith organs persistently signal that the head is upright in roll. During gondola centrifugation (resultant gravitoinertial force vector 2.5 G, gondola inclination 66 degrees) subjects were exposed to controlled rotational head movements (angular speed 27 degrees/s, magnitude 40 degrees) about the yaw (body z-) axis, produced by means of a motor-driven helmet. This causes a roll-plane Coriolis stimulus to the canals, while the otoliths persistently sense upright head position in roll. The subjects reported intense sensations of rotation and tilt in the roll plane. This was reflected in tilts of both the SVH and STP. The initial tilt of the SVH was 13.0 +/- 9.7 degrees (mean +/- S.D., n=10). The STP was changed in the opposite direction. The initial tilt was 23.8 +/- 12.2 degrees (mean +/- S.D., n=5). The changes in the SVH and STP were not of equal magnitude. A few subjects who had almost no deviations in the SVH showed pronounced tilts of the STP. The time constant for exponential decay of the tilts of the SVH and STP was on average approximately 1 minute. These findings indicate that a difference in activity of the vertical canals in the right versus left ear may cause substantial tilts of the SVH even if there is no asymmetry in the activity of the otolith system. Further, the canal stimulus may induce a tilt of the fundamental egocentric frame of reference.

  17. A three-dimensional non-invasive study of head flexion and extension in young non-patient subjects.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Schmitz, J H; Tartaglia, G

    1997-05-01

    Head flexion and extension movements near the natural head position (NHP) were analysed for the location of the mean instantaneous centre of rotation (ICR). Forty-six healthy young adults (30 women and 16 men) with sound dentitions, free from cranio-cervical disorders, performed habitual movements that were automatically detected and measured by an infrared three-dimensional motion analyser. ICR and curvature radius were calculated for each movement and subject. In both extension and flexion, ICR position changed during the motion. The movement was symmetrical in all subjects. No gender or flexion/extension differences were found for both ICR position and relevant curvature radius. On average, ICR relative to NHP soft-tissue nasion was located at about 150% of the soft-tissue nasion-right tragus distance, with an angle of about 220 degrees relative to the true horizontal. Results suggest that head flexion or extension is always performed with a combination of rotation (atlanto-occipital joint) and translation (cervical spine) even in the first degrees of motion. Moreover, NHP at rest seems to be some degree more flexed and anterior than head position during movements. These relative positions and their muscular determinants could also influence mandibular posture at rest and during functional movements.

  18. The FDA's role in medical device clinical studies of human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviola, James

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) role as a regulatory agency in medical device clinical studies involving human subjects. The FDA's regulations and responsibilities are explained and the device application process discussed. The specific medical device regulatory authorities are described as they apply to the development and clinical study of retinal visual prosthetic devices. The FDA medical device regulations regarding clinical studies of human subjects are intended to safeguard the rights and safety of subjects. The data gathered in pre-approval clinical studies provide a basis of valid scientific evidence in order to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a medical device. The importance of a working understanding of applicable medical device regulations from the beginning of the device development project is emphasized particularly for novel, complex products such as implantable visual prosthetic devices.

  19. Head-down bed rest reduces the breathing rate short-term variability in subjects with orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Balocchi, R; Menicucci, D; Varanini, M; Chillemi, S; Legramante, J M; Saltini, C; Raimondi, G

    2004-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is the most serious symptom of cardiovascular deconditioning induced by microgravity. We have showed that in symptomatic subjects the baroreflex control of sinus node is affected by short term simulated microgravity. At present the influence of the respiration on the cardiovascular system in this condition is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine the behaviour of the Breathing Rate (BR) in 5 Non-Symptomatic (NS) and 3 Symptomatic (S) subjects before and after 4 hours of head-down bed rest (HD).

  20. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Primary Treatment for Elderly Patients with Medically Inoperable Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, John A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Clump, David A.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With a growing elderly population, elderly patients with head and neck cancers represent an increasing challenge with limited prospective data to guide management. The complex interplay between advanced age, associated co-morbidities, and conventional local therapies, such as surgery and external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, can significantly impact elderly patients’ quality of life (QoL). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well-established curative strategy for medical-inoperable early-stage lung cancers even in elderly populations; however, there is limited data examining SBRT as primary therapy in head and neck cancer. Material/methods: Twelve patients with medically inoperable head and neck cancer treated with SBRT ± cetuximab from 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. SBRT consisted of primarily 44 Gy in five fractions delivered on alternating days over 1–2 weeks. Concurrent cetuximab was administered at a dose of 400 mg/m2 on day −7 followed by 250 mg/m2 on day 0 and +7 in n = 3 (25%). Patient-reported quality of life (PRQoL) was prospectively recorded using the previously validated University of Washington quality of life revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Median clinical follow-up was 6 months (range: 0.5–29 months). The 1-year actuarial local progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival for definitively treated patients were 69, 100, 69, and 64%, respectively. One patient (8%) experienced acute grade 3 dysphagia and one patient (8%) experienced late grade 3 mucositis; there were no grade 4–5 toxicities. Prospective collection of PRQoL as assessed by UW-QoL-R was preserved across domains. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy shows encouraging survival and relatively low toxicity in elderly patients with unresectable head and neck cancer, which may provide an aggressive potentially curative local therapy while maintaining QoL. PMID

  2. Simulative investigation on head injuries of electric self-balancing scooter riders subject to ground impact.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shang, Shi; Qi, Hongsheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The safety performance of an electric self-balancing scooter (ESS) has recently become a main concern in preventing its further wide application as a major candidate for green transportation. Scooter riders may suffer severe brain injuries in possible vehicle crash accidents not only from contact with a windshield or bonnet but also from secondary contact with the ground. In this paper, virtual vehicle-ESS crash scenarios combined with finite element (FE) car models and multi-body scooter/human models are set up. Post-impact kinematic gestures of scooter riders under various contact conditions, such as different vehicle impact speeds, ESS moving speeds, impact angles or positions, and different human sizes, are classified and analyzed. Furthermore, head-ground impact processes are reconstructed using validated FE head models, and important parameters of contusion and laceration (e.g., coup or contrecoup pressures and Von Mises stress and the maximum shear stress) are extracted and analyzed to assess the severity of regional contusion from head-ground contact. Results show that the brain injury risk increases with vehicle speeds and ESS moving speeds and may provide fundamental knowledge to popularize the use of a helmet and the vehicle-fitted safety systems, and lay a strong foundation for the reconstruction of ESS-involved accidents. There is scope to improve safety for the use of ESS in public roads according to the analysis and conclusions.

  3. Relationship between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenses in community-dwelling elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Eriko; Moriya, Shingo; Murata, Ayumi; Muramatsu, Masumi; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Notani, Kenji; Inoue, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increasing medical expenses of elderly persons in Japan’s rapidly ageing society have become a major concern. It is therefore important to elucidate the factors associated with such escalation. Here, we focused on the relationship between subjective self-assessment of oral health, as an index of general health, and medical expenses (excluding dental repair) under the hypothesis that oral health contributes to general medical expenses. Several studies have shown that oral health status is correlated with general health status among elderly persons. We speculated that oral health status might show a relation with medical costs among elderly persons. However, few studies have investigated this relationship to date. Materials and Methods Participants were 259 elderly subjects (range: 65–84 years; 120 men, 139 women) residing independently. Subjective assessment of oral health was evaluated by their responses (‘Good’, ‘Not good’ and ‘Not at all good’) on a survey questionnaire. The correlation between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenditure was analysed using Spearman’s rank method, the Mann–Whitney U-test and the Kruskal–Wallis test. Medical expenses were used as the dependent variable in multinomial logistic regression analysis with background and intraoral factors as independent variables. Results A slight yet statistically significant correlation was observed between subjective assessment of oral health and outpatient treatment fees. Conclusion The findings revealed that subjective assessment of oral health is significantly and independently related to the medical expenses of community-dwelling elderly persons after adjusting for social background, living environment and physical factors. PMID:21306431

  4. Medication Adherence Interventions That Target Subjects with Adherence Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cooper, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate medication adherence is a pervasive, under-recognized cause of poor health outcomes. Many intervention trials designed to improve medication adherence have targeted adults with adherence problems. No previous reviews have synthesized the effectiveness of medication adherence interventions focused on subjects with medication adherence difficulties. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized findings from medication adherence intervention studies conducted among adults with medication adherence difficulties. Methods Primary research studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested an intervention designed to increase medication adherence among adults with documented adherence difficulties and reported medication adherence behavior outcomes. Comprehensive search strategies of 13 computerized databases, author and ancestry searches, and hand searches of 57 journals were used to locate eligible primary research. Participant demographics, intervention characteristics, and methodological features were reliably coded from reports along with medication adherence outcomes. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated as standardized mean differences, and random effects models were used to estimate overall mean effects. Exploratory dichotomous and continuous variable moderator analyses were employed to examine potential associations between medication adherence effect size and sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Results Data were extracted from 53 reports of studies involving 8,243 individual primary study participants. The overall standardized mean difference effect size for treatment vs. control subjects was 0.301. For treatment pre- vs. post-intervention comparisons, the overall effect size was 0.533. Significantly larger effect sizes were associated with interventions incorporating prompts to take medications than interventions lacking medication prompts (0.497 vs. 0.234). Larger effect sizes were also found

  5. The Intra- and Inter-rater Reliabilities of the Forward Head Posture Assessment of Normal Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seok Hyun; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Na Kyung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Assessment of posture is an important goal of physical therapy interventions for preventing the progression of forward head posture (FHP). The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the assessment of FHP. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 45 participants (20 male subjects, 25 female subjects) from a university student population. Two physical therapists assessed FHP using images of head extension. FHP is characterized by the measurement of angles and distances between anatomical landmarks. Forward shoulder angle of 54° or less was defined as FHP. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated using Kendall’s Taub correlation coefficients. [Results] Intra-class correlation of intra-rater measurements indicated an excellent level of reliability (0.91), and intra-class correlation of inter-rater measurements showed a good level of reliability in the assessment of FHP (0.75). [Conclusion] Assessment of FHP is an important component of evaluation and affects the design of the treatment regimen. The assessment of FHP was reliably measured by two physical therapists. It could therefore become a useful method for assessing FHP in the clinical setting. Future studies will be needed to provide more detailed quantitative data for accurate assessment of posture. PMID:24259842

  6. The Intra- and Inter-rater Reliabilities of the Forward Head Posture Assessment of Normal Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seok Hyun; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Na Kyung

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] Assessment of posture is an important goal of physical therapy interventions for preventing the progression of forward head posture (FHP). The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the assessment of FHP. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 45 participants (20 male subjects, 25 female subjects) from a university student population. Two physical therapists assessed FHP using images of head extension. FHP is characterized by the measurement of angles and distances between anatomical landmarks. Forward shoulder angle of 54° or less was defined as FHP. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated using Kendall's Taub correlation coefficients. [Results] Intra-class correlation of intra-rater measurements indicated an excellent level of reliability (0.91), and intra-class correlation of inter-rater measurements showed a good level of reliability in the assessment of FHP (0.75). [Conclusion] Assessment of FHP is an important component of evaluation and affects the design of the treatment regimen. The assessment of FHP was reliably measured by two physical therapists. It could therefore become a useful method for assessing FHP in the clinical setting. Future studies will be needed to provide more detailed quantitative data for accurate assessment of posture.

  7. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  8. Reconstruction of the biomechanical transfer path of femoral head necrosis: a subject-specific finite element investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Quan; Pang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Qin-Qun; He, Wei; Chen, Zhen-Qiu; Chen, Lei-Lei; Li, Zi-Qi

    2014-09-01

    According to Wolff׳s law, the structure and function of bone are interdependent. The disruption of trabeculae in the necrotic femoral head destroys the biomechanical transfer path, increasing the risk of a collapse in the cortical bone. Hence, biomaterials are needed to promote osteogenesis to aid in the reconstruction of a similar biomechanical transfer path that can provide structural and biomechanical support to prevent and delay bone deterioration. Fibular allograft combined with impaction bone grafting (FAIBG) is a hip preservation method that provides both biological repair materials and biomechanical support. This method has been used successfully in the clinical setting, but it still lacks biomechanical insight. In this paper, we aim to provide a biomechanical basis for treatment using FAIBG, we used subject-specific finite element (FE) methods to analyse the biomechanical transfer characteristics of hip models: physiological, pathological and postoperative. The physiological model provided insight into the biomechanical transfer characteristics of the proximal femur. The pathological model showed an abnormal stress distribution that destroyed stress transfer capability. The postoperative model showed that FAIBG can reconstruct the biomechanical transfer path of the femoral head and reduce the risk of a collapse in the cortical bone. In conclusion, FAIBG seems to treat necrosis of the femoral head.

  9. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  10. Timing Bias in the Psychiatry Subject Examination of the National Board of Medical Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Myrl; Heiss, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate whether the timing of the psychiatry clerkship influences scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject exam as has been reported for other clerkships. The authors attempt to identify which clerkships, if any, offer an advantage when taken before psychiatry. Methods: Mean aggregate exam scores…

  11. Head roll dependent variability of subjective visual vertical and ocular counterroll.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Bockisch, Christopher J; Straumann, Dominik

    2009-06-01

    We compared the variability of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and static ocular counterroll (OCR), and hypothesized a correlation between the measurements because of their shared macular input. SVV and OCR were measured simultaneously in various whole-body roll positions [upright, 45 degrees right-ear down (RED), and 75 degrees RED] in six subjects. Gains of OCR were -0.18 (45 degrees RED) and -0.12 (75 degrees RED), whereas gains of compensation for body roll in the SVV task were -1.11 (45 degrees RED) and -0.96 (75 degrees RED). Normalized SVV and OCR variabilities were not significantly different (P > 0.05), i.e., both increased with increasing roll. Moreover, a significant correlation (R(2) = 0.80, slope = 0.29) between SVV and OCR variabilities was found. Whereas the gain of OCR is different from the gain of SVV, trial-to-trial variability of OCR follows the same roll-dependent modulation observed in SVV variability. We propose that the similarities in variability reflect a common otolith input, which, however, is subject to distinct central processing for determining the gain of SVV and OCR.

  12. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for indexing and retrieving open-source healthcare data.

    PubMed

    Marc, David T; Khairat, Saif S

    2014-01-01

    The US federal government initiated the Open Government Directive where federal agencies are required to publish high value datasets so that they are available to the public. Data.gov and the community site Healthdata.gov were initiated to disperse such datasets. However, data searches and retrieval for these sites are keyword driven and severely limited in performance. The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of extracting relevant open-source data by proposing a method of adopting the MeSH framework for indexing and data retrieval. A pilot study was conducted to compare the performance of traditional keywords to MeSH terms for retrieving relevant open-source datasets related to "mortality". The MeSH framework resulted in greater sensitivity with comparable specificity to the keyword search. MeSH showed promise as a method for indexing and retrieving data, yet future research should conduct a larger scale evaluation of the performance of the MeSH framework for retrieving relevant open-source healthcare datasets.

  13. Medical subject heading (MeSH) annotations illuminate maize genetics and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the modern era, high-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing,coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or pr...

  14. Medical Subspecialty Textbooks in the 21st Century. Essential or Headed for Extinction?

    PubMed

    Broaddus, V Courtney; Grippi, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the role of medical subspecialty textbooks as sources of information for students, trainees, and practicing clinicians has been challenged. Although the structure of textbooks continues to evolve from standard, printed versions to digital formats, including e-books and online texts, we maintain that the authoritative compilation of clinical and scientific material by experts in the field (i.e., a modern-day textbook) remains central to the education, training, and practice of subspecialists. Regardless of format, an effective medical subspecialty textbook is authoritative, comprehensive, and integrated in its coverage of the subject. Textbook content represents a unique synthesis of clinical and scientific material of real educational and clinical value. Incorporation of illustrations, including figures, tables, videos, and audios, bolsters the presentation and further solidifies the reader's understanding of the subject. The textbook, both printed and digital, reinforces the many widely available online resources and serves as a platform from which to evaluate other sources of information and to launch additional scientific and clinical inquiry.

  15. Applying double magnetic induction to measure two-dimensional head-unrestrained gaze shifts in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bremen, Peter; Van der Willigen, Robert F; Van Opstal, A John

    2007-12-01

    This study compares the performance of a newly developed gaze (eye-in-space) measurement technique based on double magnetic induction (DMI) by a custom-made gold-plated copper ring on the eye with the classical scleral search coil (SSC) technique to record two-dimensional (2D) head-unrestrained gaze shifts. We tested both systems simultaneously during head-free saccades toward light-emitting diodes (LEDs) within the entire oculomotor range (+/-35 deg). The absence of irritating lead wires in the case of the DMI method leads to a higher guarantee of success (no coil breakage) and to less irritation on the subject's eye, which results in a longer and more comfortable measurement time. Correlations between DMI and SSC signals for horizontal and vertical eye position, velocity, and acceleration were close to 1.0. The difference between the SSC signal and the DMI signal remains within a few degrees. In our current setup the resolution was about 0.3 deg for the DMI method versus 0.2 deg for the SSC technique. The DMI method is an especially good alternative in the case of patient and laboratory animal gaze control studies where breakage of the SSC lead wires is particularly cumbersome.

  16. Subjective Evaluation of a Semi-Automatic Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display Calibration Technique.

    PubMed

    Moser, Kenneth; Itoh, Yuta; Oshima, Kohei; Swan, J Edward; Klinker, Gudrun; Sandor, Christian

    2015-04-01

    With the growing availability of optical see-through (OST) head-mounted displays (HMDs) there is a present need for robust, uncomplicated, and automatic calibration methods suited for non-expert users. This work presents the results of a user study which both objectively and subjectively examines registration accuracy produced by three OST HMD calibration methods: (1) SPAAM, (2) Degraded SPAAM, and (3) Recycled INDICA, a recently developed semi-automatic calibration method. Accuracy metrics used for evaluation include subject provided quality values and error between perceived and absolute registration coordinates. Our results show all three calibration methods produce very accurate registration in the horizontal direction but caused subjects to perceive the distance of virtual objects to be closer than intended. Surprisingly, the semi-automatic calibration method produced more accurate registration vertically and in perceived object distance overall. User assessed quality values were also the highest for Recycled INDICA, particularly when objects were shown at distance. The results of this study confirm that Recycled INDICA is capable of producing equal or superior on-screen registration compared to common OST HMD calibration methods. We also identify a potential hazard in using reprojection error as a quantitative analysis technique to predict registration accuracy. We conclude with discussing the further need for examining INDICA calibration in binocular HMD systems, and the present possibility for creation of a closed-loop continuous calibration method for OST Augmented Reality.

  17. Analysis of Retinal Vascular Branching in Human Subjects Undergoing 70-Day Head-Down Tilt by NASAs VESGEN Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vu, Amanda C.; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Rob; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment were discovered recently in astronauts following spaceflight, especially after long-duration missions. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal vasculature that precede visual and other ocular impairments. We therefore are analyzing retinal vessels in healthy subjects before and after head-down tilt (HDT), a ground-based microgravity analog with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software. Methods. Spectralis® infrared (IR) fundus images were collected from both eyes of 6 subjects before and after 70 days of bed rest at 6 degree HDT (NASA Campaign 11). For our retrospective study, branching patterns in arterial and venous trees are mapped by VESGEN into vessel branching generations (Gx) that are quantified by parameters such as densities of vessel length (Lv), area (Av), number (Nv) and fractal dimension (Df) as described previously for diabetic retinopathy (IOVS 51(1):498). Results are further assigned by VESGEN into groups of large (G1-3), medium (G4-6) and small (G=7) vessels. Results. All subjects remained asymptomatic throughout duration of HDT. To date, we have analyzed one IR image from each of the 12 eyes. Interestingly, two groups of the masked study population identified by VESGEN are distinguished by the presence or absence of small veins (G=7). For example, L=7 and Av=7 are 2.7+/-1.3 E-4 px/px2 and 7.2+/-3.6 E-4 px2/px2 in 6 retinas, but 0 in the other 6 retinas. Nonetheless, the space-filling properties of the entire venous trees were remarkably uniform by all parameters, such as Df = 1.56+/-0.02 for 6 retinas with G=7 and 1.55+/-0.02 for retinas without G=7. No small arteries (G=7) were detected. Conclusions. For our preliminary masked analysis, two groups of venous trees with and without small veins (G=7) were clearly revealed by VESGEN. Upon completing all images and unmasking the subject status of before and after HDT, we will determine

  18. Twenty-first Century ethics of medical research involving human subjects: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Raj, Dominic S C; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    The field of ethics in medical research has seen important developments in the last three decades, but it also faces great challenges in the new century. The purposes of this report are to examine the current status of ethics of medical research involving human subjects and the nature of the ethical challenges facing this research, to identify the weakness of the current system of safeguards for ethical research, and to stress the importance of the ethical character of the researcher, which is the safeguard that has the greatest potential for protecting the research subjects. Researchers appreciate the risks of human medical research that create ethical dilemmas and the need for an ethical compromise in order to proceed with the research. The main elements of the compromise, formulated primarily from experiences in the Second World War, include: (1) the dominant position of the ethical principle of autonomy; (2) the demand for a signed informed consent; (3) the likelihood of improving health with the research protocol, which must be approved by a duly appointed supervising committee; and (4) an acceptable risk/benefit ratio. The main weakness of this set of safeguards is the difficulty with obtaining a truly informed consent. The new challenges to ethical medical research stem from certain types of research, such as genetic and stem cell research, and from the increasing involvement of the industry in planning and funding the research studies. Developing medical researchers with an ethical character and knowledge about ethics in medicine may be the most effective safeguard in protecting participants of medical research experiments.

  19. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Barbara C.; Cantor, Louis B.; WuDunn, Darrell; Hoop, Joni; Lipyanik, Jennifer; Patella, Vincent Michael; Budenz, Donald L.; Greenfield, David S.; Savell, Jonathan; Schuman, Joel S.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study optic nerve head (ONH) topography parameters measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal subjects and to analyze ONH data for differences in relation to disc size, ethnicity, and age. Methods Three hundred sixty-seven normal subjects underwent Stratus optical coherence tomography ONH measurement using the fast optic disc scan protocol software package 3.0. Only ONH scans meeting specific qualification criteria were included for data analysis ensuring appropriate scan quality and reliability. ONH topographic parameters of qualified scans were analyzed for differences in regards to optic disc size, age, and ethnicity. Results Two hundred and twelve qualified ONH scans were included for data analysis. Mean disc area was 2.27±0.41 mm2 and optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width increased with disc size, whereas vertical integrated rim area did not. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, and rim area decreased and cup area increased with age. Mean optic disc area was larger in African-Americans as compared with Hispanics or Whites and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions Optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width correlated to disc size. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, rim area, and cup area, changed with age. African-American optic discs had larger disc area measurements as compared with Whites optic discs and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:19855299

  20. Amide proton transfer-weighted imaging of the head and neck at 3 T: a feasibility study on healthy human subjects and patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Chen, Shuzhong; King, Ann D; Zhou, Jinyuan; Bhatia, Kunwar S; Zhang, Qinwei; Yeung, David Ka Wei; Wei, Juan; Mok, Greta Seng Peng; Wang, Yi-Xiang

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and repeatability of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MRI for the head and neck on clinical MRI scanners. Six healthy volunteers and four patients with head and neck tumors underwent APTw MRI scanning at 3 T. The APTw signal was quantified by the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.5 ppm. Z spectra of normal tissues in the head and neck (masseter muscle, parotid glands, submandibular glands and thyroid glands) were analyzed in healthy volunteers. Inter-scan repeatability of APTw MRI was evaluated in six healthy volunteers. Z spectra of patients with head and neck tumors were produced and APTw signals in these tumors were analyzed. APTw MRI scanning was successful for all 10 subjects. The parotid glands showed the highest APTw signal (~7.6% average), whereas the APTw signals in other tissues were relatively moderate. The repeatability of APTw signals from the masseter muscle, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid gland of healthy volunteers was established. Four head and neck tumors showed positive mean APTw ranging from 1.2% to 3.2%, distinguishable from surrounding normal tissues. APTw MRI was feasible for use in the head and neck regions at 3 T. The preliminary results on patients with head and neck tumors indicated the potential of APTw MRI for clinical applications.

  1. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  2. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  3. PubMed vs. HighWire Press: a head-to-head comparison of two medical literature search engines.

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Barnes, Michael A; Zimmerman, Janet; Shoichet, Sandor

    2007-09-01

    PubMed and HighWire Press are both useful medical literature search engines available for free to anyone on the internet. We measured retrieval accuracy, number of results generated, retrieval speed, features and search tools on HighWire Press and PubMed using the quick search features of each. We found that using HighWire Press resulted in a higher likelihood of retrieving the desired article and higher number of search results than the same search on PubMed. PubMed was faster than HighWire Press in delivering search results regardless of search settings. There are considerable differences in search features between these two search engines.

  4. Neutron activation processes simulation in an Elekta medical linear accelerator head.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo estimation of the giant-dipole-resonance (GRN) photoneutrons inside the Elekta Precise LINAC head (emitting a 15 MV photon beam) were performed using the MCNP6 (general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, version 6). Each component of LINAC head geometry and materials were modelled in detail using the given manufacturer information. Primary photons generate photoneutrons and its transport across the treatment head was simulated, including the (n, γ) reactions which undergo activation products. The MCNP6 was used to develop a method for quantifying the activation of accelerator components. The approach described in this paper is useful in quantifying the origin and the amount of nuclear activation.

  5. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  6. Medical Monitoring during Short Radius Centrifugation in Bed-rested Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinertson, Randal; Nelson, Victor; Aunon, Serena; Schlegel, Todd; Paloski, William

    2007-01-01

    The artificial gravity pilot project was designed to investigate the efficacy of daily exposure to a Gz acceleration gradient for counteracting the physiologic decrements induced by prolonged bed rest. A short radius centrifuge was used to produce a Gz gradient such that 1 g was applied at the level of the subject s heart and 2.5 g at the feet. For inclusion in the study, subjects were required to complete a 75-minute screening spin on the centrifuge. During the study, each active treatment subject was scheduled for a 60-minute spin each day for 20 consecutive days. During centrifugation, subjects were continuously monitored by a physician for signs and symptoms of pre-syncope, motion sickness, arrhythmias, joint/muscle pain and any other unanticipated problems. The physician was also present to provide emergency care in the case of a medical emergency. Cameras mounted on the centrifuge were used to provide a means of observing the subject s face and torso. Audio communication was continuously maintained. Other monitoring tools included two-lead EKG tracings, pulse oximetry, intermittent sphygmomanometer readings, lights in the peripheral visual field, and continuous blood pressure readout from a tonometry device. Thirty screening runs were attempted using twenty-seven subjects. Seven of these runs were terminated early for symptoms of pre-syncope, motion sickness, or GI distress. A total of eight subjects completed the active treatment arm of the study. Of the 160 centrifuge runs that were scheduled for these eight treatment subjects, 152 were completed, seven were terminated early, and one was not attempted. Of the seven early terminations, four were related to symptoms of pre-syncope, one to leg pain, one to GI discomfort, and one to equipment failure. Three terminations for adverse symptoms occurred on the first treatment day. Three terminations occurred on day nineteen of treatment and within 24 hours after scheduled soleus and quadriceps muscle biopsies. We

  7. Effects of head-up tilting on baroreceptor control in subjects with different tolerances to orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Cooper, V L; Hainsworth, R

    2002-09-01

    During orthostatic stress, an increase in peripheral vascular resistance normally results in arterial blood pressure being well maintained, despite a decrease in cardiac output. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor reflex was increased during orthostatic stress and whether failure to develop this increase was associated with poor orthostatic tolerance. Three groups of subjects were studied: asymptomatic controls; patients investigated for suspected posturally related syncope but who had normal responses to an orthostatic stress test (normal patients); and patients who were shown to have low orthostatic tolerance (early fainters). We determined responses of R-R interval and forearm vascular resistance (mean arterial pressure/brachial artery velocity by Doppler ultrasonography) to the loading and unloading of carotid baroreceptors by application of pressures of -30 and +30 mmHg to a chamber fitted over the neck. Responses were determined after 20 min of supine rest and after 10 min of head-up tilt at 60 degrees. Responses of cardiac interval were not significantly different between the three groups, and they were not altered by the postural change. Vascular responses also did not differ between the groups during supine rest. However, in healthy volunteers and in normal patients, responses to both neck suction and pressure were significantly enhanced during head-up tilt. In controls, responses to suction were increased by tilt from 0.04+/-0.1 to -1.01+/-0.2%.mmHg(-1) (means+/-S.E.M.; P<0.001) and those to neck pressure from -0.6+/-0.3 to -3.1+/-1.1%.mmHg(-1) (P<0.05). In the normal patients, the corresponding changes were: during suction, from -0.2+/-0.1 to -0.7+/-0.1%.mmHg(-1) (P<0.05); during pressure, from -0.7+/-0.1 to -1.5+/-0.3%.mmHg(-1) (P<0.05). In contrast, in patients with low orthostatic tolerance, posture had no effect on the reflex (neck suction, from -0.3+/-0.1 to -0.3+/-0.1%.mmHg(-1); neck

  8. Subjective quality and depth assessment in stereoscopic viewing of volume-rendered medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousson, Johanna; Couturou, Jeanne; Vetsuypens, Arnout; Platisa, Ljiljana; Kumcu, Asli; Kimpe, Tom; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    No study to-date explored the relationship between perceived image quality (IQ) and perceived depth (DP) in stereoscopic medical images. However, this is crucial to design objective quality metrics suitable for stereoscopic medical images. This study examined this relationship using volume-rendered stereoscopic medical images for both dual- and single-view distortions. The reference image was modified to simulate common alterations occurring during the image acquisition stage or at the display side: added white Gaussian noise, Gaussian filtering, changes in luminance, brightness and contrast. We followed a double stimulus five-point quality scale methodology to conduct subjective tests with eight non-expert human observers. The results suggested that DP was very robust to luminance, contrast and brightness alterations and insensitive to noise distortions until standard deviation σ=20 and crosstalk rates of 7%. In contrast, IQ seemed sensitive to all distortions. Finally, for both DP and IQ, the Friedman test indicated that the quality scores for dual-view distortions were significantly worse than scores for single-view distortions for multiple blur levels and crosstalk impairments. No differences were found for most levels of brightness, contrast and noise distortions. So, DP and IQ didn't react equivalently to identical impairments, and both depended whether dual- or single-view distortions were applied.

  9. 45 CFR 1307.3 - Basis for determining whether a Head Start agency will be subject to an open competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Align with the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework, State early learning... Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM POLICIES AND PROCEDURES...

  10. 45 CFR 1307.3 - Basis for determining whether a Head Start agency will be subject to an open competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Align with the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework, State early learning... Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM POLICIES AND PROCEDURES...

  11. 45 CFR 1307.3 - Basis for determining whether a Head Start agency will be subject to an open competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Align with the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework, State early learning... Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM POLICIES AND PROCEDURES...

  12. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities.

  13. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities. PMID:28265137

  14. Effect of space flight and head-down bedrest on neuroendocrine response to metabolic stress in physically trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Kvetnanský, R; Ksinantová, L; Koska, J; Noskov, V B; Vigas, M; Grigoriev, A I; Macho, L

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to insulin induced hypoglycemia (ITT) 3 weeks before the space flight (SF), on the 5th day of SF, on the 2nd and 16th days after the landing in the first Slovak astronaut, and before and on the 5th day of prolonged subsequent head-down (-6 degrees) bed rest (BR) in 15 military aircraft pilots. Blood samples during the test were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Insulin hypoglycemia was induced by i.v. administration of 0.1 IU/kg BW insulin (Actrapid HM) in bolus. Insulin administration led to a comparable hypoglycemia in pre-flight, in-flight conditions and before and after bed rest. ITT led to a pronounced increase in EPI levels and moderate increase in NE in pre-flight studies. However, an evidently reduced EPI response was found after insulin administration during SF and during BR. Thus, during the real microgravity in SF and simulated microgravity in BR, insulin-induced hypoglycemia activates the adrenomedullary system to less extent than at conditions of the Earth gravitation. Post-flight changes in EPI and NE levels did not significantly differ from those of pre-flight since SF was relatively short (8 days) and the readaptation to Earth gravitation was fast. It seems, that an increased blood flow in brain might be responsible for the reduced EPI response to insulin. Responses to ITT in physically fit subjects indicate the stimulus specificity of deconditioning effect of 5 days bed rest on stress response. Thus, the data indicate that catecholamine responses to ITT are reduced after exposure to real as well as simulated microgravity.

  15. Grading Medical Students in a Psychiatry Clerkship: Correlation with the NBME Subject Examination Scores and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: The author analyzed and compared various assessment methods for assessment of medical students; these methods included clinical assessment and the standardized National Board of Medical Education (NBME) subject examination. Method: Students were evaluated on their 6-week clerkship in psychiatry by both their clinical…

  16. It's All in Your Head: Feminist and Medical Models of Menopause (Strange Bedfellows).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Judith

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the medical model of menopause as it exists in contemporary gynecological textbooks and some popular books written by gynecologists for the general public. The feminist position on menopause is then compared and contrasted with the medical model. (Author/EB)

  17. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gai-yun; Al-wesabi, Samer abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study. Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis’ RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters. No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = −0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively). MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH

  18. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  19. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of head and neck anatomy to medical students.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Sorenson, Edward P; Sharma, Amit; Benninger, Brion; Norton, Neil; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-04-01

    The study of human anatomy has traditionally served as a fundamental component in the basic science education of medical students, yet there exists a remarkable lack of firm guidance on essential features that must be included in a gross anatomy course, which would constitute a "Core Syllabus" of absolutely mandatory structures and related clinical pathologies. While universal agreement on the details of a core syllabus is elusive, there is a general consensus that a core syllabus aims to identify the minimum level of knowledge expected of recently qualified medical graduates in order to carry out clinical procedures safely and effectively, while avoiding overloading students with unnecessary facts that have less immediate application to their future careers as clinicians. This paper aims to identify consensus standards of essential features of Head and Neck anatomy via a Delphi Panel consisting of anatomists and clinicians who evaluated syllabus content structures (greater than 1,000) as "essential", "important", "acceptable", or "not required." The goal is to provide guidance for program/course directors who intend to provide the optimal balance between establishing a comprehensive list of clinically relevant essential structures and an overwhelming litany, which would otherwise overburden trainees in their initial years of medical school with superficial rote learning, which potentially dilutes the key and enduring fundamental lessons that prepare students for training in any medical field.

  20. [Medicalization of life at the GP level: Where are we headed to?].

    PubMed

    Cerecedo Pérez, M Jesús; Tovar Bobo, Margarita; Rozadilla Arias, Aurora

    2013-12-01

    The power of medicine has lately enhanced the idea of medicalizing any aspects of life that can be perceived as medical problems. Medicine sometimes creates false needs and there is nowadays an increasing number of situations are medicalized with the pretext of treating fake diseases such as spring fatigue, shyness o natural biological processes like menopause. Despite the better life conditions, we now attend more people that complain about discomfort that may have more to do with «feeling sick» than with authentic disease. There is an endless list: sadness, hyperactive children, anorexia, bulimia, vigorexia or problematic teenagers, amongst others. In this article we revise some interventions that, contribute to promote these situations also from the own doctor's office. Everyday adversity acquires today the status of disease, hence the remarkable increase in these consultations in the diverse sanitary services.

  1. Compensation for subjects of medical research: the moral rights of patients and the power of research ethics committees.

    PubMed Central

    Guest, S

    1997-01-01

    Awareness of the morally significant distinction between research and innovative therapy reveals serious gaps in the legal provision for compensation in the UK for injured subjects of medical research. Major problems are limitations inherent in negligence actions and a culture that emphasises indemnifying researchers before compensating victims. Medical research morally requires compensation on a no-fault basis even where there is proper consent on the part of the research subject. In particular, for drug research, there is insufficient provision in the current patient guidelines of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, since they make "no legal commitment" to paying compensation for injury to patient subjects. There is a need for the provision of both adequate insurance and contractual arrangements for making payments. The solution is for Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) to make use of their power to withhold approval of medical research where compensation is not legally enforceable. PMID:9220333

  2. Correlations between posturographic findings and symptoms in subjects with fractures of the condylar head of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Faralli, Mario M; Calenti, Claudio C; Ibba, Maria Cristina M; Ricci, Gianpietro G; Frenguelli, Antonio A

    2009-04-01

    Our study examined the posture of 15 patients who had sustained a simple unilateral or bilateral fracture of the condylar head of the mandible as a result of sports or traffic accidents. Following preliminary testing of vestibular function, the patients underwent balance testing: Romberg test with eyes closed (EC), Romberg EC and bite test (ECBT), EC and head retroflexed (ECR). The study parameters were: surface (S) of the statokinesigram, stomatognathic influence index related to S (SSI), and postural oscillations on the frontal plane (X). In keeping with the literature, we felt that the following pattern in static balance suggested a posture destabilised by the stomatognathic system: SSI values of less than 60, reduction of S in the transition from EC to ECR, pathological increase of postural oscillations on the X plane. The study was completed by obtaining a list of new symptoms reported by the patients (altered bite, fullness, tinnitus, pain, loss of balance). The most significant patterns were observed in patients with vestibular dysfunctions and neck pain. It seems that a fracture of the condylar head can affect postural behaviour, although proprioceptive changes alone are not enough to cause true loss of balance and there must be concomitant vestibular dysfunction. The stabilometric pattern is not conditioned by the extent of the trauma or the related treatment. In terms of proprioceptive elements, the presence of muscle pain seems to point to cervical muscle tension as the main culprit in the onset of posttraumatic instability.

  3. An Unwilling Partnership With the Great Society Part I: Head Start and the Beginning of Change in the White Medical Community.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2016-07-01

    By 1965, the policies and programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society brought optimism to black physicians and a new wave of resistance against black civil rights advocates in the American South. The largest of the first Head Start programs, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), had its roots in Freedom Summer 1964 and the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Like other proposed programs with strong medical components, CDGM was caught in a legislative Bermuda triangle created by the powerful Mississippi congressional delegation to maintain white supremacy and plantation economics. Physician-led investigations exposed the extraordinary level of poor health among Mississippi's black children, supported Head Start as a remedy, and awakened the white medical establishment to health disparities of the Jim Crow period. It was also the beginning of positive change in the previously silent white medical community in the South and their support of civil justice in health.

  4. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, George; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Alexander, Mathew; Thomas, Maya; Aaron, Sanjith; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months) and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI), and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007) and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05). BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm2) when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm2). Majority of the patients (61%) had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) between cases (n = 32) and controls (n = 37) (P = 0.234). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients. PMID:25221394

  5. Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.

    PubMed

    Kulynych, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research.

  6. Usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Test in Psychiatry by U.S. and Canadian Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Rosenthal, Renathe H.; Clegg, Kathleen A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors explored psychiatry clerkship usage of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Subject Test. METHODS: U.S. and Canadian psychiatry clerkship directors (N=150) were sent an 18-item questionnaire surveying evaluation and remediation practices. RESULTS: Of 111 questionnaires (74%) returned, 76 (69%) reported using the…

  7. Analysis of recorded biomedical book and journal use in the Yale Medical Library. I. Date and subject relations.

    PubMed

    Stangl, P; Kilgour, F G

    1967-07-01

    Analysis of book and journal circulation is based on cancelled charge slips collected over a one-year period in the Yale Medical Library. About two-fifths of material circulated were monographs. Books and journals in seven subject fields provided over half of the circulation. Approximately two-thirds of both books and journals used had been published during the most recent nine years. A subject-by-subject examination of the ratio of books to journals circulating revealed that, in subjects where proportionally more journals than books were taken out of the Library, books were of more recent imprint dates than were journals, contrary to the overall pattern. Date distribution of books and journals by subject was also studied. Results are illustrated with graphs and tables.

  8. Creating a mobile subject guide to improve access to point-of-care resources for medical students: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Boruff, Jill T; Bilodeau, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Question: Can a mobile optimized subject guide facilitate medical student access to mobile point-of-care tools? Setting: The guide was created at a library at a research-intensive university with six teaching hospital sites. Objectives: The team created a guide facilitating medical student access to point-of-care tools directly on mobile devices to provide information allowing them to access and set up resources with little assistance. Methods: Two librarians designed a mobile optimized subject guide for medicine and conducted a survey to test its usefulness. Results: Web analytics and survey results demonstrate that the guide is used and the students are satisfied. Conclusion: The library will continue to use the subject guide as its primary means of supporting mobile devices. It remains to be seen if the mobile guide facilitates access for those who do not need assistance and want direct access to the resources. Internet access in the hospitals remains an issue. PMID:22272160

  9. Parametric analysis of the biomechanical response of head subjected to the primary blast loading--a data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Kalra, Anil; Saif, Tal; Yang, Zaihan; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury due to primary blast loading has become a signature injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist activities. Extensive experimental and computational investigations have been conducted to study the interrelationships between intracranial pressure response and intrinsic or 'input' parameters such as the head geometry and loading conditions. However, these relationships are very complicated and are usually implicit and 'hidden' in a large amount of simulation/test data. In this study, a data mining method is proposed to explore such underlying information from the numerical simulation results. The heads of different species are described as a highly simplified two-part (skull and brain) finite element model with varying geometric parameters. The parameters considered include peak incident pressure, skull thickness, brain radius and snout length. Their interrelationship and coupling effect are discovered by developing a decision tree based on the large simulation data-set. The results show that the proposed data-driven method is superior to the conventional linear regression method and is comparable to the nonlinear regression method. Considering its capability of exploring implicit information and the relatively simple relationships between response and input variables, the data mining method is considered to be a good tool for an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of blast-induced brain injury. As a general method, this approach can also be applied to other nonlinear complex biomechanical systems.

  10. 78 FR 12664 - Human Subject Protection; Acceptance of Data From Clinical Studies for Medical Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 807, 812, and 814 RIN 0910-AG48 Human Subject... ensure the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these studies... the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these...

  11. Saving lives, not sacrificing them: the inevitable clash between medical research and the protection of medical subjects.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Allen B

    2013-07-01

    Throughout history, medical practitioners have been admonished to do nothing in treating their patients that might result in harming them. It was not until the 20th century that such teaching was codified in specific legislation. Spurred on by the perversity of Nazi doctors during the Holocaust, world leaders produced the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Revelations about other egregious acts in the guise of legitimate medical research led to other measures to prevent such mistreatment. Regulations to ensure physician competency and responsibility have mushroomed in the succeeding years. While such measures were coming into being, some of the greatest advances in medicine were being achieved, not least among them those in cardiovascular surgery. Ironically, much of this valuable research would likely not have been approved under regulatory measures now firmly in place. Given the nature of medical research, more often than not a certain degree of risk in all patients entering such trials may be unavoidable. There is always a balance to be maintained between risk and potential benefit.

  12. Saving lives, not sacrificing them: the inevitable clash between medical research and the protection of medical subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, medical practitioners have been admonished to do nothing in treating their patients that might result in harming them. It was not until the 20th century that such teaching was codified in specific legislation. Spurred on by the perversity of Nazi doctors during the Holocaust, world leaders produced the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Revelations about other egregious acts in the guise of legitimate medical research led to other measures to prevent such mistreatment. Regulations to ensure physician competency and responsibility have mushroomed in the succeeding years. While such measures were coming into being, some of the greatest advances in medicine were being achieved, not least among them those in cardiovascular surgery. Ironically, much of this valuable research would likely not have been approved under regulatory measures now firmly in place. Given the nature of medical research, more often than not a certain degree of risk in all patients entering such trials may be unavoidable. There is always a balance to be maintained between risk and potential benefit. PMID:23814400

  13. Medical, social and societal issues in infants with abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Koe, S; Price, B; May, S; Kyne, L; Keenan, P; McKay, M; Nicholson, A J

    2010-04-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from traumatic brain injury in under 2 year olds. AHT presents with acute encephalopathy, subdural hemorrhages and retinal hemorrhages occurring in the context of an inappropriate or inconsistent history. We retrospectively analyzed, over a 10 year period, admissions and transfers to our hospital with suspected AHT to assess patterns of presentation, presenting symptoms, investigations, subsequent confirmation, social work input and both neurological and social outcomes. We analyzed all suspected AHT infants and children looking for the time of presentation, presenting symptoms, caregivers concerns prior to presentation, a family profile including stressors, investigations (in particular neuroradiology and ophthalmology assessments), treatment in hospital, length of stay in hospital, social work involvement, subsequent discharge, neurological outcome and subsequent social work follow up. Data was collected from the hospital HIPE system, RIS (radiology reports system) and records from the social work department from a period October 1998 to January 2009 inclusive. Of 22 patients with confirmed AHT, ages seizures and irritability followed by vomiting, poor feeding, a bulging fontanelle and lethargy. The father was the sole minder in 5 cases. There was a delayed history in 4 cases. One had multiple visits to his GP. All cases had subdural hemorrhages proven by either CT or MRI scans and retinal hemorrhages diagnosed by ophthalmology. One infant presented with a torn frenulum. Four had suspicious bruising. All had normal coagulation profiles, skeletal surveys and extensive metabolic tests. Hospital stays ranged from 1 to 124 days (the median was 28 days and mean 33 days). Ten (45%) infants required ventilatory support. Sixteen infants had social work involvement within 4 days of admission (7 of these were interviewed immediately). Outcomes after case conferences were that 6 returned home with parents, 9 were

  14. The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Alexander; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Chunming; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Eby, Thomas; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites

  15. Evaluation of the accuracy of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT): medical imaging technology in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the introduction, development and commercialization of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) technologies in the field of head and neck reconstruction, clinicians now have increased access to the technology. Given the growth of this new user group, there is an increasing concern regarding proper use, understanding, quality and patient safety. Methods The present study was carried out to evaluate data acquisition of CBCT medical imaging technology and the accuracy of the scanning at three different machine warming times. The study also compared the accuracy of CBCT at 0.2 mm slice thickness and Computerized Tomography (CT) at 1 mm slice thickness. A control model was CT scanned at five random intervals, at 1 mm slice thickness and CBCT scanned at specialized intervals, at 0.2 mm slice thickness. The data was then converted and imported into a software program where a digital registration procedure was used to compare the average deviations of the scanned models to the control. Results The study found that there was no statistically significant difference amongst the three CBCT machine warming times. There was a statistically significant difference between CT scanning with 1 mm slice thickness and CBCT scanning with 0.2 mm slice thickness. Conclusions The accuracy of the i-CAT CBCT scans used in the present study with a parameter at voxel size 0.2, will remain consistent and reliable at any warming stage. Also the difference between the CBCT i-CAT scans and the CT scans was not clinically significant based on suggested requirements of clinicians in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:23672880

  16. Development and Use of Mark Sense Record Cards for Recording Medical Data on Pilots Subjected to Acceleration Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Havill, C. Dewey

    1962-01-01

    A TIME-HONORED system of recording medical histories and the data obtained on physical and laboratory examination has been that of writing the information on record sheets that go into a folder for each patient. In order to have information which would be more readily retrieved, 'a program was initiated in 1952 by the U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine in connection with their "Care of the Flyer" study to place this information on machine record cards. In 1958, a machine record card method was developed for recording medical data in connection with the astronaut selection program. Machine record cards were also developed by the Aero Medical Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, and the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pennsylvania, for use in connection with a variety of tests including acceleration stress.1 Therefore, a variety of systems resulted in which data of a medical nature could easily be recalled. During the NASA, Ames Research Center centrifuge studies/'S the pilot subjects were interviewed after each centrifuge run, or series of runs, and subjective information was recorded in a log book by the usual history taking methods referred to above. After the methods Were reviewed, it' was recognized that a card system would be very useful in recording data from our pilots after they had been exposed to acceleration stress. Since the acceleration stress cards already developed did not meet our requirements, it was decided a different card was needed.

  17. Family-centered rounds and medical student performance on the NBME pediatrics subject (shelf) examination: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, Tiffany N.; Heh, Victor; Wijesooriya, N. Romesh; Ryan, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between family-centered rounds (FCR) and medical student knowledge acquisition as assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) pediatric subject (shelf) exam. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted of third-year medical students who graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2014. This timeframe represented the transition from ‘traditional’ rounds to FCR on the pediatric inpatient unit. Data collected included demographics, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and NBME subject examinations in pediatrics (PSE), medicine (MSE), and surgery (SSE). Results Eight hundred and sixteen participants were included in the analysis. Student performance on the PSE could not be statistically differentiated from performance on the MSE for any year except 2011 (z-score=−0.17, p=0.02). Average scores on PSE for years 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2014 were significantly higher than for SSE, but not significantly different for all other years. The PSE was highly correlated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 examinations (correlation range 0.56–0.77) for all years. Conclusions Our results showed no difference in PSE performance during a time in which our institution transitioned to FCR. These findings should be reassuring for students, attending physicians, and medical educators. PMID:27087016

  18. Medical Communication-related Informational Need and Resource Preferences Among Family Caregivers for Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Margaret L; Galloway, Thomas J; Parvanta, Claudia F; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in treatment, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often experience considerable functional impairment during and following treatment. As a result, family caregivers are essential in a patient's recovery; however, few caregivers are well-prepared to handle the extensive caregiving needs of this patient population. To date, little is known about HNC caregivers' informational needs in this role. Thus, we surveyed a sample of HNC caregivers about their informational needs including those related to interacting in the medical context as a caregiver and meeting patient needs. We also asked these caregivers their preferences for obtaining caregiving information. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 59 family caregivers for HNC patients who had completed radiation therapy at a comprehensive cancer center. The majority of caregivers (74.6%) reported having high informational need at diagnosis related to interacting as a caregiver. Although the need for such information decreased over time, over half still had a high need for information at treatment end. Importantly, caregivers who desired information about reducing patient pain and distress also reported having greater informational needs on issues related to interacting in the medical context. Further, the caregivers most often preferred to receive information from health-care professionals as a first source. However, preferring an informal (e.g., Internet) resource at first was significantly associated with needing information on how to talk to a doctor or nurse. The development of evidence-based resources and tools for HNC caregivers as well as clinicians may help caregivers more effectively manage patient symptoms and warrants further attention. Further, Internet resources may represent an effective resource for providing caregivers with strategies toward enhancing communication with healthcare professionals.

  19. DLP technology application: 3D head tracking and motion correction in medical brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Oline V.; Wilm, Jakob; Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous structured light scanning methods typically emitted visible coded light patterns onto static and opaque objects to establish correspondence between a projector and a camera for triangulation. In the success of these methods rely on scanning objects with proper reflective surface for visible light, such as plaster, light colored cloth. Whereas for human model scanning application, conventional methods suffer from low signal to noise ratio caused by low contrast of visible light over the human body. The proposed robust NIRSL, as implemented with the near infrared light, is capable of recovering those dark surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan. The proposed sensing system, by utilizing the new near-infrared capable high speed LightCrafter DLP projector, is robust to motion, provides accurate and high resolution three-dimensional point cloud, making our system more efficient and robust for human model reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is effective and efficient to scan real human models with various dark hair, jeans and shoes, robust to human body motion and produces accurate and high resolution 3D point cloud.

  20. Using PBL and Interactive Methods in Teaching Subjects in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demikhova, Nadiia; Prykhodko, Olga; Loboda, Andrii; Bumeister, Valentina; Smiianov, Vladyslav; Smiianov, Yevgen; Lukianykhin, Vadym; Demikhov, Oleksii

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays information and telecommunication technologies are becoming more and more developed. It especially attracts and captures the young--young scientists, teachers and students. The purpose of the article is to highlight the experience of implementing problem-based learning technology in the traditional system of teaching medical disciplines.…

  1. Out of Our Heads! Four perspectives on the curation of an on-line exhibition of medically themed artwork by UK medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevor; van de Klee, Danny; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Duffin, Will

    2010-11-26

    The Medical School at Bristol University is noted for offering, and in some instances requiring, its students to work creatively with medical themes. Students, artists, educationalists and a web designer have worked to create an on-line exhibition of the resulting creative output. This can be viewed at www.outofourheads.net. This site is a themed repository of poetry, prose, drawings, paintings, cartoons, films, music, dance and rap. Most works come with commentaries that can be as illuminating as the works they describe. The site invites comment and welcomes new postings from anyone connected to medicine. As an alternative to the conventional pedagogical report, and in keeping with the subject matter, in this paper we tell the story of this unique educational enterprise through the narratives of four of its principle architects. The 'Teacher's Tale', the 'Designer's Tale', the 'Curator's Tale' and the 'Artist's Tale' offer different, personal, tellings of how the site came to be. Each tale contains hypertext links to notable works on the site some of which have become teaching resources within the institution. This paper is of relevance to anyone who seeks to explore and champion the human insights of this privileged community.

  2. Out of Our Heads! Four perspectives on the curation of an on-line exhibition of medically themed artwork by UK medical undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Trevor; van de Klee, Danny; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Duffin, Will

    2010-01-01

    The Medical School at Bristol University is noted for offering, and in some instances requiring, its students to work creatively with medical themes. Students, artists, educationalists and a web designer have worked to create an on-line exhibition of the resulting creative output. This can be viewed at www.outofourheads.net. This site is a themed repository of poetry, prose, drawings, paintings, cartoons, films, music, dance and rap. Most works come with commentaries that can be as illuminating as the works they describe. The site invites comment and welcomes new postings from anyone connected to medicine. As an alternative to the conventional pedagogical report, and in keeping with the subject matter, in this paper we tell the story of this unique educational enterprise through the narratives of four of its principle architects. The ‘Teacher's Tale’, the ‘Designer's Tale’, the ‘Curator's Tale’ and the ‘Artist's Tale’ offer different, personal, tellings of how the site came to be. Each tale contains hypertext links to notable works on the site some of which have become teaching resources within the institution. This paper is of relevance to anyone who seeks to explore and champion the human insights of this privileged community. PMID:21321667

  3. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads.

    PubMed

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques

    2017-01-13

    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  4. Use of NLM medical subject headings with the MeSH2010 thesaurus in the PORTAL-DOORS system.

    PubMed

    Taswell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The NLM MeSH Thesaurus has been incorporated for use in the PORTAL-DOORS System (PDS) for resource metadata management on the semantic web. All 25588 descriptor records from the NLM 2010 MeSH Thesaurus have been exposed as web accessible resources by the PDS MeSH2010 Thesaurus implemented as a PDS PORTAL Registry operating as a RESTful web service. Examples of records from the PDS MeSH2010 PORTAL are demonstrated along with their use by records in other PDS PORTAL Registries that reference the concepts from the MeSH2010 Thesaurus. Use of this important biomedical terminology will greatly enhance the quality of metadata content of other PDS records thus improving cross-domain searches between different problem oriented domains and amongst different clinical specialty fields.

  5. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  6. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  7. Evaluating Medication Response in ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Single-Subject Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Coury, Daniel L.; Ritacco, David G.; Trommer, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    A technique is presented for evaluating methylphenidate (MPH) effects on core behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the single-subject level of analysis. Case-study results and multivariate analyses suggests systematic evaluation of behavior and cognitive MPH dose-response relationships could lead to more accurate MPH…

  8. Does the Integration of Haptic and Visual Cues Reduce the Effect of a Biased Visual Reference Frame on the Subjective Head Orientation?

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Marc; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Isableu, Brice

    2012-01-01

    Background The selection of appropriate frames of reference (FOR) is a key factor in the elaboration of spatial perception and the production of robust interaction with our environment. The extent to which we perceive the head axis orientation (subjective head orientation, SHO) with both accuracy and precision likely contributes to the efficiency of these spatial interactions. A first goal of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of both the visual and egocentric FOR (centre-of-mass) in the SHO processing. A second goal was to investigate humans' ability to process SHO in various sensory response modalities (visual, haptic and visuo-haptic), and the way they modify the reliance to either the visual or egocentric FORs. A third goal was to question whether subjects combined visual and haptic cues optimally to increase SHO certainty and to decrease the FORs disruption effect. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirteen subjects were asked to indicate their SHO while the visual and/or egocentric FORs were deviated. Four results emerged from our study. First, visual rod settings to SHO were altered by the tilted visual frame but not by the egocentric FOR alteration, whereas no haptic settings alteration was observed whether due to the egocentric FOR alteration or the tilted visual frame. These results are modulated by individual analysis. Second, visual and egocentric FOR dependency appear to be negatively correlated. Third, the response modality enrichment appears to improve SHO. Fourth, several combination rules of the visuo-haptic cues such as the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Winner-Take-All (WTA) or Unweighted Mean (UWM) rule seem to account for SHO improvements. However, the UWM rule seems to best account for the improvement of visuo-haptic estimates, especially in situations with high FOR incongruence. Finally, the data also indicated that FOR reliance resulted from the application of UWM rule. This was observed more particularly, in the

  9. [Who limit vaginal birth for breech presentation: medical practice or Law? Discussion between a medical doctor, a lawyer and the head chief of an university hospital].

    PubMed

    Delotte, J; Oliver, A; Boukaidi, S; Mialon, O; Breaud, J; Benchimol, D; Bongain, A

    2011-10-01

    The mode of delivery of breech presentation still remains a debate in France. Despite the medical arguments, themselves in debate, exists a legal pressure felt by medical practitioners. Our study highlights the different opinions of medical practitioners, lawyers and medical teachers faced with breech presentation.

  10. The implementation of game in a 20-day head-down tilting bed rest experiment upon mood status and neurotic levels of rest subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishitobi, Hiromi

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the implementation of game on mental health among participants in a bed rest (BR) experiment. Subjects were 12 healthy males aged 20-26, who participated in a 20-day 6-degrees head-down tilting BR experiment. The participants were asked to complete psychometrical questionnaires before, during, and after the experiment. We entrusted the participants to manage their leisure time and they intended a game in which all of them could take part over the experiment period. The general conversation and light-hearted mood among the subjects continued during the experimental period. Longitudinal data analysis showed that levels of neurosis and mood status did not deteriorate during the experiment, while our previous experiments, which were performed under the same protocol as this study except for the implementation of the game showed a distinct deterioration in psychosocial status. We consider that the implementation of game autonomously contributes to the positive effects on the mental health among the participants.

  11. Analysis of the impact of medical technology assessment subjects on BME curricula.

    PubMed

    Martínez Licona, Fabiola; Azpiroz Leehan, Joaquín; Méndez, Miguel Cadena; Sacristán Rock, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the factors that have arisen on the implementation of the medical technology assessment and management courses, and the academic methodologies used to deal with them. Five courses that cover topics as Technology Management, Health Economics, Quality Assessment, Innovation and Entrepreneurship were designed as electives for BME curriculum and have been taught for the last two years. The activities carried out within the courses are described and their impact on the comprehension of the course contents are presented. Also, several elements and factors pertaining to the teaching-learning process are discussed. Future perspectives for the students that follow this sub-specialty branch of the BME curriculum are presented.

  12. Dosage of conventional neuroleptic medication and subjective cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Krausz, M; Moritz, S; Lambert, M; Naber, D

    2000-03-01

    Subjective cognitive and perceptual disturbances as assessed with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) were correlated with chlorpromazine equivalents in 40 schizophrenic inpatients, who were treated with conventional neuroleptics. In line with previous research using 'objective' neuropsychological tests, both correlations and partial correlations (controlling for the effects of psychopathology, extrapyramidal symptoms and length of illness) confirmed that higher neuroleptic doses significantly worsen several cognitive and perceptual domains (r = 0.44 -0.54; P < or = 0.005 -0.05) with the possible exception of mnestic functions (r = 0.21 -0.24, n.s.) and language (r = 0.37 -0.38, P < 0.1). The clinical importance of self-report scales for evaluating both the risks and benefits of neuroleptic treatment is discussed.

  13. Neurocognition in depression: patients on and off medication versus healthy comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G; Benedict, Kenneth B

    2006-01-01

    Patients with depression have neuropsychological deficits in attention, memory, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and executive function. It is not clear, however, whether neurocognition in depression is impaired in a global or nonspecific way or if specific cognitive domains are selectively impaired. This naturalistic cross-sectional study employed a computerized neurocognitive screening battery to evaluate 38 depressed, drug-free patients, compared to 31 patients who responded to antidepressant monotherapy and to 69 healthy comparison subjects. There was evidence for global neuropsychological impairment in untreated depressed patients. In patients who had been successfully treated, performance was improved but not normalized. There was also evidence for specific depression-related deficits in executive function and processing speed but not in memory, psychomotor speed, or reaction time. Although depressed patients have global neurocognitive impairments, deficits in certain cognitive domains are more important than in others. In particular, impairments are noted in tests of executive control and in tests that demand effortful attention. Information processing speed is also impaired but not reaction time. Computerized testing in the clinic setting demonstrates a range of neurocognitive problems in patients with depression. These problems may have a bearing on treatment and outcome.

  14. Objective and subjective assessment of reciprocal peer teaching in medical gross anatomy laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Brian S; Hill, Robert V

    2009-01-01

    Reciprocal peer teaching (RPT), wherein students alternate roles as teacher and learner, has been applied in several educational arenas with varying success. Here, we describe the implementation of a reciprocal peer teaching protocol in a human gross anatomy laboratory curriculum. We compared the outcomes of the RPT class with those of previous classes in which RPT was not employed. Objective data (i.e., course grades) show no significant differences in gross anatomy laboratory grades between students in the RPT and non-RPT classes. To subjectively evaluate the relative success of RPT in the laboratory, we analyzed student opinions obtained through anonymous surveys. These data show that a powerful majority of student respondents felt that RPT was beneficial and should be used in future classes. The greatest disadvantage was unreliable quality of teaching from peers; however, most students still felt that RPT should be continued. Students who felt that they had insufficient hands-on experience (by virtue of dissecting only half the time) were significantly more likely to recommend abandoning RPT. These results underscore the importance of active student dissection, and suggest that a modified version of the described RPT protocol may satisfy more of the needs of large, diverse student populations. Several hidden benefits of RPT exist for faculty, administration, and students, including reduced need for large numbers of cadavers, attendant reduction in operating costs, and smaller student-to-teacher ratios.

  15. Delayed hypothermia as selective head cooling or whole body cooling does not protect brain or body in newborn pig subjected to hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Mathias; Tooley, James R; Satas, Saulius; Hobbs, Catherine E; Chakkarapani, Ela; Stone, Janet; Porter, Helen; Thoresen, Marianne

    2008-07-01

    The neuroprotective efficacy of hypothermia (HT) after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) falls dramatically the longer the delay in initiating HT. Knowledge is scarce regarding protective or adverse effects of HT in organs beyond the brain. In addition, the relative effectiveness of selective head cooling (SHC) and whole body cooling (WBC) has not been studied. We aimed to examine whether 24 h HT, initiated 3 h after global HI is brain- and/or organ-protective using pathology, neurology, and biochemical markers. Fifty, subjected to global HI causing permanent brain injury. Animals were randomized to normothermia (NT), (Trectal) 39.0 degrees C, SHCTrectal 34.5 degrees C, or WBCTrectal 34.5 degrees C for 24 h, all followed by 48 h NT. There was no difference in injury to the brain or organs between groups. There was no gender difference in brain injury but females had significantly more organs injured [2.3 (+/- 1.3) [mean +/- SD] vs. 1.4 +/- (1.0)]. The postinsult decline in lactate was temperature independent. However, HT animals normalized their plasma-calcium, magnesium, and potassium significantly faster than NT. Delayed SHC or WBC, initiated 3 h after HI, does not reduce pathology in the brain nor in organs. Delayed HT improves postinsult recovery of plasma-calcium, magnesium, and potassium. There were no differences in adverse effects across groups.

  16. [Status of subjective well-being for medical staff in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunlong; Liu, Yan; Xu, Shaorong; Zhao, Min; Li, Junping; Xiong, Yan

    2016-06-28

    目的:了解三级甲等综合医务人员直接面对病人对其主观幸福感的影响。方法:采用中国城市居民幸福感量表简本(subjective well-being scale for Chinese citizen,SWBS-cc20),于2012,2013及2014年5月对湖南省某三级甲等综合性医院医务人员进行调查。结果:医务人员的主观幸福感评分较高(81.67±12.33);在10个分维度中,家庭氛围、成长进步及人际适应得分最高;知足充裕、心理健康及身体健康得分最低。职称、工作性质、受教育程度及职业影响医务人员的主观幸福感。直接面对病人的医务人员主观幸福感低于非直接面对病人者(t=–4.80,P<0.001);直接面对病人的医务人员在知足充裕维度(OR=0.079,95% CI:1.278~2.214,P<0.001)高于非直接面对病人者,在心理健康 (OR=1.315,95% CI:1.023~1.690,P<0.05)及身体健康(OR=1.313,95% CI:1.029~1.677,P<0.05)维度低于非直接面对病人者。结论:医务人员的主观幸福感较高。直接面对病人的医务人员主观幸福感总体低于非直接面对病人者;且在知足充裕维度高于非直接面对病人者,在心理健康及身体健康维度低于非直接面对病人者。.

  17. Signs, symptoms and the prevalence of fungi detected from the oral cavity and pharynx of radiotherapy subjects with head and neck tumors, and their susceptibility to chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Moqbil, Salah; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Radio- and chemotherapy for malignant neoplasms, especially in head and neck region, is associated with a greater risk of fungal infections due to secondary alterations in the mucous membranes. The study had three aims: 1.to determine the signs and symptoms which occur among patients undergoing radiotherapy; 2. to determine the fungi prevalence in the mouth and throat of patients before, during and after radiotherapy; 3. to examine the sensitivity of strains to antimycotic drugs. The study comprised 44 patients (11 female, 33 male) with head and neck cancers,examined at the following stages: before radiotherapy (44 patients – batch 1), 3rd week of therapy (30 of the 44 patients– batch 2), last day of therapy (28 of batch 2 – batch 3) and the 6th week after completion of radiotherapy (10 of batch 3 – batch 4). Clinical examination was performed and mycological status was estimated from an oral rinse on a selected medium. The fungal strains were isolated and sensitivity to antifungal drugs was determined. The most common symptoms were pain, dysphagia, and dysgeusia. Physical examination revealed signs of mucositis mainly among patients from batches 2 and 3. The presence of fungi in the mouth and throat was noted in over 2/3 (66.2%) of the patients from batch 1, and in 4/5 (80%) of batch 2. The fungi were detected in over half (57.1%) of patients from batch 3 and also in patients from batch 4. In all cases, fungi of various Candida species were identified: 6 species in batch 1,8 in batch 2, 6 in batch 3 and 5 in batch 4. The most frequently detected species was C. albicans, constituting 40–60%;the other species detected are known to be resistant to antimycotic drugs. The isolated strains were the most sensitive to nystatin and miconazole, and the least to ketoconazole and fluconazole. Conclusions: 1. Patients undergoing radiotherapy complain of pain, dysphagia, and dysgeusia; in most cases mucositis is diagnosed. 2. The high prevalence of fungi in the mouth

  18. The "Human Subject," "Vulnerable Populations," and Medical History: The Problem of Presentism and the Discourse of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Connor, J T H

    2017-02-15

    This discussion considers recent historical works of eugenics and sterilization in Canada, but it is not an historiographic review essay or critique per se of this literature. Rather, by focussing on the topic of historic diagnostic categories such as "feeble-minded," "idiot," and "moron," methodological issues such as historical presentism and its possible interactions with the discourse of modern bioethics are examined. The conclusions derived are meant only to be cautionary, and are neither prescriptive nor proscriptive. Medical historians undertaking analyses of currently contentious topics that may directly involve or indirectly allude to "human subjects" or "vulnerable populations" perhaps ought to reflect on the degree, if any, they may be anachronistically writing contemporary bioethical categories into bygone eras.

  19. Chemical Compatibility of Depacon® with Medications Frequently Administered by Intravenous Y-Site Delivery in Patients with Epilepsy or Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Sahar M.; Sweatman, Trevor W.; Thoma, Laura; Hovinga, Collin A.; Phelps, Stephanie J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Intravenous Y-site administration of more than one medication through the same in-line catheter is a common practice used in the management of acute seizures. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of valproate sodium (Depacon®; 2 or 20 mg/mL) with 13 medications that are frequently administered to manage seizures or are given to patients with an acute head injury who are at risk for developing post-traumatic epilepsy. METHODS The study medications included atracurium, dexamethasone, diazepam, fosphenytoin, lorazepam, magnesium sulfate, mannitol, methyl-prednisolone, midazolam, pentobarbital, phenytoin, ranitidine, and thiopental. Equal volumes of valproate and each of the study drugs were admixed and immediately examined using several physiochemical criteria: Tyndall effect, color and pH change, gas evolution, and particle formation (HIAC/Royco liquid particle counter). Samples were also evaluated using HPLC analysis (C18 column; methanol/tetrahydrofuran/ phosphate buffer; 44/1/55% v/v, at 1.5 mL/min; 50°C) with UV (190-400 nm) photodiode detection. The valproate peak (220 nm) was quantified by both peak area and height. Samples were analyzed within 5 minutes of admixture and were reassessed at 15 and 30 minutes. RESULTS With the exception of diazepam, midazolam, and phenytoin, all of the remaining drugs were chemically compatible with valproate, both in 5% Dextrose Injection, USP(D5W) and in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (Normal Saline -NS). None of the compatible medications produced a significant pH change, discernible gas, particle formation, reduced valproate titer by HPLC analysis (coefficient of variability < 1.5%), or the temporal formation of unidentified UV absorbing (190–400 nm) peaks. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous valproate is compatible with most agents employed in seizure management or used in patients at risk for seizures following head injury and is safe for concurrent Y-site drug administration. PMID:23118699

  20. [Effects of postponing nitrogen application on photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat subjected to water stress after heading stage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-da; Ma, Shou-chen; Yang, Shen-jiao; Zhang, Su-yu; Guan, Xiao-kang; Li, Xue-mei; Wang, Tong-chao; Li, Chun-xi

    2015-11-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of postponing nitrogen (N) application on photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat subjected to water stress after heading stage. Equal in the total N rate in winter wheat growth season, N application was split before sowing, and/or at jointing and /or at anthesis at the ratio of 10:0:0 (N1), 6:4:0 (N2) and 4:3:3 (N3), combined with unfavorable water condition (either waterlogged or drought) with the sufficient water condition as control. The results showed that, under each of the water condition, both N2 and N3 treatments significantly improved the leaf photosynthetic rate and the SPAD value of flag leaf compared with N1 treatment during grain filling stage, and also the crop ear number, grain number per spike and above-ground biomass were increased. Although postponing nitrogen application increased water consumption, both grain yield and water use efficiency were increased. Compared with sufficient water supply, drought stress and waterlogging stress significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate of flag leaves at anthesis and grain filling stages, ear number, 1000-grain mass and yield under all of the N application patterns. The decline of photosynthetic rate under either drought stress or waterlogging stress was much less in N2 and N3 than in N1 treatments, just the same as the grain yield. The results indicated that postponing nitrogen application could regulate winter wheat yield as well as its components to alleviate the damages, caused by unfavorable water stress by increasing flag leaf SPAD and maintaining flag leaf photosynthetic rate after anthesis, and promoting above-ground dry matter accumulation.

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S.; Lev, Michael H.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Methods: Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left–right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors’ custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left–right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. Results: The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors’ preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left–right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P < 0.05). Conclusions: Realistic

  2. Subjects with osteoarthritis can easily use a handheld touch screen electronic device to report medication use: qualitative results from a usability study

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Laura; Durand, Ellen M; Gary, Sarah T; Otero, Antonio V; Gerzon, Millie C; Beck, Jamie; Hall, Chris; Dallabrida, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic data capture is increasingly used to improve collection of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical trials and care. The validation of electronic patient-reported outcome devices requires information on patient preference and ease of use. This study conducted usability testing for a General Symptom Questionnaire and Medication Module™ on a handheld device for subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether subjects can report on their symptoms and medication use using an electronic diary. Methods Nine subjects with OA participating in a large US mode equivalency study were surveyed independently in this study. Subjects completed a General Symptom Questionnaire and Medication Module™ using the LogPad® LW handheld device. Demographic and technology use information was collected, and the subjects were queried on device usability. Results Subjects reported that the handheld device was easy to use and that they were able to complete a General Symptom Questionnaire and Medication Module™ with little or no assistance. They did not report any issues with the screen or size of the device. Subjects were willing to travel with the device to complete electronic diaries at home or in public. Participants indicated that they would be able to use the handheld device to answer questions during a clinical trial. Subjects with OA experienced no physical discomfort during completion of either questionnaire. Conclusion The General Symptom Questionnaire and Medication Module™ were usable and acceptable to subjects with OA on a handheld device. This was consistent regardless of previous experience and confidence with technology, despite the potential physical restrictions for an OA cohort. PMID:27822018

  3. [Influence of "optical illusion" on detectability in diagnosis for head CT images: participation of optical illusion of light perception in medical image reading and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Henmi, Shuichi

    2006-07-20

    Even if the visual impression of the photographic density of the brain in head CT images is shown as physically the same, it is known that optical illusions of lightness perception (assimilation, contrast, picture frame effect, etc.) occur and that practical density can be observed psychologically differently, according to differences in the color of the skull and background, and differences in cases (differences in picture pattern). Therefore, in this study, in order to clarify the influence of optical illusion on detectability in diagnosis, the author attempted to compare detectability in four sample cases, consisting of acute cerebral infarction (1), acute epidural hematoma (1), and chronic subdural hematoma (2), using visual subjective evaluation. In the case of acute cerebral infarction, there was no significant difference in detectability between the original image and the virtual images. Further, it clarified that the original head CT image (acute epidural hematoma) with the high-density hematoma recognized at the marginal limited part of the brain was inferior to virtual images in detectability, while it clarified that the original head CT image (chronic subdural hematoma) with the low-density hematoma was superior to virtual images in detectability, because of visual psychological emphasis on the difference of the film contrast between the hematoma and white skull.

  4. Prospective, randomized study of one, two, or three trabecular bypass stents in open-angle glaucoma subjects on topical hypotensive medication

    PubMed Central

    Katz, L Jay; Erb, Carl; Carceller, Guillamet Amadeu; Fea, Antonio M; Voskanyan, Lilit; Wells, Jeffrey M; Giamporcaro, Jane Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of one, two, or three trabecular microbypass stents in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on ocular hypotensive medication. A total of 119 subjects were followed for 18 months postoperatively. Materials and methods Subjects with medicated intraocular pressure (IOP) 18–30 mmHg and postmedication-washout baseline IOP 22–38 mmHg were randomized to implantation of one, two, or three stents. Ocular hypotensive medication was to be used if postoperative IOP exceeded 18 mmHg. Results A total of 38 subjects were implanted with one stent, 41 subjects with two stents, and 40 subjects with three stents. Both month 12 IOP reduction ≥20% without ocular hypotensive medication vs baseline unmedicated IOP and month 12 unmedicated IOP ≤18 mmHg were achieved by 89.2%, 90.2%, and 92.1% of one-, two-, and three-stent eyes, respectively. Furthermore, 64.9%, 85.4%, and 92.1% of the three respective groups achieved unmedicated IOP ≤15 mmHg. Over the 18-month follow-up period, medication was required in seven one-stent subjects, four two-stent subjects, and three three-stent subjects. At 18 months, mean unmedicated IOP was 15.9±0.9 mmHg in one-stent subjects, 14.1±1.0 mmHg in two-stent subjects, and 12.2±1.1 mmHg in three-stent subjects. Month 18 IOP reduction was significantly greater (P<0.001) with implantation of each additional stent, with mean differences in reduction of 1.84 mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.96–2.73) for three-stent vs two-stent groups and 1.73 mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.83–2.64) for two-stent vs one-stent groups. Adverse events through 18 months were limited to cataract progression with best-corrected visual acuity loss and subsequent cataract surgery. Conclusion In this series, implantation of each additional stent resulted in significantly greater IOP reduction with reduced medication use. Titratability of stents as a sole procedure was shown to be effective and safe, with

  5. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  6. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear to be more serious than it is. Did You Know... Because the scalp has many blood ... these symptoms occur, prompt medical attention is essential. Did You Know... The degree of external head injury ...

  7. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  8. Dissonant Role Perception and Paradoxical Adjustments: An Exploratory Study on Medical Residents' Collaboration with Senior Doctors and Head Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiordelli, Maddalena; Schulz, Peter J.; Caiata Zufferey, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A good collaboration between health professionals is considered to have benefits for patients, healthcare staff, and organizations. Nevertheless, effective interprofessional collaboration is difficult to achieve. This is particularly true for collaboration between Medical Residents (MRs) and the immediate colleagues they interact with, as Senior…

  9. Pattern of Head Injuries (Cranio-cerebral) due to Homicide in Association with Other Injuries: A Retrospective Post-mortem Study Autopsied at Dhaka Medical College Morgue House.

    PubMed

    Akber, E B; Alam, M T; Rahman, K M; Jahan, I; Musa, S A

    2016-04-01

    Annually, homicide contributes to a greater number of the total head injury cases. This retrospective study was conducted from 1(st) January 2009 to 31(st)December 2011 at Dhaka Medical College Mortuary. During this study period of three years a total of 15300 autopsies were done of which 5649 cases (36.84%) were of head injuries. Of them 747(13.22%) were of homicidal, 4080(72.22%) road-traffic accidents, 502(8.88%) accidental and 320(5.66%) cases of fall from heights. Three hundred ninety eight (398) urban cases (53.27%) out numbered 307 rural cases (41.09%) followed by 42 unknown cases (5.62%). Most cases belong to the younger age group i.e. 21-40 years (43.34%) with male preponderance 470(63.10%). Defense wounds were present in 281 cases (37.82%) out of the total 747 homicidal head injuries. There were 206(27.57%) upper limb, 176(23.56%) spinal, 139(18.60%) abdominal, 135(18.07%) thoracic, 58(7.76%) lower limb and 33(4.41%) pelvic injuries found as associated injury. There were 258(34.53%) fractures of occipital followed by 209(28.29%) parietal, 113(15.01%) frontal, 104(13.75%) temporal, 24(3.21%) ant. Cranial fossa, 23(3.07%) post. Cranial fossa and 16(2.08%) of middle cranial fossa fractures. Extradural haemorrhage was more i.e. 434 cases (58.43%) followed by subdural, combination of all, subarachnoid and intra-cerebral haemorrhages. Cases of concussion were more common i.e. 445(59.75%) than lacerated and combination of them. Blunt weapon tops the list of causative weapons i.e. 669(89.22%) than firearms 59(8.07%) and sharp pointed weapons 19(2.68%).

  10. Performance of able-bodied subjects on a text-typing task using a head-operated device and expanded membrane cursor keys.

    PubMed

    Capilouto, Gilson J; McClenaghan, Bruce; Williams, Harriet G; Dickerson, John; Hussey, James R

    2004-02-01

    Children and adults with disabilities frequently rely on computers to complete written tasks. Those with significant motor limitations typically use alternative computer-input devices since the traditional keyboard and mouse are insufficient to accommodate their abilities. For persons unable to isolate their fingers, input devices controlled by movements of the head or whole hand or arm movements may be among the options considered. This study investigated the performance of a head-operated device and expanded membrane cursor keys for text entry. Data from 24 young adults indicated the head-operated device performed significantly faster given reduced cognitive demands for device operation, increased stimulus-response compatibility, and simplicity of movement. Use of the expanded membrane cursor keys resulted in significantly lower error rates. No significant differences in comfort or ease of use were reported for the two devices. The relative performance of device options for users sharing similar motor challenges provides rehabilitation specialists with important clinical information.

  11. Effects of Mild Hypercapnia During Head-Down Bed Rest on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, aud Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurie, S. S.; Taibbi, G.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Zanello, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Hu, X.; Stenger, M. B.; Vizzeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, as experienced by some astronauts during long-duration space flight. Elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on ISS may also raise ICP and contribute to VIIP development. We seek to determine if the combination of mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the International Space Station, with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt, will induce ophthalmic and cerebral blood flow changes similar to those described in the VIIP syndrome. We hypothesize that mild hypercapnia in the head-down tilt position will increase choroidal blood volume and cerebral blood flow, raise intraocular pressure (IOP), and transiently reduce visual acuity as compared to the seated or the head-down tilt position without elevated CO2, respectively.

  12. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-04-04

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training.

  13. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  14. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Head Lice Head Lice Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Head Lice Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Causes4. Prevention5. ...

  15. Muscle activity and head kinematics in unconstrained movements in subjects with chronic neck pain; cervical motor dysfunction or low exertion motor output?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain after whiplash associated disorders (WAD) may lead to reduced displacement and peak velocity of neck movements. Dynamic neck movements in people with chronic WAD are also reported to display altered movement patterns such as increased irregularity, which is suggested to signify impaired motor control. As movement irregularity is strongly related to the velocity and displacement of movement, we wanted to examine whether the increased irregularity in chronic WAD could be accounted for by these factors. Methods Head movements were completed in four directions in the sagittal plane at three speeds; slow (S), preferred (P) and maximum (M) in 15 men and women with chronic WAD and 15 healthy, sex and age-matched control participants. Head kinematics and measures of movement smoothness and symmetry were calculated from position data. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and splenius muscles and the root mean square (rms) EMG amplitude for the accelerative and decelerative phases of movement were analyzed. Results The groups differed significantly with regard to movement velocity, acceleration, displacement, smoothness and rmsEMG amplitude in agonist and antagonist muscles for a series of comparisons across the test conditions (range 17 – 121%, all p-values < 0.05). The group differences in peak movement velocity and acceleration persisted after controlling for movement displacement. Controlling for differences between the groups in displacement and velocity abolished the difference in measures of movement smoothness and rmsEMG amplitude. Conclusions Simple, unconstrained head movements in participants with chronic WAD are accomplished with reduced velocity and displacement, but with normal muscle activation levels and movement patterns for a given velocity and displacement. We suggest that while reductions in movement velocity and displacement are robust changes and may be of clinical

  16. Shifting subjects of health-care: placing "medical tourism" in the context of Malaysian domestic health-care reform.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Meghann

    2011-01-01

    "Medical tourism" has frequently been held to unsettle naturalised relationships between the state and its citizenry. Yet in casting "medical tourism" as either an outside "innovation" or "invasion," scholars have often ignored the role that the neoliberal retrenchment of social welfare structures has played in shaping the domestic health-care systems of the "developing" countries recognised as international medical travel destinations. While there is little doubt that "medical tourism" impacts destinations' health-care systems, it remains essential to contextualise them. This paper offers a reading of the emergence of "medical tourism" from within the context of ongoing health-care privatisation reform in one of today's most prominent destinations: Malaysia. It argues that "medical tourism" to Malaysia has been mobilised politically both to advance domestic health-care reform and to cast off the country's "underdeveloped" image not only among foreign patient-consumers but also among its own nationals, who are themselves increasingly envisioned by the Malaysian state as prospective health-care consumers.

  17. Noncompliance with Human Subjects' Protection Requirements as a Reason for Retracting Papers: Survey of Retraction Notices on Medical Papers Published from 1981 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Muto, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Though protection of human research subjects is universally recognized as a critical requirement for the ethical conduct of research, few studies have examined retractions of medical articles through apparent noncompliance with that requirement. From our survey of 99 retracted papers published from 1981 to 2011, we found that the basis for those decisions was poorly explained in retraction notices and that most of the articles continued to be cited. In retraction notices, the current manner of explaining failure to protect human subjects is misleading and confusing.

  18. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; Vizzeri, G.

    2016-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  19. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    PubMed

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  20. Head-to-head comparison of 11C-PiB and 18F-FC119S for Aβ imaging in healthy subjects, mild cognitive impairment patients, and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Byung Il; Park, Su Yeon; Ko, In Ok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jun-Young; Bu, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung Hwa; Chi, Dae Yoon; Ha, Jeong Ho; Lim, Sang Moo

    2017-03-01

    As a new beta amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, F-FC119S has shown higher cortical uptake in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than that in healthy control subjects without adverse effects in a previous preliminary study. The aim of this study was to compare F-FC119S PET and C-PiB PET in healthy control (HC) subjects, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and AD patients.A total of 48 subjects, including 28 HC subjects, 10 MCI patients, and 10 AD patients, underwent static F-FC119S PET (30 minutes after intravenous [i.v.] injection) and C-PiB PET (40 minutes after i.v. injection) on the same day. Both PET images were visually and quantitatively assessed. Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated for each brain region using the cerebellar cortex as a reference region.None (0%) of the 28 HC subjects and 4 (40%) of 10 MCI patients had positive scans on both PET images. Of the 10 AD patients, 7 (70%) had positive scans on C-PiB PET while 6 (60%) had positive scans on F-FC119S PET. Overall, 47 (98%) of 48 participants showed identical results based on visual analysis. Cortical SUVR of F-FC119S was higher in AD patients (1.38 ± 0.16), followed by that in MCI patients (1.24 ± 0.10) and in HC subjects (1.14 ± 0.05). Compared with C-PiB PET, F-FC119S PET yielded a higher effect size (d = 2.02 vs. 1.67) in AD patients and a slightly lower effect size (d = 1.26 vs. 1.38) in MCI patients. In HC subjects, the nonspecific binding of F-FC119S to white matter (with the frontal cortex-to-white matter SUV ratio of 0.76) was slightly lower than that of C-PiB (ratio of 0.73). There was a significant linear correlation (slope = 0.41, r = 0.78, P < 0.001) between C-PiB and F-FC119S cortical SUVR.We could safely obtain images similar to C-PiB PET imaging Aβ in the brain using F-FC119S PET. Therefore, F-FC119S might be suitable for imaging Aβ deposition.

  1. Head-to-head comparison of 11C-PiB and 18F-FC119S for Aβ imaging in healthy subjects, mild cognitive impairment patients, and Alzheimer's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Byung Il; Park, Su Yeon; Ko, In Ok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jun-Young; Bu, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung Hwa; Chi, Dae Yoon; Ha, Jeong Ho; Lim, Sang Moo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a new beta amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, 18F-FC119S has shown higher cortical uptake in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than that in healthy control subjects without adverse effects in a previous preliminary study. The aim of this study was to compare 18F-FC119S PET and 11C-PiB PET in healthy control (HC) subjects, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and AD patients. A total of 48 subjects, including 28 HC subjects, 10 MCI patients, and 10 AD patients, underwent static 18F-FC119S PET (30 minutes after intravenous [i.v.] injection) and 11C-PiB PET (40 minutes after i.v. injection) on the same day. Both PET images were visually and quantitatively assessed. Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated for each brain region using the cerebellar cortex as a reference region. None (0%) of the 28 HC subjects and 4 (40%) of 10 MCI patients had positive scans on both PET images. Of the 10 AD patients, 7 (70%) had positive scans on 11C-PiB PET while 6 (60%) had positive scans on 18F-FC119S PET. Overall, 47 (98%) of 48 participants showed identical results based on visual analysis. Cortical SUVR of 18F-FC119S was higher in AD patients (1.38 ± 0.16), followed by that in MCI patients (1.24 ± 0.10) and in HC subjects (1.14 ± 0.05). Compared with 11C-PiB PET, 18F-FC119S PET yielded a higher effect size (d = 2.02 vs. 1.67) in AD patients and a slightly lower effect size (d = 1.26 vs. 1.38) in MCI patients. In HC subjects, the nonspecific binding of 18F-FC119S to white matter (with the frontal cortex-to-white matter SUV ratio of 0.76) was slightly lower than that of 11C-PiB (ratio of 0.73). There was a significant linear correlation (slope = 0.41, r = 0.78, P < 0.001) between 11C-PiB and 18F-FC119S cortical SUVR. We could safely obtain images similar to 11C-PiB PET imaging Aβ in the brain using 18F-FC119S PET. Therefore, 18F-FC119S might be suitable for imaging Aβ deposition

  2. Topographic quantitative EEG sequelae of chronic marihuana use: a replication using medically and psychiatrically screened normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Struve, F A; Straumanis, J J; Patrick, G; Leavitt, J; Manno, J E; Manno, B R

    1999-10-01

    In two previous studies it was reported that chronic marihuana (THC) use was associated with unique quantitative EEG features which were present in the non-intoxicated state. THC users, as contrasted with controls, had significant elevations of Absolute Power, Relative Power, and Coherence of alpha activity over the bilateral frontal cortex. Furthermore, a quantitative EEG discriminant function analyses permitted a 95% correct user versus non-user classification. However, because all of the THC users and 58% of the non-user controls were psychiatric inpatients, diagnostic and medication effects, if any, were uncontrolled. In the present study the same quantitative EEG methods were used to study daily THC users and non-user controls who underwent a rigorous screening process to insure that they were medically and psychiatrically healthy. The results of previous studies were replicated and an additional EEG correlate of chronic THC exposure (reduced alpha frequency) was identified.

  3. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  4. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  5. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... fit, and maintain the right helmet for specific sports. Concussion Laws Learn about Return to Play and other ...

  6. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Weiner, Leonard B

    2002-09-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with little morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. This statement attempts to clarify issues of diagnosis and treatment of head lice and makes recommendations for dealing with head lice in the school setting.

  7. Posaconazole tablet pharmacokinetics: lack of effect of concomitant medications altering gastric pH and gastric motility in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Walter K; Chang, Peter S; van Iersel, Marlou L P S; Waskin, Hetty; Krishna, Gopal; Kersemaekers, Wendy M

    2014-07-01

    Posaconazole oral suspension is an extended-spectrum triazole that should be taken with food to maximize absorption. A new posaconazole tablet formulation has demonstrated improved bioavailability over the oral suspension in healthy adults in a fasting state. This study evaluated the effects of concomitant medications altering gastric pH (antacid, ranitidine, and esomeprazole) and gastric motility (metoclopramide) on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole tablets. This was a prospective open-label 5-way crossover study in 20 healthy volunteers. In each treatment period, a single 400-mg dose (4 100-mg tablets) of posaconazole was administered alone or with 20 ml antacid (2 g of aluminum hydroxide and 2 g of magnesium hydroxide), ranitidine (150 mg), esomeprazole (40 mg), or metoclopramide (15 mg). There was a ≥ 10-day washout between treatment periods. Posaconazole exposure, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax), and apparent terminal half-life (t1/2) were similar when posaconazole was administered alone or with medications affecting gastric pH and gastric motility. Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf) (posaconazole with medications affecting gastric pH and gastric motility versus posaconazole alone) were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) with antacid, 0.97 (0.84-1.12) with ranitidine, 1.01 (0.87-1.17) with esomeprazole, and 0.93 (0.79-1.09) with metoclopramide. Geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) were 1.06 (0.90-1.26) with antacid, 1.04 (0.88-1.23) with ranitidine, 1.05 (0.89-1.24) with esomeprazole, and 0.86 (0.73-1.02) with metoclopramide. In summary, in healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of a single 400-mg dose of posaconazole tablets was not altered to a clinically meaningful extent when posaconazole was administered alone or with medications affecting gastric pH or gastric motility.

  8. [Subjectivity, decision and neurodegenerative diseases: reflexions on the role of the clinical psychologist in medical decision making].

    PubMed

    Brocq, H; Liarte, A; Soriani, M-H; Desnuelle, C

    2013-01-01

    Should a patient be forced to accept a treatment, especially when suffering from a neurodegenerative disease? We argue that physicians, nurses and care givers should instead accept his or her choice in accordance with the principle that every patient is an autonomous person able to make a choice, even in case of declined cognition. Beside the legal obligation, we suggest a theoretical approach and focus on the practical impacts of the patient's decision. Our objective is to promote the value of ethical doubt and attentive listening to individual opinions, so as to improve the quality of the medical staff's work and reduce patients' distress when affected by fatal diseases.

  9. Does dimeticone clear head lice?

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    Head lice infestation is common and mainly affects children of primary school age. Treatments include licensed topical preparations containing conventional chemical insecticides and medical devices. Each of these fail to eradicate head lice in some patients and resistance is a problem with chemical insecticides. Dimeticone 4% lotion (Hedrin - Thornton & Ross) is a new treatment licensed "for the eradication of head lice infestations". Here we consider its place in the context of other options.

  10. Head Start: A Promise for Alaska's Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara J.

    In fiscal year 1983 nearly 1,500 Alaskan children under the age of 6 received Head Start services from a total of 262 staff members--149 of whom were classroom personnel--and 1,473 volunteers. Over 700 Head Start children received medical screening, and more than 100 needed and received medical treatment through Head Start. Over 800 Head Start…

  11. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  12. Full-texts Representations with Medical Subject Headings, and Co-citations Network Reranking Strategies for TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    with progressive arthralgias, fatigue, and butterfly -shaped facial rash. Labs are significant for positive ANA and anti-double-stranded DNA, as well...as proteinuria and RBC casts.</summary> <MeSH_in_summary>Female ; Arthralgia ; Fa- tigue ; Butterflies ; Exanthema ; DNA ; Pro- teinuria ; DNA

  13. Absorption and metabolism of bioactive molecules after oral consumption of cooked edible heads of Cynara scolymus L. (cultivar Violetto di Provenza) in human subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Azzini, E; Bugianesi, R; Romano, F; Di Venere, D; Miccadei, S; Durazzo, A; Foddai, M S; Catasta, G; Linsalata, V; Maiani, G

    2007-05-01

    The current growing interest for natural antioxidants has led to a renewed scientific attention for artichoke, due not only to its nutritional value, but, overall, to its polyphenolic content, showing strong antioxidant properties. The major constituents of artichoke extracts are hydroxycinnamic acids such as chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acids caffeic acid and ferulic acid, and flavonoids such as luteolin and apigenin glycosides. In vitro studies, using cultured rat hepatocytes, have shown its hepatoprotective functions and in vivo studies have shown the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in human subjects. Several studies have shown the effect on animal models of artichoke extracts, while information on human bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates derivatives is still lacking. Results showed a plasma maximum concentration of 6.4 (SD 1.8) ng/ml for chlorogenic acid after 1 h and its disappearance within 2 h (P< 0.05). Peak plasma concentrations of 19.5 (SD 6.9) ng/ml for total caffeic acid were reached within 1 h, while ferulic acid plasma concentrations showed a biphasic profile with 6.4 (SD1.5) ng/ml and 8.4 (SD4.6) ng/ml within 1 h and after 8 h respectively. We observed a significant increase of dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid total levels after 8 h (P<0.05). No circulating plasma levels of luteolin and apigenin were present. Our study confirms the bioavailability of metabolites of hydroxycinnamic acids after ingestion of cooked edible Cynara scolymus L. (cultivar Violetto di Provenza).

  14. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, coma, head trauma, hematoma, impaired consciousness, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, skull penetration, stupor, vegetative state Family Health, Infants ...

  15. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; in der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background: By means of the revision of the Medical Licensure Act for Physicians (ÄAppO) in 2009, undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) was incorporated as a mandatory cross sectional examination subject (QB13) in medical education in Germany. Its implementation still constitutes a major challenge for German medical faculties. There is a discrepancy between limited university resources and limited patient availabilities and high numbers of medical students. Apart from teaching theoretical knowledge and skills, palliative care education is faced with the particular challenge of imparting a professional and adequate attitude towards incurably ill and dying patients and their relatives. Project description: Against this background, an evidence-based longitudinal UPCE curriculum was systematically developed following Kern’s Cycle [1] and partly implemented and evaluated by the students participating in the pilot project. Innovative teaching methods (virtual standardised/simulated patient contacts, e-learning courses, interdisciplinary and interprofessional collaborative teaching, and group sessions for reflective self-development) aim at teaching palliative care-related core competencies within the clinical context and on an interdisciplinary and interprofessional basis. Results: After almost five years of development and evaluation, the UPCE curriculum comprises 60 teaching units and is being fully implemented and taught for the first time in the winter semester 2014/15. The previous pilot phases were successfully concluded. To date, the pilot phases (n=26), the subproject “E-learning in palliative care” (n=518) and the blended-learning elective course “Communication with dying patients” (n=12) have been successfully evaluated. Conclusion: All conducted development steps and all developed programmes are available for other palliative care educators (Open Access). The integrated teaching formats and methods (video, e-learning module

  16. Extracting Characteristics of the Study Subjects from Full-Text Articles.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G

    Characteristics of the subjects of biomedical research are important in determining if a publication describing the research is relevant to a search. To facilitate finding relevant publications, MEDLINE citations provide Medical Subject Headings that describe the subjects' characteristics, such as their species, gender, and age. We seek to improve the recommendation of these headings by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that supports manual indexing of MEDLINE. To that end, we explore the potential of the full text of the publications. Using simple recall-oriented rule-based methods we determined that adding sentences extracted from the methods sections and captions to the abstracts prior to MTI processing significantly improved recall and F1 score with only a slight drop in precision. Improvements were also achieved in directly assigning several headings extracted from the full text. These results indicate the need for further development of automated methods capable of leveraging the full text for indexing.

  17. Head & Face Medicine - a new journal for 'intra-interdisciplinary' science. Why? When? Where?

    PubMed

    Stamm, Thomas

    2005-08-24

    The human head and face is the target structure of a large number of medical disciplines which are subject to a continuing trend in medical science - 'ongoing fragmentation' or, to use a better established term, 'opening up new fields'. An adverse side effect of this trend is the separation of scientists, which contributes to a breakdown in communication. Specialization is necessary, but who is able to recombine the pieces of knowledge gained in different branches of science? Who is able to trace back an effect to its cause through the whole system? What is the instrument that enables scientists to think 'laterally', or across disciplines?To be one of these instruments is the vision of Head & Face Medicine. To induce 'intra-interdisciplinary' thinking of scientists by bringing together the findings achieved by different researchers from various specialties, all exploring the same target structure - the human head and face. Head & Face Medicine's objective is to support scientists in gaining new insights from different views, to recognize patterns, to extract new thoughts, to recombine them and bring new visions to life. Evolving tools like the internet, e-publishing, Open Access and open peer review make Head & Face Medicine a cross between a traditional journal and a data stream which can be queried, analyzed and processed with the aim of increasing medical knowledge in the area of head and face medicine. These tools represent several advantages: fast publication, increase of a paper's scientific impact and ethical superiority. Head & Face Medicine looks forward to receiving your contributions.

  18. Visualizing the Structure of Medical Informatics Using Term Co-Occurrence Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Theodore Allan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the structure of medical informatics and the relationship between biomedicine and information science and information technology. Uses co-occurrence analysis of subject headings assigned to items indexed for MEDLINE as well as multidimensional scaling to show seven to eight broad multidisciplinary subject clusters. (Contains 28…

  19. Head Tilt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  20. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  2. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the nits easier to remove. Some dishwashing detergents can help dissolve the "glue" that makes the ... clothes and bed linens in hot water with detergent. This also helps prevent head lice from spreading ...

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  4. Head perturbations during walking while viewing a head-fixed target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Vallabh E.; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.; Discenna, Alfred O.; Leigh, R. John

    1995-01-01

    Inexpensive, head-fixed computer displays are now available that subjects can wear during locomotion. Our hypothesis is that viewing a head-fixed visual display will change the character- istics of rotational head perturbations during natural walking. Using a 3-axis angular rate sensor, we measured head rotations during natural or treadmill walking, in 10 normal subjects and 2 patients with deficient vestibular function, as they attempted to view (1) a stationary target at optical infinity; and (2) a target at a distance of 20 cm rigidly attached to the head. Normal subjects and patients showed no significant change in the predominant frequency of head rotations in any plane (ranging 0.7-5.7 Hz) during the two different viewing tasks. Mean peak head velocities also showed no difference during the two viewing conditions except in the yaw plane, in which values were greater while viewing the near target. Predominant frequencies of head rotations were similar in the pitch plane during natural or treadmill walking; however, peak velocities of pitch head rotations were substantially greater during natural walking. One vestibular patient showed modest increases of head velocity during natural walking compared with normal subjects. Rotational head perturbations that occur during natural walking are largely unaffected when subjects view a head-fixed target. There is need to study how such perturbations, which induce vestibular eye movements, affect vision of head-fixed displays.

  5. An evaluation of flight path formats head-up and head-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, George A.; Moody, Laura E.; Evans, Joanne; Williams, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Flight path primary flight display formats were incorporated on head-up and head-down electronic displays and integrated into an Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Objective and subjective data were collected while ten airline pilots evaluated the formats by flying an approach and landing task under various ceiling, visibility and wind conditions. Deviations from referenced/commanded airspeed, horizontal track, vertical track and touchdown point were smaller using the head-up display (HUD) format than the head-down display (HDD) format, but not significantly smaller. Subjectively, the pilots overwhelmingly preferred (1) flight path formats over attitude formats used in current aircraft, and (2) the head-up presentation over the head-down, primarily because it eliminated the head-down to head-up transition during low visibility landing approaches. This report describes the simulator, the flight displays, the format evaluation, and the results of the objective and subjective data.

  6. Accuracy of emergency medical dispatchers' subjective ability to identify when higher dispatch levels are warranted over a Medical Priority Dispatch System automated protocol's recommended coding based on paramedic outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Jeff; Olola, Christopher H O; Heward, Andy; Scott, Greg; Patterson, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To establish the accuracy of the emergency medical dispatcher's (EMD's) decisions to override the automated Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) logic‐based response code recommendations based on at‐scene paramedic‐applied transport acuity determinations (blue‐in) and cardiac arrest (CA) findings. Methods A retrospective study of a 1 year dataset from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. We compared all LAS “bluing in” frequency (BIQ) and cardiac arrest quotient (CAQ) outcomes of the incidents automatically recommended and accepted as CHARLIE‐level codes, to those receiving EMD DELTA‐overrides from the auto‐recommended CHARLIE‐level. We also compared the recommended DELTA‐level outcomes to those in the higher ECHO‐override cases. Results There was no significant association between outcome (CA/Blue‐in) and the determinant codes (DELTA‐override and CHARLIE‐level) for both CA (odds ratio (OR) 0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 41.14; p = 1.000) and Blue‐in categories (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.33; p = 1.000). Similar patterns were observed between outcome and all DELTA‐level and ECHO‐override codes for both CA (OR 0, 95% CI 0 to 70.05; p = 1.000) and Blue‐in categories (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0 to 7.12; p = 0.597). Conclusion This study contradicts the belief that EMDs can accurately perceive when a patient or situation requires more resources than the MPDS's structured interrogation process logically indicates. This further strengthens the concept that automated, protocol‐based call taking is more accurate and consistent than the subjective, anecdotal or experience‐based determinations made by individual EMDs. PMID:17652678

  7. Magnetic Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Tokihiko

    Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.

  8. Heading in football. Part 1: Development of biomechanical methods to investigate head response

    PubMed Central

    Shewchenko, N; Withnall, C; Keown, M; Gittens, R; Dvorak, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: There has been growing controversy regarding long term effects of repeated low severity head impacts such as when heading a football. However, there are few scientific data substantiating these concerns in terms of the biomechanical head response to impact. The present study aimed to develop a research methodology to investigate the biomechanical response of human subjects during intentional heading and identify strategies for reducing head impact severity. Methods: A controlled laboratory study was carried out with seven active football players, aged 20–23 and of average stature and weight. The subjects were fitted with photographic targets for kinematic analysis and instrumented to measure head linear/angular accelerations and neck muscle activity. Balls were delivered at two speeds (6 m/s and 8 m/s) as the subjects executed several specific forward heading manoeuvres in the standing position. Heading speeds up to 11 m/s were seen when the head closing speed was considered. One subject demonstrating averaged flexion–extension muscle activity phased with head acceleration data and upper torso kinematics was used to validate a biofidelic 50th percentile human model with a detailed head and neck. The model was exercised under ball incoming speeds of 6–7 m/s with parameter variations including torso/head alignment, neck muscle tensing, and follow through. The model output was subsequently compared with additional laboratory tests with football players (n = 3). Additional heading scenarios were investigated including follow through, non-active ball impact, and non-contact events. Subject and model head responses were evaluated with peak linear and rotational accelerations and maximum incremental head impact power. Results: Modelling of neck muscle tensing predicted lower head accelerations and higher neck loads whereas volunteer head acceleration reductions were not consistent. Modelling of head–torso alignment predicted a modest reduction in

  9. A Model for Enhancing Internet Medical Document Retrieval with “Medical Core Metadata”

    PubMed Central

    Malet, Gary; Munoz, Felix; Appleyard, Richard; Hersh, William

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Finding documents on the World Wide Web relevant to a specific medical information need can be difficult. The goal of this work is to define a set of document content description tags, or metadata encodings, that can be used to promote disciplined search access to Internet medical documents. Design: The authors based their approach on a proposed metadata standard, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, which has recently been submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force. Their model also incorporates the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary and Medline-type content descriptions. Results: The model defines a medical core metadata set that can be used to describe the metadata for a wide variety of Internet documents. Conclusions: The authors propose that their medical core metadata set be used to assign metadata to medical documents to facilitate document retrieval by Internet search engines. PMID:10094069

  10. Head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yanko, J

    1984-08-01

    In summary, the broad term "head injury" represents a large variety of more specific injuries. In order to anticipate and plan appropriate patient care, nurses need information regarding the cause of injury, the impact site, and the patient's clinical course in addition to current assessment findings. The nurse must also anticipate sequelae from secondary brain injury due to hypoxia, edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in regional blood flows, or hypovolemic shock due to internal bleeding in another body system or cavity. The head-injured patient is a complex patient requiring intensive nursing care, observation, and assessment. By incorporating knowledge of the mechanisms of injury into nursing observations and assessments, nurses can provide more effective nursing interventions.

  11. Database Subject Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.

    1978-01-01

    Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)

  12. Hyperoxia Improves Hemodynamic Status During Head-up Tilt Testing in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fromonot, Julien; Chaumet, Guillaume; Gavarry, Olivier; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lucciano, Michel; Joulia, Fabrice; Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis; Boussuges, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head-up tilt test is useful for exploring neurally mediated syncope. Adenosine is an ATP derivative implicated in cardiovascular disturbances that occur during head-up tilt test. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hyperoxia on adenosine plasma level and on hemodynamic changes induced by head-up tilt testing. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (mean age 35 ± 11 years) were included in the study. The experiment consisted of 2 head-up tilt tests, 1 session with subjects breathing, through a mask, medical air (FiO2 = 21%) and 1 session with administration of pure oxygen (FiO2 = 100%) in double-blind manner. Investigations included continuous monitoring of hemodynamic data and measurement of plasma adenosine levels. No presyncope or syncope was found in 15 of the 17 volunteers. In these subjects, a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure was recorded during orthostatic stress performed under medical air exposure. In contrast, hyperoxia led to increased systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress when compared with medical air. Furthermore, mean adenosine plasma levels decreased during hyperoxic exposure before (0.31 ± 0.08 μM) and during head-up tilt test (0.33 ± 0.09 μM) when compared with baseline (0.6 ± 0.1 μM). Adenosine plasma level was unchanged during medical air exposure at rest (0.6 ± 0.1 μM), and slightly decreased during orthostatic stress. In 2 volunteers, the head-up tilt test induced a loss of consciousness when breathing air. In these subjects, adenosine plasma level increased during orthostatic stress. In contrast, during hyperoxic exposure, the head-up tilt test did not induce presyncope or syncope. In these 2 volunteers, biological study demonstrated a decrease in adenosine plasma level at both baseline and during orthostatic stress for hyperoxic exposure compared with medical air. These results suggest that hyperoxia was able to increase blood pressure during head

  13. Effects of vestibular loss on head stabilization in response to head and body perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Control of head position during postural responses is important to facilitate both the interpretation of vestibular signals and the stabilization of gaze. In these experiments, we compared head stabilization for two different postural tasks: 1) in response to perturbations at the head, and 2) in response to perturbations induced at the support surface, which perturb both body and head position. To determine whether normal vestibular function is necessary for head stabilization in these two tasks, responses to forward and backward mechanical perturbations of the head and body were compared for 13 normal subjects and 4 patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss (two with vestibular loss in adulthood and two in infancy). Normal subjects showed little neck muscle activity for body perturbations, but large, early activations in both neck extensors and flexors for head perturbations. In contrast, vestibular patients showed excessive neck muscle activation for body perturbations and reduced or absent neck muscle activity for head perturbations. Patients with vestibular loss in adulthood also showed increased head acceleration in response to both head and body perturbations, but patients with vestibular loss in infancy showed more normal head accelerations. For body perturbations, the differences in head acceleration between patients and normals were greater for later head acceleration peaks, indicating poor head control during the execution of the postural response. Trunk angle changes were also higher in the patients for forward body perturbations, indicating that poorer control of trunk position could have contributed to their poorer head stabilization. These results indicate that the vestibular system plays an important role in head and trunk stabilization for both head and body perturbations. However, the more normal head accelerations of the patients with infant vestibular loss also indicate that other mechanisms, possibly involving neck reflexes, can at least

  14. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2004-11-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect.

  15. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath,...

  16. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath,...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath,...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath,...

  19. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad. PMID:21575285

  20. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Head louse infection is diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch (but a few may take longer, up to 13 days) and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings or of lower socioeconomic group. Factors such as longer hair make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of physically acting treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 1,2-octanediol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, and isopropyl myristate. PMID:25587918

  1. Concurrent Radiotherapy with Carboplatin and Cetuximab for the Treatment of Medically Compromised Patients with Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saigal, Kunal; Santos, Edgardo S.; Tolba, Khaled; Kwon, Deukwoo; Elsayyad, Nagy; Abramowitz, Matthew C.; Mandalia, Amar; Samuels, Michael Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cetuximab (Cx) + radiation therapy (RT) is well-tolerated and has improved survival in patients (pts) with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (LA-HNSCC). However, its efficacy when compared to HD-DDP + RT has been questioned. At our institution, low-dose weekly carboplatin is added to Cx + RT for patients unsuitable for HD-DDP. Methods: We reviewed records of 16 patients with LA-HNSCC treated with definitive Cx + carboplatin + RT at the University of Miami from 2007 to 2011. Median follow-up was 24 months (range: 1–69 months). Results: Median age: 71.5 years (range: 57–90 years); 15 male, 1 female. ECOG PS 0 = 15, 1 = 1. TNM staging was: T1 = 1, T2 = 5, T3 = 8, T4 = 2; N stage: N0 = 8, N1 = 5, N2a = 2, N2b = 1. All patients received weekly carboplatin (AUC 1.5–2), Cx given conventionally and daily conventionally fractionated RT. Median total weeks of concurrent systemic therapy = 7 (range: 3–8 weeks). RT was delivered to a median total dose of 70 Gy (range 30–74 Gy). Of the 15 evaluable patients, there were: 12 CR, 2 PR, and 1 PD. There were three local in-field failures, two regional failures, and three distant failures. At last follow-up, 8/15 patients remained with NED. Three-year locoregional recurrence was 28.3% (95% CI: 7.7–53.9%). Mean percentage of weight loss was 14% (range: 6–26%). Two patients required systemic therapy dose reduction. Three patients experienced a treatment delay and three did not finish RT as planned including a patient who received only 30 Gy due to death secondary to MI during treatment. Conclusion: In this small retrospective series, carboplatin/Cx/RT was well-tolerated and efficacious in patients unsuitable for HD-DDP having LA-HNSCC. Acute toxicities were similar to Cx + RT, likely due to the non-overlapping toxicity profiles of the two systemic agents. We hypothesize that the addition of a well

  2. Natural convection around the human head.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P; Toy, N

    1975-01-01

    1. Factors determining the convective flow patterns around the human head in 'still' conditions are discussed in relation to body posture. 2. The flow patterns have been visualized using a schlieren optical system which reveals that the head has a thicker 'insulating' layer of convecting air in the erect posture than in the supine position. 3. Local convective and radiative heat transfer measurements from the head have been using surface calorimeters. These results are seen to be closely related to the thickness of the convective boundary layer flows. 4. The total convective and radiative heat loss from the head of a subject in the erect and supine position has been evaluated from the local measurements. For the head of the supine subject the heat loss was found to be 30% more than when the subject was standing. Images Plate 1 PMID:1142118

  3. [Forensic medical assessment of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kadochnikov, D S; Minaeva, P V

    2016-01-01

    The annually increasing number of the patients presenting with HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis is naturally accompanied by the growing number of deaths from these infectious pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of forensic medical expertises of the cases of HIV infection and hemocontact viral hepatitis B and C during the period from 2011 till 2015 in different subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained confirm the tendency toward the further rise in the frequency of such cases in the practical work of forensic medical experts. Moreover, they indicate the necessity of registration of such cases in state forensic medical expertise organizations and open up the prospects for the development of the common approaches to the solution of the existing problems including the evaluation of the degree of the harm to human health.

  4. That Elusive Concept of "Aboutness": The Year's Work in Subject Analysis, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alva T.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the 1992 literature on subject analysis. Highlights include theoretical foundations; subject cataloging; machine-assisted subject cataloging; machine-executed subject cataloging; classification systems; subject headings and indexing; online subject access; and special materials. (Contains 133 references.) (LRW)

  5. National Head Start Bulletin, 1993-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Head Start Bulletin, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the 15 issues of the "National Head Start Bulletin" published during the three-year period 1993-1995. The bulletin is devoted to subjects of concern to Head Start teachers and administrators; each issue focuses on one topic. A main article and several smaller articles discuss various aspects of the topic for…

  6. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  11. Can imaginary head tilt shorten postrotatory nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianna-Poulin, C. C.; Voelker, C. C.; Erickson, B.; Black, F. O.

    2001-01-01

    In healthy subjects, head tilt upon cessation of a constant-velocity yaw head rotation shortens the duration of postrotatory nystagmus. The presumed mechanism for this effect is that the velocity storage of horizontal semicircular canal inputs is being discharged by otolith organ inputs which signal a constant yaw head position when the head longitudinal axis is no longer earth-vertical. In the present study, normal subjects were rotated head upright in the dark on a vertical-axis rotational chair at 60 degrees/s for 75 s and were required to perform a specific task as soon as the chair stopped. Horizontal position of the right eye was recorded with an infra-red video camera. The average eye velocity (AEV) was measured over a 30-s interval following chair acceleration/deceleration. The ratios (postrotatory AEV/perrotatory AEV) were 1.1 (SD 0.112) when subjects (N=10) kept their head erect, 0.414 (SD 0.083) when subjects tilted their head forward, 1.003 (SD 0.108) when subjects imagined watching a TV show, 1.012 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined looking at a painting on a wall, and 0.995 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined floating in a prone position on a lake. Thus, while actual head tilt reduced postrotatory nystagmus, the imagination tasks did not have a statistically significant effect on postrotatory nystagmus. Therefore, velocity storage does not appear to be under the influence of cortical neural signals when subjects imagine that they are floating in a prone orientation.

  12. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  13. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen from a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries ...

  14. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  15. Subjects such as strategic planning, extra-disciplinary communication, and management have become crucial to medical physics clinical practice and should become an integral part of the medical physics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Carmel J; Cunha, J Adam M; Orton, Colin G

    2017-03-15

    In addition to their clinical duties, many medical physicists find themselves in a situation where they have to do managerial work such as strategic planning and communication within a hospital or with outside agencies. Typically, these skills are obtained on-the-job or by taking extra-curricular courses. However, some believe that such strategic planning and communication and management skills are so important that courses on these topics should become an integral part of the medical physics curriculum. This is the claim debated in this month's Point/Counterpoint. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  17. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    The postconcussion syndrome refers to a large number of symptoms and signs that may occur alone or in combination following usually mild head injury. The most common complaints are headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of consciousness and memory, and noise sensitivity. Mild head injury is a major public health concern because the annual incidence is about 150 per 100,000 population, accounting for 75% or more of all head injuries. The postconcussion syndrome has been recognized for at least the last few hundred years and has been the subject of intense controversy for more than 100 years. The Hollywood head injury myth has been an important contributor to persisting skepticism and might be countered by educational efforts and counter-examples from boxing. The organicity of the postconcussion syndrome has now become well documented. Abnormalities following mild head injury have been reported in neuropathologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychologic studies. There are multiple sequelae of mild head injury, including headaches of multiple types, cranial nerve symptoms and signs, psychologic and somatic complaints, and cognitive impairment. Rare sequelae include hematomas, seizures, transient global amnesia, tremor, and dystonia. Neuroimaging and physiologic and psychologic testing should be used judiciously based on the problems of the particular patient rather than in a cookbook fashion. Prognostic studies clearly substantiate the existence of a postconcussion syndrome. Manifestations of the postconcussion syndrome are common, with resolution in most patients by 3 to 6 months after the injury. Persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits are present in a distinct minority of patients for additional months or years. Risk factors for persisting sequelae include age over 40 years; lower educational, intellectual, and socioeconomic level; female gender; alcohol abuse; prior head injury; and multiple trauma. Although a small

  18. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex.

  19. Memory and head injury severity.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Temkin, N; McLean, A; Wyler, A; Machamer, J

    1987-12-01

    One hundred and two consecutive head injured patients were studied at 1 and 12 months after injury. Their performances were compared with a group of uninjured friends. The results indicate that impairment in memory depends on the type of task used, time from injury to testing, and on the severity of head injury (that is, degree of impaired consciousness). Head injury severity indices are more closely related to behavioural outcome early as compared with later after injury. At 1 year, only those with deep or prolonged impaired consciousness (as represented by greater than 1 day of coma, Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 or less, and post traumatic amnesia of 2 weeks or greater) are performing significantly worse than comparison subjects.

  20. Multiple-dose escalation, safety, and tolerability study of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuge, Tomoo; Shibata, Takashi; Willett, Michael S

    2003-03-01

    Seirogan, an herbal medicine containing wood creosote (CAS 8021-39-4), a mixture of simple phenolic compounds, has been marketed for the past century in Asia for the treatment of acute diarrhea and associated symptoms, such as abdominal discomfort and cramping. The present study was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of an anticipated acute antidiarrheal dosing regimen. Sixty healthy males were randomized into five groups of 12 subjects each (9 wood creosote; 3 placebo) to receive 45-, 90-, 135-, 180-, and 225-mg tablets every 2 hours for five doses. Serial sitting and standing vital signs, ECG rhythm strips, and continuous telemetry monitoring were obtained predose and for 24 hours after the first dose. Clinical laboratory tests and 12-lead resting ECGs were obtained predose and 24 hours postdose. Of the subjects, 27% (12/45) receiving wood creosote and 27% (4/15) receiving placebo reported adverse events. The most common adverse events were altered taste and somnolence, reported more often with 180- and 225-mg doses. Wood creosote had no clinically significant effects on vital signs, ECG intervals or interpretations, or clinical laboratory tests. No clinically significant or serious dysrhythmias were reported on continuous telemetry monitoring. It was concluded that oral doses of wood creosote 45 to 225 mg every 2 hours for up to five doses were safe and well tolerated in 45 healthy subjects. Wood creosote doses ranging from 45 to 135 mg per dose, which are commonly administered antidiarrheal doses in Asia, were associated with minimal side effects.

  1. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  2. Superior antidepressant effect occurring 1 month after rTMS: add-on rTMS for subjects with medication-resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Chang, Chung-Hung; Tsai, Hsin-Chi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Lin, Chaucer CH

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a major psychiatric disorder. The standard treatment for depression is antidepressant medication, but the responses to antidepressant treatment are only partial, even poor, among 30%–45% of patients. Refractory depression is defined as depression that does not respond to antidepressant therapy after 4 weeks of use. There is evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may exert effects in treating psychiatric disorder through moderating focal neuronal functions. High-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal area and low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal area were shown to be effective in alleviating depressive symptoms. Given the statistically significant antidepressant effectiveness noted, the clinical application of rTMS as a depression treatment warrants further studies. Application of rTMS as an add-on therapy would be a practical research model. High-frequency (5–20 Hz) rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to have a significant effect on medication-resistant depression. In the present study, we not only measured the acute antidepressant effect of rTMS during treatment and immediately after its completion but also evaluated participants 1 month after completion of the treatment protocol. Study participants were divided into two groups: an active rTMS group (n = 10) and a sham group (n = 10). The active rTMS group was defined as participants who received the rTMS protocol, and the sham group was defined as participants who received a sham rTMS procedure. A significant Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score reduction was observed in both groups after the fifth and tenth treatments. However, those in the active rTMS group maintained their improvement as measured one month after completion of the rTMS protocol. Participants who received active rTMS were more likely to have persistent improvement in depression scores than participants who received sham rTMS. PMID:23576870

  3. Cognitive outcomes of multiple mild head injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Bijur, P E; Haslum, M; Golding, J

    1996-06-01

    This study assessed cumulative effects of multiple mild head injuries on cognitive functioning in children. Subjects included 1586 children with one mild head injury, 278 with two, and 51 with three or more head injuries between birth and age 10 years and controls without head injuries matched on gender and total number of injuries. The number of head injuries and injuries not to the head was associated with decreasing performance on measures of intelligence (p < .01), reading (p < .01), and math (p = .02). There was no interaction between case-control status and number of injuries, indicating a similar relationship between cognitive outcomes and number of injuries in head-injured cases and controls. After adjustment for covariates, the relationship between number of injuries and cognitive outcomes became nonsignificant. This study suggests that cognitive deficits associated with multiple mild head injury are due to social and personal factors related to multiple injuries and not to specific damage to the head.

  4. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  5. Efficacy, Safety, and Subject Satisfaction of a Specified Skin Care Regimen to Cleanse, Medicate, Moisturize, and Protect the Skin of Patients Under Treatment for Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, James Q.; Gold, Michael; Rueda, Maria José; Brandt, Staci; Winkelman, Warren J.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal management of acne vulgaris requires incorporation of several components including patient education, selection of a rational therapeutic regimen, dedicated adherence with the program by the patient, and integration of proper skin care. Unfortunately, the latter component is often overlooked or not emphasized strongly enough to the patient. Proper skin care may reduce potential irritation that can be associated with topical acne medications and prevents the patient from unknowingly using skin care products that can actually sabotage their treatment. This article reviews the effectiveness, skin tolerability, safety, and patient satisfaction of an open label study in which a specified skin care regimen is used in combination with topical therapy. The study was designed to mirror “real world” management of facial acne vulgaris clinical practice. The skin care regimen used in this study included a brand foam wash and a brand moisturizer with SPF 30 photoprotection, both of which contain ingredients that are included to provide benefits for acne-prone and acne-affected skin. PMID:25610521

  6. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, María Teresa; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  7. Patient-reported-outcomes in subjects with painful lumbar or cervical radiculopathy treated with pregabalin: evidence from medical practice in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Masramón, Xavier; Rejas, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregabalin in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy treated in Primary Care settings under routine clinical practice. An observational, prospective 12-week secondary analysis was carried-out. Male and female above 18 years, naïve to PGB, with refractory chronic pain secondary to cervical/lumbosacral radiculopathy were enrolled. SF-MPQ, Sheehan Disability Inventory, MOS Sleep Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ-5D were administered. A total of 490 (34%) patients were prescribed PGB-monotherapy, 702 (48%) received PGB add-on, and 159 (11%) were administered non-PGB drugs. After 12 weeks, significant improvements in pain, associated symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, general health; and level of disability were observed in the three groups, being significantly greater in PGB groups. In routine medical practice, monotherapy or add-on pregabalin is associated with substantial pain alleviation and associated symptoms improvements in painful cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy. PMID:19798503

  8. Subject and Citation Indexing. Part I: The Clustering Structure of Composite Representations in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection. Part II: The Optimal, Cluster-Based Retrieval Performance of Composite Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two articles discuss the clustering of composite representations in the Cystic Fibrosis Document Collection from the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE file. Clustering is evaluated as a function of the exhaustivity of composite representations based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and citation indexes, and evaluation of retrieval…

  9. Head Lag in Infancy: What Is It Telling Us?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lauren C.; Seefeldt, Kristin; Hilton, Claudia L.; Rogers, Cynthia L.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate changes in head lag across postmenstrual age and define associations between head lag and (1) perinatal exposures and (2) neurodevelopment. METHOD. Sixty-four infants born ≤30 wk gestation had head lag assessed before and at term-equivalent age. Neurobehavior was assessed at term age. At 2 yr, neurodevelopmental testing was conducted. RESULTS. Head lag decreased with advancing postmenstrual age, but 58% (n = 37) of infants continued to demonstrate head lag at term. Head lag was associated with longer stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (p = .009), inotrope use (p = .04), sepsis (p = .02), longer endotracheal intubation (p = .01), and cerebral injury (p = .006). Head lag was related to alterations in early neurobehavior (p < .03), but no associations with neurodevelopment were found at 2 yr. CONCLUSION. Head lag was related to medical factors and early neurobehavior, but it may not be a good predictor of outcome when used in isolation. PMID:26709421

  10. Comprehensive head and neck trauma screening: the USS Cole experience.

    PubMed

    Helling, Eric R; Pfannenstiel, Travis J

    2005-11-01

    A prospective study was designed to determine the incidence of occult head and neck injuries after initial triage of patients following the USS Cole terrorist bombing. All 39 patients evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center underwent comprehensive head and neck examinations, regardless of known diagnoses at the time of arrival. Appropriate interventions were performed, and detailed summaries were added to the patients' records. Initial triage listed nine of 39 patients as having sustained head and neck injuries. After screening by an otolaryngology team, 23 of 39 patients were identified as having head and neck injuries requiring further care. The majority of head and neck injuries were not initially reported to the head and neck trauma service. Our conclusion is that occult head and neck injuries are common after blast injuries. Early identification and intervention by a subspecialty head and neck trauma team can aid in achieving optimal outcomes after blast injury.

  11. Decisive evidence on a smaller-than-you-think phenomenon: revisiting the "1-in-X" effect on subjective medical probabilities.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie; Kostopoulou, Olga; Hanak, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Accurate perception of medical probabilities communicated to patients is a cornerstone of informed decision making. People, however, are prone to biases in probability perception. Recently, Pighin and others extended the list of such biases with evidence that "1-in-X" ratios (e.g., "1 in 12") led to greater perceived probability and worry about health outcomes than "N-in-X*N" ratios (e.g., "10 in 120"). Subsequently, the recommendation was to avoid using "1-in-X" ratios when communicating probabilistic information to patients. To warrant such a recommendation, we conducted 5 well-powered replications and synthesized the available data. We found that 3 out of the 5 replications yielded statistically nonsignificant findings. In addition, our results showed that the "1-in-X" effect was not moderated by numeracy, cognitive reflection, age, or gender. To quantify the evidence for the effect, we conducted a Bayes factor meta-analysis and a traditional meta-analysis of our 5 studies and those of Pighin and others (11 comparisons, N = 1131). The meta-analytical Bayes factor, which allowed assessment of the evidence for the null hypothesis, was very low, providing decisive evidence to support the existence of the "1-in-X" effect. The traditional meta-analysis showed that the overall effect was significant (Hedges' g = 0.42, 95% CI 0.29-0.54). Overall, we provide decisive evidence for the existence of the "1-in-X" effect but suggest that it is smaller than previously estimated. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland).

  13. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, P. J.; Howard, J.; Hallett, W. A.; Gunn, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown.

  14. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET.

    PubMed

    Noonan, P J; Howard, J; Hallett, W A; Gunn, R N

    2015-11-21

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown.

  15. Dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Ohno, Manabu; Tomita, Susumu

    2006-08-01

    We determined the frequency of dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan and evaluated its clinical correlates. A total of 252 consecutive patients with PD who visited our hospital were studied. Dropped head syndrome was found in 15 patients (6.0%) (3 men, 12 women; mean age at onset of PD, 62.8 +/- 11.5 years). The interval before emergence of dropped head after disease onset was 5.4 +/- 4.3 years (-0.5 to 15 years). The Hoehn-Yahr score at the on stage was 3.2 +/- 0.7; at the off stage 3.5 +/- 0.8. Of those 15 patients, 8 had major symptoms of rigidity and akinesia. In 2 patients, administration of a dopamine agonist appeared to evoke dropped head syndrome. An increase in and/or the addition of antiparkinsonian drugs alleviated head drop in 4 patients and reduced head drop in 7 patients. Any medication was not effective for 4 patients. Dropped head syndrome in PD is not rare in Japan. It is more often observed in women and is associated with patients who primarily suffer rigidity and akinesia. Dropped head syndrome in these patients appears to be produced by disproportionate tonus of the neck muscles. It is modulated by antiparkinsonian drugs and is considered to be a type of dystonia.

  16. Age-related changes in head and eye coordination.

    PubMed

    Proudlock, Frank A; Shekhar, Himanshu; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ageing upon head movements during gaze shifts is unknown. We have investigated age-related changes in head and eye coordination in a group of healthy volunteers. Horizontal head and eye movements were recorded in 53 subjects, aged between 20 and 83 years, during the performance of saccades, antisaccades, smooth pursuit and a reading task. The subjects were divided into three groups, young subjects (20-40 years), middle-aged subjects (41-60 years) and older subjects (over 60 years). Logarithmic transformations of the head gain were significantly greater in the older subjects compared to the young subjects during the saccadic task (P=0.001), antisaccadic task (P=0.004), smooth pursuit at 20 degrees/s (P=0.001) and 40 degrees/s (P=0.005), but not reading. For saccadic and antisaccadic tasks, the increase in transformed head gain was non-linear with significant differences between older and middle-aged subjects but not middle-aged and young subjects. Head movement tendencies were highly consistent for related tasks. Head movement gain during gaze shifts significantly increases with age, which may contribute to dizziness and balance problems experienced by the elderly.

  17. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  18. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  19. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  20. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  1. Vestibulopathy and age effects on head stability during chair rise.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E; Scarborough, D M

    2001-01-01

    It is unknown how vestibular dysfunction and age differentially affect balance control during functional activities. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the effects of age and vestibulopathy on head control when rising from a chair. Head relative to trunk (head-on-trunk) sagittal plane angular and linear control strategies were studied in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and in healthy subjects aged 30-80 years. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare head-on-trunk kinematics by age (young vs elderly) and diagnosis (healthy vs BVH) at the time of liftoff from the seat. Angular control strategies differed with age but not diagnosis: young (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations in space while elderly (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations on the trunk. In contrast, linear control strategies differed by diagnosis but not age: BVH subjects (young and old) allowed a greater rate of head-on-trunk translation while healthy subjects (young and old) inhibited such translations. Young BVH subjects stabilized head-in-space rotations (as did young healthy subjects) without a functioning vestibular system, suggesting cervicocollic reflex and/or other sensory compensation for vestibular loss. Elderly BVH subjects stabilized head rotation with respect to the trunk, as did healthy elders, but did not stabilize head-on-trunk translations, suggesting a reliance on passive mechanical responses of the neck to sense head movements. We conclude that compensation strategies used by patients with vestibulopathy are age-dependent and appear to be more tractable in the younger BVH patient.

  2. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  3. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  4. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person’s risk of head and neck cancer. Marijuana use. Research suggests that people who have used marijuana may be at higher risk for head and ... head and neck cancer include: Avoiding alcohol Discussing marijuana as a risk factor with your doctor and ...

  5. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 180 K) En Español On this page: Blood-Sucking Bugs Steps for Safe Use Heading Off Head Lice Head lice. Every parent’s nightmare. A year-round problem, the number of cases seems to peak when ...

  6. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  7. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  8. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  10. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  11. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  12. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  13. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  14. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  15. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  16. Efficacy of a Film-Forming Medical Device Containing Piroxicam and Sun Filters in the Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis Lesions in a Subject with a History of Kaposi Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Elisabetta; Deledda, Salvatore; Milani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is considered a premalignant form of skin cancer due to chronic sun exposure. In addition, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been advocated a role in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. HPV proteins (mainly E6 and E7) seem to act synergistically with ultraviolet (UV) radiation in reducing the defensive mechanisms of keratinocyte apoptosis after UV damage. Data regarding the involvement of other viruses, i.e. human herpes viruses (HHV), in the pathogenesis of AK are so far controversial. HHV8 is considered the infective agent involved in the development of Kaposi sarcoma. Some experimental data have shown that AK lesions carry HHV8 in more than 30% of the bioptic samples. Topical piroxicam was shown to be effective in the treatment of AK. In addition, the molecule shows antiviral action against HPV and HHV8. Here, we report the efficacy of a medical device containing a film-forming substance (polyvinyl alcohol), chemical and physical sun filters (SPF 50+), and 0.8% piroxicam (Actixicam™, Difa Cooper; ACTX) in the treatment of multiple scalp AK lesions, unresponsive to other treatments, in a subject with Kaposi sarcoma and a history of severe contact dermatitis. The subject presented with severe involvement of the scalp, with multiple hypertrophic AK lesions. Previous lesion-directed and field-targeted treatments have not been effective. The subject was treated with ACTX applied twice daily on the affected scalp. Relevant clinical improvement was observed as soon as 1 month of therapy. Complete clinical resolution of all scalp lesions was observed after 3 months of treatment. The product was well tolerated. PMID:28101017

  17. Head Circumference and Height in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  18. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  19. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  20. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  1. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  2. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  3. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  4. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  5. Effect of clenching with a mouthguard on head acceleration during heading of a soccer ball.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Keishiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are acceleration-deceleration injuries that occur when biomechanical forces are transmitted to the cerebral tissues. By limiting acceleration of the head, enhanced cervical muscle activity derived from clenching with a mouthguard (MG) may reduce the incidence or severity of concussions following impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of voluntary clenching with a proper MG on acceleration of the head during "heading" of a soccer ball. Eleven male high school soccer players (mean age, 16.8 years) participated in the study. Each player was given a customized MG. An automated soccer machine was used to project the ball at the participants at a constant speed. The participants headed the ball under 3 different oral conditions: drill 1, heading freely performed without instruction and without the MG; drill 2, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench the masseter muscles tightly while not wearing the MG; drill 3, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench tightly while wearing the MG. Each participant repeated each drill 5 times. Linear acceleration of the head was measured with a 3-axis accelerometer. Activity of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles was measured by wireless electromyography. Weak masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was observed during drill 1. After the soccer players had been instructed to clench their masseter muscles (drills 2 and 3), statistically significant decreases in head acceleration and increases in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity were observed (P < 0.05; paired t test). The effect was stronger when the players wore the MG. Dentists should encourage soccer players to habitually clench while wearing a proper mouthguard to strengthen cervical muscle resistance as a way to mitigate the damage caused by heading.

  6. Premorbid prevalence of poor academic performance in severe head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J F; Cope, D N; Hall, K

    1987-01-01

    A study of 80 head injured patients revealed poor premorbid academic performance in up to 50% of the sample. Poor academic performance, as defined by diagnosis of learning disability, multiple failed academic subjects, or school dropout during secondary education, is not a previously cited risk factor for head injury. These findings have important implications in the identification of a high risk population and in the subsequent ability to reduce the incidence of head injury. PMID:3819755

  7. Infant Abusive Head Trauma in a Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    higher AHT risk infants may not receive preventive education targeted at the newborn nursery. Parental risk factors related to AHT included lower pay...Naval Health Research Center Infant Abusive Head Trauma in A Military Cohort Gia Gumbs David W. Lloyd Heather T. Keenan Desmond K...3521 Infant Abusive Head Trauma in a Military Cohort WHAT’S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a type of physical child abuse, with

  8. Year's Work in Subject Analysis: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews contributions by scholars and institutions in the fields of classification, subject headings, thesauri, indexing, abstracting, and automatic classification and indexing. Also included are works exploring the theoretical foundations of subject analysis and the history of indexing and abstracting. There are 111 references. (RAA)

  9. Year's Work in Subject Analysis: 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Jennifer A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a selective review of works in 1981 concerned with subject access to information sources, with specific discussions devoted to general and theoretical works, vocabulary management, classification schemes, subject headings, indexing, and automatic indexing and classification. A 110-item bibliography is included. (JL)

  10. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle as a prognostic indicator of survival in head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Władysiuk, M.S.; Mlak, R.; Morshed, K.; Surtel, W.; Brzozowska, A.; Małecka-Massalska, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phase angle could be an alternative to subjective global assessment for the assessment of nutrition status in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 75 stage iiib and iv head-and-neck patients treated at the Otolaryngology Department, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all patients using an analyzer that operated at 50 kHz. The phase angle was calculated as reactance divided by resistance (Xc/R) and expressed in degrees. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate survival. Results Median overall survival in the cohort was 32.0 months. At the time of analysis, 47 deaths had been recorded in the cohort (62.7%). The risk of shortened overall survival was significantly higher in patients whose phase angle was less than 4.733 degrees than in the remaining patients (19.6 months vs. 45 months, p = 0.0489; chi-square: 3.88; hazard ratio: 1.8856; 95% confidence interval: 1.0031 to 3.5446). Conclusions Phase angle might be prognostic of survival in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Further investigation in a larger population is required to confirm our results. PMID:27803609

  11. Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy for Evaluation of Head and Neck Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoesli, Rebecca C; Orringer, Daniel A; McHugh, Jonathan B; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aim to describe a novel, label-free, real-time imaging technique, coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, for histopathological evaluation of head and neck cancer. We evaluated the ability of CRS microscopy to delineate between tumor and nonneoplastic tissue in tissue samples from patients with head and neck cancer. Study Design Prospective case series. Setting Tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Patients eligible were surgical candidates with biopsy-proven, previously untreated head and neck carcinoma and were consented preoperatively for participation in this study. Tissue was collected from 50 patients, and after confirmation of tumor and normal specimens by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), there were 42 tumor samples and 42 normal adjacent controls. Results There were 42 confirmed carcinoma specimens on H&E, and CRS microscopy identified 37 as carcinoma. Of the 42 normal specimens, CRS microscopy identified 40 as normal. This resulted in a sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 95.2% in distinguishing between neoplastic and nonneoplastic images. Conclusion CRS microscopy is a unique label-free imaging technique that can provide rapid, high-resolution images and can accurately determine the presence of head and neck carcinoma. This holds potential for implementation into standard practice, allowing frozen margin evaluation even at institutions without a histopathology laboratory.

  12. Medical treatment for biochemical relapse after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Quero, L; Hennequin, C

    2014-10-01

    This article's purpose was to review the medical data justifying the use of a medical treatment for biochemical relapse after external beam radiotherapy. The MEDLINE database was searched to identify relevant information with the following medical subject headings: "prostate cancer", "radiotherapy" and "biochemical relapse". Prognostic factors affecting the overall survival of patients with a biochemical relapse after external beam radiotherapy have been identified: short prostate specific antigen (PSA)-doubling time (< 12 months), high PSA value (> 10 ng/mL) and short interval between treatment and biochemical relapse (< 18 months). If a second local treatment is not feasible, timing to initiate a salvage medical treatment is not defined. Particularly, randomized trials did not demonstrate a significant benefit of an early initiation of androgen deprivation treatment. Some retrospective studies suggest that an early androgen deprivation is justified if poor prognostic factors are found. However, if an androgen deprivation treatment is prescribed, intermittent schedule is non-inferior to a continuous administration and seems to offer a better quality of life. Many non-hormonal treatments have also been evaluated in this setting: only 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors could be proposed in some specific situations. In conclusion, the judicious use of a medical treatment for biochemical relapse is still debated. Given the natural history of this clinical situation, a simple surveillance is justified in many cases.

  13. Controlling graphic objects naturally: use your head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Rodger, James C.; Sewell, Ian; Brooke, Jeffrey

    1997-05-01

    During normal viewing of an object, a human observer will typically make small movements in the position of the head resulting in small parallax-related image changes. The significance of these changes is apparent when viewing a static stereographic display. Since the observer expects modifications in viewing direction that accompany side to side head movements, the lack of such changes in viewing stereographic displays creates the striking illusion that the static display is rotating in a compensatory direction. Using head tracking, we generate the appropriate pairs of images on a stereographic display device in order to maintain a stable virtual stereo object for the viewer. Unnatural, but learnable mappings from input devices such as a mouse or a joystick are typically used to bring about changes in the viewing direction and viewing distance in graphic displays. As an alternative to these techniques, we have extended the use of the monitored head position, resulting in a display system that permits control of graphic objects with subtle head movements. The device permits a zone of small head movements for which there is no rotation or scaling of the virtual object, but only parallax-related images changes as projected to each eye. A slightly exaggerated head movement initiates rotation and/or scaling of the scene that terminates when the head returns to a central viewing position. We are carrying out experiments to test the performance of human subjects in tasks that require head movements to control the rotation of graphic objects. A preliminary study that only examines rotation around a single axis suggests that it may be a very effective and natural technique.

  14. Preparing for Success: How Head Start Helps Children with Disabilities and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Danielle; Neas, Katherine Beh

    2005-01-01

    Head Start programs provide critical comprehensive services for young children with or at risk of developing disabilities. Both the Head Start Act and federal Head Start performance standards require a mix of outreach, early child assessments, and evaluations, followed by comprehensive educational, medical, and social services provided in an…

  15. Is there a role for surgery in the management of dropped head syndrome?

    PubMed

    Amin, A; Casey, A T H; Etherington, G

    2004-06-01

    We present a 50-year-old chronic epileptic man with a long-standing head drop, who fell sustaining multilevel thoracic vertebral body fractures. The antiepileptic medication was thought to be responsible for his osteoporosis and dropped head. We review the aetiology of the dropped head and report on our experience of surgery for this rare and disabling condition.

  16. Head Start. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Head Start is a national program that provides comprehensive developmental services for preschool children (ages 3 to 5) from low-income families and social services for their families. Approximately 1,400 community-based nonprofit organizations and school systems develop programs to meet specific needs. Head Start began in 1965 in the Office of…

  17. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  18. Effects of Head-Supported Devices on Female Aviators during Simulated Helicopter Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    addressed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS . , . . Helmets, Head-mounted displays, Head-supported devices, Night-vision goggles, Whole-body vibration , helicopter ...Training Phase 1" Simulated Helicopter Vibration 16 Subject Preparation 17 Maximum Voluntary Contraction and EMG Calibration 17 Sub-maximal Endurance 17...exposure of female military subjects to simulated helicopter vibration signatures and different helmet configurations. Ultimately, these limits must

  19. Teaching Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. P.; Cook, E.; Newing, A.

    2006-07-01

    Medical Physics provides immediate and accessible examples that can assist in the teaching of a range of science subjects. To help teachers, we have produced a teaching pack that will be sent to all UK secondary schools in June 2006 and will be available from www.teachingmedicalphysics.org.uk. Here we discuss the advantages of teaching using applications drawn from Medical Physics, careers in Medical Physics, and some sources of other Medical Physics-related teaching resources.

  20. 77 FR 28258 - Copayments for Medications in 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    .... List of Subjects in 38 CFR Part 17 Administrative practice and procedure; Alcohol abuse; Alcoholism...; Homeless; Medical and dental schools; Medical devices; Medical research; Mental health programs;...

  1. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/− medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  2. Influence of an eccentric load added at the back of the head on head-neck posture.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Esteban E; Frigo, Carlo A; Pedotti, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical study of the head-neck complex in seated subjects was conducted to verify whether a slight load, applied at the back of the head, could beneficially affect the head-neck posture, one of the factors of postural neck pain. An eccentric load of 0.5 kg was applied to the subjects' head by means of a special cap. A group of asymptomatic subjects (n=10, 28.9±12.1 yrs), and a group of subjects that had experienced mild, occasional neck pain (n=10, 39.6±18.4 yrs) were compared. They were analyzed while maintaining a still posture that was periodically perturbed to avoid habituation. A 3D motion analyzer and reflective markers placed over the head, the neck and the trunk, were used to compute head inclination and translation and head/neck flexion angle in different conditions: before, during and after having had the load applied for 15 min. Although the moment induced by the load was extensor, a forward-oriented movement of the head was observed in both groups. However, the forward displacement, in relation to the initial position, was smaller in the mild neck pain group than in the asymptomatic group (5.7±4.7 mm vs. 8.9±5.5 mm, P<0.05 and 2.6±5.9 mm vs. 11.0±9.0 mm after 15 min, P<0.05). After removing the load, the mild neck pain subjects assumed a retracted position (-3.8±2.7 mm) while the asymptomatic subjects stayed protracted (+3.5±5.1 mm, P<0.01). These unexpected findings suggest that a slight load added to the head can influence the postural control mechanisms and, in symptomatic subjects, lead to a new strategy aimed at a reduction of the neck extensor muscle contraction.

  3. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    Resistance. - Safety measures. sa Aeroplanes - Safety measures. - Study and teaching . - Terminology. - Warning service. See Antiaircraft defense... teaching (UF 320) - Subcaliber equipment. See Subcaliber practice and equipment. - Subcaliber practice. See Subcaliber practice and equipment. - Supply. xx...War use.. - Smoke pots. - Songs and music. - Spraying. - Standing operating procedure. - Study and teaching . - Supply. - Support. - Tactics

  4. Modulation of Head Movement Control During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Verstraete, Mary C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of the head relative to the trunk within a gait cycle during gaze fixation. Nine normal subjects walked on a motorized treadmill driven at 1.79 m/sec (20 s trials) while fixing their gaze on a centrally located earth-fixed target positioned at a distance of 2m from their eyes. The relative motion of the head and the net torque acting on it relative to the trunk during the gait cycle were used as measures of coordination. It was found that the net torque applied to the head counteracts the destabilizing forces acting on the upper body during locomotion. The average net torque impulse was significantly different (p less than 0.05) between the heel strike and swing phases and were found to be symmetrical between the right and left leg events of the gait cycle. However, the average net displacement of the head relative to the trunk was maintained uniform (p greater than 0.05) throughout the gait cycle. Thus, the coordination of the motion of the head relative to the trunk during walking is dynamically modulated depending on the behavioral events occurring in the gait cycle. This modulation may serve to aid stabilization of the head by counteracting the force variations acting on the upper body that may aid in the visual fixing of targets during walking.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  6. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  7. No acute changes in postural control after soccer heading

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, S; Guskiewicz, K; Sell, T; Lephart, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Soccer heading has been proposed as a potential cause of cerebral dysfunction. Objective: To examine the acute effects of two types of soccer heading on postural control. Methods: Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, linear heading, simulated rotational heading, or rotational heading. Each subject completed a baseline postural stability assessment on day 1. On day 2 the same assessment was completed for the control subjects. The simulated rotational heading group completed a simulated heading drill before postural stability testing. The linear and rotational heading groups performed a heading drill with 20 balls at 88.71 km/h (55 mph), before postural stability testing. Separate one between (group), three within (surface, eyes, and day), mixed model, repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted on values for total sway and mean centre of pressure. Results: The mixed model analysis of variance of results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) for the interactions of interest for either variable. Results suggest no acute changes in measures of postural control in soccer players completing either a linear or rotational soccer heading drill of 20 balls at a fixed speed. Conclusion: Non-significant interactions between surface, eyes, day, and group indicate that sensory interaction of the balance mechanism components are not be compromised by the heading drill. This research supports previous studies suggesting that there are no acute risks associated with routine soccer heading. A direct comparison between these findings and those suggesting long term chronic deficits, however, cannot be made. Other studies that report chronic cerebral deficits in soccer players may have resulted from factors other than soccer heading and warrant further examination. PMID:15388539

  8. Ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  9. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  10. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  11. Medical Image Compression Using a New Subband Coding Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Smith, Mark J. T.; Scales, Allen; Tucker, Doug

    1995-01-01

    A recently introduced iterative complexity- and entropy-constrained subband quantization design algorithm is generalized and applied to medical image compression. In particular, the corresponding subband coder is used to encode Computed Tomography (CT) axial slice head images, where statistical dependencies between neighboring image subbands are exploited. Inter-slice conditioning is also employed for further improvements in compression performance. The subband coder features many advantages such as relatively low complexity and operation over a very wide range of bit rates. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the new subband coder is relatively good, both objectively and subjectively.

  12. Elastic head support for persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andrew; Bedore, Beau; Nickel, Eric; Hanowski, Kristin; Tangen, Sonya; Goldish, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an inexpensive elastic head support for persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neck muscle weakness and also presents a case series to examine its effectiveness. The device offers support to the head while the user is seated, standing, and walking, providing support for persons in various stages of ALS. The head support system was tested in seven male patients with ALS. Before and after the 2 wk trial, the subjects answered questions related to their communication efficacy, difficulty swallowing, level of neck discomfort, number of hours being upright before neck discomfort, comfort in social settings, and rating of perceived dyspnea. Subjects also answered specific questions related to the elastic head support after the 2 wk trial. The results suggested that the elastic head support is useful for some, but not all, patients.

  13. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  14. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  15. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  16. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  17. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed

    Shin, Sora; Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100-130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers' hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses.

  18. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Sora; PARK, Joonhee; LEE, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100–130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers’ hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses. PMID:26165361

  19. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments) were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD) model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results.

  20. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Functions common to heads of... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the...

  1. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Functions common to heads of... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the...

  2. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Functions common to heads of... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the...

  3. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Functions common to heads of... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the...

  4. [Abusive head trauma: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Grana, M; Nazar, M; de Luca, S; Casalini, E; Eyheremendy, E

    2015-01-01

    The abusive head trauma is a form of child abuse. The most frequent injuries are intracranial lesions, such as subdural hematoma, as well as retinal hemorrhages, usually without other external injuries. Due to its complexity, this problem requires a multidisciplinary medical team, where the role of the radiologist is important, since there are multiple diagnostic methods that are complementary in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis.

  5. Imaging of pediatric head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Stern, Jessica S; Ginat, Daniel T; Nicholas, Jennifer L; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-02-01

    Medical imaging is an important tool in the evaluation and classification of pediatric head and neck masses. Such lesions may include congenital, inflammatory, infectious, vascular, or neoplastic processes. Ultrasound is often the first line modality in the workup of a neck mass in a child, followed by MRI or CT depending on the scenario. This information must be interpreted in the context of the patient's clinical history, physical examination, and demographics. The medical imaging workup of a neck mass in a child must be focused to yield the maximum information possible while minimizing the risks of radiation and sedation.

  6. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  7. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  8. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  9. Eye-head coordination during optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, T.; Igarashi, M.; Jensen, D. W.; Homick, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Head and eye movements in the yaw plane were recorded during and after optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys. 1) Phasic or tonic head deviations to the side of the ocular quick phase occurred in 94% of total recordings (n = 50) during the perstimulus period, and in 75% of recordings (n = 49) during the poststimulus period. Magnitude of mean head deviation was significantly different between perstimulus and poststimulus periods. 2) Head nystagmus associated with eye nystagmus was consistently observed in seven of nine squirrel monkeys during optokinetic stimulation. Squirrel monkeys are thereby less prone to display head nystagmus than either guinea pigs, pigeons or chickens. 3) Slow phase speeds of coupled head and eye nystagmus were subjected to statistical analysis. A highly significant negative correlation was found between slow phase head and eye speeds. The correlation coefficient was - 0.81 at 60 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 119) and -0.72 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 131). The gaze speed, calculated by summing the head and eye speeds, was 59.1 plus or minus 6.8 / sec at 60 degrees / sec and 92.2 plus or minus 11.4 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus. There was no significant difference between the gaze speed in a free head condition and the eye speed when the head was fixed.

  10. Using the eye-movement system to control the head.

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, I D; Brown, V; Findlay, J M; Clarke, M P

    1998-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that A.I., a subject who has total ophthalmoplegia, resulting in a lack of eye movements, used her head to orientate in a qualitatively similar way to eye-based orientating of control subjects. We used four classic eye-movement paradigms and measured A.I.'s head movements while she performed the tasks. These paradigms were (i) the gap paradigm, (ii) the remote-distractor effect, (iii) the anti-saccade paradigm, and (iv) tests of saccadic suppression. In all cases, A.I.'s head saccades were qualitatively similar to previously reported eye-movement data. We conclude that A.I.'s head movements are probably controlled by the same neural mechanisms that control eye movements in unimpaired subjects. PMID:9802239

  11. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  12. Medical electromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.

  13. Characteristics and Intraoperative Treatments Associated with Head and Neck Free Tissue Transfer Complications and Failures

    PubMed Central

    Hand, William R.; McSwain, Julie R.; McEvoy, Matthew D.; Wolf, Bethany; Algendy, Abdalrahman A.; Parks, Matthew D.; Murray, John L.; Reeves, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between perioperative patient characteristics and treatment modalities (eg, vasopressor use and volume of fluid administration) with complications and failure rates in patients undergoing head and neck free tissue transfer (FTT). Study Design A retrospective review of medical records. Setting Perioperative hospitalization for head and neck FTT at 1 tertiary care medical center between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2011. Subjects and Methods Consecutive patients (N = 235) who underwent head and neck FTT. Demographic, patient characteristic, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records. Complication and failure rates within the first 30 days were collected Results In a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, reason for receiving flap, and type and volume of fluid given, perioperative complication was significantly associated with surgical blood loss (P = .019; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.16), while the rate of intraoperative fluid administration did not reach statistical significance (P = .06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.28). In a univariate analysis, FTT failure was significantly associated with reason for surgery (odds ratio, 5.40; P = .03; 95% CI, 1.69-17.3) and preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 3.60; P = .03; 95% CI, 1.16-11.2). Intraoperative vasopressor administration was not associated with either FTT complication or failure rate. Conclusions FTT complications were associated with surgical blood loss but not the use of vasoactive drugs. For patients undergoing FTT, judicious monitoring of blood loss may help stratify the risk of complication and failure. PMID:25550221

  14. Eurosid-2 dummy head-neck responses to lateral acceleration.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian; Shender, Barry; Paskoff, Glen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the ES-2 head and neck response to lateral impacts at varying low magnitudes of impact velocities. A pendulum and mini sled were used to deliver inertial acceleration pulses to an isolated ES-2 head and neck. The base of the neck was attached to a cart which slid along the direction of impact from left to right on two precision ground rails. The shape of the cart acceleration was controlled by altering the momentum transfer of the pendulum. Eighteen tests were conducted at velocities ranging from 1.0 to 4.3 m/s. The head was instrumented with an internal nine accelerometer package to measure the linear and angular head accelerations. Upper and lower neck load cells measured the forces and moments. Cart and pendulum acceleration were measured from uniaxial accelerometers. All data was sampled at 20 kHz and filtered according to SAEJ211. A six-camera 1 kHz Vicon system measured the 3-d kinematics of retroreflective targets affixed to the head and neck. All forces and moments increased with velocity. Peak axial and shear forces at the upper and lower neck were similar, however moments at the lower neck were up to three times higher. The Head to T1 (Head-T1) and Head to Upper Spine (Head-US) angles were calculated from the marker position data. The Head-US angle plateaued at about 10 degrees at the high velocity due to the physical constraints of the upper neck joint. Peak Head-T1 angle increased up to about 50 degrees at the end velocity; however the overall percentage contribution of the Head-US angle to the Head-T1 angle decreased. The ES-2 head displayed a characteristic head lag that was demonstrated in Head-US angle and upper neck moment plots in velocities above 1.0 m/s which have also been reported in the human head neck complex studies. Matched paired tests with isolated Post Mortem Human Subjects are necessary to fully compare the ES-2 head and neck biofidelity.

  15. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  16. Altered sensory-motor control of the head as an etiological factor in space-motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical unloading during head movements in weightlessness may be an etiological factor in space-motion sickness. We simulated altered head loading on Earth without affecting vestibular stimulation by having subjects wear a weighted helmet. Eight subjects were exposed to constant velocity rotation about a vertical axis with direction reversals every 60 sec. for eight reversals with the head loaded and eight with the head unloaded. The severity of motion sickness elicited was significantly higher when the head was loaded. This suggests that altered sensory-motor control of the head is also an etiological factor in space-motion sickness.

  17. Sources of Information on Medical Geography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Lynn S.

    1966-01-01

    Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

  18. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  19. Holographic Optical Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optical path from HOE to focal point can be made (ie same for both rays. We do this for a thin lens; in reality, the condition is obtained by ray...I2 RADC-TR-90-200 Final Technical Report September 1990 uric FILE COPY HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD Holometrix, Inc. P. Gregory DeBaryshe, Charles S. th...aa w 1. REPOA ATE 3. Reoa"rm AND DAS C September 1990 Final Aug 88 - May 90 4. TME AND hTME s. FUMO NUMBERS HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD C - F30602-88-C

  20. Head and neck position sense.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  1. Embedded-structure template for electronic records affects patient note quality and management for emergency head injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Gunshin, Masataka; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many patients in a short time. Therefore, such a template might be especially useful, but few ED-based studies have examined such systems. A structured template produced according to widely used head injury guidelines was used by ED residents for head injury patients. The study was conducted by comparing each 6-month period before and after launching the system. The quality of the patient notes and factors recorded in the patient notes to support the head computed tomography (CT) performance were evaluated by medical students blinded to patient information. The subject patients were 188 and 177 in respective periods. The numbers of patient notes categorized as “CT indication cannot be determined” were significantly lower in the postintervention term (18% → 9.0%), which represents the patient note quality improvement. No difference was found in the rates of CT performance or CT skip without clearly recorded CT indication in the patient notes. The structured template functioned as a checklist to support residents in writing more appropriately recorded patient notes in the ED head injury patients. Such a template customized to each clinical condition can facilitate standardized patient management and can improve patient safety in the ED. PMID:27749590

  2. Metabolic alterations in medication-free patients with bipolar disorder: a 3T CSF-corrected magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Port, John D; Unal, Sencan S; Mrazek, David A; Marcus, Susan M

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)-corrected concentrations of N-acetylaspartate are lower in several brain regions of drug- and medication-free subjects with bipolar disorder as compared with matched healthy controls. Bipolar subjects (n=21) and age- and sex-matched healthy control (n=21) were studied using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging on a 3T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Spectra were quantified using the LCModel, and metabolite values were CSF-corrected to yield metabolite concentrations. Fourteen regions of interest and five metabolite concentrations in each subject were selected for statistical analysis. We found that bipolar subjects had significantly decreased N-acetylaspartate concentrations in both caudate heads and the left lentiform nucleus. Choline and creatine in the head of the right caudate were also significantly decreased in bipolar subjects. Significantly increased myo-inositol was found in the left caudate head in bipolar subjects. Bipolar subjects showed significantly decreased glutamate/glutamine concentrations in the frontal white matter bilaterally and in the right lentiform nucleus. No differences were found for other metabolites examined. These preliminary findings suggest decreased neuronal density or viability in the basal ganglia and neurometabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobes of subjects with bipolar disorder.

  3. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials.

  4. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A.; Abbosh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials. PMID:26842761

  5. Portable Wideband Microwave Imaging System for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection Using Improved Back-projection Algorithm with Model of Effective Head Permittivity.

    PubMed

    Mobashsher, Ahmed Toaha; Mahmoud, A; Abbosh, A M

    2016-02-04

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires rapid detection and medication to restrict any brain damage to minimal. Here, an effective wideband microwave head imaging system for on-the-spot detection of intracranial hemorrhage is presented. The operation of the system relies on the dielectric contrast between healthy brain tissues and a hemorrhage that causes a strong microwave scattering. The system uses a compact sensing antenna, which has an ultra-wideband operation with directional radiation, and a portable, compact microwave transceiver for signal transmission and data acquisition. The collected data is processed to create a clear image of the brain using an improved back projection algorithm, which is based on a novel effective head permittivity model. The system is verified in realistic simulation and experimental environments using anatomically and electrically realistic human head phantoms. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons between the images from the proposed and existing algorithms demonstrate significant improvements in detection and localization accuracy. The radiation and thermal safety of the system are examined and verified. Initial human tests are conducted on healthy subjects with different head sizes. The reconstructed images are statistically analyzed and absence of false positive results indicate the efficacy of the proposed system in future preclinical trials.

  6. Head posture in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Ovesen, J; Nielsen, P W; Wildschiødtz, G; Tallgren, A

    1993-04-01

    In growing subjects, obstruction of the upper airway may lead to excessive vertical facial development. According to the soft-tissue stretching hypothesis (Solow and Kreiborg, 1977) this could be due to an increased cranio-cervical angulation triggered by the airway obstruction. The present study aimed to examine the effect of airway obstruction on cranio-cervical posture in a sample of adult patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position (mirror position) were obtained from 50 male patients aged 28-70 with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The Apnoea Index ranged from 21 to 98 episodes per hour with a mean of 54.6. Control samples were available from previous cephalometric studies of head posture in five samples of healthy subjects and one sample of congenitally blind subjects. The average cranio-cervical angle, NSL/OPT, was found to be extremely large (mean 104.1, SD 9.1) exceeding the average values in the control samples by 1-2 standard deviations (P < 0.001). It is suggested that the large cranio-cervical angle in OSA patients is a physiological adaptation aiming to maintain airway adequacy while the head, and thus the visual axis, is kept in its natural relationship to the true vertical. The findings thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that upper airway obstruction may trigger an increase in the cranio-cervical angulation.

  7. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  8. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  9. Is Head Start Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of problems faced by Head Start and its present status includes a review of its transfer from O.E.O. to H.E.W., its extensions, the Westinghouse Report, and other studies and articles. Decline in public interest and support is noted. (KW)

  10. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  11. Whatever happened to medical politics?

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper argues the case for coming to see 'medical politics' as a topic or subject within medical education. First, its absence is noted from the wide array of paramedical subjects (medical ethics, history of medicine, the medical humanities, etc) currently given attention in both the medical education literature and in specific curricula. Second the author suggests that 'the political' is implicitly recognisable in the historical roots of medical ethics education, specifically in certain of the London Medical Group's activities, and also that the medical profession, or indeed any profession, cannot be understood as an apolitical form of social organisation either in its institutional or scientific (epistemic) forms. Some brief suggestions for introductory and advanced topics in medical politics are discussed and the degree to which medical politics ought to be taken seriously and delivered as part of medical education is considered. Ultimately the author concludes that medical politics might be considered a useful subject within medical education, but it is perhaps best understood as a perspective or approach that can contribute to the development of a more expansive perspective within the extant paramedical subjects.

  12. Dissociation between subjective vertical and subjective body orientation elicited by galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mars, Franck; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Popov, Konstantin

    2005-02-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that sensory stimulation could differentially affect the subjective vertical (SV) and the subjective body orientation (SBO). This suggests that the central nervous system elaborates various references of verticality in function of the task demands and of the available sensory information. In this study, we tested whether the dissociation between SV and SBO appears for a selective stimulation of the vestibular system, by using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Seated subjects performed vertical settings by controlling the orientation of a visual rod during GVS. Subjects were also instructed to evaluate the orientation of the head and trunk relative to gravity. The results revealed a large variability in the way SV and SBO were affected. In all cases, the effect of GVS on SV was not a mirror image of a distorted SBO. We propose that this dissociation is mainly determined by central processes involved in the estimation of sensory cues reliability. GVS also yielded a tilt of the head when the head was unrestrained. The results suggest that changes in actual head orientation yielded by GVS may be related to the perceived direction of gravity but cannot be explained by a compensation of an illusory orientation of the head.

  13. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides.

  14. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three dimensional head motions were measured during three different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared to published data using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure (HIC15) of 28.1 and head impact factor (HIP) of 3.41, over six times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  15. Effects of walking velocity on vertical head and body movements during locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasaki, E.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Trunk and head movements were characterized over a wide range of walking speeds to determine the relationship between stride length, stepping frequency, vertical head translation, pitch rotation of the head, and pitch trunk rotation as a function of gait velocity. Subjects (26-44 years old) walked on a linear treadmill at velocities of 0.6-2.2 m/s. The head and trunk were modeled as rigid bodies, and rotation and translation were determined using a video-based motion analysis system. At walking speeds up to 1.2 m/s there was little head pitch movement in space, and the head pitch relative to the trunk was compensatory for trunk pitch. As walking velocity increased, trunk pitch remained approximately invariant, but a significant head translation developed. This head translation induced compensatory head pitch in space, which tended to point the head at a fixed point in front of the subject that remained approximately invariant with regard to walking speed. The predominant frequency of head translation and rotation was restricted to a narrow range from 1.4 Hz at 0.6 m/s to 2.5 Hz at 2.2 m/s. Within the range of 0.8-1.8 m/s, subjects tended to increase their stride length rather than step frequency to walk faster, maintaining the predominant frequency of head movement at close to 2.0 Hz. At walking speeds above 1.2 m/s, head pitch in space was highly coherent with, and compensatory for, vertical head translation. In the range 1.2-1.8 m/s, the power spectrum of vertical head translation was the most highly tuned, and the relationship between walking speed and head and trunk movements was the most linear. We define this as an optimal range of walking velocity with regard to head-trunk coordination. The coordination of head and trunk movement was less coherent at walking velocities below 1.2 m/s and above 1.8 m/s. These results suggest that two mechanisms are utilized to maintain a stable head fixation distance over the optimal range of walking velocities. The relative

  16. Upright Perception and Ocular Torsion Change Independently during Head Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kheradmand, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head and body. Perception of upright is a key aspect of such orientation constancy. Here we investigated whether changes in upright perception during sustained head tilt were related to simultaneous changes in torsional position of the eyes. We used a subjective visual vertical (SVV) task, modified to track changes in upright perception over time, and a custom video method to measure ocular torsion simultaneously. We tested 12 subjects in upright position, during prolonged (~15 min) lateral head tilts of 20 degrees, and also after the head returned to upright position. While the head was tilted, SVV drifted in the same direction as the head tilt (left tilt: −5.4 ± 1.4° and right tilt: +2.2 ± 2.1°). After the head returned to upright position, there was an SVV aftereffect with respect to the pre-tilt baseline, which was also in the same direction as the head tilt (left tilt: −3.9 ± 0.6° and right tilt: +2.55 ± 1.0°). Neither the SVV drift nor the SVV aftereffect were correlated with the changes in ocular torsion. Using the Bayesian spatial-perception model we show that the pattern of SVV drift and aftereffect in our results could be explained by a drift and an adaptation in sensory inputs that encode head orientation. The fact that ocular torsion (mainly driven by the otoliths) could not account for the perceptual changes suggests that neck proprioception could be the primary source of drift in upright perception during head tilt, and subsequently the aftereffect in upright position. PMID:27909402

  17. Head Up Displays. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Head Up Displays. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. The Effect of an Eye Movement Recorder on Head Movements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    in several research settings. For example, the NAC Eye Mark (e Recorder system (an eye movement recorder that utilizes the cor- neal reflection...reported that the NAC system could be used with a large number of subjects and that normal eye movement patterns were not altered by the use of’ this...equipment (2,4); however, no mention has been made of the extent to which the NAC system alters normal head movement patterns. It has been shown that head

  20. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  1. CT angiography - head and neck

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007677.htm CT angiography - head and neck To use the sharing features on this page, ... create pictures of the blood vessels in the head and neck. How the Test is Performed You will be ...

  2. [Medical science during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2015-04-01

    Forms of organization of scientific work in the interests of the front were different: for example, united efforts of physicians to organize a proper work at Scientific Medical Boards directed by the Head of the Main Army Medical Department of the Red Army and the Head of the Health and Sanitary Department of the Navy, as well as Scientific and Hospital boards of the People's Commissariat of Health of the USSR. At the plenary sessions the heads of these boards considered the most important medical problems of evacuation, treatment, sanitary and disease control and also new methods of treatments of wounded, results of medical services during particular period of war, new tasks and etc. The most prominent scientists and presenters of all leading sectors of healthcare worked at these boards, that allowed developing, testing and implementing of the latest achievements of medical science.

  3. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  4. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Bush, S E; Goffinet, D R; Bagshaw, M A

    1981-09-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck is an uncommon plasma-cell neoplasm that arises most frequently from the soft tissues of the upper airways. Ten patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck received primary external beam megavoltage radiotherapy with doses between 4,000 rad (40 Gy)/29 days and 6,075 rad (60.75 Gy)/42 days. In eight patients the disease was locally controlled, although distant spread of the disease subsequently developed in four of them. Observations of the patients' medical histories, their response to treatment, and patterns of relapse suggest that extramedullary plasmacytoma is a separate clinicopathologic entity from other plasma-cell tumors and is appropriately managed by local irradiation.

  5. Eye-head coordination during large gaze shifts.

    PubMed

    Tweed, D; Glenn, B; Vilis, T

    1995-02-01

    1. Three-dimensional (3D) eye and head rotations were measured with the use of the magnetic search coil technique in six healthy human subjects as they made large gaze shifts. The aims of this study were 1) to see whether the kinematic rules that constrain eye and head orientations to two degrees of freedom between saccades also hold during movements; 2) to chart the curvature and looping in eye and head trajectories; and 3) to assess whether the timing and paths of eye and head movements are more compatible with a single gaze error command driving both movements, or with two different feedback loops. 2. Static orientations of the eye and head relative to space are known to resemble the distribution that would be generated by a Fick gimbal (a horizontal axis moving on a fixed vertical axis). We show that gaze point trajectories during eye-head gaze shifts fit the Fick gimbal pattern, with horizontal movements following straight "line of latitude" paths and vertical movements curving like lines of longitude. However, horizontal (and to a lesser extent vertical) movements showed direction-dependent looping, with rightward and leftward (and up and down) saccades tracing slightly different paths. Plots of facing direction (the analogue of gaze direction for the head) also showed the latitude/longitude pattern, without looping. In radial saccades, the gaze point initially moved more vertically than the target direction and then curved; head trajectories were straight. 3. The eye and head components of randomly sequenced gaze shifts were not time locked to one another. The head could start moving at any time from slightly before the eye until 200 ms after, and the standard deviation of this interval could be as large as 80 ms. The head continued moving for a long (up to 400 ms) and highly variable time after the gaze error had fallen to zero. For repeated saccades between the same targets, peak eye and head velocities were directly, but very weakly, correlated; fast eye

  6. Yes, Head Start Improves Reading!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet J.

    This study evaluated the effect of a Head Start program on children's intelligence and reading achievement test scores over a three year period. Each of 25 Head Start children was paired with a non-Head Start child of the same reace, sex, age, socioeconomic status, date of school entrance, kindergarten experience, promotion record, and type of…

  7. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  8. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  9. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    PubMed Central

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  10. Vietnam Head Injury Study Phase III: A 30 Year Post-Injury Follow-Up Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    subjects and 13 controls. To date, there have been a total of 144 participants. All subjects have had blood samples taken for genetic analysis and all...been a total of 144 participants. All subjects have had blood samples taken for genetic analysis and all head-injured subjects have undergone a CT

  11. Segmentation of organs at risk in CT volumes of head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Miaofei; Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Yan; Li, Meiling; Song, Yanli; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) is a key step in treatment planning system (TPS) of image guided radiation therapy. We are developing three classes of methods to segment 17 organs at risk throughout the whole body, including brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin. The three classes of segmentation methods include (1) threshold-based methods for organs of large contrast with adjacent structures such as lungs, trachea, and skin; (2) context-driven Generalized Hough Transform-based methods combined with graph cut algorithm for robust localization and segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen; and (3) atlas and registration-based methods for segmentation of heart and all organs in CT volumes of head and pelvis. The segmentation accuracy for the seventeen organs was subjectively evaluated by two medical experts in three levels of score: 0, poor (unusable in clinical practice); 1, acceptable (minor revision needed); and 2, good (nearly no revision needed). A database was collected from Ruijin Hospital, Huashan Hospital, and Xuhui Central Hospital in Shanghai, China, including 127 head scans, 203 thoracic scans, 154 abdominal scans, and 73 pelvic scans. The percentages of "good" segmentation results were 97.6%, 92.9%, 81.1%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 78.7%, 94.1%, 91.1%, 81.3%, 86.7%, 82.5%, 86.4%, 79.9%, 72.6%, 68.5%, 93.2%, 96.9% for brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin, respectively. Various organs at risk can be reliably segmented from CT scans by use of the three classes of segmentation methods.

  12. Evaluation of Head and Brain Injury Risk Functions using Sub-Injurious Human Volunteer Data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Erin J; Gabler, Lee F; McGhee, James S; Olszko, Ardyn V; Chancey, Valeta Carol; Crandall, Jeff; Panzer, Matthew B

    2017-03-30

    Risk assessment models are developed to estimate the probability of brain injury during head impact using mechanical response variables such as head kinematics and brain tissue deformation. Existing injury risk functions have been developed using different datasets based on human volunteer and scaled animal injury responses to impact. However, many of these functions have not been independently evaluated with respect to laboratory-controlled human response data. In this study, the specificity of fourteen existing brain injury risk functions was assessed by evaluating their ability to correctly predict non-injurious response using previously conducted sled tests with well-instrumented human research volunteers. Six degree-of-freedom head kinematics data were obtained for 335 sled tests involving subjects in frontal, lateral, and oblique sled conditions up to 16 Gs peak sled acceleration. A review of the medical reports associated with each individual test indicated no clinical diagnosis of mild or moderate brain injury in any of the cases evaluated. Kinematic-based head and brain injury risk probabilities were calculated directly from the kinematic data, while strain-based risks were determined through finite element model simulation of the 335 tests. Several injury risk functions sub¬stanti¬ally over pre¬dict the likelihood of concussion and diffuse axonal injury; proposed maximum principal strain (MPS)-based injury risk functions predicted nearly 80 concussions and 14 cases of severe diffuse axonal injury out of the 335 non-injurious cases. This work is an important first step in assessing the efficacy of existing brain risk functions and highlights the need for more predictive injury assessment models.

  13. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kottow, Andrea R; Kottow, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease. PMID:17603873

  14. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-24

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient.

  15. Angioleiomyomas in the head and neck: A retrospective clinical and immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YING; LI, BO; LI, LONGJIANG; LIU, YANBIN; WANG, CHENXING; ZHA, LAGABAIYILA

    2014-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a benign soft-tissue tumor originating from vascular smooth muscle, and is rare in the head and neck. The present study retrospectively examined a cohort of patients with head and neck angioleiomyoma treated at the West China Hospital of Stomatology, and also subjected archived tissues to modern immunohistochemical analysis. In total, 21 patients were treated for angioleiomyoma between 1978 and 2012 at the West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University (Chengdu, Sichuan, China). Medical records were examined and paraffin block sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome stain and Van Gieson stain, prior to being subjected to immunohistochemical analysis to re-evaluate and confirm the diagnoses. Angioleiomyomas were found to account for only 0.18% of the benign head and neck tumors in the patients presenting to the hospital over the past 34 years. The diagnosis was more common in males (male:female ratio, 1.625:1) and the mean age at diagnosis was 42.5 years. The most common sites were the buccal mucosa, parotid gland and palate. More than half of the tumors (61.9%) were >2 cm in diameter. Five tumors presented with pain and/or tenderness. The histological subtype was reported as solid in five cases, venous in six, cavernous in nine and venous-cavernous in one. Three tumors exhibited nerve neurofibrils. All tumors were excised with no subsequent recurrence. Cytological and imaging examinations were not useful for pre-operative diagnosis. Angioleiomyoma is a benign tumor that causes limited morbidity. Surgical excision is the only effective treatment and recurrence is rare. The present study revealed that nerves were present in a small proportion (14.3%) of tumors. It was hypothesized that the compression of nerves accompanying numerous blood vessels in the tumor may cause pain, particularly in venous- and cavernous-type angioleiomyomas. PMID:24959254

  16. Advances in otolaryngology-Head and neck surgery. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, E.N. ); Bluestone, C.D. )

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 sections. The section titles are: The impact of AIDS on otolaryngology--head and neck surgery; The management of sleep apneas and snoring; Antimicrobial agents for infections in the ear, nose, and throat--head and neck; Nasal allergy: Medical and surgical treatment; Uses of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in temporal bone imaging; Surgical management of otitis media with effusion; middle ear reconstruction: Current status; Cochlear implants: an overview; Diagnosis and management of acute facial paralysis; The use of the laser in head and neck surgery; The management and prevention of subglottic stenosis in infants and children; Management of the mass in the thyroid; Suction-assisted lipectomy of the head and neck area; and Ambulatory surgery.

  17. Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2002-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  18. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  19. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  20. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  1. Subjects and Objects in Modern Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the medical model and the current cognitive model in corrections are based on a subject-object relationship between keepers and prisoners. Suggests approaches to correctional rehabilitation that facilitate transformations in prisoners' lives by relating to them as subjects rather than as objects. (JOW)

  2. The Struggle Begins Early: Head Start and the Mississippi Freedom Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jon N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of Head Start, a federally funded program, whose conceptualization emerged in earlier phases of the Civil Rights Movement in order to provide education, nourishing meals, medical services, and a positive social environment for children about to enter the first grade. While Head Start was implemented in states…

  3. Asthma Management Practices and Education Needs of Head Start Directors and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Karen; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Calabrese, Barbara; Butz, Arlene; Reshef, Shoshana; Rand, Cynthia; Gilpin, Adele

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed Baltimore Head Start directors and staff participating in an asthma education intervention at 15 Head Start programs to determine their asthma management practices and education needs. Results revealed discrepancies between staff and directors regarding location of asthma medications and presence of asthma action plans in programs. Both…

  4. Effect of telescopic spectacles on head stability in normal and low vision.

    PubMed

    Demer, J L; Goldberg, J; Porter, F I

    Telescopic spectacles, highly magnifying visual aids mounted in spectacle frames, markedly alter the visual consequences of head movements. To evaluate the effect of this altered visual feedback on head stability, angular head velocity of normally sighted and low vision subjects was measured in the roll, pitch, and yaw axes. Measurements were made under two postural conditions: (1) quiet standing; and (2) walking in place, as well as three visual conditions: (1) eyes closed; (2) unmagnified vision; and (3) vision with 4 x binocular telescopic spectacles. For normal subjects during quiet standing, both unmagnified vision and vision with telescopic spectacles tended to reduce spontaneous head velocity in all axes as compared to the eyes-closed condition. However, in low vision subjects neither unmagnified vision nor vision with telescopic spectacles produced significant changes in values of head velocity relative to those measured with eyes closed. Spontaneous head velocities for standing low vision subjects tended to be higher than in normal subjects, although not all differences were statistically significant. During walking in place, Fourier analysis demonstrated prominent frequency components related to harmonics of the walking frequency under all viewing conditions. In normal subjects, vision with telescopic spectacles, to a greater degree than unmagnified vision, reduced head velocity during walking in the roll and yaw, but not the pitch, axes. For low vision subjects, significant reductions in head velocity during walking were observed only during vision with telescopic spectacles. These findings indicate that vision reduces angular instability of the head during standing and walking. Magnification produced by telescopic spectacles further improves head stability under some conditions, although the effect of vision is least evident in the pitch axis. The stabilizing effect of vision is reduced in low vision subjects.

  5. [Pediatric head lice: taxonomy, incidence, resistance, delousing].

    PubMed

    Rupes, V; Vlcková, J; Mazánek, L; Chmela, J; Ledvinka, J

    2006-08-01

    Based on the current knowledge, head louse (Pediculus capitis) and body louse (Pediculus humanus) are two different species that infest specific parts of the human body and do not interbreed in vivo. In 1991-2002, 6 257 cases of pediculosis were reported in the Czech Republic while 3 138 000 pediculicide packagings, i.e. about 500 times as many as the number of cases, were marketed. Between October 2004 and February 2005, a total of 531 children aged between 6 and 15 years from 16 selected schools in the Zlín and Olomouc regions were screened by dry hair combing. Living lice were detected in 14.1% of the enrolled children and dead nits alone were observed in other 9.8% of the subjects. In vitro tests revealed that the collected head lice were highly resistant to malathion, the active ingredient of Diffusil H 92 M. The number of reported cases of pediculosis roughly doubled in 2005.

  6. 78 FR 15877 - Taxable Medical Devices; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 48 RIN 1545-BJ44 Taxable Medical Devices; Correction AGENCY: Internal... certain medical devices, enacted by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 in..., under the paragraph heading ``A. Proposed Regulations'', line 6, the language ``of taxable...

  7. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  8. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics"; Subject and Picture Locater. Twelfth Edition, 1915-Dec. 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This index lists all articles and pictures which have appeared in National Geographic Magazine from 1915 to the present. Some 66 subject headings and numerous subheadings appear alphabetically, but within these headings, organization may be geographical, chronological, or other. Citations include only the subject area, date of issue, and presence…

  9. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect. Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined. The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R2 = 0.897, left eye: R2 = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: −0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: −0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals. Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular

  10. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E.; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5–19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  11. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  12. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  13. "E" Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  14. Adaptations in horizontal head stabilization in response to altered vision and gaze during natural walking.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Ronita L; Pidcoe, Peter E; Griffin, Lori A; Sotillo, Tanya; Ganninger, Daniel; Feagin, Montgomery

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adaptations in head stability resulting from altered gaze control and vision during over-ground walking. Using over-ground walking permitted adaptations in walking velocity and cadence that are otherwise not possible during treadmill walking or walking-in-place. Gaze control and vision were manipulated by having 20 young adult subjects 1) walk naturally, 2) view a distant, earth-fixed target to enhance the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), 3) view a head-fixed target to suppress the VOR, and 4) walk in darkness. Horizontal head and trunk angular velocities in space, walking velocity and cadence were measured. Root-mean-square head and trunk angular velocities were calculated and frequency analyses determined head-trunk movement patterns. Results demonstrated that when given the opportunity, subjects slowed down and decreased cadence in response to challenging tasks. Despite strongly reduced walking velocity and cadence, walking in darkness proved most challenging for head stabilization, indicating the importance of vision during this process. Viewing the earth-fixed target demonstrated the greatest head stability thereby, facilitating gaze stabilization. However, comparisons between the earth-fixed and head-fixed target conditions suggest a reciprocal relationship where gaze stability also facilitates head stability. This contribution of gaze stability to head stability is more important than vision alone as the head stabilization response was diminished during the VOR suppressed condition.

  15. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  16. Computation of gaze orientation under unrestrained head movements.

    PubMed

    Ronsse, Renaud; White, Olivier; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2007-01-15

    Given the high relevance of visual input to human behavior, it is often important to precisely monitor the spatial orientation of the visual axis. One popular and accurate technique for measuring gaze orientation is based on the dual search coil. This technique does not allow for very large displacements of the subject, however, and is not robust with respect to translations of the head. More recently, less invasive procedures have been developed that record eye movements with camera-based systems attached to a helmet worn by the subject. Computational algorithms have also been developed that can calibrate eye orientation when the head's position is fixed. Given that camera-based systems measure the eye's position in its orbit, however, the reconstruction of gaze orientation is not as straightforward when the head is allowed to move. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm and calibration method to compute gaze orientation under unrestrained head conditions. Our method requires only the accurate measurement of orbital eye position (for instance, with a camera-based system), and the position of three points on the head. The calculations are expressed in terms of linear algebra, so can easily be interpreted and related to the geometry of the human body. Our calibration method has been tested experimentally and validated against independent data, proving that is it robust even under large translations, rotations, and torsions of the head.

  17. [Haemostatic activation in head injury].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, C M; Suarez-Pinilla, M A; Nebra-Puertas, A; Monton-Dito, J M; Millastre-Benito, A; Salvo-Callen, L

    2003-09-01

    A relationship between Central Nervous System and coagulation has been known since the work by Goodnight et al5. When an encephalic injury occurs tissue damage causes the release of thromboplastin-related products, mainly the Tissular Factor. This release produces an activation of the coagulation system specially through its extrinsic path. With this physiopathologic basis we attempt to improve the knowledge of this relation by performing a prospective study at the Intensive Care Unit of our Hospital. The study included 67 patients with cranioencephalic trauma alone, with an average Glasgow coma scale score of 10 and a control group consisting of 40 healthy subjects. Two peripheral vein blood extractions were performed, at admission and 24 hours later. Global coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen), hypercoagulability markers (prothrombin fragments F1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT)) and thrombolisis markers (D-dimer) were determined. Our results show that early after head trauma an increase in fragments F1+2, TAT and Ddimer occur. After the first 24 hours a significant decrease in hypercoagulability markers levels is detected. Modification of the global coagulation parameters was also detected. In conclusion, early after a cranioencephalic trauma a simultaneous state of hypercoagulability and thrombolysis occur which may have the purpose of improving the hemostatic balance.

  18. Precise Head Tracking in Hearing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.

    2015-05-01

    The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.

  19. Outcome rating scales for pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Haley, Stephen M; Graham, Robert J; Dumas, Helene M

    2004-01-01

    Intensivists, surgeons, neurologists, and others involved in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) have an important investment in both short-and long-term outcomes of children and adolescents with head injury who are treated under their care. Outcomes are most often documented by either single- or multiple-item rating scales and are implemented both during and after hospital care. For this review, the authors have organized the content of rating scales into 6 general classes: (1) mortality prediction, (2) severity, (3) global recovery, (4) activity restrictions, (5) secondary adverse conditions, and (6) limitations in participation, quality of life, and health status. Rating scales that describe the outcomes of children and adolescents after head injury are used to monitor medical and functional recovery, guide clinical management, drive quality assurance initiatives, and conduct clinical research. The authors restrict their selective review to rating scales that describe child outcomes (vs family) and that have been reported and applied in the outcome literature. Although head injury is a major cause of mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in children and adolescents, there is no consensus on which rating scales are optimal for hospital care or community follow-up. Major considerations for clinical use are feasibility, type of outcome information needed, content breadth across multiple ages and levels of recovery, and utility in determining the short-term impact of PICU care on long-term outcome.

  20. Head stabilization in herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir, G; Schechtman, E; Carmi, N; Weihs, D

    2001-07-01

    We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 Hz. Maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies sustained were negatively correlated with body mass and with leg length. The species differed significantly in average maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained. Combinations of amplitude and frequency for which stabilization was achieved were bounded by a decreasing concave "envelope" curve in the frequency-amplitude plane, with inter specific differences in "envelope". As physical constraints, we tested maximal vertical acceleration, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency2 x amplitude, and maximal vertical velocity, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency x amplitude. Both relations were in good agreement with the experimental results for all but squacco herons. The results support predictions based on mechanical considerations and may explain the predominance of motor patterns employed by herons while foraging.

  1. Perspectives on Hilton Head.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, W A

    1986-06-01

    A conference ASHP sponsored in 1985 on directions for clinical practice in pharmacy (the "Hilton Head conference") is analyzed, and the implications of the conference for practitioners are discussed. The Hilton Head conference was a consensus-building exercise through which practitioners developed shared values, goals, and ideals about the basic purpose of the profession. The conferees agreed that a fundamental purpose of pharmacy is to serve as a force in society for safe and appropriate use of drugs. In pursuing the implications of this point of agreement, it is argued that pharmacy should not foster a separate corps of clinical practitioners. Rather, traditional pharmacy should be melded with the values system fostered by the clinical movement so that pharmacy as a whole will become more fully professionalized. Directors of pharmacy departments should launch consensus-building efforts within their departments through which strategic plans can be developed to increase pharmacy's clinical thrust. If all pharmacists in a department participate in the development of a clinically focused strategic plan, they will have a greater commitment to the success of that plan. If pharmacists see themselves as practitioners of a clinical profession, they will speak and behave accordingly, and others will perceive of them as clinical professionals.

  2. The Traditional Kampo Medicine Tokishakuyakusan Increases Ocular Blood Flow in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shin; Shiga, Yukihiro; Kokubun, Taiki; Konno, Hideyuki; Himori, Noriko; Ryu, Morin; Numata, Takehiro; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nakazawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of kampo medical formulas on ocular blood flow (OBF). A crossover protocol was used to randomly administer five grams of yokukansan, tokishakuyakusan (TSS), keishibukuryogan, or hachimijiogan to 13 healthy blinded subjects (mean age: 37.3 ± 12.3 years). The mean blur rate, a quantitative OBF index obtained with laser speckle flowgraphy, was measured at the optic nerve head before and 30 minutes after administration. Blood pressure (BP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were also recorded. No significant changes were observed in mean BP or IOP after the administration of any of the kampo medical formulas. There was a significant increase in OBF 30 minutes after administration of TSS (100% to 103.6 ± 6.9%, P < 0.01). Next, TSS was administered to 19 healthy subjects (mean age: 32.0 ± 11.0 years) and OBF was measured before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after administration. Plain water was used as a control. OBF increased significantly after TSS administration compared to control (P < 0.01) and also increased from 30 to 60 minutes after administration compared to baseline (P < 0.05). These results suggest that TSS can increase OBF without affecting BP or IOP in healthy subjects. PMID:24872835

  3. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of 3D vascular stereoscopic models in anatomy instruction for first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D; Rockhold, Robin W; Lehman, Michael N; Lynch, James C

    2017-01-01

    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not been previously studied in detail. This study investigated whether 3D stereoscopic models created from computed tomographic angiography (CTA) data were efficacious teaching tools for the head and neck vascular anatomy. The test subjects were first year medical students at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. The assessment tools included: anatomy knowledge tests (prelearning session knowledge test and postlearning session knowledge test), mental rotation tests (spatial ability; presession MRT and postsession MRT), and a satisfaction survey. Results were analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test and linear regression analysis. A total of 39 first year medical students participated in the study. The results indicated that all students who were exposed to the stereoscopic 3D vascular models in 3D learning sessions increased their ability to correctly identify the head and neck vascular anatomy. Most importantly, for students with low-spatial ability, 3D learning sessions improved postsession knowledge scores to a level comparable to that demonstrated by students with high-spatial ability indicating that the use of 3D stereoscopic models may be particularly valuable to these students with low-spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 10: 34-45. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Personal recognition using head-top image for health-monitoring system in the home.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Sasaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Automatic health-monitoring systems for the smart house are being developed for the elderly. An automatic health-monitoring system needs a way of personal recognition when two or more aged persons live together. We propose a personal recognition method based on the space spectrum of the head-top image. We examined 33 head-top images from eleven subjects and achieved a personal recognition rate of 86.4 percent. When one subject with thinning hair was excluded, the personal recognition rate was 90.0 percent in 30 head-top images from ten subjects.

  6. Heading perception in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Peli, Eli; Warren, William H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether retinis pigmentosa (RP) patients with residual visual field of < 100 degrees could perceive heading from optic flow. METHODS: Four RP patients and four age-matched normally sighted control subjects viewed displays simulating an observer walking over a ground. In experiment 1, subjects viewed either the entire display with free fixation (full-field condition) or through an aperture with a fixation point at the center (aperture condition). In experiment 2, patients viewed displays of different durations. RESULTS: RP patients' performance was comparable to that of the age-matched control subjects: heading judgment was better in the full-field condition than in the aperture condition. Increasing display duration from 0.5 s to 1 s improved patients' heading performance, but giving them more time (3 s) to gather more visual information did not consistently further improve their performance. CONCLUSIONS: RP patients use active scanning eye movements to compensate for their visual field loss in heading perception; they might be able to gather sufficient optic flow information for heading perception in about 1 s.

  7. Role of loading on head stability and effective neck stiffness and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Denninger, Marc; Hain, Timothy C

    2008-07-19

    This experiment tests the hypothesis that loading the head would increase head stability. In particular, we hypothesized that an arrangement of the head so that muscle activation is required to counteract a load would significantly increase effective neck stiffness and viscosity, which would be associated with lower peak head angular velocity following abrupt force perturbations applied to the head. Seven young healthy subjects had their head loaded (preload) using a weight/pulley apparatus. Then, the head was pulled either forward or backward by dropping an additional weight onto the preload, causing an impulse of force followed by an increase in load. We recorded the applied force and head angular velocity. Neck viscoelastic properties as a function of loading were estimated by fitting experimental data to a second-order mathematical model of the head biomechanics. Across preloads varying from 2.22 to 8.89 N, peak head angular velocity decreased by 18.2% for the backward and by 19.9% for forward perturbations. As preload increased, simulated effective neck stiffness and viscosity significantly increased leading to lower peak angular velocity. These results demonstrated that loading reduces peak head angular velocity and that change in muscle stiffness and viscosity is a feasible explanation for this effect. We propose that reduction in peak head velocity could be caused by modulation of the strength of the vestibulo-collic reflex.

  8. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  9. Comparison of a Visual and Head Tactile Display for Soldier Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Abbreviations, and Acronyms ACH Advanced Combat Helmet ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory COTS commercial-off-the-shelf HMTD head - mounted tactile display ...purpose of the study was to determine the advantages of a head - mounted tactile display (HMTD), compared with a map for Soldier navigation in an urban...their overall workload. 15. SUBJECT TERMS tactile modality, head - mounted tactile display , urban environment, threat detection, overall workload

  10. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  11. Craniocervical postural relations and craniofacial morphology in 30 blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Fjellvang, H; Solow, B

    1986-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that head posture is dependent on vision. The head posture of blind persons therefore can be expected to differ from that of normal subjects. This is of interest in the current analyses of the relation between head posture and craniofacial morphology. The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the posture of the head and cervical column and the craniofacial morphology in a group of blind subjects, and to compare the findings with those previously found in male and female groups of normal subjects. The sample comprised 30 blind subjects--18 men and 12 women, aged 15 to 35 years, all of whom had been without perception of light since birth. The control group comprised 120 male dental students in the age range 22 to 30 years and 51 female dental students in the age range 22 to 27 years. The analysis of head posture showed that the intra-and interindividual variabilities of the craniovertical angles were significantly larger than those of the craniocervical angles in the blind group. The interindividual variabilities of the craniovertical angles were significantly larger in the blind than in the control group, but the variabilities of the craniocervical angles were similar in both groups. Craniovertical relations thus were more variable in the blind subjects, whereas craniocervical relations showed the same variability as normal subjects. On the average, the head was carried in a 4.3 degrees lower position in the neck was 4.5 degrees more forward inclined in the blind group. No differences were found in the position of the head in relation to the cervical column between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The video head impulse test during post-rotatory nystagmus: physiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Tehrani, Ali S Saber; Xie, Li; Eibenberger, Karin; Eibenberger, Bernhard; Roberts, Dale; Newman-Toker, David E; Zee, David S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of a sustained nystagmus on the head impulse response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in healthy subjects. VOR gain (slow-phase eye velocity/head velocity) was measured using video head impulse test goggles. Acting as a surrogate for a spontaneous nystagmus (SN), a post-rotatory nystagmus (PRN) was elicited after a sustained, constant-velocity rotation, and then head impulses were applied. 'Raw' VOR gain, uncorrected for PRN, in healthy subjects in response to head impulses with peak velocities in the range of 150°/s-250°/s was significantly increased (as reflected in an increase in the slope of the gain versus head velocity relationship) after inducing PRN with slow phases of nystagmus of high intensity (>30°/s) in the same but not in the opposite direction as the slow-phase response induced by the head impulses. The values of VOR gain themselves, however, remained in the normal range with slow-phase velocities of PRN < 30°/s. Finally, quick phases of PRN were suppressed during the first 20-160 ms of a head impulse; the time frame of suppression depended on the direction of PRN but not on the duration of the head impulse. Our results in normal subjects suggest that VOR gains measured using head impulses may have to be corrected for any superimposed SN when the slow-phase velocity of nystagmus is relatively high and the peak velocity of the head movements is relatively low. The suppression of quick phases during head impulses may help to improve steady fixation during rapid head movements.

  13. Predictive Compensator Optimization for Head Tracking Lag in Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Barnard D.; Jung, Jae Y.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the perceptual impact of plant noise parameterization for Kalman Filter predictive compensation of time delays intrinsic to head tracked virtual environments (VEs). Subjects were tested in their ability to discriminate between the VE system's minimum latency and conditions in which artificially added latency was then predictively compensated back to the system minimum. Two head tracking predictors were parameterized off-line according to cost functions that minimized prediction errors in (1) rotation, and (2) rotation projected into translational displacement with emphasis on higher frequency human operator noise. These predictors were compared with a parameterization obtained from the VE literature for cost function (1). Results from 12 subjects showed that both parameterization type and amount of compensated latency affected discrimination. Analysis of the head motion used in the parameterizations and the subsequent discriminability results suggest that higher frequency predictor artifacts are contributory cues for discriminating the presence of predictive compensation.

  14. Head-repositioning does not reduce the reproducibility of fMRI activation in a block-design motor task.

    PubMed

    Soltysik, David A; Thomasson, David; Rajan, Sunder; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; DiCamillo, Paul; Biassou, Nadia

    2011-06-01

    It is hypothesized that, based upon partial volume effects and spatial non-uniformities of the scanning environment, repositioning a subject's head inside the head coil between separate functional MRI scans will reduce the reproducibility of fMRI activation compared to a series of functional runs where the subject's head remains in the same position. Nine subjects underwent fMRI scanning where they performed a sequential, oppositional finger-tapping task. The first five runs were conducted with the subject's head remaining stable inside the head coil. Following this, four more runs were collected after the subject removed and replaced his/her head inside the head coil before each run. The coefficient of variation was calculated for four metrics: the distance from the anterior commisure to the center of mass of sensorimotor activation, maximum t-statistic, activation volume, and average percent signal change. These values were compared for five head-stabilization runs and five head-repositioning runs. Voxelwise intraclass correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the spatial distribution of sources of variance. Interestingly, head repositioning was not seen to significantly affect the reproducibility of fMRI activation (p<0.05). In addition, the threshold level affected the reproducibility of activation volume and percent signal change.

  15. Medical-Research Ethics under the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growing involvement between medical schools and medical industries and the ethical problems this situation poses. The main concern is that investigators may expose subjects to unnecessary risks because they are driven by financial motives. (SLD)

  16. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  17. Embedded-structure template for electronic records affects patient note quality and management for emergency head injury patients: An observational pre and post comparison quality improvement study.

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Gunshin, Masataka; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu

    2016-10-01

    Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many patients in a short time. Therefore, such a template might be especially useful, but few ED-based studies have examined such systems.A structured template produced according to widely used head injury guidelines was used by ED residents for head injury patients. The study was conducted by comparing each 6-month period before and after launching the system. The quality of the patient notes and factors recorded in the patient notes to support the head computed tomography (CT) performance were evaluated by medical students blinded to patient information.The subject patients were 188 and 177 in respective periods. The numbers of patient notes categorized as "CT indication cannot be determined" were significantly lower in the postintervention term (18% → 9.0%), which represents the patient note quality improvement. No difference was found in the rates of CT performance or CT skip without clearly recorded CT indication in the patient notes.The structured template functioned as a checklist to support residents in writing more appropriately recorded patient notes in the ED head injury patients. Such a template customized to each clinical condition can facilitate standardized patient management and can improve patient safety in the ED.

  18. Hemodynamic Responses to Head and Neck Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Carbo, Jorge E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide head and neck cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objective of this study was to measure the scalp temperature and circulatory responses during use of one commercially available thermal control system. The Life Support Systems, Inc. Mark VII portable cooling system and a liquid cooling helmet were used in this study. Two EEG electrodes and one skin temperature transducer were placed on the anterior midline of the scalp to measure the scalp blood and temperature. Blood flow was measured using a bipolar impedance rheograph. Ten subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature, were tested at high, medium, moderate, moderate-low and low coolant temperatures. Scalp blood flow was recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Scalp temperature and cooling helmet Inlet temperature was logged periodically during the test period. This study quantifies the effect of head cooling upon scalp temperature and blood flow. These data may also be used to select operational specifications of the head cooling system for biomedical applications such as the treatment of migraine headaches, scalp cooling during chemotherapy, and cooling of multiple sclerosis patients.

  19. Designing a Vibrotactile Head-mounted Display.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Oliveira, Victor; Brayda, Luca; Nedel, Luciana; Maciel, Anderson

    2017-01-23

    Due to the perceptual characteristics of the head, vibrotactile Head-mounted Displays are built with low actuator density. Therefore, vibrotactile guidance is mostly assessed by pointing towards objects in the azimuthal plane. When it comes to multisensory interaction in 3D environments, it is also important to convey information about objects in the elevation plane. In this paper, we design and assess a haptic guidance technique for 3D environments. First, we explore the modulation of vibration frequency to indicate the position of objects in the elevation plane. Then, we assessed a vibrotactile HMD made to render the position of objects in a 3D space around the subject by varying both stimulus loci and vibration frequency. Results have shown that frequencies modulated with a quadratic growth function allowed a more accurate, precise, and faster target localization in an active head pointing task. The technique presented high usability and a strong learning effect for a haptic search across different scenarios in an immersive VR setup.

  20. The impact of gross anatomy on the future head and neck surgeon.

    PubMed

    Archibald, David J; Carlson, Matthew L

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective rotation. However, head and neck anatomy remains a constant in most medical schools, granting some exposure to otolaryngology whether students realize it or not. A common thread among most head and neck surgeons in their decision to pursue this surgical specialty is a love for head and neck anatomy, spawned in that first year gross anatomy course. This first and potentially only exposure to otolaryngology should be optimized, as it can have a profound effect in the selection of otolaryngology as a specialty. This introduction can be facilitated by (1) inviting otolaryngology residents to assist during the dissection of the head and neck, (2) soliciting otolaryngology attending physicians to provide clinical correlation lectures, and (3) anatomy professors should identify students who excel in the head and neck portion of the curriculum and direct them towards otolaryngology mentors. There may be a great missed opportunity if a career in otolaryngology is not discussed with students during the dissection of the head and neck.

  1. Vestibular-somatosensory convergence in head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Mulavara, A P; Ruttley, T; Cohen, H S; Peters, B T; Miller, C; Brady, R; Merkle, L; Bloomberg, J J

    2012-01-01

    Space flight causes astronauts to be exposed to adaptation in both the vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems. The goal of these studies was to examine the contributions of vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory influences on vestibular mediated head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Subjects walked on a motor driven treadmill while performing a gaze stabilization task. Data were collected from three independent subject groups that included bilateral labyrinthine deficient (LD) patients, normal subjects before and after 30 minutes of 40% bodyweight unloaded treadmill walking, and astronauts before and after long-duration space flight. Motion data from the head and trunk segments were used to calculate the amplitude of angular head pitch and trunk vertical translation movement while subjects performed a gaze stabilization task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in head pitch movements. Exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in head pitch movements in normal subjects, whereas the head pitch movements of LD patients were significantly decreased. This is the first evidence of adaptation of vestibular mediated head movement responses to unloaded treadmill walking. Astronaut subjects showed a heterogeneous response of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of head pitch movement. We infer that body load-sensing somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify vestibularly mediated head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause central adaptation of the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems leading to alterations in head movement control.

  2. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  3. Developmental Computer Awareness: Responses of Head Start and Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galen, Harlene; And Others

    Kindergarten experimental group subjects and Head Start children received classroom instruction about and "hands-on" experiences with computers, while a kindergarten control group received the "hands-on" experiences only. During an initial classroom instructional phase, a mini-unit was employed to introduce 10 computer terms to…

  4. The Evolving Role of the Head of Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines three concepts relating to the role of heads of department (HoDs) in secondary schools: boundary management; the roles of subject leadership and departmental functioning as HoD activities; and the place of HoDs in evolving school hierarchies. To throw light on the last an empirical study is reported that explores hierarchies in…

  5. Cerebral sinodural thrombosis following minor head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal; Cohen, José E

    2013-04-01

    Cerebral sinodural thrombosis (CSDT) is a rare complication of minor head trauma in children. Despite recommendations, anticoagulation is frequently withheld. We aimed to evaluate the etiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of pediatric CSDT following minor head trauma, and specifically to evaluate factors associated with anticoagulation use following minor head trauma in pediatric patients with CSDT. A literature search from 1990 to 2012 identified manuscripts discussing epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and outcome in pediatric patients with CSDT subsequent to minor head trauma. One pediatric patient diagnosed with CSDT following minor head trauma in our institution was also included in the study. There were 18 pediatric patients with CSDT following minor trauma, including the current patient. Mean patient age was 7.8years (range 23months-15years). There was a strong female predominance (2.4:1). Vomiting and headache were the most common symptoms. Five patients had pre-existing risk factors (gastroenteritis, protein S deficiency, estroprogestenic medication, elevated antiphospholipid antibodies, malnutrition). Anticoagulation was administered to six patients with additional risk factors, severe symptoms, or deterioration. There was no mortality, 12 patients recovered fully, and four patients improved with residual symptoms. One patient required lumboperitoneal shunt placement. Pediatric CSDT is a rare complication of minor head trauma, with variable presentation. Anticoagulation has generally been reserved for patients suffering from severe symptoms, for those who deteriorate neurologically during observation, and for those who suffer from a concomitant prothrombotic disorder.

  6. An overview of head lice infestation in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divyesh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Choudhari, Kishor A

    Head lice or pediculosis is recognized as an increasing problem in medical practice (Down et al, 1999). Secondary bacterial infections can occur in patients with infestation. In neurosurgical patients, head lice infestation may be a potential risk factor for peri-operative complications. Secondary infection could further complicate neurosurgical wounds with subsequent complications. The authors discuss epidemiology, pathogenesis of potential peri-operative complications resulting from pediculosis and methodology of treatment of this common condition. The importance of early recognition and prompt treatment in patients with neurological diseases is highlighted. A simple algorithm to treat scalp pediculosis is suggested.

  7. Overreporting of Closed-Head Injury Symptoms on the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David T. R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) validity scales were compared for 20 nonclinical participants, 18 subjects asked to fake injury, 18 head injury patients not seeking compensation, and 30 compensation-seeking head injury patients. Results suggest that MMPI-2 overreporting scales are sensitive to complaint fabrication and…

  8. Cohesion in the Discourse of Normal and Head-Injured Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentis, Michelle; Prutting, Carol A.

    1987-01-01

    Cohesion strategies used by three normal and three head-injured adults were examined in both conversational and narrative conditions. Head-injured subjects used different cohesion patterns than normal adults in both conditions; and both groups used different cohesion patterns in the conversational and narrative conditions. (Author/DB)

  9. A Study of Standardized Headings for Warranties. Technical Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.; Redish, Janice C.

    A study was conducted (1) to discover whether using standardized headings on warranties would increase or decrease people's speed and accuracy in understanding the terms of warranties and (2) to determine what effect headings would have on people's attitudes toward warranties. Subjects were 48 adult consumers who read groups of four warranties for…

  10. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  11. The Human Sense of the Head's Polarity Is Influenced by Changes in the Magnitude of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation concerns the integrity of a primary mental function, the egocentric frame of reference and the sense of polarity of one's own head. The visually perceived eye level (VPEL) and the subjective antero-posterior axis of the head were measured by means of a visual indicator in darkness during two stimulus conditions: static…

  12. HNdb: an integrated database of gene and protein information on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrique, Tiago; José Freitas da Silveira, Nelson; Henrique Cunha Volpato, Arthur; Mioto, Mayra Mataruco; Carolina Buzzo Stefanini, Ana; Bachir Fares, Adil; Gustavo da Silva Castro Andrade, João; Masson, Carolina; Verónica Mendoza López, Rossana; Daumas Nunes, Fabio; Paulo Kowalski, Luis; Severino, Patricia; Tajara, Eloiza Helena

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of scientific literature has grown rapidly in recent years. Specifically, there are several million citations in the field of cancer. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to manually retrieve relevant information on the mechanisms that govern tumor behavior or the neoplastic process. Furthermore, cancer is a complex disease or, more accurately, a set of diseases. The heterogeneity that permeates many tumors is particularly evident in head and neck (HN) cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this study, we present HNdb, a free database that aims to provide a unified and comprehensive resource of information on genes and proteins involved in HN squamous cell carcinoma, covering data on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, literature citations and also cross-references of external databases. Different literature searches of MEDLINE abstracts were performed using specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) for oral, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. A curated gene-to-publication assignment yielded a total of 1370 genes related to HN cancer. The diversity of results allowed identifying novel and mostly unexplored gene associations, revealing, for example, that processes linked to response to steroid hormone stimulus are significantly enriched in genes related to HN carcinomas. Thus, our database expands the possibilities for gene networks investigation, providing potential hypothesis to be tested. Database URL: http://www.gencapo.famerp.br/hndb PMID:27013077

  13. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  14. [The analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" in 1960-2010].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Shigeev, S V; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the analysis of the subject-matter and the structure of scientific articles related to forensic biology published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" over the period from 1960 till 2010. The sceintometric analysis made it possible to distinguish the main avenues along which forensic biology developed during its most productive period. The results of this analytical study have provided in the summarized form the entire spectrum of the main trends in the forensic biology throughout the half-century period.

  15. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  16. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  17. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  18. Head Start Nutrition Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ.

    This multidisciplinary preschool nutrition education curriculum was written for use in the instruction of 3- to 5-year-olds in the National Head Start program. Introductory notes on cooking experiences for Head Start children and suggested menus for young children are followed by nine units. The curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching…

  19. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  20. Dual-Head Robotic Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Gary S.

    1990-01-01

    Robotic welder uses two welding heads simultaneously. Developed for assembly of "hot dog" shell on main injector for Space Shuttle main engine, concept applicable to other, similarly rounded or contoured workpieces. Opposed heads reduce distortion and stress in opposed weld joints and speed up welding operations.

  1. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  2. State Funding of Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Legislature, Boise. Office of Performance Evaluation.

    This background paper details Head Start, a federally funded program serving preschool age children from low-income families, and focuses on the program's effectiveness and the adequacy of historic federal funding levels. The paper provides an overview of the Head Start Program, describes federal requirements for local programs, and describes Head…

  3. 21 CFR 821.20 - Devices subject to tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking Requirements § 821.20 Devices subject to tracking. (a) A manufacturer of any class II or class III device that fits within one of the three criteria... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices subject to tracking. 821.20 Section...

  4. 21 CFR 821.20 - Devices subject to tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking Requirements § 821.20 Devices subject to tracking. (a) A manufacturer of any class II or class III device that fits within one of the three criteria... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devices subject to tracking. 821.20 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 821.20 - Devices subject to tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking Requirements § 821.20 Devices subject to tracking. (a) A manufacturer of any class II or class III device that fits within one of the three criteria... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices subject to tracking. 821.20 Section...

  6. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a research... research subjects under this section shall be provided in VA medical facilities. (1) If VA...

  7. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a research... research subjects under this section shall be provided in VA medical facilities. (1) If VA...

  8. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects. (a) VA medical facilities shall provide necessary medical treatment to a research... research subjects under this section shall be provided in VA medical facilities. (1) If VA...

  9. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination. PMID:27635171

  10. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  11. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  12. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  13. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  14. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  15. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  16. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  17. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  18. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  19. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  20. On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Head-bobbing in birds is a conspicuous behaviour related to vision comprising a hold phase and a thrust phase. The timing of these phases has been shown in many birds, including quail, to be coordinated with footfall during locomotion. We were interested in the biomechanics behind this phenomenon. During terrestrial locomotion in birds, the trunk is subjected to gait-specific vertical oscillations. Without compensation, these vertical oscillations conflict with the demands of vision (i.e., a vertically stable head position). We tested the hypothesis that the coordination between head-bobbing and trunk movement is a means of reconciling the conflicting demands of vision and locomotion which should thus vary according to gait. Results Significant differences in the timing of head-bobbing were found between gaits. The thrust phase was initiated just prior to the double support phase in walking (vaulting) trials, whereas in running (bouncing) trials, thrust started around midstance. Altering the timing of head-trunk-coordination in simulations showed that the timing naturally favoured by birds minimizes the vertical displacement of the head. When using a bouncing gait the timing of head bobbing had a compensatory effect on the fluctuation of the potential energy of the bird’s centre of mass. Conclusion The results are consistent with expectations based on the vertical trunk fluctuations observed in biomechanical models of vaulting and bouncing locomotion. The timing of the head-bobbing behaviour naturally favoured by quail benefits vision during vaulting and bouncing gaits and potentially helps reducing the mechanical cost associated with head bobbing when using a bouncing gait. PMID:24666790

  1. Reflection in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a medical-education perspective that I will hope complement other disciplinary perspectives in examining the value of reflection for learning in tertiary education. The paper outlines some of the theoretical strands of reflective practice facilitated in a unique course subject for professionalism and patient safety, within the…

  2. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in what…

  3. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

  4. [Progress on tantalum rod implanting for the treatment of femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-kang; Ye, Fu-sheng; Tong, Pei-jian; Fan, Yan-hua; Li, Min; Ying, Hang; Xiao, Lu-wei

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect treatment for femur head necrosis can cause collapse of femoral head and tresult in severe harm for the patients (especially for the patient with middle-aged and young). The structure and mechanics characteristics of tantalum rod is similar to bone tissue, it higher strength and can adapt the internal environment of organism, so it has a large potency in treating femur head necrosis. Treatment of early femur head necrosis with tantalum rod implanting had alreadly widey applied at home and abroad, the method has the advantages of simple operation, little risk, less complication and beseems the patient with stage I - II of ARCO. But reasons that the difficult diagnosis of early femur head necrosis, localized effect of tantalum rod, different experience of medical worker,caused the contentions about effect of tantalum rod implanting. With development of science, tantalum rod implanting combined with correlative biotechnology should raise the effect in treating femur head necrosis.

  5. Development of Medical Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Penetrating Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    will hear a voice saying some numbers and I would like you to raise your finger (preferred hand) every time you hear the number two, and also every time... hallucinations ) 6. Hearing strange things that are not there 270. ( hallucinations ) 7. Decreased sense of smell or smelling things 280. that are not...Vision .2 Hearing .3 Right hand .4 Left hand .5 Language comprehension .6 Oral expression .7 Extreme fatigue .8 Agitated .9 Confusional state .99

  6. Development of Medical Adjunctive Treatment Acute Penetrating Head Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    whether and which prophylactic anticonvulsants should be used and for how long, and 8. what brain death c" iteria are satisfactory. Additionally, there are...According to 68%, surgery should be performed as soon as possible, and another 15% felt it should be performed within a day. 12 Of the many brain death criteria...the President’s Commission. Thirty-four percent use other criteria. Eighty-one percent of respondents’ hospitals have specific brain death criteria

  7. Neck posture and head movement in four rescue stretchers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert; Bilzon, Emma; Green, Andrew; Chamberlain, Richard; Pickering, John

    2004-11-01

    Neck posture and head movements were measured in four rescue stretchers: the Neil Robertson stretcher, which has been in service in the Royal Navy for almost 100 years, and three potential replacements. A repeated measures laboratory study was carried out to quantify neck posture and head movements while subjects reclined in the stretchers. Stretchers were compared on the basis of this critical aspect of their performance to complement the findings of ship-based usability trials. When the subjects were secured in each of the stretchers, wearing cervical collars and any restraints integral to that stretcher, the resting posture of the neck and the range of voluntary movement in flexion/extension, lateral flexion, and rotation were measured. In all of the stretchers, the neck was in an extended posture. The collars restricted head movements but they did not immobilize the neck. Stretcher 3, which had all of the functionality of the Neal Robertson stretcher, but with integral backboard and head blocks, limited head movements the most.

  8. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Pay The median ... must become familiar with medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, diagnostic procedures, pharmacology, and treatment assessments. Their ability ...

  9. Medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Markose, Aji; Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Mutual trust and relationship between doctors and patients is an important factor of treatment plan. Changing trends in medical field does affect this relationship. This article reviews the basic code of conduct for every medical practitioner. PMID:27829735

  10. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD medications work by increasing the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. There are two main kinds of ADHD medications: ...

  11. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  13. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... leading experts and organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  14. Ethical genetic research on human subjects.

    PubMed

    Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    Since the Nuremberg trials and the Nazi doctors trial following World War II, international ethics protocols have emerged designed to protect human subjects from the atrocities of medical experimentation that were literally routine under the Nazis. Some of the apparent "lessons" from the Nazi period have been encapsulated in the Declaration of Helsinki, perhaps the leading medical ethics protocol. This paper argues that these protocols have not been notably conducive to human welfare or to the protection of human rights in the field of human genetics research. The paper proposes new protocols and a new approach to the ethics of research on human subjects.

  15. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lindsey E.; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning “opposite”, i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  16. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lindsey E; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues.

  17. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  18. Medical Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical assistants often fill out insurance forms or code patients’ medical information. They often answer telephones and ... charts and diagnoses. They may be required to code a patient’s medical records for billing purposes. Detail ...

  19. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  20. Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1986-11-01

    Max Brödel arrived in the United States in 1894 to work as a medical illustrator at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He brought with him an extensive background in medical sciences and illustration. This allowed him to develop an advanced style and technique that would greatly influence the profession of medical illustration. Much of Brödel's work concerned the head and neck region and is of particular interest to otolaryngologists. This article reviews the historical aspects of Brödel's career and highlights his contributions to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

  1. Eye and head motion during head turns in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Eye-head motion was studied pre-, in- and postflight during single voluntary head turns. A transient increase in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain occurred early in the flight, but later trended toward normal. This increased gain was produced by a relative increase in eye counterrotation velocity. Asymmetries in gain with right and left turns also occurred, caused by asymmetries in eye counterrotation velocities. These findings were remarkably similar to those from Soviet primate studies using gaze fixation targets, except the human study trended more rapidly toward normal. These findings differ substantially from those measuring VOR gain by head oscillation, in which no significant changes were found inflight. No visual disturbances were noted in either test condition or in normal activities. These head turn studies are the only ones to date documenting any functional change in VOR in weightlessness.

  2. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  3. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  4. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  5. Microwave resonance therapy in medical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumskoy, L. L.

    1994-08-01

    Consideration is being given to the problems of organizing treatment of patients with quantum medicine methods by Prof. S.P. Sit'ko at 660 hospitals of Ukraine and Russia. Analyzed are teaching of doctors and treatment of 250,000 patients for 82 nozologic cases in 1990 through 1993. In the State of Ukraine, the Government has adopted a State Target-oriented Program of Large- scale Promotion of Microwave Resonance Therapy Into Medical Practice as presented by the Ministry of Health care in 1989. According to the Program, it was planned, during the three year period, to provide MRT rooms in 325 medical institutions. The Program was based on a discovery by Prof. S.P. Sit'ko DSc (Physics & Mathematics), of a new non-morphological structure of man, i.e. an electromagnetic framework that is manifested by eigenfrequencies in the millimeter range and disturbance of which results in disease while repair returns the organism to health. This idea was subjected to national and international expert evaluation. This evaluation was done by a panel of 12 universally acknowledged scientists headed by the founder of the theory of superconductivity, professor of the Liverpool University (Great Britain) h. Frohlich and director of the Madrid medical center Prof. Alzina. The USA was represented by Dr. W. Rogers, chief of the Center of Radiation, Institute of Bioinformation Research. The stated that Professor S.P. Sit'ko and his coworkers had established a new line of inquiry in medicine, i.e. microwave resonance therapy. To implement the State Target-oriented Program, the Government chose the Interbranch Scientific and Engineering Center on Physics of the Alive and Microwave Resonance Therapy 'Vidhuk'.

  6. Effect of external viscous load on head movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.

  7. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  8. Effects of predictive mechanisms on head stability during forward trunk perturbation.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, M; Tinker, S W; Hain, T C; Lee, W A

    2003-02-01

    While much is known about reflex and mechanical contributions to the control of head stability, little is known about predictive control. The goal of this experiment was to determine the contribution of predictive mechanisms to head stability in space, in the pitch plane, during forward trunk perturbations. Eleven standing healthy subjects had their trunk pulled forward by a load-pulley apparatus. The perturbation was either self-triggered or imposed (triggered by the experimenter). Subjects were exposed to two loads: 2% and 4% of their body weight. The contributions of torques acting on the head-neck system were inferred from head and trunk kinematics, neck muscle EMG, and the torques acting on the head, which were computed using inverse dynamics. The results showed that both the head and trunk moved less during the self-triggered than imposed condition during both loads for most of the participants. There was no evidence of predictive neck countertorque or increased neck muscle co-contraction during the self-triggered condition. These findings suggest that most of the subjects improved head stability in the self-triggered condition by reducing trunk motion and the associated interactive torque that perturbed the head.

  9. Stride-Cycle Influences on Goal-Directed Head Movements Made During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal head movements were studied in six subjects as they made rapid horizontal gaze adjustments while walking. The aim of the present research was to determine if gait-cycle events alter the head movement response to a visual target acquisition task. Gaze shifts of approximately 40deg were elicited by a step change in the position of a visual target from a central location to a second location in the left or right horizontal periphery. The timing of the target position change was constrained to occur at 25,50,75 and 100% of the stride cycle. The trials were randomly presented as the subjects walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed (range: 1.25 to 1.48 m/s, mean: 1.39 +/- 0.09 m/s ) . Analyses focused on the movement onset latencies of the head and eyes and on the peak velocity and saccade amplitude of the head movement response. A comparison of the group means indicated that the head movement onset lagged the eye onset (262 ms versus 252 ms). The head and eye movement onset latencies were not affected by either the direction of the target change nor the point in the gait cycle during which the target relocation occurred. However, the presence of an interaction between the gait cycle events and the direction of the visual target shift indicates that the peak head saccade velocity and head saccade amplitude are affected by the natural head oscillations that occur while walking.

  10. The temporal dynamics of heading perception in the presence of moving objects.

    PubMed

    Layton, Oliver W; Fajen, Brett R

    2016-01-01

    Many forms of locomotion rely on the ability to accurately perceive one's direction of locomotion (i.e., heading) based on optic flow. Although accurate in rigid environments, heading judgments may be biased when independently moving objects are present. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the conditions in which moving objects influence heading perception, with a focus on the temporal dynamics and the mechanisms underlying this bias. Subjects viewed stimuli simulating linear self-motion in the presence of a moving object and judged their direction of heading. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that heading perception is biased when the object crosses or almost crosses the observer's future path toward the end of the trial, but not when the object crosses earlier in the trial. Nonetheless, heading perception is not based entirely on the instantaneous optic flow toward the end of the trial. This was demonstrated in Experiment 3 by varying the portion of the earlier part of the trial leading up to the last frame that was presented to subjects. When the stimulus duration was long enough to include the part of the trial before the moving object crossed the observer's path, heading judgments were less biased. The findings suggest that heading perception is affected by the temporal evolution of optic flow. The time course of dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) neuron responses may play a crucial role in perceiving heading in the presence of moving objects, a property not captured by many existing models.

  11. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: II. The effect of head position on illusory self motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, F. W.; Newby, N. J.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cross-coupled stimuli on the semicircular canals are shown to be influenced by the position of the subject's head with respect to gravity and the axis of rotation, but not by the subject's head position relative to the trunk. Seventeen healthy subjects made head yaw movements out of the horizontal plane while lying on a horizontal platform (MIT short radius centrifuge) rotating at 23 rpm about an earth-vertical axis. The subjects reported the magnitude and duration of the illusory pitch or roll sensations elicited by the cross-coupled rotational stimuli acting on the semicircular canals. The results suggest an influence of head position relative to gravity. The magnitude estimation is higher and the sensation decays more slowly when the head's final position is toward nose-up (gravity in the subject's head x-z-plane) compared to when the head is turned toward the side (gravity in the subject's head y-z-plane). The results are discussed with respect to artificial gravity in space and the possible role of pre-adaptation to cross-coupled angular accelerations on earth.

  12. Medical marijuana: Irresponsible medical care?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nayvin

    2017-03-01

    Illness should continue to be treated by health professionals employing scientific evidence. This is responsible policy. It is not appropriate or medically justified for family physicians to refer patients to medical marijuana clinics; instead, they should inform their patients that medical treatment must be based on scientific evidence.

  13. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  14. Baby's Head Shape: What's Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top of your baby's head where the skull bones haven't yet grown together. These spots, ... rapidly growing brain during infancy. Because your baby's skull is malleable, however, a tendency to rest the ...

  15. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  16. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer and the stage (extent) of the disease. In general, patients with early-stage head and neck cancers (particularly those limited to the site of origin) are treated with one modality—either radiation therapy ...

  17. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symmetrical, but for a variety of reasons the asymmetry becomes less apparent as well. For example, in ... a flattened head does not affect a child's brain growth or cause developmental delays or brain damage. ...

  18. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  19. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  20. Destabilization of Human Balance Control by Static and Dynamic Head Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Black, F. Owen; Hwang, Emma Y.; Reschke, Millard F.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the effects of varying head movement frequencies on human balance control, 12 healthy adult humans were studied during static and dynamic (0.14,0.33,0.6 Hz) head tilts of +/-30deg in the pitch and roll planes. Postural sway was measured during upright stance with eyes closed and altered somatosensory inputs provided by a computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. Subjects were able to maintain upright stance with static head tilts, although postural sway was increased during neck extension. Postural stability was decreased during dynamic head tilts, and the degree of destabilization varied directly with increasing frequency of head tilt. In the absence of vision and accurate foot support surface inputs, postural stability may be compromised during dynamic head tilts due to a decreased ability of the vestibular system to discern the orientation of gravity.

  1. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  2. A Review of Instrumented Equipment to Investigate Head Impacts in Sport

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contact, collision, and combat sports have more head impacts as compared to noncontact sports; therefore, such sports are uniquely suited to the investigation of head impact biomechanics. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of instrumented equipment, which can estimate the head impact kinematics of human subjects in vivo. Literature pertaining to head impact measurement devices was reviewed and usage, in terms of validation and field studies, of such devices was discussed. Over the past decade, instrumented equipment has recorded millions of impacts in the laboratory, on the field, in the ring, and on the ice. Instrumented equipment is not without limitations; however, in vivo head impact data is crucial to investigate head injury mechanisms and further the understanding of concussion. PMID:27594780

  3. Attitude of medical students about different teaching aids used in lectures in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Meyur, R; Mitra, B; Adhikari, A; Mitra, D; Biswas, S; Sadhu, A

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays medical teachers use different audiovisual (AV) aids of teaching in their classes to make the subject more interesting and understandable. To assess the impact of three common lecture delivery methods, viz Blackboard (BB), Transparency and Over Head Projector (OHP) and Powerpoint Presentation (PP), a questionnaire based study was carried out among first year MBBS students of R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata. One hundred fouty students of academic session 2010-2011 were exposed to different aids of teaching, viz. Black Board (BB), Over Head Projector (OHP), power point presentation (PP) for ten months. They were taught Anatomy by different teachers who used all the three AV aids in their lectures. Then they were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding these three AV aids of teaching. The students preferred Black Board teaching over OHP and result was statistically significant (p value < 0.0001). BB teaching was also preferred over PP presentations (p < 0.02). But in comparison to OHP, students preferred PP though the difference is not statistically significant (p < 0.10). Most of the students still prefer Black Board teaching to other modern AV aids like OHP and PP. For better understanding of a subject by students and improvement of their performance, a teacher should match the lectures with preferred AV aids and use the AV aids prudently.

  4. Vibrotactile Sensitivity of the Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tissue in the skull, via vibrators mounted on the head, which stimulates the cochlea (resulting in an auditory sensation) while bypassing the external...are compatible with the sensitivity of the user. The extent to which vibrotactile* stimulation of the head is viable as a method of communication...cycle fraction of 0.25, and three repetitions extending the stimulation period of the signal to 750 ms (figure 5). Furthermore, the signal was divided

  5. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  6. Femoral head banking: NUH tissue bank experience.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; David, Vikram

    2007-04-01

    National University Hospital Tissue Bank protocol follows guidelines recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks and the European Association of Tissue Banks using donor selection criteria: medical history, clinical examination, chart review and laboratory tests for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and specimen for culture/sensitivity tests. For living donors, repeat testing is performed for AIDS and hepatitis C approximately 180 days after procurement. Femoral heads are procured using the "sterile double jar technique" and stored at -80 degrees C. Our first study of 273 consecutive potential donors undergoing hemiarthroplasty from 1989 to 1994 showed that a high percentage (42.5%) was unsuitable for use. A second study involving 175 potential donors was conducted from 1995 to 2003 after hepatitis C screening was introduced. The bacterial contamination rates in both studies (3.5% and 5.7%) are low. The incidence of other diseases also are low: hepatitis B, 2.3% and syphilis, 1.8% in the first study and hepatitis B, 5.7%; hepatitis C, 0.6%; and syphilis, 5.1% in the second cohort. No cases of AIDS were reported in either study. By 2003, femoral heads were transplanted in 205 patients with a low complication rate of 2.9%.

  7. Dropped head syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Martin, Allan R; Reddy, Rajesh; Fehlings, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a relatively rare condition, with a broad differential diagnosis. This deformity has significant implications on the health and quality of life of affected individuals. While surgery seems to be an obvious therapeutic option, there is a paucity of information on surgical intervention with no clear consensus on an optimal approach or timing. We present a case of DHS in a young woman to illustrate this condition, and review the current literature. Although at present the only definitive solution for correction and stabilization of DHS is surgical intervention involving multilevel instrumented fixation and fusion, this condition requires a persistent medical workup and treatment of reversible causes before surgical intervention is contemplated.

  8. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  9. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, Cecília N.; Stilla, Randall; Singh, Shivangi; Buetefisch, Cathrin; Evatt, Marian; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Hu, Xiaoping Philip; Hess, Ellen J.; Sathian, K.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis). Isometric wrist extension was examined for comparison. Electromyography of neck and hand muscles ensured compliance with tasks during scanning, and any head motion was measured and corrected. Data were analyzed in three steps. First, we conducted within-group analyses to examine task-related activation patterns separately in subjects with CD and in healthy controls. Next, we directly compared task-related activation patterns between participants with CD and controls. Finally, considering that the abnormal head movements in CD occur in a consistently patterned direction for each individual, we conducted exploratory analyses that involved normalizing data according to the direction of rotational CD. The between-group comparisons failed to reveal any significant differences, but the normalization procedure in subjects with CD revealed that isometric head rotation in the direction of dystonic head rotation was associated with more activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, whereas isometric head rotation in the opposite direction was associated with more activity in sensorimotor cortex. These findings suggest that the cerebellum contributes to abnormal head rotation in CD, whereas regions in the cerebral cortex are involved in opposing the involuntary movements. PMID:27895619

  10. Cynicism among medical students.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, L

    1983-10-21

    The thesis that medical students become more cynical than students of other professions seems justified in light of psychological studies and reports from medical students. This article explores whether this might be due, in part, to disappointment about how important ideals are followed. Psychological tests themselves offer an opportunity to examine this, because the medical profession espouses the goals of gaining proper consent from all subjects, including students, and of giving appropriate attention to excellence of research design and method. When studies used to evaluate medical students' attitudes are viewed from this perspective, however, weaknesses on both scores seem apparent. Students seem well aware of some of these flaws. Although such testing is a small part of medical education, it confirms students' views that there is cause for disillusionment about how certain goals are realized. It also suggests a way to cure some students' cynicism. Students should be taught consistently, both by example as well as by precept of their profession's sincere commitment to professed goals. In practical terms this means, for example, that studies using students as subjects should have a proper review by the institutional review board, with adequate attention given to excellence of design, confidentiality, and methods of gaining informed and unpressured consent. Such studies could then serve as paradigms to students. Other goals of the profession should also be applied to students, and applied for students.

  11. Therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alshadwi, Ahmad; Nadershah, Mohammed; Osborn, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to review the mechanism of action, physiological effects, and therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in the head and neck area. Study design An extensive literature search was performed using keywords. The resulting articles were analyzed for relevance in four areas: overview on botulinum neurotoxins, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of salivary secretory disorders, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of facial pain, and the role of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck movement disorders. Institutional review board approval was not needed due the nature of the study. Results Botulinum neurotoxin therapy was demonstrated to be a valuable alternative to conventional medical therapy for many conditions affecting the head and neck area in terms of morbidly, mortality, and patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes. Conclusion Botulinum neurotoxin therapy provides viable alternatives to traditional treatment modalities for some conditions affecting the head and neck region that have neurological components. This therapy can overcome some of the morbidities associated with conventional therapy. More research is needed to determine the ideal doses of botulinum neurotoxin to treat different diseases affecting the head and neck regions. PMID:25544809

  12. Surgical, ethical, and psychosocial considerations in human head transplantation.

    PubMed

    Furr, Allen; Hardy, Mark A; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-01-19

    Transplanting a head and brain is perhaps the final frontier of organ transplantation. The goal of body-to-head transplantation (BHT) is to sustain the life of individuals who suffer from terminal disease, but whose head and brain are healthy. Ideally BHT could provide a lifesaving treatment for several conditions where none currently exists. BHT is no ordinary experiment, to transfer a head to another body involves extraordinarily complex medical challenges as well as ethical and existential dilemmas that were previously confined to the imagination of writers of fiction. The possibility of replacing an incurably ill body with a healthy one tests not only our surgical limits, but also the social and psychological boundaries of physical life and alters what we recognize life to be. The purpose of this target article, the complementary manuscript focused on immunological issues in BHT, and the accompanying Commentaries by scholars and practitioners in medicine, immunology, and bioethics is to review major surgical and psychosocial-ethical and immunological considerations surrounding body-to-head transplantation. We hope that together these ideas will provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the possibilities and challenges associated with BHT and initiate professional discussion and debate through which this new frontier in medicine is considered and approached.

  13. Ghost Head Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth.

    The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas.

    NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000.

    The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas.

    In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center

  14. Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Savica, Rodolfo; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Knopman, David S.; Lowe, Val J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We determined whether head trauma was associated with amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration among individuals who were cognitively normal (CN) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants included 448 CN individuals and 141 individuals with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and MRI. Head trauma was defined as a self-reported brain injury with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory. Regression models examined whether head trauma was associated with each neuroimaging variable (assessed as continuous and dichotomous measures) in both CN and MCI participants, controlling for age and sex. Results: Among 448 CN individuals, 74 (17%) self-reported a head trauma. There was no difference in any neuroimaging measure between CN subjects with and without head trauma. Of 141 participants with MCI, 25 (18%) self-reported a head trauma. MCI participants with a head trauma had higher amyloid levels (by an average 0.36 standardized uptake value ratio units, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Among individuals with MCI, but not CN individuals, self-reported head trauma with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory was associated with greater amyloid deposition, suggesting that head trauma may be associated with Alzheimer disease–related neuropathology. Differences between CN individuals and individuals with MCI raise questions about the relevance of head injury–PET abnormality findings in those with MCI. PMID:24371306

  15. Head modeling for realistic electrical brain activity mapping identification of a multimodal neuroimaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Vatta, F; Bruno, P; Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Meneghini, F; Mininel, S; Rodaro, M

    2008-01-01

    Realistic electrical brain activity mapping implies reconstructing and visualizing sources of electrical brain activity within the specific patient's head. This requires the assumption of a precise and realistic volume conductor model of the specific subject's head, i.e., a 3-D representation of the head's electrical properties in terms of shape and electrical conductivities. Source reconstruction accuracy is influenced by errors committed in head modeling. Clinical images, MRI and CT, are used to identify the head structures to be included in the volume conductor head model. Modeling accuracy mainly relies on the correct image-based identification of head structures, characterized by different electrical conductivities, to be included as separate compartments in the model. This paper analyzes the imaging protocols used in clinical practice to define the most suitable procedures for identification of the various head structures necessary to build an accurate head model also in the presence of morphologic brain pathologies. Furthermore, tissues anisotropy is discussed and identified as well. With this work we have identified a protocol for the acquisition of multimodal patient's imaging data for realistic electrical brain activity mapping purposes, able to account for pathological conditions and for head tissues anisotropy.

  16. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  17. Subdividing Text: Headings, Content and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struck, Larry

    Text headings can be used to structural and expressive advantage in technical material, increasing textual coherence and encouraging reader/text correspondence. The five general types of headings are differentiated by their functions: (1) descriptive headings refer to the most prominent feature of a text section; (2) reflective headings provide…

  18. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  19. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... 1 of 6). When tested to the test procedure specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  20. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... 1 of 6). When tested to the test procedure specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...