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Sample records for medical text indexer

  1. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  2. Semi automatic indexing of PostScript files using Medical Text Indexer in medical education.

    PubMed

    Mollah, Shamim Ara; Cimino, Christopher

    2007-10-11

    At Albert Einstein College of Medicine a large part of online lecture materials contain PostScript files. As the collection grows it becomes essential to create a digital library to have easy access to relevant sections of the lecture material that is full-text indexed; to create this index it is necessary to extract all the text from the document files that constitute the originals of the lectures. In this study we present a semi automatic indexing method using robust technique for extracting text from PostScript files and National Library of Medicine's Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program for indexing the text. This model can be applied to other medical schools for indexing purposes.

  3. Application of a Medical Text Indexer to an online dermatology atlas.

    PubMed

    Kim, G R; Aronson, A R; Mork, J G; Cohen, B A; Lehmann, C U

    2004-01-01

    Clinical dermatology cases are presented as images and semi-structured text describing skin lesions and their relationships to disease. Metadata assignment to such cases is hampered by lack of a standardized dermatology vocabulary and facilitated methods for indexing legacy collections. In this pilot study descriptive clinical text from Dermatlas, a Web-based repository of dermatology cases, was indexed to Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms using the National Library of Medicine's Medical Text Indexer (MTI). The MTI is an automated text processing system that derives ranked lists of MeSH terms to describe the content of medical journal citations using knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and from MEDLINE. For a representative, random sample of 50 Dermatlas cases, the MTI frequently derived MeSH indexing terms that matched expert-assigned terms for Diagnoses (88%), Lesion Types (72%), and Patient Characteristics (Gender and Age Groups, 62% and 84% respectively). This pilot demonstrates the potential for extending the MTI to automate indexing of clinical case presentations and for using MeSH to describe aspects of clinical dermatology.

  4. The earliest medical texts.

    PubMed

    Frey, E F

    The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly.

  5. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  6. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  7. [On two antique medical texts].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2005-01-01

    The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective.

  8. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  9. Semi-automatic indexing of full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Gay, Clifford W; Kayaalp, Mehmet; Aronson, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    The main application of U.S. National Library of Medicine's Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is to provide indexing recommendations to the Library's indexing staff. The current input to MTI consists of the titles and abstracts of articles to be indexed. This study reports on an extension of MTI to the full text of articles appearing in online medical journals that are indexed for Medline. Using a collection of 17 journal issues containing 500 articles, we report on the effectiveness of the contribution of terms by the whole article and also by each section. We obtain the best results using a model consisting of the sections Results, Results and Discussion, and Conclusions together with the article's title and abstract, the captions of tables and figures, and sections that have no titles. The resulting model provides indexing significantly better (7.4%) than what is currently achieved using only titles and abstracts.

  10. The Algorithmic Processing of Structured Medical Text*

    PubMed Central

    Blois, M.S.; Sherertz, D.D.; Tuttle, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are described which (1) separated specific medical terms from common English words, (2) assigned medical terms to their appropriate specialty (e.g. dermatology, cardiology), and (3) generated and measured the association of pairs of disease attributes in a corpus of structured medical text concerning diseases. The output of these algorithms is discussed in terms of the contributions they may make to the solution of three problems in medical text processing: the construction of knowledge bases about diseases, the querying of such knowledge bases, and the classification of journal articles relevant to diseases.

  11. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  12. IndexFinder: a method of extracting key concepts from clinical texts for indexing.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qinghua; Chu, Wesley W; Morioka, Craig; Leazer, Gregory H; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2003-01-01

    Extracting key concepts from clinical texts for indexing is an important task in implementing a medical digital library. Several methods are proposed for mapping free text into standard terms defined by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). For example, natural language processing techniques are used to map identified noun phrases into concepts. They are, however, not appropriate for real time applications. Therefore, in this paper, we present a new algorithm for generating all valid UMLS concepts by permuting the set of words in the input text and then filtering out the irrelevant concepts via syntactic and semantic filtering. We have implemented the algorithm as a web-based service that provides a search interface for researchers and computer programs. Our preliminary experiment shows that the algorithm is effective at discovering relevant UMLS concepts while achieving a throughput of 43K bytes of text per second. The tool can extract key concepts from clinical texts for indexing.

  13. Augmenting Oracle Text with the UMLS for enhanced searching of free-text medical reports.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Erdal, Selnur; Dhaval, Rakesh; Kamal, Jyoti

    2007-10-11

    The intrinsic complexity of free-text medical reports imposes great challenges for information retrieval systems. We have developed a prototype search engine for retrieving clinical reports that leverages the powerful indexing and querying capabilities of Oracle Text, and the rich biomedical domain knowledge and semantic structures that are captured in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

  14. Automated Assessment of Medical Training Evaluation Text

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data. PMID:23304426

  15. Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI): a literature database mining approach that handles text and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh B; Hull, Richard D; Fluder, Eugene M

    2003-01-01

    We present an application of a novel methodology called Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI) to mine the information in the scientific literature. TIMI is an extension of two existing methodologies: (1) Latent Semantic Structure Indexing (LaSSI), a method for calculating chemical similarity using two-dimensional topological descriptors, and (2) Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a method for generating correlations between textual terms. The singular value decomposition (SVD) of a feature/object matrix is the fundamental mathematical operation underlying LSI, LaSSI, and TIMI and is used in the identification of associations between textual and chemical descriptors. We present the results of our studies with a database containing 11,571 PubMed/MEDLINE abstracts which show the advantages of merging textual and chemical descriptors over using either text or chemistry alone. Our work demonstrates that searching text-only databases limits retrieved documents to those that explicitly mention compounds by name in the text. Similarly, searching chemistry-only databases can only retrieve those documents that have chemical structures in them. TIMI, however, enables search and retrieval of documents with textual, chemical, and/or text- and chemistry-based queries. Thus, the TIMI system offers a powerful new approach to uncovering the contextual scientific knowledge sought by the medical research community.

  16. Ancient medical texts, modern reading problems.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2006-12-05

    The word tradition has a very specific meaning in linguistics: the passing down of a text, which may have been completed or corrected by different copyists at different times, when the concept of authorship was not the same as it is today. When reading an ancient text the word tradition must be in the reader's mind. To discuss one of the problems an ancient text poses to its modern readers, this work deals with one of the first printed medical texts in Portuguese, the Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença, and draws a parallel between it and two related texts, A moche profitable treatise against the pestilence, and the Recopilaçam das cousas que conuem guardar se no modo de preseruar à Cidade de Lixboa E os sãos, & curar os que esteuerem enfermos de Peste. The problems which arise out of the textual structure of those books show how difficult is to establish a tradition of another type, the medical tradition. The linguistic study of the innumerable medieval plague treatises may throw light on the continuities and on the disruptions of the so-called hippocratic-galenical medical tradition.

  17. Identification of inactive medications in narrative medical text.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Eugene M; Chu, Julia T; Turchin, Alexander

    2008-11-06

    Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patients medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring.

  18. On Entropy-Compressed Text Indexing in External Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Thankachan, Sharma V.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    A new trend in the field of pattern matching is to design indexing data structures which take space very close to that required by the indexed text (in entropy-compressed form) and also simultaneously achieve good query performance. Two popular indexes, namely the FM-index [Ferragina and Manzini, 2005] and the CSA [Grossi and Vitter 2005], achieve this goal by exploiting the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) [Burrows and Wheeler, 1994]. However, due to the intricate permutation structure of BWT, no locality of reference can be guaranteed when we perform pattern matching with these indexes. Chien et al. [2008] gave an alternative text index which is based on sparsifying the traditional suffix tree and maintaining an auxiliary 2-D range query structure. Given a text T of length n drawn from a σ-sized alphabet set, they achieved O(n logσ)-bit index for T and showed that this index can preserve locality in pattern matching and hence is amenable to be used in external-memory settings. We improve upon this index and show how to apply entropy compression to reduce index space. Our index takes O(n(H k + 1)) + o(nlogσ) bits of space where H k is the kth-order empirical entropy of the text. This is achieved by creating variable length blocks of text using arithmetic coding.

  19. Efficient Single-Pass Index Construction for Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Steffen; Zobel, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses index construction for text collections, reviews principal approaches to inverted indexes, analyzes their theoretical cost, and presents experimental results of the use of a single-pass inversion method on Web document collections. Shows that the single-pass approach is faster and does not require the complete vocabulary of the indexed…

  20. Extracting medication information from clinical text

    PubMed Central

    Solti, Imre; Cadag, Eithon

    2010-01-01

    The Third i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records focused on the identification of medications, their dosages, modes (routes) of administration, frequencies, durations, and reasons for administration in discharge summaries. This challenge is referred to as the medication challenge. For the medication challenge, i2b2 released detailed annotation guidelines along with a set of annotated discharge summaries. Twenty teams representing 23 organizations and nine countries participated in the medication challenge. The teams produced rule-based, machine learning, and hybrid systems targeted to the task. Although rule-based systems dominated the top 10, the best performing system was a hybrid. Of all medication-related fields, durations and reasons were the most difficult for all systems to detect. While medications themselves were identified with better than 0.75 F-measure by all of the top 10 systems, the best F-measure for durations and reasons were 0.525 and 0.459, respectively. State-of-the-art natural language processing systems go a long way toward extracting medication names, dosages, modes, and frequencies. However, they are limited in recognizing duration and reason fields and would benefit from future research. PMID:20819854

  1. Creating and indexing teaching files from free-text patient reports.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D B; Chu, W W; Dionisio, J D; Taira, R K; Kangarloo, H

    1999-01-01

    Teaching files based on real patient data can enhance the education of students, staff and other colleagues. Although information retrieval system can index free-text documents using keywords, these systems do not work well where content bearing terms (e.g., anatomy descriptions) frequently appears. This paper describes a system that uses multi-word indexing terms to provide access to free-text patient reports. The utilization of multi-word indexing allows better modeling of the content of medical reports, thus improving retrieval performance. The method used to select indexing terms as well as early evaluation of retrieval performance is discussed.

  2. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  3. Multilingual translation techniques in the analysis of narrative medical text.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W; Polacsek, R A; Erozan, Y S; de la Monte, S M; Miller, R E; Hutchins, G M; Riede, U N

    1986-03-01

    The feasibility of computer translation of scientific and medical documents is controversial. This report describes a minicomputer-based translation system (TRANSOFT) that employs word order rearrangement followed by word-for-word translation and resolution of ambiguities based on context. This translation system was applied to an entire medical textbook written in German and to short medical texts written in French, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. Results suggest the versatility of TRANSOFT for narrowly defined translation problems. As foreign language medical documents and medical records become increasingly available in computer readable form through word processing, computerized typesetting and hospital information systems, computer translation methods may provide a rapid and inexpensive means of obtaining draft translations.

  4. Visualization index for image-enabled medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjie; Zheng, Weilin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2011-03-01

    With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store indexes of the patients' basic information, historical examined image information and RIS report information. When a doctor wants to review patient historical records, he or she can first load the anatomical structure object and the view the 3D index of this object using a digital human model tool kit. This prototype system helps doctors to easily and visually obtain the complete historical healthcare status of patients, including large amounts of medical data, and quickly locate detailed information, including both reports and images, from medical information systems. In this way, doctors can save time that may be better used to understand information, obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their patients' situations, and provide better healthcare services to patients.

  5. Text mining for the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: medical text classification using informative feature selection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michael D; Woo, Emily Jane; Markatou, Marianthi; Ball, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collects spontaneous reports of adverse events following vaccination. Medical officers review the reports and often apply standardized case definitions, such as those developed by the Brighton Collaboration. Our objective was to demonstrate a multi-level text mining approach for automated text classification of VAERS reports that could potentially reduce human workload. Design We selected 6034 VAERS reports for H1N1 vaccine that were classified by medical officers as potentially positive (Npos=237) or negative for anaphylaxis. We created a categorized corpus of text files that included the class label and the symptom text field of each report. A validation set of 1100 labeled text files was also used. Text mining techniques were applied to extract three feature sets for important keywords, low- and high-level patterns. A rule-based classifier processed the high-level feature representation, while several machine learning classifiers were trained for the remaining two feature representations. Measurements Classifiers' performance was evaluated by macro-averaging recall, precision, and F-measure, and Friedman's test; misclassification error rate analysis was also performed. Results Rule-based classifier, boosted trees, and weighted support vector machines performed well in terms of macro-recall, however at the expense of a higher mean misclassification error rate. The rule-based classifier performed very well in terms of average sensitivity and specificity (79.05% and 94.80%, respectively). Conclusion Our validated results showed the possibility of developing effective medical text classifiers for VAERS reports by combining text mining with informative feature selection; this strategy has the potential to reduce reviewer workload considerably. PMID:21709163

  6. An Index to Medical Book Reviews: A Computer Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Ruth

    1967-01-01

    The experimental production of an index to book reviews of medical publications is described. Details of compilation and preparation of data for processing by an IBM 1440 computer are outlined. Results of a survey testing the response to the index in its present form by medical libraries are presented. PMID:6016372

  7. Implementation of Emergency Medical Text Classifier for Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Debbie; Haas, Stephanie W.; Waller, Anna E.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Mostafa, Javed; Best, Nakia C.; Crouch, John

    2013-01-01

    Public health officials use syndromic surveillance systems to facilitate early detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. Emergency department clinical notes are becoming more available for surveillance but present the challenge of accurately extracting concepts from these text data. The purpose of this study was to implement a new system, Emergency Medical Text Classifier (EMT-C), into daily production for syndromic surveillance and evaluate system performance and user satisfaction. The system was designed to meet user preferences for a syndromic classifier that maximized positive predictive value and minimized false positives in order to provide a manageable workload. EMT-C performed better than the baseline system on all metrics and users were slightly more satisfied with it. It is vital to obtain user input and test new systems in the production environment. PMID:24551413

  8. Implementation of Emergency Medical Text Classifier for syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Travers, Debbie; Haas, Stephanie W; Waller, Anna E; Schwartz, Todd A; Mostafa, Javed; Best, Nakia C; Crouch, John

    2013-01-01

    Public health officials use syndromic surveillance systems to facilitate early detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. Emergency department clinical notes are becoming more available for surveillance but present the challenge of accurately extracting concepts from these text data. The purpose of this study was to implement a new system, Emergency Medical Text Classifier (EMT-C), into daily production for syndromic surveillance and evaluate system performance and user satisfaction. The system was designed to meet user preferences for a syndromic classifier that maximized positive predictive value and minimized false positives in order to provide a manageable workload. EMT-C performed better than the baseline system on all metrics and users were slightly more satisfied with it. It is vital to obtain user input and test new systems in the production environment.

  9. Comparison of Document Index Graph Using TextRank and HITS Weighting Method in Automatic Text Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadyan, Fadhlil; Shaufiah; Arif Bijaksana, Moch.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic summarization is a system that can help someone to take the core information of a long text instantly. The system can help by summarizing text automatically. there’s Already many summarization systems that have been developed at this time but there are still many problems in those system. In this final task proposed summarization method using document index graph. This method utilizes the PageRank and HITS formula used to assess the web page, adapted to make an assessment of words in the sentences in a text document. The expected outcome of this final task is a system that can do summarization of a single document, by utilizing document index graph with TextRank and HITS to improve the quality of the summary results automatically.

  10. Introduction to Subject Indexing; A Programmed Text. Volume One: Subject Analysis and Practical Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan George

    This programed text presents the basic principles and practices of subject indexing--limited to the area of precoordinate indexing. This first of two volumes deals with the subject analysis of documents, primarily at the level of summarization, and the basic elements of translation into classification schemes. The text includes regular self-tests…

  11. THE NEED TO PUBLISH WELL-EDITED TAMIL MEDICAL TEXTS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D. Suresh

    1995-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need to publish well-edited versions of Tamil medical works. Some illustrative examples from Vaittiyacintamani – 800 of Yukimuni and Nayanaviti-500 of Akattiyar are presented in support of the suggestion. PMID:22556700

  12. Optimal embedding for shape indexing in medical image databases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D; Fulbright, Robert K; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine X-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding.

  13. Frequency and content analysis of chronic fatigue syndrome in medical text books.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Paavola, Erin; Porter, Nicole; Morello, Morgan L

    2010-01-01

    Text books are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical text books from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical text books included information on CFS. However, among the 129 527 total pages within these medical text books, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (0.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as multiple sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical text books. These findings suggest that the topic ofCFS is underreported in published medical text books.

  14. Introduction to Subject Indexing; a Programmed Text. Volume Two: UDC and Chain Procedure in Subject Cataloguing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. G.; And Others

    This is the second of two volumes dealing with practical classification and subject indexing. The programed text considers use of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and techniques of cross referencing based on UDC in the construction of classified and alphabetical subject catalogs. (Author/LS)

  15. Quantification of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity during moxifloxacin or sotalol administration using [Formula: see text]-index.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, M W; Mainardi, L T; Sassi, R

    2015-04-01

    Drug-induced alterations of ventricular heterogeneity must be limited to avoid induction of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In here, a new parameter called [Formula: see text]-index, able to measure the standard deviation of myocites' repolarization times, was evaluated after moxifloxacin and sotalol administration. The two drugs are known to provide different alteration of the QT interval length ranging from subtle (moxifloxacin) to evident (sotalol). In fact, while the former is employed as active-comparator in thorough QT studies, the latter might induce torsades de pointes. 24 h Holter ECGs of 39 (sotalol) and 68 (moxifloxacin) healthy subjects were retrospectively analyzed. The recordings were performed after infusion of the drugs and after the placebo (moxifloxacin) or at baseline (sotalol). The corrected QT interval (QTc) was included as well in the study, for a direct comparison. In both populations, [Formula: see text]-index and QTc increased along with the drugs' serum concentration and were statistically different from values in the placebo arm or at baseline (p < 0.05).With sotalol, the maximum value of [Formula: see text]-index occurred, on average, after 5.64 h from the infusion, whereas for QTc after about 4.27 h. The two metrics displayed evident changes ([Formula: see text]-index: 27.79 ms ± 4.89 ms versus 60.13 ms ± 18.52 ms; QT corrected: 387.07 ms ± 19.84 ms versus 437.76 ± 32.05 ms; p < 0.05). Regarding moxifloxacin, maximum values were reached, on average, 5.01 h after administration for [Formula: see text]-index (30.70 ms ± 8.32 ms versus 40.48 ms ± 7.61 ms; p < 0.05), and 4.37 h for QTc (404.29 ms ± 29.05 ms versus 426.77 ± 36.67 ms; p < 0.05). They were statistically different from baseline values. With both drugs, the maximal percent variation after administration was higher for [Formula: see text]-index than QTc (moxifloxacin: 34.56% ± 24.60% versus 5.56% ± 2.98% ; sotalol: 114.77% ± 33.15% versus 12.13% ± 2.85% ; p < 0

  16. Journal descriptor indexing tool for categorizing text according to discipline or semantic type.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Susanne M; Lu, Chris J; Rogers, Willie J; Browne, Allen C

    2006-01-01

    A JDI (Journal Descriptor Indexing) tool has been developed at NLM that automatically categorizes biomedical text as input, returning a ranked list, with scores between 0-1, of either JDs (Journal Descriptors, corresponding to biomedical disciplines) or STs (UMLS Semantic Types). Possible applications include WSD (Word Sense Disambiguation) and retrieval according to discipline. The Lexical Systems Group plans to distribute an open source JAVA version of this tool.

  17. MEDTAG: tag-like semantics for medical document indexing.

    PubMed

    Ruch, P; Wagner, J; Bouillon, P; Baud, R H; Rassinoux, A M; Scherrer, J R

    1999-01-01

    Medical documentation is central in health care, as it constitutes the main means of communication between care providers. However, there is a gap to bridge between storing information and extracting the relevant underlying knowledge. We believe natural language processing (NLP) is the best solution to handle such a large amount of textual information. In this paper we describe the construction of a semantic tagset for medical document indexing purposes. Rather than attempting to produce a home-made tagset, we decided to use, as far as possible, standard medicine resources. This step has led us to choose UMLS hierarchical classes as a basis for our tagset. We also show that semantic tagging is not only providing bases for disambiguisation between senses, but is also useful in the query expansion process of the retrieval system. We finally focus on assessing the results of the semantic tagger.

  18. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  19. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  20. Throw the Bath Water Out, Keep the Baby: Keeping Medically-Relevant Terms for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Jay; Berndt, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to answer the question, can medically-relevant terms be extracted from text notes and text mined for the purpose of classification and obtain equal or better results than text mining the original note? A novel method is used to extract medically-relevant terms for the purpose of text mining. A dataset of 5,009 EMR text notes (1,151 related to falls) was obtained from a Veterans Administration Medical Center. The dataset was processed with a natural language processing (NLP) application which extracted concepts based on SNOMED-CT terms from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. SAS Enterprise Miner was used to text mine both the set of complete text notes and the set represented by the extracted concepts. Logistic regression models were built from the results, with the extracted concept model performing slightly better than the complete note model. PMID:21346996

  1. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

  2. Duplicate Publications in Korean medical journals indexed in KoreaMed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Bae, Chong-Woo; Cho, Hye Min

    2008-02-01

    Duplicate publication is considered unethical. It has several negative impacts. To estimate the frequency and characteristics of duplicate publications in Korean medical journals, we reviewed some portion of Korean journal articles. Among 9,030 articles that are original articles indexed in KoreaMed from January to December 2004, 455 articles (5%) were chosen by random sampling. PubMed, Google scholar, KMbase, and KoreaMed were searched by two librarians. Three authors reviewed titles, abstracts, and full text of index articles and suspected articles independently. Point of disagreement were reconciled by discussion. Criteria for a duplicate publication defined by editors of cardiothoracic journals and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors were used. A total of 455 articles were evaluated, of which 27 (5.93%) index articles were identified with 29 duplicate articles. Among 27 index articles, 1 was quadruple publication and 26 were double publications. Of 29 duplicated articles, 19 were classified as copy, 4 as fragmentation, and 6 as disaggregation. The proportion of duplicate publications in Korean medical journals appears to be higher than expected. Education on publication ethics to researchers is needed.

  3. Semantic Indexing of Medical Learning Objects: Medical Students' Usage of a Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Gießler, Paul; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ursula; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Background The Semantically Annotated Media (SAM) project aims to provide a flexible platform for searching, browsing, and indexing medical learning objects (MLOs) based on a semantic network derived from established classification systems. Primarily, SAM supports the Aachen emedia skills lab, but SAM is ready for indexing distributed content and the Simple Knowledge Organizing System standard provides a means for easily upgrading or even exchanging SAM’s semantic network. There is a lack of research addressing the usability of MLO indexes or search portals like SAM and the user behavior with such platforms. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the usability of SAM by investigating characteristic user behavior of medical students accessing MLOs via SAM. Methods In this study, we chose a mixed-methods approach. Lean usability testing was combined with usability inspection by having the participants complete four typical usage scenarios before filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the IsoMetrics usability inventory. Direct user interaction with SAM (mouse clicks and pages accessed) was logged. Results The study analyzed the typical usage patterns and habits of students using a semantic network for accessing MLOs. Four scenarios capturing characteristics of typical tasks to be solved by using SAM yielded high ratings of usability items and showed good results concerning the consistency of indexing by different users. Long-tail phenomena emerge as they are typical for a collaborative Web 2.0 platform. Suitable but nonetheless rarely used keywords were assigned to MLOs by some users. Conclusions It is possible to develop a Web-based tool with high usability and acceptance for indexing and retrieval of MLOs. SAM can be applied to indexing multicentered repositories of MLOs collaboratively. PMID:27731860

  4. Extracting Concepts Related to Homelessness from the Free Text of VA Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Carter, Marjorie E; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; South, Brett; Durgahee, B S Begum; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Mining the free text of electronic medical records (EMR) using natural language processing (NLP) is an effective method of extracting information not always captured in administrative data. We sought to determine if concepts related to homelessness, a non-medical condition, were amenable to extraction from the EMR of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records. As there were no off-the-shelf products, a lexicon of terms related to homelessness was created. A corpus of free text documents from outpatient encounters was reviewed to create the reference standard for NLP training and testing. V3NLP Framework was used to detect instances of lexical terms and was compared to the reference standard. With a positive predictive value of 77% for extracting relevant concepts, this study demonstrates the feasibility of extracting positively asserted concepts related to homelessness from the free text of medical records.

  5. Tagline: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text Elements in Medical Progress Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Dezon Kile

    2012-01-01

    Text analysis has become an important research activity in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be very effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither of these techniques is effective at extracting the information stored in…

  6. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  7. Exploring the application of deep learning techniques on medical text corpora.

    PubMed

    Minarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Marín-Alonso, Oscar; Samwald, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly growing amount of biomedical literature it becomes increasingly difficult to find relevant information quickly and reliably. In this study we applied the word2vec deep learning toolkit to medical corpora to test its potential for improving the accessibility of medical knowledge. We evaluated the efficiency of word2vec in identifying properties of pharmaceuticals based on mid-sized, unstructured medical text corpora without any additional background knowledge. Properties included relationships to diseases ('may treat') or physiological processes ('has physiological effect'). We evaluated the relationships identified by word2vec through comparison with the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) ontology. The results of our first evaluation were mixed, but helped us identify further avenues for employing deep learning technologies in medical information retrieval, as well as using them to complement curated knowledge captured in ontologies and taxonomies.

  8. A Corpus-Based Study of Cohesion in English Medical Texts and its Chinese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Yan, Wenli; Zhou, Yumei

    2009-01-01

    Cohesion as an indispensable linguistic feature in discourse analysis and translation has aroused many researchers’ interest. To explore the regularity in shifting cohesive devices from English into Chinese our study was designed to analyze the similarities and differences of cohesive devices between English medical texts (EMTs) and their Chinese translation texts (CTTs). A parallel corpus consisting of 15 EMTs and 15 CTTs was established, each type of cohesive devices was identified, and paired t-test was run for statistic analysis. We have revealed that both EMTs and CTTS share more similarities than differences in the use of cohesive devices; the differences between them only exist in the employment of reference in terms of occurrence frequencies; the majority of cohesive devices are maintained in Chinese translation for precision, clarity and logicality. Our study will not only help medical students and medical workers but also shed light on EMP teaching and research. PMID:23675153

  9. Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vyverman, Michaël; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared. PMID:22584621

  10. Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Vyverman, Michaël; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared.

  11. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared. Part IV--Indexing and Full Text Retrieval Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of articles on the evaluation of microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, conducted by the Netherlands Association of Users of Online Information Systems (VOGIN), presents test results for six indexing and full-text retrieval programs--Ask-It, KAware, Texplore, TextMaster, WordCruncher, and ZYindex. (13…

  12. Psychometric properties of the Medical Student Well-Being Index among medical students in a Malaysian medical school.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Yaacob, Mohd Jamil; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Esa, Ab Rahman

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the convergent, discriminant, construct, concurrent and discriminative validity of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency and optimal cut-off total scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. A cross sectional study was done on 171 medical students. The MSWBI and DASS-21 were administered and returned immediately upon completion. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ROC analysis and Pearson correlation test were applied to assess psychometric properties of the MSWBI. A total of 168 (98.2%) medical students responded. The goodness of fit indices showed the MSWBI had a good construct (χ(2)=6.14, p=0.803, RMSEA<0.001, RMR=0.004, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, CFI=1.00, IFI=1.02, TLI=1.04). The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.69 indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficients and ROC analysis suggested each MSWBI's item showed adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Its optimal cut-off scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 respectively with sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 80% and the areas under ROC curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.83. This study showed that the MSWBI had good level of psychometric properties. The MSWBI score more than 2 can be considered as having significant psychological distress. The MSWBI is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess psychological distress of medical students.

  13. Term Familiarity to indicate Perceived and Actual Difficulty of Text in Medical Digital Libraries.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy; Endicott, James E

    2011-10-01

    With increasing text digitization, digital libraries can personalize materials for individuals with different education levels and language skills. To this end, documents need meta-information describing their difficulty level. Previous attempts at such labeling used readability formulas but the formulas have not been validated with modern texts and their outcome is seldom associated with actual difficulty. We focus on medical texts and are developing new, evidence-based meta-tags that are associated with perceived and actual text difficulty. This work describes a first tag, term familiarity , which is based on term frequency in the Google corpus. We evaluated its feasibility to serve as a tag by looking at a document corpus (N=1,073) and found that terms in blogs or journal articles displayed unexpected but significantly different scores. Term familiarity was then applied to texts and results from a previous user study (N=86) and could better explain differences for perceived and actual difficulty.

  14. Differences in nationwide cohorts of acupuncture users identified using structured and free text medical records.

    PubMed

    Redd, Doug; Kuang, Jinqiu; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Integrative medicine including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more available through mainstream health providers. Acupuncture is one of the most widely used CAM therapies, though its efficacy for treating various conditions requires further investigation. To assist with such investigations, we set out to identify acupuncture patient cohorts using a nationwide clinical data repository. Acupuncture patients were identified using both structured data and unstructured free text notes: 44,960 acupuncture patients were identified using structured data consisting of CPT codes;. Using unstructured free text clinical notes, we trained a support vector classifier with 86% accuracy and was able to identify an additional 101,628 acupuncture patients not identified through structured data (a 226% increase). In addition, characteristics of the patients identified through structured and unstructured data were compared, which show differences in geographic locations and medical service usage patterns. Patients identified with structured data displayed a consistently higher use of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical system.

  15. Detecting earlier indicators of homelessness in the free text of medical records.

    PubMed

    Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2014-01-01

    Early warning indicators to identify US Veterans at risk of homelessness are currently only inferred from administrative data. References to indicators of risk or instances of homelessness in the free text of medical notes written by Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers may precede formal identification of Veterans as being homeless. This represents a potentially untapped resource for early identification. Using natural language processing (NLP), we investigated the idea that concepts related to homelessness written in the free text of the medical record precede the identification of homelessness by administrative data. We found that homeless Veterans were much higher utilizers of VA resources producing approximately 12 times as many documents as non-homeless Veterans. NLP detected mentions of either direct or indirect evidence of homelessness in a significant portion of Veterans earlier than structured data.

  16. Understanding and use of phrasal verbs and idioms in medical/nursing texts.

    PubMed

    Polackova, G

    2008-01-01

    Phrasal verbs and idioms are frequently used in everyday English. They are also used in more specific language as equivalents for special terms. The use of phrasal verbs and idioms by native patients and health care workers makes their communication easier and less confusing. Non-native medical workers often come across with English phrasal verbs (idioms) in authentic texts and communication. They should be able to recognize them and after analyzing their meaning include them into their own active vocabulary (Ref. 5).

  17. Timing of Gestures: Gestures Anticipating or Simultaneous With Speech as Indexes of Text Comprehension in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Ianì, Francesco; Cutica, Ilaria; Bucciarelli, Monica

    2016-06-08

    The deep comprehension of a text is tantamount to the construction of an articulated mental model of that text. The number of correct recollections is an index of a learner's mental model of a text. We assume that another index of comprehension is the timing of the gestures produced during text recall; gestures are simultaneous with speech when the learner has built an articulated mental model of the text, whereas they anticipate the speech when the learner has built a less articulated mental model. The results of four experiments confirm the predictions deriving from our assumptions for both children and adults. Provided that the recollections are correct, the timing of gestures can differ and can be considered a further measure of the quality of the mental model, beyond the number of correct recollections.

  18. Mining free-text medical records for companion animal enteric syndrome surveillance.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2014-03-01

    Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals.

  19. Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stéphane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research. PMID:20841823

  20. TagLine: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text in Medical Progress Notes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Dezon K; McCart, James A; Luther, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither technique is effective at extracting the information stored in semi-structure text elements. A prototype system (TagLine) was developed to extract information from the semi-structured text using machine learning and a rule based annotator. Features for the learning machine were suggested by prior work, and by examining text, and selecting attributes that help distinguish classes of text lines. Classes were derived empirically from text and guided by an ontology developed by the VHA's Consortium for Health Informatics Research (CHIR). Decision trees were evaluated for class predictions on 15,103 lines of text achieved an overall accuracy of 98.5 percent. The class labels applied to the lines were then used for annotating semi-structured text elements. TagLine achieved F-measure over 0.9 for each of the structures, which included tables, slots and fillers.

  1. Risk factor detection for heart disease by applying text analytics in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Fan, Jung-Wei; Yang, Wei-Li; Lee, Theodore; Wiley, Matthew T; Zisook, Daniel S; Huang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, about 600,000 people die of heart disease every year. The annual cost of care services, medications, and lost productivity reportedly exceeds 108.9 billion dollars. Effective disease risk assessment is critical to prevention, care, and treatment planning. Recent advancements in text analytics have opened up new possibilities of using the rich information in electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify relevant risk factors. The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Challenge brought together researchers and practitioners of clinical natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the identification of heart disease risk factors reported in EMRs. We participated in this track and developed an NLP system by leveraging existing tools and resources, both public and proprietary. Our system was a hybrid of several machine-learning and rule-based components. The system achieved an overall F1 score of 0.9185, with a recall of 0.9409 and a precision of 0.8972.

  2. Indexing the medical open access literature for textual and content-based visual retrieval.

    PubMed

    Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years an increasing amount of scientific journals have been created in an open access format. Particularly in the medical field the number of openly accessible journals is enormous making a wide body of knowledge available for analysis and retrieval. Part of the trend towards open access publications can be linked to funding bodies such as the NIH1 (National Institutes of Health) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF2) requiring funded projects to make all articles of funded research available publicly. This article describes an approach to make part of the knowledge of open access journals available for retrieval including the textual information but also the images contained in the articles. For this goal all articles of 24 journals related to medical informatics and medical imaging were crawled from the web pages of BioMed Central. Text and images of the PDF (Portable Document Format) files were indexed separately and a web-based retrieval interface allows for searching via keyword queries or by visual similarity queries. Starting point for a visual similarity query can be an image on the local hard disk that is uploaded or any image found via the textual search. Search for similar documents is also possible.

  3. Automation and integration of components for generalized semantic markup of electronic medical texts.

    PubMed

    Dugan, J M; Berrios, D C; Liu, X; Kim, D K; Kaizer, H; Fagan, L M

    1999-01-01

    Our group has built an information retrieval system based on a complex semantic markup of medical textbooks. We describe the construction of a set of web-based knowledge-acquisition tools that expedites the collection and maintenance of the concepts required for text markup and the search interface required for information retrieval from the marked text. In the text markup system, domain experts (DEs) identify sections of text that contain one or more elements from a finite set of concepts. End users can then query the text using a predefined set of questions, each of which identifies a subset of complementary concepts. The search process matches that subset of concepts to relevant points in the text. The current process requires that the DE invest significant time to generate the required concepts and questions. We propose a new system--called ACQUIRE (Acquisition of Concepts and Queries in an Integrated Retrieval Environment)--that assists a DE in two essential tasks in the text-markup process. First, it helps her to develop, edit, and maintain the concept model: the set of concepts with which she marks the text. Second, ACQUIRE helps her to develop a query model: the set of specific questions that end users can later use to search the marked text. The DE incorporates concepts from the concept model when she creates the questions in the query model. The major benefit of the ACQUIRE system is a reduction in the time and effort required for the text-markup process. We compared the process of concept- and query-model creation using ACQUIRE to the process used in previous work by rebuilding two existing models that we previously constructed manually. We observed a significant decrease in the time required to build and maintain the concept and query models.

  4. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  5. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  6. The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

  7. NegAIT: A New Parser for Medical Text Simplification Using Morphological, Sentential and Double Negation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Partha; Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Rajanarayanan, Srinidhi; Romero Diaz, Damian Y; Yuan, Nicole P; Gail Pritchard, T; Colina, Sonia

    2017-03-22

    Many different text features influence text readability and content comprehension. Negation is commonly suggested as one such feature, but few general-purpose tools exist to discover negation and studies of the impact of negation on text readability are rare. In this paper, we introduce a new negation parser (NegAIT) for detecting morphological, sentential, and double negation. We evaluated the parser using a human annotated gold standard containing 500 Wikipedia sentences and achieved 95%, 89% and 67% precision with 100%, 80%, and 67% recall, respectively. We also investigate two applications of this new negation parser. First, we performed a corpus statistics study to demonstrate different negation usage in easy and difficult text. Negation usage was compared in six corpora: patient blogs (4K sentences), Cochrane reviews (91K sentences), PubMed abstracts (20K sentences), clinical trial texts (48K sentences), and English and Simple English Wikipedia articles for different medical topics (60K and 6K sentences). The most difficult text contained the least negation. However, when comparing negation types, difficult texts (i.e., Cochrane, PubMed, English Wikipedia and clinical trials) contained significantly (p<.01) more morphological negations. Second, we conducted a predictive analytics study to show the importance of negation in distinguishing between easy and difficulty text. Five binary classifiers (Naïve Bayes, SVM, decision tree, logistic regression and linear regression) were trained using only negation information. All classifiers achieved better performance than the majority baseline. The Naïve Bayes' classifier achieved the highest accuracy at 77% (9% higher than the majority baseline).

  8. Text mining of the classical medical literature for medicines that show potential in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae.

  9. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H.; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  10. Neurolinguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to medical text analysis.

    PubMed

    Duch, Włodzisław; Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-12-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts not found directly in the text. The approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications.

  11. Narrative text in structured documentation of medication risks and side effects.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Virpi; Saranto, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Electronic patient records enable the use of patient data for clinical, administrative and research purposes. However, utilising electronic data requires a structured documentation model in which standardised nursing classifications are used. Finnish Care Classification (FinCC) is based on the Clinical Care Classification. FinCC version 1.1 used in this study contains Finnish Classification of Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions. This study aims to analyse how nurses have used narrative text to complement the documentation of medication risks and side effects when the Finnish Care Classification is used. The results of this study show that content of narrative text does not always correspond with the FinCC codes used. The content of narrative text does not follow the nursing process. Especially the use of nursing diagnosis seems to be difficult. This study indicates a need for continuing education about structured documentation. Further research is needed to analyse the relationship between nursing diagnosis and interventions as well as how other components are complemented with narrative text.

  12. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  13. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy.

  14. The (see text) in the Praecepta: The Medical Fee and its Impact on the Patient.

    PubMed

    Ecca, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The brief collection of deontological guidelines entitled Praecepta is one of the most important literary evidence regarding the fee of the ancient physician. This chapter focuses on three passages from the Praecepta, which offer us a wealth of information on this topic. Some technical terms used in the text, such as the term μiσθápiov, show clearly that the author intends both to provide guidelines for the ideal bedside manners and to defend the repute of the physicians from the widespread charge of greed. In some regards, the author of the Praecepta depicts medicine as a 'liberal' art: the good physician disdains monetary gain as the main goal of his service, and aims to safeguard the social status and reputation of the medical profession. On the other hand, the author of the Praecepta enlightens his readers on the bad behaviour of both charlatan physicians and bad-mannered patients.

  15. Neurolinguistic Approach to Natural Language Processing with Applications to Medical Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-01-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts that are not found directly in the text. Approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  16. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    PubMed

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended.

  17. Effect of gender on correlation of anaemia with body mass index in medical students.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Saxena, Vartika

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional anemia exists globally and cuts across all the sections of the population. Adolescent being formative years in life are more susceptible to nutritional anemia. Considerable changes in growth pattern, lifestyle, dietary habits & behavior are likely to influence the hemoglobin levels among male and females of high income group. Study was done to assess the level of anemia among medical students and it's relation to Body mass index (BMI) among medical students. 200 healthy medical students at the Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences belonging to both the sexes were taken in the study. Following consent anthropometry was conducted using standard protocol. Body Mass Index of >/= 18.5 kg/m2 is used to define undernutrition. Hemoglobin was estimated in gram %. Statistical analyses was done using mean .Standard deviation, Student's t test, and was studied for effect of gender on correlation of anemia with BMI. 8% of the students of MBBS were found to be anemic (Hb <12 g%) with none of the boys having hemoglobin <12 g% .15.5% under nutrition was observed in the medical students with (25.75%) of girls having a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2. A negative association of hemoglobin was found with nutritional status (BMI) (r = -0.59; P = 0.24) in over weight and obese females students. Nutritional anemia and under nutrition exist among female medical students who are literate, and have free access to the nutritive diet in a good healthy environment.

  18. The Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Messaging in Improving Medication Adherence for Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ershad Sarabi, Roghayeh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Jamshidi Orak, Roohangiz; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Context Medication non-adherence is a commonly observed problem in the self-administration of treatment, regardless of the disease type. Text messaging reminders, as electronic reminders, provide an opportunity to improve medication adherence. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence addressing the question of whether text message reminders were effective in improving patients’ adherence to medication. Evidence Acquisition We carried out a systematic literature search, using the five electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Studies were included on the basis of whether they examined the benefits and effects of short-message service (SMS) interventions on medication adherence. Results The results of this systematic review indicated that text messaging interventions have improved patients’ medication adherence rate (85%, 29.34). Included in the review, those who had problems with adherence, or those whom text messaging was most helpful had HIV, asthma, diabetes, schizophrenia and heart disease (73.5%). The period of intervention varied from 1 week to 14 months. The most common study design was randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (66%) carried out in the developed countries. Conclusions This study demonstrated the potential of mobile phone text messaging for medication non-adherence problem solving. PMID:27437126

  19. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  20. Unsupervised method for extracting machine understandable medical knowledge from a large free text collection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Das, Amar K; Garber, Alan M

    2009-11-14

    Definitions of medical concepts (e.g diseases, drugs) are essential background knowledge for researchers, clinicians and health care consumers. However, the rapid growth of biomedical research requires that such knowledge continually needs updating. To address this problem, we have developed an unsupervised pattern learning approach that extracts disease and drug definitions from automatically structured randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts. In addition, each extracted definition is semantically classified without relying on external medical knowledge. When used to identify definitions from 100 manually annotated RCT abstracts, our medical definition knowledge base has precision of 0.97, recall of 0.93, F1 of 0.94 and semantic classification accuracy of 0.96.

  1. Exploring eye movements of experienced and novice readers of medical texts concerning the cardiovascular system in making a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Södervik, Ilona; Österholm-Matikainen, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This study used the eye-tracking method to explore how the level of expertise influences reading, and solving, two written patient cases on cardiac failure and pulmonary embolus. Eye-tracking is a fairly commonly used method in medical education research, but it has been primarily applied to studies analyzing the processing of visualizations, such as medical images or patient video cases. Third-year medical students (n = 39) and residents (n = 13) read two patient case texts in an eye-tracking laboratory. The analysis focused on the diagnosis made, the total visit duration per text slide, and eye-movement indicators regarding task-relevant and task-redundant areas of the patient case text. The results showed that almost all participants (48/52) made the correct diagnosis of the first patient case, whereas all the residents, but only 17 students, correctly diagnosed the second case. The residents were efficient patient-case-solvers: they reached the correct diagnoses, and processed the cases faster and with a lower number of fixations than did the students. Further, the students and residents demonstrated different reading patterns with regard to which slides they proportionally paid most attention. The observed differences could be utilized in medical education to model expert reasoning and to teach the manner in which a good medical text is constructed. Eye-tracking methodology appears to have a great deal of potential in evaluating performance and growing diagnostic expertise in reading medical texts. However, further research using medical texts as stimuli is required. Anat Sci Educ 10: 23-33. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Initiating Hehe [see text] medical system of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine to realize health cycle of human beings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2011-12-01

    This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level.

  3. Economic Evaluation of Text-Messaging and Smartphone-Based Interventions to Improve Medication Adherence in Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background The rate of chronic health conditions (CHCs) in children and adolescents has doubled in the past 20 years, with increased health care costs. Technology-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy to improving medication adherence. However, data to support the cost effectiveness of these interventions are lacking. Objective The objective of this study is to conduct an economic evaluation of text-messaging and smartphone-based interventions that focus on improving medication adherence in adolescents with CHCs. Methods Searches included PubMed MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Inspec. Eligibility criteria included age (12-24 years old), original articles, outcomes for medication adherence, and economic outcomes. Results Our search identified 1118 unique articles that were independently screened. A total of 156 articles met inclusion criteria and were then examined independently with full-text review. A total of 15 articles met most criteria but lacked economic outcomes such as cost effectiveness or cost-utility data. No articles met all predefined criteria to be included for final review. Only 4 articles (text messaging [n=3], electronic directly observed therapy [n=1]) described interventions with possible future cost-saving but no formal economic evaluation. Conclusions The evidence to support the cost effectiveness of text-messaging and smartphone-based interventions in improving medication adherence in adolescents with CHCs is insufficient. This lack of research highlights the need for comprehensive economic evaluation of such interventions to better understand their role in cost-savings while improving medication adherence and health outcomes. Economic evaluation of technology-based interventions can contribute to more evidence-based assessment of the scalability, sustainability, and benefits of broader investment of such technology

  4. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray) and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system) due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful. PMID:27668260

  5. Two thousand years of medical advice on breastfeeding: comparison of Chinese and western texts.

    PubMed

    Gartner, L M; Stone, C

    1994-12-01

    This discussion introduces only a few aspects of the historical writings on breastfeeding in the two cultures. Chinese writings seem to be closer in orientation to modern worldwide medical advice, approaching breastfeeding from a more natural and supportive perspective. Ancient and not-so-ancient western medical advice on breastfeeding often implies the inadequacy of the mother to breastfeed her own infant, especially in the early weeks of life. One can only speculate as to what the historical basis for this may be. European medicine emphasizes the testing of milk for its adequacy. Again, the scientific basis for this is not evident. Modern clinical science finds that the milk of virtually all mothers, even those suffering from significant malnutrition, is adequate for the growth and development of the infant. This focus on the "testing" of milk may represent an early example of the reliance on laboratory diagnosis that has so heavily dominated western medicine in recent years. Finally, western medicine seems more managerial with regard to breastfeeding than Chinese medicine, and has perhaps "medicalized" breastfeeding, a compliant often voiced even now in late 20th century America. Nonetheless, both literatures demonstrate that throughout the history of recorded medicine, physicians have been concerned with promoting optimal breastfeeding and have understood the importance of human milk for the survival, growth, and development of the infant.

  6. Improved de-identification of physician notes through integrative modeling of both public and private medical text

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician notes routinely recorded during patient care represent a vast and underutilized resource for human disease studies on a population scale. Their use in research is primarily limited by the need to separate confidential patient information from clinical annotations, a process that is resource-intensive when performed manually. This study seeks to create an automated method for de-identifying physician notes that does not require large amounts of private information: in addition to training a model to recognize Protected Health Information (PHI) within private physician notes, we reverse the problem and train a model to recognize non-PHI words and phrases that appear in public medical texts. Methods Public and private medical text sources were analyzed to distinguish common medical words and phrases from Protected Health Information. Patient identifiers are generally nouns and numbers that appear infrequently in medical literature. To quantify this relationship, term frequencies and part of speech tags were compared between journal publications and physician notes. Standard medical concepts and phrases were then examined across ten medical dictionaries. Lists and rules were included from the US census database and previously published studies. In total, 28 features were used to train decision tree classifiers. Results The model successfully recalled 98% of PHI tokens from 220 discharge summaries. Cost sensitive classification was used to weight recall over precision (98% F10 score, 76% F1 score). More than half of the false negatives were the word “of” appearing in a hospital name. All patient names, phone numbers, and home addresses were at least partially redacted. Medical concepts such as “elevated white blood cell count” were informative for de-identification. The results exceed the previously approved criteria established by four Institutional Review Boards. Conclusions The results indicate that distributional differences between

  7. The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

  8. Undergraduate Full Text Databases: "Bell and Howell Medical Complete" and "InfoTrac Health Reference Center - Academic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lutishoor; Davidson, Bryan; Bailey, Alberta

    2000-01-01

    Compares/contrasts InfoTrac and ProQuest primarily as full-text resources to supplement retrieval of references contained in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database. These databases are analyzed by examining their scope in terms of the number and types of serials covered within specific areas using…

  9. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  10. Preventive maintenance prioritization index of medical equipment using quality function deployment.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list.

  11. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode.

  12. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode.

  13. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    PubMed

    Zweigenbaum, P; Darmoni, S J; Grabar, N; Douyère, M; Benichou, J

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF.

  14. Free text databases in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Shea, S

    1991-01-01

    The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans.

  15. Structure of Science Popularizations: A Genre-Analysis Approach to the Schema of Popularized Medical Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogu, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to characterize one discourse type of science popularization, the Journalistic Reported Version (JRV) of research articles in science magazines and newspapers. Results indicate that the JRV has an identifiable schema by which the information it contains is structured, and a typical JRV text may have as many as nine schematic structures.…

  16. Electronic Documentation Support Tools and Text Duplication in the Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrenn, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    In order to ease the burden of electronic note entry on physicians, electronic documentation support tools have been developed to assist in note authoring. There is little evidence of the effects of these tools on attributes of clinical documentation, including document quality. Furthermore, the resultant abundance of duplicated text and…

  17. PICO element detection in medical text without metadata: are first sentences enough?

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Chun; Chiang, I-Jen; Xiao, Furen; Liao, Chun-Chih; Liu, Charles Chih-Ho; Wong, Jau-Min

    2013-10-01

    Efficient identification of patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) components in medical articles is helpful in evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether first sentences of these components are good enough to train naive Bayes classifiers for sentence-level PICO element detection. We extracted 19,854 structured abstracts of randomized controlled trials with any P/I/O label from PubMed for naive Bayes classifiers training. Performances of classifiers trained by first sentences of each section (CF) and those trained by all sentences (CA) were compared using all sentences by ten-fold cross-validation. The results measured by recall, precision, and F-measures show that there are no significant differences in performance between CF and CA for detection of O-element (F-measure=0.731±0.009 vs. 0.738±0.010, p=0.123). However, CA perform better for I-elements, in terms of recall (0.752±0.012 vs. 0.620±0.007, p<0.001) and F-measures (0.728±0.006 vs. 0.662±0.007, p<0.001). For P-elements, CF have higher precision (0.714±0.009 vs. 0.665±0.010, p<0.001), but lower recall (0.766±0.013 vs. 0.811±0.012, p<0.001). CF are not always better than CA in sentence-level PICO element detection. Their performance varies in detecting different elements.

  18. Trends in Modern Subject Analysis with Reference to Text Derivative Indexing and Abstracting Methods: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kieth C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the information explosion of the last thirty years and the various attempts made to organize that information in new ways. Section B offers a brief historic review of modern classification and subject heading theory. Section C reviews the literature of automatic indexing, automatic abstracting, and automatic…

  19. Looking back to move forward: using history, discourse and text in medical education research: AMEE guide no. 73.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Ayelet; Whitehead, Cynthia; Hodges, Brian David

    2013-01-01

    As medical education research continues to diversify methodologically and theoretically, medical education researchers have been increasingly willing to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions about the form, content and function of medical education. In this AMEE guide we describe historical, discourse and text analysis approaches that can help researchers and educators question the inevitability of things that are currently seen as 'natural'. Why is such questioning important? By articulating our assumptions and interrogating the 'naturalness' of the status quo, one can then begin to ask why things are the way they are. Researchers can, for example, ask whether the models of medical education organization and delivery that currently seem 'natural' to them have been developed in order to provide the most benefit to students or patients--or whether they have, rather, been developed in ways that provide power to faculty members, medical schools or the medical profession as a whole. An understanding of the interplay of practices and power is a valuable tool for opening up the field to new possibilities for better medical education. The recognition that our current models, rather than being 'natural', were created in particular historical contexts for any number of contingent reasons leads inexorably to the possibility of change. For if our current ways of doing things are not, in fact, inevitable, not only can they be questioned, they can be made better; they can changed in ways that are attentive to whom they benefit, are congruent with our current beliefs about best practice and may lead to the production of better doctors.

  20. She will give birth immediately. Pregnancy and childbirth in medieval Hebrew medical texts produced in the Mediterranean West.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2014-01-01

    This essay approaches the medieval Hebrew literature on women's healthcare, with the aim of analysing notions and ideas regarding fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, as conveyed in the texts that form the corpus. Firstly, the work discusses the approach of written texts to pregnancy and childbirth as key elements in the explanation of women's health and the functioning of the female body. In this regard it also explores the role of this approach in the creation of meanings for both the female body and sexual difference. Secondly, it examines female management of pregnancy and childbirth as recorded in Hebrew medical literature. It pays attention to both the attitudes expressed by the authors, translators and copyists regarding female practice, as well as to instances and remedies derived from "local" traditions--that is, from women's experience--in the management of pregnancy and childbirth, also recorded in the texts. Finally, the paper explores how medical theories alien to, or in opposition to, Judaism were adopted or not and, at times, adapted to Jewish notions with the aim of eliminating tensions from the text, on the one hand, and providing Jewish practitioners with adequate training to retain their Christian clientele, on the other.

  1. Direct Document Capture and Full Text Indexing: An Introduction to the National Air and Space Museum System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyne, Walter J.; Otano, Herman

    1984-01-01

    Describes objectives of a museum information system: to capture photographic, lineal, and textual documents in high resolution digital images; to convert digital images of text to standard computer code; and to retrieve appropriate code automatically through keyword searching of full text. System assembly and planned and potential applications are…

  2. A New Data Representation Based on Training Data Characteristics to Extract Drug Name Entity in Medical Text

    PubMed Central

    Basaruddin, T.

    2016-01-01

    One essential task in information extraction from the medical corpus is drug name recognition. Compared with text sources come from other domains, the medical text mining poses more challenges, for example, more unstructured text, the fast growing of new terms addition, a wide range of name variation for the same drug, the lack of labeled dataset sources and external knowledge, and the multiple token representations for a single drug name. Although many approaches have been proposed to overwhelm the task, some problems remained with poor F-score performance (less than 0.75). This paper presents a new treatment in data representation techniques to overcome some of those challenges. We propose three data representation techniques based on the characteristics of word distribution and word similarities as a result of word embedding training. The first technique is evaluated with the standard NN model, that is, MLP. The second technique involves two deep network classifiers, that is, DBN and SAE. The third technique represents the sentence as a sequence that is evaluated with a recurrent NN model, that is, LSTM. In extracting the drug name entities, the third technique gives the best F-score performance compared to the state of the art, with its average F-score being 0.8645. PMID:27843447

  3. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, P.; Darmoni, S. J.; Grabar, N.; Douyère, M.; Benichou, J.

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF. PMID:12463965

  4. Korean association of medical journal editors at the forefront of improving the quality and indexing chances of its member journals.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2013-05-01

    The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications.

  5. Medical Care Price Indexes for Patients with Employer-Provided Insurance: Nationally Representative Estimates from MarketScan Data

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Abe; Liebman, Eli; Pack, Sarah; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commonly observed shifts in the utilization of medical care services to treat diseases may pose problems for official price indexes at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) that do not account for service shifts. We examine how these shifts may lead to different price estimates than those observed in official price statistics at the BLS. Data Sources We use a convenience sample of enrollees with employer-provided insurance from the MarketScan database for the years 2003 to 2007. Population weights that consider the age, sex, and geographic distribution of enrollees are assigned to construct representative estimates. Study Design We compare two types of price indexes: (1) a Service Price Index (SPI) that is similar to the BLS index, which holds services fixed and measures the prices of the underlying treatments; (2) a Medical Care Expenditure Index (MCE) that measures the cost of treating diseases and allows for utilization shifts. Principal Findings Over the entire period of study the CAGR of the SPI grows 0.7 percentage points faster than the preferred MCE index. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the health component of inflation may be overstated by 0.7 percentage points per year, and real GDP growth may be understated by a similar amount. However, more work may be necessary to precisely replicate the indexes of the BLS to obtain a more accurate measure of these price differences. PMID:23088562

  6. Improving sensitivity of machine learning methods for automated case identification from free-text electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cases from non-cases in free-text electronic medical records is an important initial step in observational epidemiological studies, but manual record validation is time-consuming and cumbersome. We compared different approaches to develop an automatic case identification system with high sensitivity to assist manual annotators. Methods We used four different machine-learning algorithms to build case identification systems for two data sets, one comprising hepatobiliary disease patients, the other acute renal failure patients. To improve the sensitivity of the systems, we varied the imbalance ratio between positive cases and negative cases using under- and over-sampling techniques, and applied cost-sensitive learning with various misclassification costs. Results For the hepatobiliary data set, we obtained a high sensitivity of 0.95 (on a par with manual annotators, as compared to 0.91 for a baseline classifier) with specificity 0.56. For the acute renal failure data set, sensitivity increased from 0.69 to 0.89, with specificity 0.59. Performance differences between the various machine-learning algorithms were not large. Classifiers performed best when trained on data sets with imbalance ratio below 10. Conclusions We were able to achieve high sensitivity with moderate specificity for automatic case identification on two data sets of electronic medical records. Such a high-sensitive case identification system can be used as a pre-filter to significantly reduce the burden of manual record validation. PMID:23452306

  7. Applying conscientiousness index: a tool to explore medical students’ professionalism in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rukmini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was aimed to describe lecturers’ perspective concerning the suitable Conscientiousness Index (CI) components and implementations, as well as to compare the CI scores in year 1–4 student batches. Methods Components were formulated from objective measurements based on interviews with 12 faculty members. The components include: attendance, adherence to rules, evaluative feedback submissions, performance in assignments and clinical skills, assignment submissions, volunteerism, accomplishments, and general misconducts. The scores were collected from year 1-4 pre-clinical medical students (N=144) during the first semester of 2014-2015. Final interviews were conducted with 9 faculty members. Quantitative analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Qualitative analysis was performed using content analysis. Results Using Kruskal-Wallis test, significant difference was found in the CI scores among all years (p=0.000). Post-hoc analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed significant difference in all years except year 1 and 4 (p=0.388). Of the 9 lecturers interviewed during the second interviews, 7 endorsed the importance of CI, while 2 doubted its applicability. Conclusions Due to the unique characteristics of each block, our system had not been able to conduct a balanced CI evaluation, as compared to the original research. We concluded that the implementation of CI would be highly dependent on the faculty members, with their commitment as the main pre-requisite. We hope to involve academic advisors as CI evaluators and improve our student-centered learning for future assessments. Further study is needed to investigate the longitudinal implementation of CI. PMID:27421124

  8. Francisco Vallés and the Renaissance reinterpretation of Aristotle's Meteorologica IV as a medical text.

    PubMed

    Martin, Craig

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I describe the context and goals of Francisco Vallés In IV librum Meteorologicorum commentaria (1558). Vallés' work stands as a landmark because it interprets a work of Aristotle's natural philosophy specifically for medical doctors and medical theory. Vallés' commentary is representative of new understandings of Galenic-Hippocratic medicine that emerged as a result of expanding textual knowledge. These approaches are evident in a number of sixteenth-century commentaries on Meteorologica IV; in particular the works of Pietro Pomponazzi, Lodovico Boccadiferro, Jacob Schegk, and Francesco Vimercati. Vallés' conviction that Meteorologica IV is relevant to medical knowledge depends on his understanding of Aristotle's theory of homeomerous substances and their relation to composite substances. The application of Meteorologica IV to medical topics became commonplace in the following years, and this Aristotelian book became widely known as a bridge between natural philosophy and medicine.

  9. The relationship of centralization, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant

  10. Visualization of semantic indexing similarity over MeSH.

    PubMed

    Du, Haixia; Yoo, Terry S

    2007-10-11

    We present an interactive visualization system for the evaluation of indexing results of the MEDLINE data-base over the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) structure in a graphical radial-tree layout. It displays indexing similarity measurements with 2D color coding and a 3D height field permitting the evaluation of the automatic Medical Text Indexer (MTI), compared with human indexers.

  11. A Multifaceted Medical Data Information System and One Product: The Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Miriam T.; Lunin, Lois F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a biomedical information system that includes a machine-readable data base containing clinical and research data and a publication entitled the Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents. (Author)

  12. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    CONNECTICUT. 12 JUN 63 SNRL 1963-0009 ERDEA. EACTERIAL . FLORA OF THE UPPER RESPIRATCRY TRACT OF SCJBA DIVERS A SURVEY OF.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATIGN...THE FUNGAL FLORA OF THE SUBMARINE ENVIRONMENT DURING PROLONGED SUBMERGENCE.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATICK THESES U. S. NAVAL SUBMARINE...BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE UPPER RESPIRA 1963-0005 L EAR CANAL IN STUDENT+ BACTERIOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE EXTERNA 1962-3011 INVOLVED IN DOING BALANCE

  13. What's on the News? The Use of Media Texts in Exams of Clinical Biochemistry for Medical and Nutrition Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…

  14. Exploring Eye Movements of Experienced and Novice Readers of Medical Texts Concerning the Cardiovascular System in Making a Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Södervik, Ilona; Österholm-Matikainen, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This study used the eye-tracking method to explore how the level of expertise influences reading, and solving, two written patient cases on cardiac failure and pulmonary embolus. Eye-tracking is a fairly commonly used method in medical education research, but it has been primarily applied to studies analyzing the processing of visualizations, such…

  15. Framing Service, Benefit, and Credibility Through Images and Texts: A Content Analysis of Online Promotional Messages of Korean Medical Tourism Industry.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi

    2016-07-01

    This study examines how the Korean medical tourism industry frames its service, benefit, and credibility issues through texts and images of online brochures. The results of content analysis suggest that the Korean medical tourism industry attempts to frame their medical/health services as "excellence in surgeries and cancer care" and "advanced health technology and facilities." However, the use of cost-saving appeals was limited, which can be seen as a strategy to avoid consumers' association of lower cost with lower quality services, and to stress safety and credibility.

  16. Speech Data Analysis for Semantic Indexing of Video of Simulated Medical Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    on the extracted features. For instance, an audio segment can be labeled as music , commercial, speech, envi- ronmental background noise, or other...dialogue detection in movies [29], social network analysis [30], medical assessment (e.g. depression) [31], music information retrieval [32], and...excellent representation of the human voice and musical signals. 2.2.1.2 Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP) The PLP speech analysis technique [41] is

  17. Indexing Publicly Available Health Data with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Evaluation of Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Marc, David T; Zhang, Rui; Beattie, James; Gatewood, Laël C; Khairat, Saif S

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Open Government Initiative, the United States federal government published datasets to increase collaboration, transparency, consumer participation, and research, and are available online at HealthData.gov. Currently, HealthData.gov does not adequately support the accessibility goal of the Open Government Initiative due to issues of retrieving relevant data because of inadequately cataloguing and lack of indexing with a standardized terminology. Given the commonalities between the HealthData.gov and MEDLINE metadata, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) may offer an indexing solution, but there needs to be a formal evaluation of the efficacy of MeSH for covering the dataset concepts. The purpose of this study was to determine if MeSH adequately covers the HealthData.gov concepts. The noun and noun phrases from the HealthData.gov metadata were extracted and mapped to MeSH using MetaMap. The frequency of no exact, partical and no matches with MeSH terms were determined. The results of this study revealed that about 70% of the HealthData.gov concepts partially or exactly matched MeSH terms. Therefore, MeSH may be a favorable terminology for indexing the HealthData.gov datasets.

  18. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for indexing and retrieving open-source healthcare data.

    PubMed

    Marc, David T; Khairat, Saif S

    2014-01-01

    The US federal government initiated the Open Government Directive where federal agencies are required to publish high value datasets so that they are available to the public. Data.gov and the community site Healthdata.gov were initiated to disperse such datasets. However, data searches and retrieval for these sites are keyword driven and severely limited in performance. The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of extracting relevant open-source data by proposing a method of adopting the MeSH framework for indexing and data retrieval. A pilot study was conducted to compare the performance of traditional keywords to MeSH terms for retrieving relevant open-source datasets related to "mortality". The MeSH framework resulted in greater sensitivity with comparable specificity to the keyword search. MeSH showed promise as a method for indexing and retrieving data, yet future research should conduct a larger scale evaluation of the performance of the MeSH framework for retrieving relevant open-source healthcare datasets.

  19. Indexing of Internet resources in order to improve the provision of problem-relevant medical information.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf Kurt; Boettcher, Hanno; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Due to the information overload and the unstructured access to (medical) information of the internet, it isn't hardly possible to find problem-relevant medical information in an appropriate time (e.g. during a consultation). The web offers a mixture of web pages, forums, newsgroups and databases. The search for problem-relevant information for a certain knowledge area encounters on two basic problems. On the one hand, you have to find in the jungle of the information, relevant resources for your individual clinical case (treatment, diagnosis, therapeutic option etc..). The second problem consists of being able to judge the quality of individual contents of inteernet pages. On the basis of the different informational needs of health care professionals and patients a catalog with inteernet resources was created to tumor diseases such as lung cancer (small cell and non-small cell carcinoma), colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer. Explicit and implicit metainformation, if available, such as the title of the document, language, date or keywords are stored in the database. The database entries are editorially revised, so that further specific metainformation is available for the information retrieval. Our pragmatic approach of searching, editing, and archiving of internet content is still necessary since most of the web documents are based on HTML, which doesn't allow for structuring (medical) information and assigning metainformation sufficiently. The use of specific metainformation is crucial in order to improve the recall and precision of internet searches. In the future, XML and related technologies (RDF) will meet these requirements.

  20. Voice vs. Text Chats: Their Efficacy for Learning Probing Questions by Non-Native Speaking Medical Professionals in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Through an English for Specific Purposes (ESP): Communication in Nursing online course, the present study examines the efficacy of synchronous voice-based and text-based chats as instructional and communicative modes in learning to use open questions for probing in therapeutic dialogues by non-native speaking (NNS) participants, students of a…

  1. Dose optimization for different medical imaging tasks from exposure index, exposure control factor, and MAS in digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yaying; Chen, Weixia; Hou, Lixia

    2012-09-01

    In radiographic examination, not all medical imaging tasks require the same level of image quality or diagnostic information. Criteria should be established for different imaging tasks to avoid excessive doses where there is no clear net benefit in the diagnosis or the image quality. An exposure index provided by manufacturers would be a useful tool for this purpose. This study aims to establish an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for clinical imaging tasks to minimize radiation exposure for chest digital radiography. A three-level classification of image quality (high, medium, and low) for chest imaging tasks was carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish minimum exposure index and exposure (mAs) for clinical imaging task type I (corresponding to high image quality). The exposures of medium and low quality images derived from it. Thirty patients were exposed consecutively with these optimized exposure factors, and clinical tasks were considered, while another 30 patients were exposed with the exposure factors routinely used in practice. Image quality was assessed objectively by a consensus panel. The optimized exposure provided a significant reduction of the mean exposure index from 1,556 to 1,207 (p < 0.0001) and mean patient's entrance surface dose from 0.168 mGy to 0.092 mGy (p < 0.0001). The results show that a clinical-task-determined radiographic procedure is more conducive to radiation protection of patients. In this study, the posteroanterior chest imaging examination was chosen as an example. This procedure can also apply to other body parts and views.

  2. World Biomedical Journals, 1951-60: A Study of the Relative Significance of 1,388 Titles Indexed in Current List of Medical Literature*

    PubMed Central

    Raisig, L. Miles

    1966-01-01

    This study is an application of the relationship of serial articles published to serial articles cited, developed in theory in the author's “Statistical Bibliography in the Health Sciences” (Bulletin 50: 450-461, July 1962). A ranked list of the indexes of significance of most of the serials indexed in Current List of Medical Literature was derived and erected from 21,000 citations secured in a random sampling of 1962 and 1961 biomedical journals regularly received in the Yale Medical Library. The author measures the gross indexing effectiveness of Current List against his indexes of significance, offers his method and results as means to reach objective standards for indexing and abstracting, and projects his results as measures of general value of the serials analyzed. PMID:5952248

  3. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans From Primary Care and Emergency Department Settings: Results From Two Randomized Feasibility Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Dawood, Rachelle M; Dawood, Katee L; Nichols, Lauren P; Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein N; Roberson, Dana N; Plegue, Melissa A; Mango, LynnMarie C; Levy, Phillip D

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is an important problem in the United States, with an estimated 78 million Americans aged 20 years and older suffering from this condition. Health disparities related to HTN are common in the United States, with African Americans suffering from greater prevalence of the condition than whites, as well as greater severity, earlier onset, and more complications. Medication adherence is an important component of HTN management, but adherence is often poor, and simply forgetting to take medications is often cited as a reason. Mobile health (mHealth) strategies have the potential to be a low-cost and effective method for improving medication adherence that also has broad reach. Objective Our goal was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary clinical effectiveness of BPMED, an intervention designed to improve medication adherence among African Americans with uncontrolled HTN, through fully automated text messaging support. Methods We conducted two parallel, unblinded randomized controlled pilot trials with African-American patients who had uncontrolled HTN, recruited from primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. In each trial, participants were randomized to receive either usual care or the BPMED intervention for one month. Data were collected in-person at baseline and one-month follow-up, assessing the effect on medication adherence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), medication adherence self-efficacy, and participant satisfaction. Data for both randomized controlled pilot trials were analyzed separately and combined. Results A total of 58 primary care and 65 ED participants were recruited with retention rates of 91% (53/58) and 88% (57/65), respectively. BPMED participants consistently showed numerically greater, yet nonsignificant, improvements in measures of medication adherence (mean change 0.9, SD 2.0 vs mean change 0.5, SD 1.5, P=.26), SBP (mean change –12.6, SD 24.0 vs mean change

  4. Protocol to describe the analysis of text-based communication in medical records for patients discharged from intensive care to hospital ward

    PubMed Central

    Parsons Leigh, Jeanna; Brown, Kyla; Buchner, Denise; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Effective communication during hospital transitions of patient care is fundamental to ensuring patient safety and continuity of quality care. This study will describe text-based communication included in patient medical records before, during and after patient transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU) to a hospital ward (n=10 days) by documenting (1) the structure and focus of physician progress notes within and between medical specialties, (2) the organisation of subjective and objective information, including the location and accessibility of patient data and whether/how this changes during the hospital stay and (3) missing, illegible and erroneous information. Methods This study is part of a larger mixed methods prospective observational study of ICU to hospital ward transfer practices in 10 ICUs across Canada. Medical records will be collected and photocopied for each consenting patient for a period of up to 10 consecutive days, including the final 2 days in the ICU, the day of transfer and the first 7 days on the ward (n=10 days). Textual analysis of medical record data will be completed by 2 independent reviewers to describe communication between stakeholders involved in ICU transfer. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained at all study sites, including the coordinating study centre (which covers 4 Calgary-based sites; UofC REB 13-0021) and 6 additional study sites (UofA Pro00050646; UBC PHC Hi4-01667; Sunnybrook 336-2014; QCH 20140345-01H; Sherbrooke 14-172; Laval 2015-2171). Findings from this study will inform the development of an evidence-based tool that will be used to systematically analyse the series of notes in a patient's medical record. PMID:27401367

  5. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  6. Patients electing medical versus surgical treatment: emotional domain of the rhinosinusitis disability index associates with treatment selection

    PubMed Central

    Orb, Quinn; Mace, Jess C.; DeConde, Adam S.; Steele, Toby O.; Cox, Steve T.; Smith, Timothy L.; Alt, Jeremiah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) consists of multiple subdomains shown to be useful in studying CRS. The objective of this study was to determine if RSDI subdomain scores are associated with selection of treatment modality (endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) or continued medical management (CMM)) in subjects with CRS. Methods Patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled into a multi-institutional cohort study. Following an initial period of medical management, patients elected to undergo treatment with either ESS or CMM. Baseline RSDI total and subdomain scores were compared between patients electing different treatment modalities. Results A total of 684 subjects were enrolled with 122 (17.8%) electing CMM and 562 (82.2%) electing ESS. When compared to patients undergoing CMM, patients electing ESS exhibited significantly higher mean baseline RSDI total scores (mean ± [SD]: 48.1[24.9] vs. 40.1[24.1]; p=0.001) and subdomain scores (emotional: 13.2[9.1] vs. 10.4[8.3]; p=0.001; functional: 15.3[8.9] vs. 12.6[8.4]; p=0.002; and physical: 19.6[9.3] vs. 17.1[9.6]; p=0.007). Emotional subdomain scores were found to be the most associated with choice of treatment modality. Conclusions Patients with CRS electing ESS had worse baseline RSDI total and subdomain scores compared to those electing CMM. Although both rhinologic and non-rhinologic symptoms contributed to the selection of treatment modality, emotional symptoms appeared to exhibit the greatest influence on patient-centered treatment decisions. PMID:26536520

  7. Disease and pharmacologic risk factors for first and subsequent episodes of equine laminitis: A cohort study of free-text electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2017-01-01

    Electronic medical records from first opinion equine veterinary practice may represent a unique resource for epidemiologic research. The appropriateness of this resource for risk factor analyses was explored as part of an investigation into clinical and pharmacologic risk factors for laminitis. Amalgamated medical records from seven UK practices were subjected to text mining to identify laminitis episodes, systemic or intra-synovial corticosteroid prescription, diseases known to affect laminitis risk and clinical signs or syndromes likely to lead to corticosteroid use. Cox proportional hazard models and Prentice, Williams, Peterson models for repeated events were used to estimate associations with time to first, or subsequent laminitis episodes, respectively. Over seventy percent of horses that were diagnosed with laminitis suffered at least one recurrence. Risk factors for first and subsequent laminitis episodes were found to vary. Corticosteroid use (prednisolone only) was only significantly associated with subsequent, and not initial laminitis episodes. Electronic medical record use for such analyses is plausible and offers important advantages over more traditional data sources. It does, however, pose challenges and limitations that must be taken into account, and requires a conceptual change to disease diagnosis which should be considered carefully.

  8. Implementation of Free Text Format Nursing Diagnoses at a University Hospital's Medical Department. Exploring Nurses' and Nursing Students' Experiences on Use and Usefulness. A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Frigstad, Sigrun Aasen; Nøst, Torunn Hatlen; André, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nursing documentation has long traditions and represents core element of nursing, but the documentation is often criticized of being incomplete. Nursing diagnoses are an important research topic in nursing in terms of quality of nursing assessment, interventions, and outcome in addition to facilitating communication and continuity. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore the nurses' and nursing students' experiences after implementing free text format nursing diagnoses in a medical department. Method. The study design included educational intervention of free text nursing diagnoses. Data was collected through five focus group interviews with 18 nurses and 6 students as informants. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The informants describe positive experiences concerning free text format nursing diagnoses' use and usefulness; it promotes reflection and discussion and is described as a useful tool in the diagnostic process, though it was challenging to find the diagnosis' appropriate formulation. Conclusion. Our findings indicate a valid usability of free text format nursing diagnoses as it promotes the diagnostic process. The use seems to enhance critical thinking and may serve as valuable preparation towards an implementation of standardized nursing diagnoses. Use and support of key personnel seem valuable in an implementation process.

  9. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy–Based Text Messaging Intervention Versus Medical Management for HIV-Infected Substance Users: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kevin; Ybarra, Michele L; Reback, Cathy J; Rawson, Richard A; Chokron Garneau, Helene; Chavez, Kathryn; Venegas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for addictions and related conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are underutilized. Obstacles to implementation of CBT in clinical settings include limited availability of quality training, supervision, and certification in CBT for clinicians; high rates of clinician turnover and high caseloads; and limited qualifications of the workforce to facilitate CBT expertise. Objective Mobile phone–based delivery of CBT, if demonstrated to be feasible and effective, could be transformative in broadening its application and improving the quality of addiction treatment. No experimental interventions that deliver CBT targeting both drug use and medication adherence using text messaging have been previously reported; as such, the objective of this study is to develop and test an SMS-based treatment program for HIV-positive adults with comorbid substance use disorders. Methods With user input, we developed a 12-week CBT-based text messaging intervention (TXT-CBT) targeting antiretroviral (ART) adherence, risk behaviors, and drug use in a population of HIV-infected substance users. Results The intervention has been developed and is presently being tested in a pilot randomized clinical trial. Results will be reported later this year. Conclusions This investigation will yield valuable knowledge about the utility of a cost-effective, readily deployable text messaging behavioral intervention for HIV-infected drug users. PMID:27341852

  10. Medical Student and Tutor Perceptions of Video Versus Text in an Interactive Online Virtual Patient for Problem-Based Learning: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Round, Jonathan; Vaughan, Sophie; Poulton, Terry; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of the use of video resources in primarily paper-based problem-based learning (PBL) settings has been widely explored. Although it can provide many benefits, the use of video can also hamper the critical thinking of learners in contexts where learners are developing clinical reasoning. However, the use of video has not been explored in the context of interactive virtual patients for PBL. Objective A pilot study was conducted to explore how undergraduate medical students interpreted and evaluated information from video- and text-based materials presented in the context of a branched interactive online virtual patient designed for PBL. The goal was to inform the development and use of virtual patients for PBL and to inform future research in this area. Methods An existing virtual patient for PBL was adapted for use in video and provided as an intervention to students in the transition year of the undergraduate medicine course at St George’s, University of London. Survey instruments were used to capture student and PBL tutor experiences and perceptions of the intervention, and a formative review meeting was run with PBL tutors. Descriptive statistics were generated for the structured responses and a thematic analysis was used to identify emergent themes in the unstructured responses. Results Analysis of student responses (n=119) and tutor comments (n=18) yielded 8 distinct themes relating to the perceived educational efficacy of information presented in video and text formats in a PBL context. Although some students found some characteristics of the videos beneficial, when asked to express a preference for video or text the majority of those that responded to the question (65%, 65/100) expressed a preference for text. Student responses indicated that the use of video slowed the pace of PBL and impeded students’ ability to review and critically appraise the presented information. Conclusions Our findings suggest that text was perceived to be a

  11. Improving and measuring inpatient documentation of medical care within the MS-DRG system: education, monitoring, and normalized case mix index.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Lorenz, Robert R; Luther, Ralph B; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L; Weil, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the "normalized case mix index," that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved.

  12. Spatial Patterns of the Indications of Acupoints Using Data Mining in Classic Medical Text: A Possible Visualization of the Meridian System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Taehyung; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Sanghyun; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    The indications of acupoints are thought to be highly associated with the lines of the meridian systems. The present study used data mining methods to analyze the characteristics of the indications of each acupoint and to visualize the relationships between the acupoints and disease sites in the classic Korean medical text Chimgoogyeongheombang. Using a term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) scheme, the present study extracted valuable data regarding the indications of each acupoint according to the frequency of the cooccurrences of eight Source points and eighteen disease sites. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint on a body map were visualized according to the tf-idf values. Each acupoint along the different meridians exhibited different constellation patterns at various disease sites. Additionally, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint were highly associated with the route of the corresponding meridian. The present findings demonstrate that the indications of each acupoint were primarily associated with the corresponding meridian system. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the routes of the meridians may have clinical implications in terms of identifying the constellations of the indications of acupoints. PMID:26539224

  13. Automated Cancer Registry Notifications: Validation of a Medical Text Analytics System for Identifying Patients with Cancer from a State-Wide Pathology Repository

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anthony N; Moore, Julie; O'Dwyer, John; Philpot, Shoni

    2016-01-01

    The paper assesses the utility of Medtex on automating Cancer Registry notifications from narrative histology and cytology reports from the Queensland state-wide pathology information system. A corpus of 45.3 million pathology HL7 messages (including 119,581 histology and cytology reports) from a Queensland pathology repository for the year of 2009 was analysed by Medtex for cancer notification. Reports analysed by Medtex were consolidated at a patient level and compared against patients with notifiable cancers from the Queensland Oncology Repository (QOR). A stratified random sample of 1,000 patients was manually reviewed by a cancer clinical coder to analyse agreements and discrepancies. Sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval: 94.5-97.8%), specificity of 96.5% (95.3-97.4%) and positive predictive value of 83.7% (79.6-86.8%) were achieved for identifying cancer notifiable patients. Medtex achieved high sensitivity and specificity across the breadth of cancers, report types, pathology laboratories and pathologists throughout the State of Queensland. The high sensitivity also resulted in the identification of cancer patients that were not found in the QOR. High sensitivity was at the expense of positive predictive value; however, these cases may be considered as lower priority to Cancer Registries as they can be quickly reviewed. Error analysis revealed that system errors tended to be tumour stream dependent. Medtex is proving to be a promising medical text analytic system. High value cancer information can be generated through intelligent data classification and extraction on large volumes of unstructured pathology reports. PMID:28269893

  14. Automated Cancer Registry Notifications: Validation of a Medical Text Analytics System for Identifying Patients with Cancer from a State-Wide Pathology Repository.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anthony N; Moore, Julie; O'Dwyer, John; Philpot, Shoni

    2016-01-01

    The paper assesses the utility of Medtex on automating Cancer Registry notifications from narrative histology and cytology reports from the Queensland state-wide pathology information system. A corpus of 45.3 million pathology HL7 messages (including 119,581 histology and cytology reports) from a Queensland pathology repository for the year of 2009 was analysed by Medtex for cancer notification. Reports analysed by Medtex were consolidated at a patient level and compared against patients with notifiable cancers from the Queensland Oncology Repository (QOR). A stratified random sample of 1,000 patients was manually reviewed by a cancer clinical coder to analyse agreements and discrepancies. Sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval: 94.5-97.8%), specificity of 96.5% (95.3-97.4%) and positive predictive value of 83.7% (79.6-86.8%) were achieved for identifying cancer notifiable patients. Medtex achieved high sensitivity and specificity across the breadth of cancers, report types, pathology laboratories and pathologists throughout the State of Queensland. The high sensitivity also resulted in the identification of cancer patients that were not found in the QOR. High sensitivity was at the expense of positive predictive value; however, these cases may be considered as lower priority to Cancer Registries as they can be quickly reviewed. Error analysis revealed that system errors tended to be tumour stream dependent. Medtex is proving to be a promising medical text analytic system. High value cancer information can be generated through intelligent data classification and extraction on large volumes of unstructured pathology reports.

  15. Decreasing the load? Is a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review in older people an effective intervention to reduce a patient's Drug Burden Index? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Helene G; Wouters, Hans; van Hulten, Rolf; Pras, Niesko; Taxis, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. Methods A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. Analysis Primary outcome—the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI≥0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes—anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. Ethics and dissemination The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. Trial registration number NCT02317666; Pre-results. PMID:26700279

  16. Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2013-04-01

    The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases.

  17. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  18. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  19. New type of price measurement for medical services: interest of a cost sensitivity index for a research agenda on pharmaceutical models.

    PubMed

    Huttin, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a new methodological agenda for new price measurement for medical services; it is based on a cost sensitivity index coming from series of pilot studies on physicians, in order to provide adjustment methods to household surveys for health care expenditure budgets. The use of stated-revealed preference models with inclusion of stated preference studies is proposed with an example on a physician cost sensitivity study in Europe; it could also help the ISPOR task for force best practices in conjoint study designs.

  20. Short message service (SMS) texting as a method of communication during on call: prevalence and experience of medical staff in a large acute NHS Trust in the UK.

    PubMed

    Matharu, J; Hale, B; Ammar, M; Brennan, P A

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of smartphones, text messaging has become an accepted form of communication for both social and professional use in medicine. To our knowledge no published studies have assessed the prevalence and use of short message service (SMS) texting by doctors on call. We have used an online questionnaire to seek information from doctors in a large NHS Trust in the UK about their use of texting while on call, what they use it for, and whether they send images relevant to patients' care. We received 302 responses (43% response rate), of whom 166 (55%) used SMS while on call. There was a significant association between SMS and age group (p=0.005), with the 20-30-year-old group using it much more than the other age groups. Doctors in the surgical specialties used it significantly less than those in other speciality groups (p<0 .001). Texting while on call was deemed to be safe and reliable (p<0.001). Eighteen clinicians (11%) admitted to routinely sending images of patients by text, despite some being identifiable. Texting was mainly used to update colleagues on patients' progress and give information about times of ward rounds and meetings. With the increasing use of texting in healthcare, much of which seems to be unregulated, further work and detailed guidance is required on what information may be given to ensure confidentiality and that SMS is a safe and acceptable method of communication to use when on call.

  1. ["Medical Texts and Jorunals," and Resources on "Prenatal Risk,""Premature and Low Birthweight Infants,""Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding"; "Effectiveness of Early Intervention." IPHA Birth-to-Three Clearinghouse Bibliographies 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Public Health Association, Springfield.

    Five separate bibliographies present citations of resources regarding prenatal risk, premature and low birthweight infants, infant nutrition and breastfeeding, and early intervention for infants with disabilities. The first bibliography lists 133 references from medical texts and journals regarding child development, disabilities, diagnosis, and…

  2. Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Maloney, Francis A; Cobb, Kristin; Stanwix, Erin; Humphries, Jeri; Spring, Alexandra; Pagac, Benedict; Miller, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats, such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever. An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abundance of mosquito vector populations. Populations of many medically important mosquito species are closely tied to climate, and historical climate-population associations may be used to predict future population dynamics. Using 2003-2005 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine mosquito surveillance data, we looked at populations of several known mosquito vectors of West Nile virus, as well as possible mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, at continental U.S. military installations. We compared population changes with concurrent patterns for a satellite-derived index of climate (normalized difference vegetation index) and observed instances of population changes appearing to be direct responses to climate. These preliminary findings are important first steps in developing an automated, climate-driven, early warning system to flag regions of the United States at elevated risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  3. Healthcare management dictionary Healthcare management dictionary Phillips Annie Radcliffe Medical Press 225pp £21.95 1 85775 802 1 1857758021 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    This dictionary is targeted at those who have a need to understand the NHS, its management terms and the jargon used. It aims to describe in plain English fundamental terms and phrases relevant to management in primary, secondary and social care and offers website links for further information. The author notes in the preface that no single text can ever be fully comprehensive and that by its very nature the material in the book can date very quickly and so suggests that readers also check out the Department of Health and The Guardian websites for information on current government bodies, new legislation and reports. She also offers readers the opportunity to suggest additional material that can be included in further editions.

  4. Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

  5. Reflective random indexing for semi-automatic indexing of the biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Vasuki, Vidya; Cohen, Trevor

    2010-10-01

    The rapid growth of biomedical literature is evident in the increasing size of the MEDLINE research database. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled set of keywords, are used to index all the citations contained in the database to facilitate search and retrieval. This volume of citations calls for efficient tools to assist indexers at the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). Currently, the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) system provides assistance by recommending MeSH terms based on the title and abstract of an article using a combination of distributional and vocabulary-based methods. In this paper, we evaluate a novel approach toward indexer assistance by using nearest neighbor classification in combination with Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a scalable alternative to the established methods of distributional semantics. On a test set provided by the NLM, our approach significantly outperforms the MTI system, suggesting that the RRI approach would make a useful addition to the current methodologies.

  6. The development of the de morton mobility index (DEMMI) in an older acute medical population: item reduction using the Rasch model (part 1).

    PubMed

    de Morton, Natalie A; Davidson, Megan; Keating, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The DEMMI (de Morton Mobility Index) is a new and advanced instrument for measuring the mobility of all older adults across clinical settings. It overcomes practical and clinimetric limitations of existing mobility instruments. This study reports the process of item reduction using the Rasch model in the development of the DEMMI. Prior to this study, qualitative methods were employed to generate a pool of 51 items for potential inclusion in the DEMMI. The aim of this study was to reduce the item set to a unidimensional subset of items that ranged across the mobility spectrum from bed bound to high levels of independent mobility. Fifty-one physical performance mobility items were tested in a sample of older acute medical patients. A total of 215 mobility assessments were performed. Seventeen mobility items that spanned the mobility spectrum were selected for inclusion in the new instrument. The 17 item scale fitted the Rasch model. Items operated consistently across the mobility spectrum regardless of patient age, gender, cognition, primary language or time of administration during hospitalisation. Using the Rasch model, an interval level scoring system was developed with a score range of 0 to 100.

  7. Resistive index as a predictor of renal progression in patients with moderate renal dysfunction regardless of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist medication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Su Mi; Son, Young Ki; Kim, Seong Eun; An, Won Suk

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a higher resistive index (RI) on renal duplex ultrasonography was related with renal progression and acute kidney injury, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB). We evaluated whether a RI value is a predictive factor for renal progression regardless of ACEI or ARB medication in patients with moderate renal dysfunction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 119 patients with moderate renal dysfunction that had been evaluated with renal duplex ultrasonography from February 2011 to April 2015. Moderate renal dysfunction was defined as a stage 3 to 4 CKD. Renal progression was defined as a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (sCr), a decrease of baseline glomerular filtration rate by > 50%, or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Results The mean age was 64.7 ± 11.0 years and sCr level was 2.1 ± 1.2 mg/dL. The RI ≥ 0.79 group showed a higher incidence of renal progression (P = 0.004, log-rank test) compared with the RI < 0.79 group, irrespective of ACEI or ARB usage. In the Cox proportional hazard model, RI ≥ 0.79 was an independent prognostic factor after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, sCr, proteinuria, and use of ACEI or ARB (hazard ratio, 4.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–22.53; P = 0.043). Conclusion RI ≥ 0.79 on the renal duplex ultrasonography can be a helpful predictor for renal progression in patients with moderate renal dysfunction, regardless of their ACEI or ARB usage.

  8. Hierarchies of Indices for Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses indexes for text databases and presents an efficient implementation of an index for text searching called PAT array, or suffix array, where the database is stored on secondary storage devices such as magnetic or optical disks. Additional hierarchical index structures and searching algorithms are proposed that improve searching time, and…

  9. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  10. Extracting Characteristics of the Study Subjects from Full-Text Articles.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G

    Characteristics of the subjects of biomedical research are important in determining if a publication describing the research is relevant to a search. To facilitate finding relevant publications, MEDLINE citations provide Medical Subject Headings that describe the subjects' characteristics, such as their species, gender, and age. We seek to improve the recommendation of these headings by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that supports manual indexing of MEDLINE. To that end, we explore the potential of the full text of the publications. Using simple recall-oriented rule-based methods we determined that adding sentences extracted from the methods sections and captions to the abstracts prior to MTI processing significantly improved recall and F1 score with only a slight drop in precision. Improvements were also achieved in directly assigning several headings extracted from the full text. These results indicate the need for further development of automated methods capable of leveraging the full text for indexing.

  11. The dimensions of indexing.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.

  12. The Development of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in an independent sample of older acute medical patients: refinement and validation using the Rasch model (part 2).

    PubMed

    de Morton, Natalie A; Davidson, Megan; Keating, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the refinement and validation of the 17-item DEMMI in an independent sample of older acute medical patients. Instrument refinement was based on Rasch analysis and input from clinicians and researchers. The refined DEMMI was tested on 106 older general medical patients and a total of 312 mobility assessments were conducted. Based on the results of this study a further 2 items were removed and the 15 item DEMMI was adopted. The Rasch measurement properties of the DEMMI were consistent with estimates obtained from the instrument development sample. No differential item functioning was identified and an interval level scoring system was established. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument for older people to be developed, refined and validated using the Rasch model. This study confirms that the DEMMI provides clinicians and researchers with a unidimensional instrument for measuring and monitoring changes in mobility of hospitalised older acute medical patients.

  13. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  14. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    PubMed

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  15. Medication Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow ... Practices National Patient Safety Foundation To Err is Human: ... Errors: Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error ...

  16. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  17. A recent advance in the automatic indexing of the biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2009-10-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM's Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice.

  18. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  19. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  20. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  1. A bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Mork, James G; Van Lenten, Elizabeth; Fushman, Dina Demner; Aronson, Alan R

    2011-01-01

    MEDLINE indexing performed by the US National Library of Medicine staff describes the essence of a biomedical publication in about 14 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Since 2002, this task is assisted by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program. We present a bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing in which the abstract is searched for indicators for a specific MeSH recommendation in a two-step process. Supervised machine learning combined with triage rules improves sensitivity of recommendations while keeping the number of recommended terms relatively small. Improvement in recommendations observed in this work warrants further exploration of this approach to MTI recommendations on a larger set of MeSH headings.

  2. About Reformulation in Full-Text IRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debili, Fathi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes different kinds of reformulations used in information retrieval systems where full text databases are accessed through natural language queries. Tests of these reformulations on large full text databases managed by the Syntactic and Probabilistic Indexing and Retrieval of Information in Texts (SPIRIT) system are described, and an expert…

  3. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures.

  4. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  5. Comparison and combination of several MeSH indexing approaches.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Antonio Jose Jimeno; Mork, James G; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Aronson, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    MeSH indexing of MEDLINE is becoming a more difficult task for the group of highly qualified indexing staff at the US National Library of Medicine, due to the large yearly growth of MEDLINE and the increasing size of MeSH. Since 2002, this task has been assisted by the Medical Text Indexer or MTI program. We extend previous machine learning analysis by adding a more diverse set of MeSH headings targeting examples where MTI has been shown to perform poorly. Machine learning algorithms exceed MTI's performance on MeSH headings that are used very frequently and headings for which the indexing frequency is very low. We find that when we combine the MTI suggestions and the prediction of the learning algorithms, the performance improves compared to any single method for most of the evaluated MeSH headings.

  6. Making Sense of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  7. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  8. Workbook-Text Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eddie

    1982-01-01

    "Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

  9. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  10. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  11. The Perfect Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  12. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research.

  13. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  14. Noisy text categorization.

    PubMed

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.

  15. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texting Lexi bumped into someone at the mall. Curtis slammed into a parking meter. Ryan tripped over ... the move. ER docs who treat people like Curtis (he cracked his ribs in his encounter with ...

  16. Establishment of a comprehensive list of candidate antiaging medicinal herb used in korean medicine by text mining of the classical korean medical literature, "dongeuibogam," and preliminary evaluation of the antiaging effects of these herbs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. "Dongeuibogam," a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, "Dongeuibogam," we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in "Dongeuibogam." These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects.

  17. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  18. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  19. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  20. Listening with text

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Blake

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous, text-based patient-physician encounters are highly effective as a first touch point to the health system as they allow experienced physicians to make the first decision on next steps. Results are beginning to come in with patients in Colorado and Texas along five key measures: utilization, re-engagement, compliance, response time, and overall savings. PMID:28293592

  1. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  2. Texts On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  3. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

    2006-01-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text…

  4. Texts and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  5. Summarizing Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  6. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  7. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  8. Metacomprehension of text material.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.

  9. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  10. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  11. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  12. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  13. Text Mining the History of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Carter, Jacob; Toon, Elizabeth; McNaught, John; Timmermann, Carsten; Worboys, Michael; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Historical text archives constitute a rich and diverse source of information, which is becoming increasingly readily accessible, due to large-scale digitisation efforts. However, it can be difficult for researchers to explore and search such large volumes of data in an efficient manner. Text mining (TM) methods can help, through their ability to recognise various types of semantic information automatically, e.g., instances of concepts (places, medical conditions, drugs, etc.), synonyms/variant forms of concepts, and relationships holding between concepts (which drugs are used to treat which medical conditions, etc.). TM analysis allows search systems to incorporate functionality such as automatic suggestions of synonyms of user-entered query terms, exploration of different concepts mentioned within search results or isolation of documents in which concepts are related in specific ways. However, applying TM methods to historical text can be challenging, according to differences and evolutions in vocabulary, terminology, language structure and style, compared to more modern text. In this article, we present our efforts to overcome the various challenges faced in the semantic analysis of published historical medical text dating back to the mid 19th century. Firstly, we used evidence from diverse historical medical documents from different periods to develop new resources that provide accounts of the multiple, evolving ways in which concepts, their variants and relationships amongst them may be expressed. These resources were employed to support the development of a modular processing pipeline of TM tools for the robust detection of semantic information in historical medical documents with varying characteristics. We applied the pipeline to two large-scale medical document archives covering wide temporal ranges as the basis for the development of a publicly accessible semantically-oriented search system. The novel resources are available for research purposes, while

  14. Assisted annotation of medical free text using RapTAT

    PubMed Central

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Garvin, Jennifer; Reeves, Ruth; Cronin, Robert M; Heavirland, Julia; Williams, Jenifer; Weaver, Allison; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Xu, Hua; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether assisted annotation using interactive training can reduce the time required to annotate a clinical document corpus without introducing bias. Materials and methods A tool, RapTAT, was designed to assist annotation by iteratively pre-annotating probable phrases of interest within a document, presenting the annotations to a reviewer for correction, and then using the corrected annotations for further machine learning-based training before pre-annotating subsequent documents. Annotators reviewed 404 clinical notes either manually or using RapTAT assistance for concepts related to quality of care during heart failure treatment. Notes were divided into 20 batches of 19–21 documents for iterative annotation and training. Results The number of correct RapTAT pre-annotations increased significantly and annotation time per batch decreased by ∼50% over the course of annotation. Annotation rate increased from batch to batch for assisted but not manual reviewers. Pre-annotation F-measure increased from 0.5 to 0.6 to >0.80 (relative to both assisted reviewer and reference annotations) over the first three batches and more slowly thereafter. Overall inter-annotator agreement was significantly higher between RapTAT-assisted reviewers (0.89) than between manual reviewers (0.85). Discussion The tool reduced workload by decreasing the number of annotations needing to be added and helping reviewers to annotate at an increased rate. Agreement between the pre-annotations and reference standard, and agreement between the pre-annotations and assisted annotations, were similar throughout the annotation process, which suggests that pre-annotation did not introduce bias. Conclusions Pre-annotations generated by a tool capable of interactive training can reduce the time required to create an annotated document corpus by up to 50%. PMID:24431336

  15. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  16. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  17. Text mining for the biocuration workflow.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A P C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on 'Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow' at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community.

  18. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  19. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    PubMed

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well.

  20. Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for “non-native speakers” of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the “Genuine Index” (GI). Methodology This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Results Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Conclusions Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality. PMID:28212419

  1. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  2. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  3. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  4. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  5. High performance biomedical time series indexes using salient segmentation.

    PubMed

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Bui, Alex A T; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The advent of remote and wearable medical sensing has created a dire need for efficient medical time series databases. Wearable medical sensing devices provide continuous patient monitoring by various types of sensors and have the potential to create massive amounts of data. Therefore, time series databases must utilize highly optimized indexes in order to efficiently search and analyze stored data. This paper presents a highly efficient technique for indexing medical time series signals using Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Unlike previous work, only salient (or interesting) segments are inserted into the index. This technique reduces search times by up to 95% while yielding near identical search results.

  6. Information fusion for automatic text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.; Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-08-01

    Analysis and classification of free text documents encompass decision-making processes that rely on several clues derived from text and other contextual information. When using multiple clues, it is generally not known a priori how these should be integrated into a decision. An algorithmic sensor based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (a recent successful method for text retrieval rather than classification) is the primary sensor used in our work, but its utility is limited by the {ital reference}{ital library} of documents. Thus, there is an important need to complement or at least supplement this sensor. We have developed a system that uses a neural network to integrate the LSI-based sensor with other clues derived from the text. This approach allows for systematic fusion of several information sources in order to determine a combined best decision about the category to which a document belongs.

  7. Temporal Adverbials in Text Structuring: On Temporal Text Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Tuija

    This paper discusses clause-initial adverbials of time functioning as signals of the temporal text strategy. A chain of such markers creates cohesion and coherence by forming continuity in the text and also signals textual boundaries that occur on different hierarchic levels. The temporal text strategy is closely associated with narrative text.…

  8. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  9. Classroom Texting in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F.; Frazier, Erik; Rieser, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Nicholas; Hupp-Wilds, Bobbi

    2015-01-01

    A 21-item survey on texting in the classroom was given to 235 college students. Overall, 99.6% of students owned a cellphone and 98% texted daily. Of the 138 students who texted in the classroom, most texted friends or significant others, and indicate the reason for classroom texting is boredom or work. Students who texted sent a mean of 12.21…

  10. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  11. A Recent Advance in the Automatic Indexing of the Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Mork, James G.; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE®, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH® terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM’s Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice. PMID:19166973

  12. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.

  13. Text Complexity and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

  14. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  15. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  16. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  17. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  18. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  19. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Networks for Scene Text Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-03-28

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  20. Test of Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, David Edey

    Designed to assess how people read and comprehend information presented in picture-text amalgams in procedural texts, this instrument presents various combinations of text information and illustrative information on slides. Subjects are assigned to one of four conditions and directed to follow the instructions presented on the slides. Videotapes…

  1. The Impact of Text Browsing on Text Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Richard C.; Chignell, Mark H.; Charoenkitkarn, Nipon; Golovchinsky, Gene; Kopak, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Compares empirical results from three experiments using Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data and search topics that involved three different user interfaces. Results show that marking Boolean queries on text, which encourages browsing, and hypertext interfaces to text retrieval systems can benefit recall and can also benefit novice users.…

  2. Compare and Contrast Electronic Text with Traditionally Printed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Rachel

    The electronic text program described in this lesson plan guides students to compare and contrast the characteristics of electronic text with the characteristics of traditionally printed text, gaining a deeper understanding of how to navigate and comprehend information found on the Internet. During a 30 minute and a 45 minutes lesson, students…

  3. Text-Dependent Questions: Reflecting and Transcending the Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelé, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Posing text-dependent questions is crucial for facilitating students' comprehension of the text. However, text-dependent questions should not merely ask students to reflect the author's literal or even inferential meaning. The author's message is the starting place for comprehension, rather than the end goal or object of comprehension. The text…

  4. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  5. Thesaurus-Based Automatic Indexing: A Study of Indexing Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla Louise

    This study examines automatic indexing performed with a manually constructed thesaurus on a document collection of titles and abstracts of library science master's papers. Errors are identified when the meaning of a posted descriptor, as identified by context in the thesaurus, does not match that of the passage of text which occasioned the…

  6. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  7. Ranking Medical Subject Headings using a factor graph model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    Automatically assigning MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) to articles is an active research topic. Recent work demonstrated the feasibility of improving the existing automated Medical Text Indexer (MTI) system, developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Encouraged by this work, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses semantic distances in the MeSH ontology for automated MeSH assignment. Specifically, we developed a graphical model to propagate belief through a citation network to provide robust MeSH main heading (MH) recommendation. Our preliminary results indicate that this approach can reach high Mean Average Precision (MAP) in some scenarios.

  8. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  9. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  10. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  11. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  12. Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

  13. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be…

  14. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  15. Selecting Texts and Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert E.

    One of the most important decisions speech communication basic course directors make is the selection of the textbook. The first consideration in their choice of text should be whether or not the proposed text covers the units integral to the course. A second consideration should be whether or not the text covers the special topics integral to the…

  16. Online Databases. ASCII Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Defines the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) full text, and reviews its past, present, and future uses in libraries. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, and uses of searchable and nonsearchable full-text databases. Also comments on full-text CD-ROM products and on technological advancements made by library vendors. (JMV)

  17. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  18. Informational Text and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  19. The moral difference or equivalence between continuous sedation until death and physician-assisted death: word games or war games?: a qualitative content analysis of opinion pieces in the indexed medical and nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc; Atkinson, Douglas; Bilsen, Johan

    2012-06-01

    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of "slow euthanasia." A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and contra a moral difference refer basically to the same ambiguous themes, namely intention, proportionality, withholding artificial nutrition and hydration, and removing consciousness. This demonstrates that the debate is first and foremost a semantic rather than a factual dispute, focusing on the normative framework of CSD. Given the prevalent ambiguity, the debate on CSD appears to be a classical symbolic struggle for moral authority.

  20. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  1. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  2. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2015-03-31

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes a display configured to depict visible images, and processing circuitry coupled with the display and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a first vector of a text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to access a second vector of the text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to weight the components of the first vector providing a plurality of weighted values, to weight the components of the second vector providing a plurality of weighted values, and to combine the weighted values of the first vector with the weighted values of the second vector to provide a third vector.

  3. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework

    PubMed Central

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  4. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  5. Correcting OCR text by association with historical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Schlaifer, Jonathan; Sabir, Tehseen F.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Straughan, Scott; Thoma, George R.

    2003-01-01

    The Medical Article Records System (MARS) developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications uses scanning, OCR and automated recognition and reformatting algorithms to generate electronic bibliographic citation data from paper biomedical journal articles. The OCR server incorporated in MARS performs well in general, but fares less well with text printed in small or italic fonts. Affiliations are often printed in small italic fonts in the journals processed by MARS. Consequently, although the automatic processes generate much of the citation data correctly, the affiliation field frequently contains incorrect data, which must be manually corrected by verification operators. In contrast, author names are usually printed in large, normal fonts that are correctly converted to text by the OCR server. The National Library of Medicine"s MEDLINE database contains 11 million indexed citations for biomedical journal articles. This paper documents our effort to use the historical author, affiliation relationships from this large dataset to find potential correct affiliations for MARS articles based on the author and the affiliation in the OCR output. Preliminary tests using a table of about 400,000 author/affiliation pairs extracted from the corrected data from MARS indicated that about 44% of the author/affiliation pairs were repeats and that about 47% of newly converted author names would be found in this set. A text-matching algorithm was developed to determine the likelihood that an affiliation found in the table corresponding to the OCR text of the first author was the current, correct affiliation. This matching algorithm compares an affiliation found in the author/affiliation table (found with the OCR text of the first author) to the OCR output affiliation, and calculates a score indicating the similarity of the affiliation found in the table to the OCR affiliation. Using a ground truth set of 519 OCR author/OCR affiliation/correct affiliation

  6. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science.

  7. Generalized entropies and the similarity of texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Dias, Laércio; Gerlach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs–Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf’s law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen–Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  8. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  9. Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friederich, Wolf

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

  10. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  11. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  12. Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

  13. The Case for Multiple Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Reading just one text on any topic, Cummins argues, isn't enough if we expect students to learn at deep levels about the topic, synthesize various sources of information, and gain the knowledge they need to write and speak seriously about the topic. Reading a second or third text expands a reader's knowledge on any topic or story--and the why…

  14. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  15. Text Genres in Information Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  16. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  17. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  18. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  19. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Index for specifications... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Index for specifications... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or...

  1. Aggregated Indexing of Biomedical Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex A T

    2012-09-01

    Remote and wearable medical sensing has the potential to create very large and high dimensional datasets. Medical time series databases must be able to efficiently store, index, and mine these datasets to enable medical professionals to effectively analyze data collected from their patients. Conventional high dimensional indexing methods are a two stage process. First, a superset of the true matches is efficiently extracted from the database. Second, supersets are pruned by comparing each of their objects to the query object and rejecting any objects falling outside a predetermined radius. This pruning stage heavily dominates the computational complexity of most conventional search algorithms. Therefore, indexing algorithms can be significantly improved by reducing the amount of pruning. This paper presents an online algorithm to aggregate biomedical times series data to significantly reduce the search space (index size) without compromising the quality of search results. This algorithm is built on the observation that biomedical time series signals are composed of cyclical and often similar patterns. This algorithm takes in a stream of segments and groups them to highly concentrated collections. Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is used to reduce the overall complexity of the algorithm, allowing it to run online. The output of this aggregation is used to populate an index. The proposed algorithm yields logarithmic growth of the index (with respect to the total number of objects) while keeping sensitivity and specificity simultaneously above 98%. Both memory and runtime complexities of time series search are improved when using aggregated indexes. In addition, data mining tasks, such as clustering, exhibit runtimes that are orders of magnitudes faster when run on aggregated indexes.

  2. A Scene Text-Based Image Retrieval System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    problems need to be solved. Most of the previous studies in text detection can be classified into approaches based on edge , connected component, and...order to detect and to merge edges from letters in images [2][3]. Edge based methods is fast and can have a high recall. However, it often produces...algorithms can be used in image retrieval applications. Keywords— text detection , text binarization, scene text, image retrieval, image indexing I

  3. Quality of Indexing in Online Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.; Griffith, Belver C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes study that compared and judged the quality of subject indexing in online bibliographic databases. Documents from medical behavioral science literature are used with terms drawn from MEDLINE, PsychINFO, BIOSIS, and Excerpta Medica. Comparative statistics are presented on how each database links related documents and discriminates among…

  4. Injury narrative text classification using factorization model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Narrative text is a useful way of identifying injury circumstances from the routine emergency department data collections. Automatically classifying narratives based on machine learning techniques is a promising technique, which can consequently reduce the tedious manual classification process. Existing works focus on using Naive Bayes which does not always offer the best performance. This paper proposes the Matrix Factorization approaches along with a learning enhancement process for this task. The results are compared with the performance of various other classification approaches. The impact on the classification results from the parameters setting during the classification of a medical text dataset is discussed. With the selection of right dimension k, Non Negative Matrix Factorization-model method achieves 10 CV accuracy of 0.93. PMID:26043671

  5. Final state interactions in [Formula: see text] decays: [Formula: see text] rule vs. [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Buras, Andrzej J; Gérard, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Dispersive effects from strong [Formula: see text] rescattering in the final state interaction (FSI) of weak [Formula: see text] decays are revisited with the goal to have a global view on their relative importance for the [Formula: see text] rule and the ratio [Formula: see text] in the standard model (SM). We point out that this goal cannot be reached within a pure effective (meson) field approach like chiral perturbation theory in which the dominant current-current operators governing the [Formula: see text] rule and the dominant density-density (four-quark) operators governing [Formula: see text] cannot be disentangled from each other. But in the context of a dual QCD approach, which includes both long-distance dynamics and the UV completion, that is, QCD at short-distance scales, such a distinction is possible. We find then that beyond the strict large N limit, N being the number of colours, FSIs are likely to be important for the [Formula: see text] rule but much less relevant for [Formula: see text]. The latter finding diminishes significantly hopes that improved calculations of [Formula: see text] would bring its SM prediction to agree with the experimental data, opening thereby an arena for important new physics contributions to this ratio.

  6. Comparing syntactic complexity in medical and non-medical corpora.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D A; Johnson, S B

    2001-01-01

    With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques as solutions in Medical Informatics, the need to quickly and efficiently create the knowledge structures used by these systems has grown concurrently. Automatic discovery of a lexicon for use by an NLP system through machine learning will require information about the syntax of medical language. Understanding the syntactic differences between medical and non-medical corpora may allow more efficient acquisition of a lexicon. Three experiments designed to quantify the syntactic differences in medical and non-medical corpora were conducted. The results show that the syntax of medical language shows less variation than non-medical language and is likely simpler. The differences were great enough to question the applicability of general language tools on medical language. These differences may reduce the difficulty of some free text machine learning problems by capitalizing on the simpler nature of narrative medical syntax.

  7. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  8. Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

  9. The Lexicon in Text Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    linguistics , 09 02 dictionary, features, lexical semantics, lexicon, natural language. subcategorization, syntax, text generation 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on...Christian Matthiessen, who has done his best to educate me in a number of areas of general linguistics and text generation where I am deficient. Any...lexical representation in linguistic theory is not just an artifact of notational differences; it in turn stems at least partly from the fact that the

  10. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  11. Text Structures, Readings, and Retellings: An Exploration of Two Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Arya, Poonam; Wilson, Pat; Jin, Lijun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between children's use of reading strategies and language cues while reading and their comprehension after reading two texts: "Cherries and Cherry Pits" (Williams, 1986) and "There's Something in My Attic" (Mayer, 1988). The data were drawn from a larger study of the…

  12. Finding text in color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  13. Machine-aided indexing for NASA STI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    One of the major components of the NASA/STI processing system is machine-aided indexing (MAI). MAI is a computer process that generates a set of indexing terms selected from NASA's thesaurus, is used for indexing technical reports, is based on text, and is reviewed by indexers. This paper summarizes the MAI objectives and discusses the NASA Lexical Dictionary, subject switching, and phrase matching or natural languages. The benefits of using MAI are mentioned, and MAI production improvement and the future of MAI are briefly addressed.

  14. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Pay The median ... must become familiar with medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, diagnostic procedures, pharmacology, and treatment assessments. Their ability ...

  15. Medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Markose, Aji; Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Mutual trust and relationship between doctors and patients is an important factor of treatment plan. Changing trends in medical field does affect this relationship. This article reviews the basic code of conduct for every medical practitioner. PMID:27829735

  16. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD medications work by increasing the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. There are two main kinds of ADHD medications: ...

  17. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman ...

  18. Bilingualism in the Hebrew Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Discusses unique characteristics of Hebrew language and writing system in relation to a long historical tradition of bilingual texts. Explores present-day strategies of typesetting and translation and analyzes the "invisible" effects of Hebrew lexical and syntactic patterns on English speakers. Posits a blocking mechanism allowing the monolingual…

  19. Writing: The Quarterly as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lawrence F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how writing has shaped the nature of the Quarterly over 75 years. Here the author explores how stylistic elements have changed over time, how form has interacted with function and content, and how well the resulting text has served the several communities within physical education. He makes the following…

  20. Transformation and Text: Journal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carol

    One intention that an instructor had for her new course called "Writing and Healing: Women's Journal Writing" was to make apparent the power of self-written text to transform the writer. She asked her students--women studying women writing their lives and women writing their own lives--to write three pages a day and to focus on change.…

  1. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  2. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  3. Teaching Drama: Text and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    Because playwrights are limited to textual elements that an audience can hear and see--dialogue and movement--much of a drama's tension and interest lie in the subtext, the characters' emotions and motives implied but not directly expressed by the text itself. The teacher must help students construct what in a novel the author may have made more…

  4. Seductive Texts with Serious Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    1995-01-01

    Debates whether a text claiming to have scientific value is using seduction irresponsibly at the expense of the truth, and discusses who is the subject and who is the object of such seduction. It argues that, rather than being an assault against scientific ethics, seduction is a necessary premise for a sensible conversation to take place. (GR)

  5. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  6. A Visually Oriented Text Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

  7. FTP: Full-Text Publishing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jul, Erik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of file transfer protocol (FTP) on the INTERNET computer network and considers its use as an electronic publishing system. The differing electronic formats of text files are discussed; the preparation and access of documents are described; and problems are addressed, including a lack of consistency. (LRW)

  8. Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

    1989-01-01

    Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

  9. Policy Discourses in School Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Hoskins, Kate; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on some of the ways in which schools are both productive of and constituted by sets of "discursive practices, events and texts" that contribute to the process of policy enactment. As Colebatch (2002: 2) says, "policy involves the creation of order--that is, shared understandings about how the various participants will act…

  10. Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues.

    PubMed

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing.

  11. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  12. Medical Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical assistants often fill out insurance forms or code patients’ medical information. They often answer telephones and ... charts and diagnoses. They may be required to code a patient’s medical records for billing purposes. Detail ...

  13. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  14. Cost Index Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    continually alter applicable cost indexes . Computed KC-10 Cost Index Equation Using the dollar figures given above, our CI equation reads : CI = CT / C...COST INDEX FLYING GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER John M. Mirtich, Major, USAF AFIT/IMO/ENS/11-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  15. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  16. Investigation into Text Classification With Kernel Based Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Document Matrix TDMs Term-Document Matrices TMG Text to Matrix Generator TN True Negative TP True Positive VSM Vector Space Model xxii THIS PAGE...are represented as a term-document matrix, common evaluation metrics, and the software package Text to Matrix Generator ( TMG ). The classifier...AND METRICS This chapter introduces the indexing capabilities of the Text to Matrix Generator ( TMG ) Toolbox. Specific attention is placed on the

  17. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  18. Text from corners: a novel approach to detect text and caption in videos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Fu, Yun; Hu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuncai; Huang, Thomas S

    2011-03-01

    Detecting text and caption from videos is important and in great demand for video retrieval, annotation, indexing, and content analysis. In this paper, we present a corner based approach to detect text and caption from videos. This approach is inspired by the observation that there exist dense and orderly presences of corner points in characters, especially in text and caption. We use several discriminative features to describe the text regions formed by the corner points. The usage of these features is in a flexible manner, thus, can be adapted to different applications. Language independence is an important advantage of the proposed method. Moreover, based upon the text features, we further develop a novel algorithm to detect moving captions in videos. In the algorithm, the motion features, extracted by optical flow, are combined with text features to detect the moving caption patterns. The decision tree is adopted to learn the classification criteria. Experiments conducted on a large volume of real video shots demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed approaches and the real-world system. Our text and caption detection system was recently highlighted in a worldwide multimedia retrieval competition, Star Challenge, by achieving the superior performance with the top ranking.

  19. Indexing Variable Length Substrings for Exact and Approximate Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Gonzalo; Salmela, Leena

    We introduce two new index structures based on the q-gram index. The new structures index substrings of variable length instead of q-grams of fixed length. For both of the new indexes, we present a method based on the suffix tree to efficiently choose the indexed substrings so that each of them occurs almost equally frequently in the text. Our experiments show that the resulting indexes are up to 40% faster than the q-gram index when they use the same space.

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index...

  2. Medical marijuana: Irresponsible medical care?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nayvin

    2017-03-01

    Illness should continue to be treated by health professionals employing scientific evidence. This is responsible policy. It is not appropriate or medically justified for family physicians to refer patients to medical marijuana clinics; instead, they should inform their patients that medical treatment must be based on scientific evidence.

  3. Identifying Issue Frames in Text

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

  4. Indexing for Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Ernest J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a functional indexing system that is tailored to the thinking involved in the process of invention. Classification by function is discussed; matrix representation is explained; a controlled vocabulary of verbs, objects, and modifiers is described; and the relation to other indexing systems is examined. (13 references)…

  5. Indexing Editorial Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple-Sokol, Angie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

  6. Linked Phrase Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted system for the production of printed indexes based on networks of concept relations expressed in natural-language-like form. The LIPHIS is designed to handle more complex networks of concept relations, and so produce better indexing of highly detailed subjects. (Author/CWM)

  7. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  8. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  9. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  10. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  11. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  12. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  13. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  14. Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Güld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system. PMID:19633735

  15. Segmental Rescoring in Text Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    ttm № tes/m, m* tmvr mowm* a Smyrna Of l δrtA£ACf02S’ A w m - y i p m AmiKSiS € f № ) C № № m .. sg6#?«rA fiθN ; Atφ h Sft№’·’Spxn mm m fim f№b t&m&mm...applying a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognition approach. Generating the plurality text hypotheses for the image forming includes generating a first...image. Applying segmental analysis to a segmentation determined by a first OCR engine, such as a segmentation determined by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM

  16. Text Mining for Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Badal, Varsha D.; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking). Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu). The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features) approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound benchmark set

  17. 76 FR 78824 - Copayments for Medications in 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... and dental schools; Medical devices; Medical research; Mental health programs; Nursing homes... Affairs. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its medical... Medical Consumer Price Index, and the maximum annual copayment amount must be increased when the...

  18. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  19. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals.

    PubMed

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation.

  20. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  1. Index Construction, A Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Application in Science, S5G37 Technology , and Humanities, N.Y., N.Y: John Wiley & Sons, C 1969. Z695.9 Harrod, Leonard Montague, ed. Indexers on... Indexing Terminology, Posting Terms and KWOC, DESK Alexandria, VA: DDC, May, 1979. Z1035.1 Library of Congress. Main Reading Room, Reference Collection...A1544 750 INDEX CONSTRUCTON AR BI OGRAPHYU ARMY FIEL ARTILERY SHOOL FORT SIL OR MILE R SEP 84 USA FASM -DSB- A0 VNtASIIEFG 5/2 NI MONSOONSfl 0841

  2. Glycemic index and disease.

    PubMed

    Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. This paper explores the glycemic index and its validity and discusses the effect of postprandial glucose and insulin responses on food intake, obesity, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Presented herein are the reasons why it is premature to recommend that the general population avoid foods with a high glycemic index.

  3. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  4. Feasible methods to estimate disease based price indexes.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    There is a consensus that statistical agencies should report medical data by disease rather than by service. This study computes price indexes that are necessary to deflate nominal disease expenditures and to decompose their growth into price, treated prevalence and output per patient growth. Unlike previous studies, it uses methods that can be implemented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). For the calendar years 2005-2010, I find that these feasible disease based indexes are approximately 1% lower on an annual basis than indexes computed by current methods at BLS. This gives evidence that traditional medical price indexes have not accounted for the more efficient use of medical inputs in treating most diseases.

  5. Using LSI and its variants in Text Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Shalini; Bawa, Seema

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a well known technique in Information Retrieval has been partially successful in text retrieval and no major breakthrough has been achieved in text classification as yet. A significant step forward in this regard was made by Hofmann[3], who presented the probabilistic LSI (PLSI) model, as an alternative to LSI. If we wish to consider exchangeable representations for documents and words, PLSI is not successful which further led to the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model [4]. A new local Latent Semantic Indexing method has been proposed by some authors called "Local Relevancy Ladder-Weighted LSI" (LRLW-LSI) to improve text classification [5]. In this paper we study LSI and its variants in detail , analyze the role played by them in text classification and conclude with future directions in this area.

  6. Surveying through Text Message: Planning, Programming, and Analyzing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    While the Survey is in the Field ................................................ 15 Analysis ...software. The final stage, Analysis , includes some software specific information as well as suggestions for analyzing the data returned and sample...text message lingo (see, for example, http://www.lingo2word.com/index.php), but it is possible that most of those receiving the survey will not be

  7. A Statistical Approach for Text Processing in Virtual Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (PLSI) (Hofmann, 1999) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) (Blei et al., 2003), where the authors model text collections by a...human architecture. In Proceed- ings of Language Resources and Evaluation Con- ference (LREC). Hofmann, T. 1999. Probabilistic latent semantic in

  8. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  9. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  10. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  11. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  12. [Euthanasia: medications and medical procedures].

    PubMed

    Lossignol, D

    2008-09-01

    The Belgian law relative to euthanasia has been published in 2002. A physician is allowed to help a patient with intractable suffering (physical or psychological). Legal conditions are clear. However, nothing is said about medical procedures or medications to be used. The present paper will present specific clinical situations at the end of life, practical procedures and medications. A special focus is made on psychological impact of euthanasia.

  13. Monitoring medication.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2016-08-17

    A recent study from researchers at Ghent University in Belgium, involving 503 community-based adults aged 80 and over, found that 58% were taking five or more long-term medications daily, but few were taking them appropriately. The underuse of prescribed medication occurred in 67% of those studied and misuse occurred in 56%, with some overlap.

  14. Comparative Efficiency of Searching Titles, Abstracts, and Index Terms in a Free-Text Data Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Barker, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made into the relative performance of the four major Chemical Abstracts Service magnetic tape data-bases. The overall retrieval efficiency of profiles searched against data-bases containing titles only, titles-plus-keywords, and titles-plus-digests, was calculated and these results are presented. (5 references) (Author/NH)

  15. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  16. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  17. DeepMeSH: deep semantic representation for improving large-scale MeSH indexing

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shengwen; You, Ronghui; Wang, Hongning; Zhai, Chengxiang; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing, which is to assign a set of MeSH main headings to citations, is crucial for many important tasks in biomedical text mining and information retrieval. Large-scale MeSH indexing has two challenging aspects: the citation side and MeSH side. For the citation side, all existing methods, including Medical Text Indexer (MTI) by National Library of Medicine and the state-of-the-art method, MeSHLabeler, deal with text by bag-of-words, which cannot capture semantic and context-dependent information well. Methods: We propose DeepMeSH that incorporates deep semantic information for large-scale MeSH indexing. It addresses the two challenges in both citation and MeSH sides. The citation side challenge is solved by a new deep semantic representation, D2V-TFIDF, which concatenates both sparse and dense semantic representations. The MeSH side challenge is solved by using the ‘learning to rank’ framework of MeSHLabeler, which integrates various types of evidence generated from the new semantic representation. Results: DeepMeSH achieved a Micro F-measure of 0.6323, 2% higher than 0.6218 of MeSHLabeler and 12% higher than 0.5637 of MTI, for BioASQ3 challenge data with 6000 citations. Availability and Implementation: The software is available upon request. Contact: zhusf@fudan.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307646

  18. Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

  19. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  20. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  1. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  2. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... under a psychiatrist's or other doctor's care. ADHD medications have helped teens with ADHD in all sorts of areas, even helping reduce things like substance abuse, injuries, and automobile accidents. ADHD medicines also can ...

  3. Medication Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than one type of medication. Alpha Agonist Company Brand Name Generic Name Alcon, Inc. Iopidine® Apraclonidine ... drowsiness, dry mouth and dry nose. Beta Blockers Company Brand Name Generic Name Akorn Ophthalmics Timolol Maleate ...

  4. Developing a Controlled Vocabulary for the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Outpatient Clinical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anthony S.; Shea, Steven

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Controlled Vocabulary for medication and problem/diagnostic lists in an ambulatory patient care information system within the institution's overall IAIMS framework. This Controlled Vocabulary is used in a spell-checking filter for uploading existing free text data and for on-line entry of new data by physicians. The Controlled Vocabulary consists of a reference file, keyed by code, and an inverted word index file to access it. It is currently loaded with an in-house produced set of medication codes and SNOMED Level 1 Disease codes supplemented by additional user entries.

  5. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  6. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk W.; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  7. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  8. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  9. Neural net learning issues in classification of free text documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.R.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-03-01

    In intelligent analysis of large amounts of text, not any single clue indicates reliably that a pattern of interest has been found. When using multiple clues, it is not known how these should be integrated into a decision. In the context of this investigation, we have been using neural nets as parameterized mappings that allow for fusion of higher level clues extracted from free text. By using higher level clues and features, we avoid very large networks. By using the dominant singular values computed by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) and applying neural network algorithms for integrating these values and the outputs from other ``sensors,`` we have obtained preliminary encouraging results with text classification.

  10. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  11. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  12. Nitrate Leaching Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  13. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  14. The Vocational Commitment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    1973-01-01

    The Index is the result of an effort made to examine all components of vocational commitment and to translate this information into an instrument which could be used to assess the relationship of an individual to a vocation.. The predictive ability of the 74-item device requires further research. (Author/AG)

  15. Drug Impact Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  16. The COPD Helplessness Index

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ≤ median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes. PMID:19837823

  17. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  18. Medical Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.

  19. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  20. Medical Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms. PMID:18366134

  1. CUQI: cardiac ultrasound video quality index

    PubMed Central

    Razaak, Manzoor; Martini, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Medical images and videos are now increasingly part of modern telecommunication applications, including telemedicinal applications, favored by advancements in video compression and communication technologies. Medical video quality evaluation is essential for modern applications since compression and transmission processes often compromise the video quality. Several state-of-the-art video quality metrics used for quality evaluation assess the perceptual quality of the video. For a medical video, assessing quality in terms of “diagnostic” value rather than “perceptual” quality is more important. We present a diagnostic-quality–oriented video quality metric for quality evaluation of cardiac ultrasound videos. Cardiac ultrasound videos are characterized by rapid repetitive cardiac motions and distinct structural information characteristics that are explored by the proposed metric. Cardiac ultrasound video quality index, the proposed metric, is a full reference metric and uses the motion and edge information of the cardiac ultrasound video to evaluate the video quality. The metric was evaluated for its performance in approximating the quality of cardiac ultrasound videos by testing its correlation with the subjective scores of medical experts. The results of our tests showed that the metric has high correlation with medical expert opinions and in several cases outperforms the state-of-the-art video quality metrics considered in our tests. PMID:27014715

  2. Medical leasing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.

  3. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  4. Generic Medications: Are They the Same?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Help the Cause Glaucoma affects ...

  5. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  6. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  7. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1991-01-01

    Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

  8. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  9. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  10. 77 FR 76865 - Copayments for Medications in 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... categories 2 through 8. At that time, the CPI-P as of September 30, 2013, will be divided by the index as of... records, Homeless, Medical and dental schools, Medical devices, Medical research, Mental health programs, Nursing homes, Philippines, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Scholarships and fellowships,...

  11. Indexing Overlap and Consistency between the "Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals" and the "Architectural Periodicals Index."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giral, Angela; Taylor, Arlene G.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the overlap of article coverage and the consistency of indexing between the "Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals" and the "Architectural Periodicals Index." The historical backgrounds of the two indexes are described, possibilities for collaboration between them are considered, and implications for users are…

  12. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nora, J.J.; Fraser, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of medical genetics for the practitioner treating or counseling patients with genetic disease. It includes a discussion of the relationship of heredity and diseases, the chromosomal basis for heredity, gene frequencies, and genetics of development and maldevelopment. The authors also focus on teratology, somatic cell genetics, genetics and cancer, genetics of behavior.

  13. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.

  14. Medic Bleep.

    PubMed

    2017-03-15

    Medic Bleep is a secure instant messaging app that enables clinicians to discuss patient care quickly, securely and legally. It looks and feels like WhatsApp, but has been designed for the healthcare market to enable staff to communicate with each other, and to help speed up conversations between clinicians to increase efficiency.

  15. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates.

  16. [Medical geography].

    PubMed

    Hauri, D

    2007-10-17

    Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.

  17. Medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Olga S

    2010-01-01

    Medical tourism is becoming popular as an alternative to the high cost of health care in the United States and as an inexpensive resource for cosmetic surgery. The occupational health nurse is an excellent resource to assist in the pre-decision due diligence and post-decision travel health counseling.

  18. Automatic indexing of scanned documents: a layout-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.

  19. What's so Simple about Simplified Texts? A Computational and Psycholinguistic Investigation of Text Comprehension and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…

  20. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

  1. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations.

  2. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  3. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  4. A Technique for Machine-Aided Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    The technique for machine-aided indexing developed at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) is illustrated on a randomly chosen abstract. Additional text is provided in coded form so that the reader can more fully explore this technique. (2 references) (Author)

  5. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 17 More Medical Device Recalls Recent Medical Device Safety Communications FDA analyses and recommendations for patients and ...

  6. Temporal reasoning over clinical text: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of the problem of temporal reasoning over clinical text and to summarize the state of the art in clinical natural language processing for this task. Target audience This overview targets medical informatics researchers who are unfamiliar with the problems and applications of temporal reasoning over clinical text. Scope We review the major applications of text-based temporal reasoning, describe the challenges for software systems handling temporal information in clinical text, and give an overview of the state of the art. Finally, we present some perspectives on future research directions that emerged during the recent community-wide challenge on text-based temporal reasoning in the clinical domain. PMID:23676245

  7. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  8. Medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christie M

    2008-11-01

    Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers.

  9. Medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Alex

    2005-07-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques—X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion.

  10. Medicare case-mix index increase

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Paul B.; Carter, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Medicare paid hospitals a higher amount per admission in 1984 than had been planned because the case-mix index (CMI), which reflects the proportion of patients in high-weighted DRG's versus low-weighted ones, increased more than had been projected. This study estimated the degree to which the increase in the CMI from 1981 reflected medical practice changes, the aging of the Medicare inpatient population, changes in coding practices of physicians and hospitals, and changes in the way that the Health Care Financing Administration collects the data on case-mix. All of the above, except for aging, contributed to the increase in the CMI. PMID:10311672

  11. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  12. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  13. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  14. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  15. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  16. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  17. "Strict" Anadeixis, Discourse Deixis and Text Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Taking English as the example language, the article begins by presenting a Scale of indexicality characterizing context-bound expression types, ranging from those signalling pure deixis at one pole, to ones expressing pure anaphora at the other. On the basis of this Scale, the article attempts to determine the specific way in which demonstratives…

  18. E-Texts in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A May 2007 Congressional advisory committee found that average full-time undergraduates spent between $700 and $1,000 on textbooks in 2003-2004 and that from 1987-2004, textbook prices at four-year public colleges rose 109 percent compared to a rise in the Consumer Price Index of 65 percent. Higher education is transitioning from atoms…

  19. Enhancing Text Analysis via Dimensionality Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    latent semantic analysis [6]. We in- tend to further explore such possibilities in future work. Acknowledgments. Thanks to the USNA Trident Scholar and...Sheffield - Machine Learning Group, Sheffield S1 4DP, U.K., December 2004. [6] M. D. Gordon and S. Dumais. Using latent semantic index- ing for

  20. Medical Office Assistants' Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This handbook is intended both as a text for use in medical office assistant (MOA) training programs in colleges and as a handbook for people working in medical offices. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following topics: responsibilities of the medical office assistant, office organization, appointments and the waiting…

  1. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  2. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort.

  3. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  4. Mobile text messaging for health: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness.

  5. Characterizing Reading Comprehension of Mathematical Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterholm, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the…

  6. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  7. Full-Text Databases in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievert, MaryEllen C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes types of full-text databases in medicine; discusses features for searching full-text journal databases available through online vendors; reviews research on full-text databases in medicine; and describes the MEDLINE/Full-Text Research Project at the University of Missouri (Columbia) which investigated precision, recall, and relevancy.…

  8. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  9. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    MedlinePlus

    ... family medical history, sometimes called a medical family tree, is a record of illnesses and medical conditions ... to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from ...

  10. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  11. [Ankle brachial index measurement].

    PubMed

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.

  12. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  13. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations. PMID:19192280

  14. The Use of Inflation Indexes in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    overall consumer price index (CPI). For example, the price of apparel has risen far more slowly, and the price of medical care has climbed at nearly...missile manufacturers , and materials prices are derived from estimates by Global Insight. Marine Corps. Marine Corps policy is to use the prescribed

  15. Medical electromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.

  16. Medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  17. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  18. Analysis of semantic search within the domains of uncertainty: using Keyword Effectiveness Indexing as an evaluation tool.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Abraham, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Medical and health-related searches pose a special case of risk when using the web as an information resource. Uninsured consumers, lacking access to a trained provider, will often rely on information from the internet for self-diagnosis and treatment. In areas where treatments are uncertain or controversial, most consumers lack the knowledge to make an informed decision. This exploratory technology assessment examines the use of Keyword Effectiveness Indexing (KEI) analysis as a potential tool for profiling information search and keyword retrieval patterns. Results demonstrate that the KEI methodology can be useful in identifying e-health search patterns, but is limited by semantic or text-based web environments.

  19. A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

  20. Automatic Indexing of Drug Information. Project MEDICO Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan

    The broad objective of this investigation was to explore the potential and applicability of automatic methods for the indexing of drug-related information appearing in English natural language text and to find out what can be learned about automatic indexing in general from the experience. More specific objectives were the development,…

  1. Seventy Years of the Journal “Medical Archives”

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    This year journal “Medical Archives” celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  2. The glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Wolever, T M

    1990-01-01

    Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for differences in glycemic response appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the many factors influencing this. The glycemic index (GI) is a system of classification in which the glycemic responses of foods are indexed against a standard (white bread). This allows the results of different investigators to be pooled. GI values also depend upon a number of nonfood-related variables. The method of calculation of the glycemic response area is most important, but the method of blood sampling and length of time of studies also may have effects. Variability of glycemic responses arises from day-to-day variation in the same subject and variation between different subjects. There is less variability between the GI values of different subjects than there is within the same subject from day to day. Therefore, the mean GI values of foods are independent of the glucose tolerance status of the subjects being tested. Potentially clinically useful starchy foods producing relatively flat glycemic responses have been identified, including legumes, pasta, barley, bulgur, parboiled rice and whole grain breads such as pumpernickel. Specific incorporation of these foods into diets have been associated with reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Low-GI foods may influence amino acid metabolism although the implications of these are unknown. In addition, low GI foods increase colonic fermentation. The physiologic and metabolic implications of this relate to increased bacterial urea utilization, and to the production and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the colon. The application of the GI to therapeutic diets should be in the context

  3. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  4. Medical Misuse of Controlled Medications Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Cranford, James A.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the past-year medical misuse prevalence for 4 controlled medication classes (pain, stimulant, sleeping, and antianxiety) among adolescents, and to assess substance use outcomes among adolescents who report medical misuse. Design A Web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students in 2009-2010. Setting Two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants The sample had a mean age of 14.8 years and was 51.1% female. The racial/ethnic distribution was 65.0% white, 29.5% African American, 3.7% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, and 0.5% other. Main Outcome Measures Past-year medical use and misuse of 4 controlled medication classes. Results Eighteen percent of the sample reported past-year medical use of at least 1 prescribed controlled medication. Among past-year medical users, 22.0% reported misuse of their controlled medications, including taking too much, intentionally getting high, or using to increase alcohol or other drug effects. Medical misusers were more likely than nonmisusers to divert their controlled medications and to abuse other substances. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were substantially higher among medical misusers (adjusted odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-14.2) compared with medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately. The odds of drug abuse did not differ between medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately and nonusers. Conclusions Most adolescents who used controlled medications took their medications appropriately. Substance use and diversion of controlled medications were more prevalent among adolescents who misused their controlled medications. Careful therapeutic monitoring could reduce medical misuse and diversion of controlled medications among adolescents. PMID:21810634

  5. Visual Analysis of Text Document Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.

    2005-11-30

    The volume of information, communications, and descriptions provided in text form is large and increasing. One of the most often used software application of our time, web page retrieval based on key word descriptions, can be constructed as a text analysis application. The volume and diversity of information available in text data sources has driven the development of a variety of methods for interacting with, and presenting the results from, text analyses. In short, text analysis provides a challenging, important area for statistical analysis and application. Existing text analysis systems and technologies are reviewed. Capabilities of the technology are described, including potential for scaling and analytic activities directly supported analytic activities that could be supported and unmet analytic needs. Statistics-related technologies that are contained in text visualization systems are identified. Choices and trade-offs made in text visualization systems are indicated, as are some areas of research and potential development.

  6. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  7. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  8. Subdividing Text: Headings, Content and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struck, Larry

    Text headings can be used to structural and expressive advantage in technical material, increasing textual coherence and encouraging reader/text correspondence. The five general types of headings are differentiated by their functions: (1) descriptive headings refer to the most prominent feature of a text section; (2) reflective headings provide…

  9. Learning To Use a Text Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.

    Designed to determine how quickly elementary school children can learn to use a text editor and what editing concepts are difficult for them to master, this study presents preliminary data on children's acquisition of text editor skills and on the kinds of revisions they accomplished with the text editor. Observations were made on a total of 25…

  10. The Costs of Texting in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dakota; Henderson, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    Many college students seem to find it impossible to resist the temptation to text on electronic devices during class lectures and discussions. One common response of college professors is to yield to the inevitable and try to ignore student texting. However, research indicates that because of limited cognitive capacities, even simple texting can…

  11. Children's Reflection on Coherence during Text Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriessen, Jerry E. B.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which children considered alternative continuations of a text through a computer program. Reports that subjects were to monitor text production and correct coherence problems. Discusses reason levels: (1) implicit, local reasoning; (2) attention to global text characteristics; and (3) considerations on the function of…

  12. Children's Comprehension of Text: Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise, Ed.

    Reflecting the concerns of researchers and practitioners about children's text comprehension, this book defines and provides examples of narrative and expository text and describes research-based strategies for helping children comprehend these two types of text. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Research on Stories: Implications…

  13. Does Writing Summaries Improve Memory for Text?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirgel, Arie S.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    In five experiments, we consistently found that items included in summaries were better remembered than items omitted from summaries. We did not, however, find evidence that summary writing was better than merely restudying the text. These patterns held with shorter and longer texts, when the text was present or absent during the summary writing,…

  14. Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossanova, Altynay Zh.; Ismakova, Bibissara S.; Tapanova, Saule E.; Ayupova, Gulbagira K.; Gotting, Valentina V.; Kaltayeva, Gulnar K.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose is the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach to understanding and the construction of integrative models of understanding literary texts. The interdisciplinary methodological paradigm of studying text understanding, based on the principles of various sciences facilitating the identification of the text understanding…

  15. Teacher Modeling Using Complex Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Modeling in complex texts requires that teachers analyze the text for factors of qualitative complexity and then design lessons that introduce students to that complexity. In addition, teachers can model the disciplinary nature of content area texts as well as word solving and comprehension strategies. Included is a planning guide for think aloud.

  16. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  17. Creating and Using Culturally Sustaining Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe Kganetso, Lynne M.

    2017-01-01

    Current standards and assessments emphasize the importance of a variety of genres in students' literacy diets, which has placed increased attention on informational texts. Unfortunately, young students' current exposure to and experiences with informational texts are often limited by the texts' availability, quality, and relevance to children's…

  18. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  19. An Assessment of Computerized Text Editing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibal, William J.; Kohut, Gary F.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether text editing programs are successful in taking over the traditional functions of an editor. Compares the editing suggestions made by two of the most popular text editing programs ("RightWriter" and "Punctuation + Style") with those of an experienced editor. Finds that text editing programs are…

  20. Text Messaging for Student Communication and Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morgan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…

  1. Literary and Informational Texts in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1976-01-01

    Informational texts are useful for teaching fundamental linguistic structures, because their stylistic variables can be ignored, and because they provide information about aspects of the world which the student will encounter in literary texts. Literary texts speak directly to the reader, and have high motivational value. (IFS/WGA)

  2. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  3. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  4. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  5. A PC-Based Free Text DSS for Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming

    1987-01-01

    A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.

  6. Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi-directional text messaging.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Chris A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Chounramany, James; Foster, Eric D; Goerdt, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle L; Suneja, Manish; Segre, Alberto M; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (P < .001) and the EMR + reminders group (P = .038). Also, the EMR + reminders group outperformed the EMR-only group (P < .001). Bi-directional automated text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements.

  7. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  8. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  9. Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Alkharashi, Majed; Lindsley, Kristina; Law, Hua Andrew; Sikder, Shameema

    2016-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba are microscopic, free-living, single-celled organisms which can infect the eye and lead to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK can result in loss of vision in the infected eye or loss of eye itself; however, there are no formal guidelines or standards of care for the treatment of AK. Objectives To evaluate the relative effectiveness and safety of medical therapy for the treatment of AK. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 9 January 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of medical therapy for AK, regardless of the participants' age, sex, or etiology of disease. We included studies that compared either anti-amoeba therapy (drugs used alone or in combination with other medical therapies) with no anti-amoeba therapy or one anti-amoeba therapy with another anti-amoeba therapy. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened search results and full-text reports, assessed risk of bias, and abstracted data. We used standard methodological procedures as set forth by the Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included one RCT (56 eyes of 55 participants) in this review. The study compared two types of topical biguanides for the treatment of AK

  10. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.

  11. Bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index and generalized impact factor: an improvement over existing models.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ash Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, [formula: see text], g ≥ 1, comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel relation h is proportional to C(2/3)P(-1/3) for a proportionality constant of 1, where C is the number of citations and P is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g ≤ (h + e), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists.

  12. Document Exploration and Automatic Knowledge Extraction for Unstructured Biomedical Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Totaro, G.; Doshi, N.; Thapar, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    We describe our work on building a web-browser based document reader with built-in exploration tool and automatic concept extraction of medical entities for biomedical text. Vast amounts of biomedical information are offered in unstructured text form through scientific publications and R&D reports. Utilizing text mining can help us to mine information and extract relevant knowledge from a plethora of biomedical text. The ability to employ such technologies to aid researchers in coping with information overload is greatly desirable. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in automatic biomedical concept extraction [1, 2] and intelligent PDF reader tools with the ability to search on content and find related articles [3]. Such reader tools are typically desktop applications and are limited to specific platforms. Our goal is to provide researchers with a simple tool to aid them in finding, reading, and exploring documents. Thus, we propose a web-based document explorer, which we called Shangri-Docs, which combines a document reader with automatic concept extraction and highlighting of relevant terms. Shangri-Docsalso provides the ability to evaluate a wide variety of document formats (e.g. PDF, Words, PPT, text, etc.) and to exploit the linked nature of the Web and personal content by performing searches on content from public sites (e.g. Wikipedia, PubMed) and private cataloged databases simultaneously. Shangri-Docsutilizes Apache cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) [4] and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to automatically identify and highlight terms and concepts, such as specific symptoms, diseases, drugs, and anatomical sites, mentioned in the text. cTAKES was originally designed specially to extract information from clinical medical records. Our investigation leads us to extend the automatic knowledge extraction process of cTAKES for biomedical research domain by improving the ontology guided information extraction

  13. Coloring [Formula: see text]-Embeddable [Formula: see text]-Uniform Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carl Georg; Panagiotou, Konstantinos; Pikhurko, Oleg; Taraz, Anusch

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the scenario of the Four Color Theorem in the following way. Let [Formula: see text] be the set of all [Formula: see text]-uniform hypergraphs that can be (linearly) embedded into [Formula: see text]. We investigate lower and upper bounds on the maximum (weak) chromatic number of hypergraphs in [Formula: see text]. For example, we can prove that for [Formula: see text] there are hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text] vertices whose chromatic number is [Formula: see text], whereas the chromatic number for [Formula: see text]-vertex hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] is bounded by [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text].

  14. Nuclear Energy Standards. KWIC index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The KWIC Index is an alphabetical listing that provides rapid identification of NE standards based upon the specific subject areas. This index facilitates identification of a NE standard by major or key words located in the center of the alphabetical index listing. Alphanumerical designations for specific NE standards are shown in the right-hand column. Standards referenced in this listing include those that are active, inactive, or discontinued.

  15. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  16. Hardware Index to Permutation Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hardware Index to Permutation Converter J. T. Butler T. Sasao Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Computer Science...generates a permutation in response to an index. Since there are n! n-element permutations , the index ranges from 0 to n! − 1. Such a circuit is needed...in the hardware implementation of unique- permutation hash functions to specify how parallel machines interact through a shared memory. Such a circuit

  17. NASA directives master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth in two parts the information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Complementary to this Handbook is the NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS), an electronic computer text retrieval system. The first part contains the Master List of Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993. The second part contains an Index to NASA Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993.

  18. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July-December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (operating license, operating license amendment, etc); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats: Case Name Index, Headers and Digests, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  19. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  20. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  1. TextHunter--A User Friendly Tool for Extracting Generic Concepts from Free Text in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Jackson MSc, Richard G; Ball, Michael; Patel, Rashmi; Hayes, Richard D; Dobson, Richard J B; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing free text to obtain desired information is an inefficient use of researcher time and skill. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract information. However, in real world research environments, the demand for NLP skills outweighs supply, creating a bottleneck in the secondary exploitation of the EHR. To address this, we present TextHunter, a tool for the creation of training data, construction of concept extraction machine learning models and their application to documents. Using confidence thresholds to ensure high precision (>90%), we achieved recall measurements as high as 99% in real world use cases.

  2. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  3. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  4. Environmental Terminology Index (Permuted Index). Volume 2. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    This Environmental Terminology Index or Thesaurus was developed to help meet the urgent need for world-wide communication on practical as well as basic environmental problems. This working draft of the Index includes terms in the areas of physical sciences, social sciences, earth sciences, biology, and ecology. This edition of the thesaurus…

  5. Biomechanical patterns of text-message distraction.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction.

  6. [The diseases of the soul in medieval arabic texts an encounter between philosophy and medicine].

    PubMed

    Koetschet, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    In the medical texts written in Arabic between the 9(th) and the 11(th) centuries, the diseases of the soul played an important part in the physicians' reflection on the nature of the soul and its relationship to the body. In the 9(th) and the beginning of the 10(th) century, this medical anthropology was shaped by a tradition that was both Platonic and Galenic. But in the 10(th), the influence of Aristotle became most prominent in Arabic philosophy, and as a result the main lines of this medical anthropology were questioned, as was the role of medical knowledge and its relation to natural philosophy.

  7. Text Organization and Comprehensibility in Technical Writing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    stating it. This "proof-first" organization violates writinq guidelines suggested by current text learning theories . The current research compares the... learning theories . The current research compared the effects on comprehension of this type of structure with its logical alternative, a "principle-first...in Technical Writing Theories of text comprehension have suggested guidelines for organizing texts in order to facilitate comprehension and learning

  8. Consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Tange, H J

    1999-12-01

    This article presents an overview of a research project concerning the consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record (EMR). It describes an analysis of user needs, the design and implementation of a prototype EMR system, and the evaluation of the ease of consultation of medical narratives when using this system. In a questionnaire survey, 85 hospital physicians judged the quality of their paper-based medical record with respect to data entry, information retrieval and some other aspects. Participants were more positive about the paper medical record than the literature suggests. They wished to maintain the flexibility of data entry but indicated the need to improve the retrieval of information. A prototype EMR system was developed to facilitate the consultation of medical narratives. These parts were divided into labeled segments that could be arranged source-oriented and problem-oriented. This system was used to evaluate the ease of information retrieval of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital when using free-text medical narratives divided at different levels of detail. They solved, without time pressure, some predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. The participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. The division of medical narratives affected speed, but not completeness of information retrieval. Progress notes divided into problem-related segments could be consulted 22% faster than when undivided. Medical history and physical examination divided into segments at organ-system level could be consulted 13% faster than when divided into separate questions and observations. These differences were statistically significant. The fastest divisions were also appreciated as the best combination of easy searching and best insight in the patient case. The results of our evaluation study suggest a trade-off between searching and reading: too much

  9. Handwritten text line segmentation by spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuecheng; Yao, Hui; Zhong, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Since handwritten text lines are generally skewed and not obviously separated, text line segmentation of handwritten document images is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel text line segmentation algorithm based on the spectral clustering. Given a handwritten document image, we convert it to a binary image first, and then compute the adjacent matrix of the pixel points. We apply spectral clustering on this similarity metric and use the orthogonal kmeans clustering algorithm to group the text lines. Experiments on Chinese handwritten documents database (HIT-MW) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Birthweight for length: ponderal index, body mass index or Benn index?

    PubMed

    Cole, T J; Henson, G L; Tremble, J M; Colley, N V

    1997-01-01

    This study compares how effectively the ponderal index and the body mass index adjust birthweight for length at different gestations, and derives an improved index suitable for all gestations. The study was a cross-sectional survey, in a London teaching hospital, using a total of 999 neonates of 33 weeks gestation or later. Main outcome measures were the ponderal index (birthweight/length3), body mass index (birthweight/length2), and Benn index (birthweight/length(n)), where the length power n varies with gestation and is estimated by log-log regression. Results showed that up to 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is uncorrelated with length and so is a good index of birthweight for length. Past 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is negatively correlated with length, while the body mass index is uncorrelated, so that the body mass index is better. Neither index is optimal at all gestations. Deriving the Benn index (birthweight/length(n)) for each week of gestation, choosing n to make the index uncorrelated with length, shows that n falls steadily and very significantly (p < 0.0001) with increasing gestation. This in turn means that predicted birthweight for length depends on gestation: for a neonate 48 cm long, predicted birthweight varies from 2485 g at 34 weeks to 3030 g at 43 weeks, a 20% range. However, for a 54 cm long infant, predicted birthweight is the same at all gestations. A Benn index where the value of n changes linearly with gestation is described. We conclude that the ponderal index is not appropriate for measuring intra-uterine malnutrition, as it fails to adjust for length at all gestations. No other index of birthweight/length(n) with constant n is any better, as different gestations require different indices. Birthweight predicted from an infant's length depends on the infant's gestation. If, as Barker proposes, thinness at birth assessed by birthweight for length is used to predict later health status, more account needs to be taken of

  11. Age differences in processing expository and narrative text.

    PubMed

    Tun, P A

    1989-01-01

    A dual-task procedure was used to examine the effects of text genre on prose processing, comprehension, and recall in 20 young (18-33 years) and 20 old (65-80 years) adults. Response latencies on a secondary task provided an index of cognitive capacity used in reading narrative and expository passages. Both groups recalled more of narratives than of expository passages, although old subjects recalled less than young. Also, the narrative protocols of both age groups showed a greater difference for recall of main ideas as compared to details. Age differences in the pattern of text genre effects were found on measures of comprehension, capacity utilization, and processing efficiency. It appears that the narrative genre facilitated most measures of performance and partially compensated for some limitations in the older group.

  12. Personal Identification by Keystroke Dynamics in Japanese Free Text Typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samura, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    Biometrics is classified into verification and identification. Many researchers on the keystroke dynamics have treated the verification of a fixed short password which is used for the user login. In this research, we pay attention to the identification and investigate several characteristics of the keystroke dynamics in Japanese free text typing. We developed Web-based typing software in order to collect the keystroke data on the Local Area Network and performed experiments on a total of 112 subjects, from which three groups of typing level, the beginner's level and above, the normal level and above and the middle level and above were constructed. Based on the identification methods by the weighted Euclid distance and the neural network for the extracted feature indexes in Japanese texts, we evaluated identification performances for the three groups. As a result, high accuracy of personal identification was confirmed in both methods, in proportion to the typing level of the group.

  13. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  14. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  15. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Koleva, Yordanka; Fonseca, Vivian; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review was to identify and examine the literature on the association between medication adherence self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and medication monitoring devices. The primary literature search was performed for 1980-2009 using PubMed, PubMed In Process and Non-Indexed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Ovid HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier) and Cochrane Databases and using the following search terms: 'patient compliance', 'medication adherence', 'treatment compliance', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'drugs', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance' and 'medications'. We identified studies that included SRQs and electronic monitoring devices to measure adherence and focused on the SRQs that were found to be moderately to highly correlated with the monitoring devices. Of the 1679 citations found via the primary search, 41 full-text articles were reviewed for correlation between monitoring devices and SRQs. A majority (68%) of articles reported high (27%), moderate (29%) or significant (12%) correlation between monitoring devices (37 using Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS®] and four using other devices) and SRQs (11 identified and numerous other unnamed SRQs). The most commonly used SRQs were the Adult/Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG/PACTG; 24.4%, 10/41) followed by the 4-item Morisky (9.8%, 4/41), Brief Medication Questionnaire (9.8%, 4/41) and visual analogue scale (VAS; 7.3%, 3/41). Although study designs differed across the articles, SRQs appeared to report a higher rate of medication adherence (+14.9%) than monitoring devices. In conclusion, several medication adherence SRQs were validated using electronic monitoring devices. A majority of them showed high or moderate correlation with medication adherence measured using monitoring devices, and could be considered for measuring patient

  16. Immunosuppressive Medications.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C

    2016-02-05

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist's practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist.

  17. Immunosuppressive Medications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist’s practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist. PMID:26170177

  18. Medical muddle.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis.

  19. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  20. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  1. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state.

  2. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, H.D.; Zha, H.

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  3. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Simon, H.D.

    1999-10-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  4. Gene prioritization and clustering by multi-view text mining

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Text mining has become a useful tool for biologists trying to understand the genetics of diseases. In particular, it can help identify the most interesting candidate genes for a disease for further experimental analysis. Many text mining approaches have been introduced, but the effect of disease-gene identification varies in different text mining models. Thus, the idea of incorporating more text mining models may be beneficial to obtain more refined and accurate knowledge. However, how to effectively combine these models still remains a challenging question in machine learning. In particular, it is a non-trivial issue to guarantee that the integrated model performs better than the best individual model. Results We present a multi-view approach to retrieve biomedical knowledge using different controlled vocabularies. These controlled vocabularies are selected on the basis of nine well-known bio-ontologies and are applied to index the vast amounts of gene-based free-text information available in the MEDLINE repository. The text mining result specified by a vocabulary is considered as a view and the obtained multiple views are integrated by multi-source learning algorithms. We investigate the effect of integration in two fundamental computational disease gene identification tasks: gene prioritization and gene clustering. The performance of the proposed approach is systematically evaluated and compared on real benchmark data sets. In both tasks, the multi-view approach demonstrates significantly better performance than other comparing methods. Conclusions In practical research, the relevance of specific vocabulary pertaining to the task is usually unknown. In such case, multi-view text mining is a superior and promising strategy for text-based disease gene identification. PMID:20074336

  5. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  6. Language and the Design of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janks, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    By demonstrating lexical and grammatical analysis--the rough work that underpins critical discourse analysis--this paper demonstrates the importance of grammatical knowledge for the critical reading of texts. It also provides readers with a grammar rubric for working systematically with the linguistic analysis of texts and argues that Fairclough's…

  7. Science and Technology Text Mining: Analytical Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    mainly) from analytical chemistry, will be presented. KEYWORDS: text mining; information retrieval; bibliometrics ; computational linguistics; information...analytical chemistry, will be presented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS text mining; information retrieval; bibliometrics ; computational linguistics; information...records. Our definition includes three components: 1) Bibliometrics ; 2) Computational Linguistics; 3) Clustering. For multi-field structured records

  8. Teachers' Texts in Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares three teaching stories that demonstrate the social, cultural, political, and historical factors of all texts in specific interpretive communities. The author shows how the texts that comprised his curriculum constructed particular subject positions that inevitably included some students but marginalized and…

  9. The Managed Text: Prose and Qualms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Managed texts are written and designed by a team of writers and researchers under the direction and control of a publishing house. How these books got started, what needs they meet, their advantages and disadvantages, and the consequences they are having on college text publishing are addressed. (JMD)

  10. Bodily Pleasures and/as the Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagood, Margaret C.

    2005-01-01

    Literacy education is at a crossroads. While traditional school experiences still prize disembodied experiences of reading print-based texts as the pinnacle of sound education, informal learning experiences provide fruitful examples of the ways that visual texts are read as they are embodied by readers. In this paper I draw from the literacy lives…

  11. The Limited Benefits of Rereading Educational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Aimee A.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Though rereading is a study method commonly used by students, theoretical disagreement exists regarding whether rereading a text significantly enhances the representation and retention of the text's contents. In four experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of rereading relative to a single reading in a context paralleling that faced by…

  12. Opening Mathematics Texts: Resisting the Seduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the writing in a grade 7 mathematics textbook distinguishes between closed texts and open texts, which acknowledge multiple possibilities. I use tools that have recently been applied in mathematics contexts, focussing on grammatical features that include personal pronouns, modality, and types of imperatives, as well as on…

  13. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  14. The Relative Ease of Writing Narrative Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Ronald T.; And Others

    A study investigated whether the narrative writing task is more compatible with the structure of conscious thought than are other writing tasks. If so, composing a narrative text should demand less cognitive effort, occur more fluently, and yield a more coherent document than composing persuasive or descriptive texts. Sixteen college students were…

  15. Diode and Diode Circuits, a Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman; Kirwin, Gerald J.

    This programed text on diode and diode circuits was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 4 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended as a supplement to a regular text and other instructional material. (DH)

  16. Student Performance in an Electronic Text Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Edward A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at Stevens Institute of Technology to develop and test the applicability of full-text electronic databases and full-text retrieval technology for use in undergraduate humanities education. The creation of a machine-readable database on Galileo is described, student reactions are discussed, and further work is…

  17. Aesthetical Information Impact of a Literary Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.

    The aim of this study was to explore the aesthetic impact of a literary text on the human mind and to extend the knowledge on how and when the information from a book enters the human brain, and if and when it starts to be processed and, possibly, memorized. Readers' responses to aesthetic texts were measured through a series of biometric…

  18. Tagalog for Beginners. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.; de Guzman, Videa

    This language textbook is designed for beginning students of Tagalog, the principal language spoken on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The introduction discusses the history of Tagalog and certain features of the language. An explanation of the text is given, along with notes for the teacher. The text itself is divided into nine sections:…

  19. The ERIC Search: A Programmed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Cynthia; Arnold, Joann

    This text is intended as a guide for searching ERIC using the SilverPlatter CD-ROM database. The text describes the content and function of the ERIC database and demonstrates fundamental search techniques by following an example of a successful ERIC computer search. The search begins with the choice of a topic, the formulation of a search…

  20. Helping Children Become More Knowledgeable through Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Roskos, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards, curriculum resources are shifting from an emphasis on literary texts to a greater focus on informational texts. Although we need to understand the intention of these new Common Core State Standards, and the important drive toward greater content knowledge for all students, we must be wary of…