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Sample records for medically important radionuclide

  1. History of medical radionuclide production.

    PubMed

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  2. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  3. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  4. Skin decontamination of commonly used medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Moore, P H; Mettler, F A

    1980-05-01

    The increasing use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis raises the possibility of accidental spills and skin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of several decontaminating agents. Most nuclides were easily removed to levels of less than 5% of their original activity. Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) was the most difficult compound to remove. Little difference was found between the effectiveness of tap water, soap and water, and two commercially available decontaminating agents.

  5. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  6. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  7. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  8. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  9. Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  10. Hospital Contracts: Important Issues for Medical Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosolio, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with hospitals and outpatient medical facilities have always been an important part of the business model for private medical practices. As healthcare delivery to patients has evolved in the United States (much of it driven by the new government mandates, regulations, and the Affordable Care Act), the delivery of such services is becoming more and more centered on the hospital or institutional setting, thus making contractual relationships with hospitals even more important for medical practices. As a natural outgrowth of this relationship, attention to hospital contracts is becoming more important.

  11. [The importance of Internet in medical education].

    PubMed

    Pandza, H; Masić, I; Knezević, Z

    1999-01-01

    Internet is more and more involved in medical education in many countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not only medical student but also physicians are using Internet to find out the latest information in specific field of medicine. Some sites are specially designed to be used for medical education. Information about some programs or courses of medical education can be found here. Improvements of network resources and multimedia technologies have made it possible to satisfy needs for medical Education. Multimedia approach offer possibility to show text, picture, sound or movie considering specific need. All of that is available on Internet. Many search engine are available in the world and student can use all of them when they have access to Internet. The more precise search can be done on specific sites that include information about medical conditions and medical education. The most important is MEDLINE. MEDLINE is bibliographic database of National Library Of Medicine in USA. This database can be explored from several sites. All relevant information about article can be find here including abstract and service to obtain full text of specific article. Database can be searched using specific keywords that can be find in text or in MESH thesaurus. Data about authors, their addresses and title of article can be found, too. The possibility of using Internet in medical education are considered in this article. Some of Internet sites are described, too.

  12. Production of medical radionuclides in Russia: status and future--a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuikov, B L

    2014-02-01

    We present a review of reactor and accelerator centers in Russia that produce medical isotopes, the majority of which are exported. In the near future, we anticipate increased isotope production for use in nuclear medicine in Russia. The existing linear accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow-Troitsk) and several prospective installations are considered to be particularly capable of providing mass production of radionuclides that can substitute, to a certain extent, for the traditional medical isotopes. PMID:24315977

  13. Radionuclide contamination of foods imported into Iraq following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Marouf, B A; al-Hadad, A K; Toma, N A; Tawfiq, N F; Mahmood, J A; Hasoon, M A

    1991-07-15

    Since early 1986, a monitoring program for radionuclides in imported foods has been carried out by the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. After the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union, the program was expanded; our laboratory was officially designated by the Iraqi Government to measure radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuff imported from countries known to be severely contaminated by Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Gamma-spectrometric analysis was used. Food items such as powdered milk, lamb meat, poultry, cereals and grains imported into Iraq before the Chernobyl accident did not contain any detectable fission products. However, all lamb meat, 81% of the lentil, 44% of the powdered milk and chick-pea, and 17% of the roast beef samples were contaminated with 137Cs or 134Cs and 137Cs. The highest 137Cs contamination levels found were 82, 147, 420, 6 and 4 Bq kg-1, respectively. Contamination by 134Cs was approximately 50% of the values given above.

  14. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.C.; Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Baratta, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Findings in the Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for samples collected between October 1, 1982, and September 30, 1986. All radionuclide findings for Total Diet and reactor samples were either in Action Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations given by the Federal Radiation Council. The only long-range trend noted was a continuation of the general decline in dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr since 1961. Imported food samples were analyzed for contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The findings for imported foods indicate that the surveillance efforts successfully targeted contaminated foods, and that contamination levels were below levels of concern for all but one oregano and 3 cheese samples.

  15. Virulence factors of medically important fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, L H; Klein, B S; Levitz, S M

    1996-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens have become an increasingly important medical problem with the explosion in the number of immunocompromised patients as a result of cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy, and AIDS. Additionally, the globalization of travel and expansion of humankind into previously undisturbed habitats have led to the reemergence of old fungi and new exposure to previously undescribed fungi. Until recently, relatively little was known about virulence factors for the medically important fungi. With the advent of molecular genetics, rapid progress has now been made in understanding the basis of pathogenicity for organisms such as Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The twin technologies of genetic transformation and "knockout" deletion construction allowed for genetic tests of virulence factors in these organisms. Such knowledge will prove invaluable for the rational design of antifungal therapies. Putative virulence factors and attributes are reviewed for Aspergillus species, C. neoformans, the dimorphic fungal pathogens, and others, with a focus upon a molecular genetic approach. Candida species are excluded from coverage, having been the subject of numerous recent reviews. This growing body of knowledge about fungal pathogens and their virulence factors will significantly aid efforts to treat the serious diseases they cause. PMID:8894347

  16. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family medical history is a ... a healthcare professional regularly. For more information about family medical history: NIHSeniorHealth, a service of the National ...

  17. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  18. Medical negligence: Criminal prosecution of medical professionals, importance of medical evidence: Some guidelines for medical practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M. S.; Pandit, Shobha

    2009-01-01

    The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. As the medical profession has been brought under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the patients have an easy method of litigation. There should be legal awareness among the doctors that will help them in the proper recording of medical management details. This will help them in defending their case during any allegation of medical negligence. PMID:19881135

  19. [The importance of adequate medical history taking in dentistry].

    PubMed

    van Diermen, D E; Brand, H S; Vissink, A

    2006-05-01

    A patient's medical history is a vital part of his or her dental history and increases the dentist's awareness of diseases and medication which might interfere with the patient's dental treatment. This article describes the essential characteristics of a solid medical history, according to the Dutch Guidelines for Dental Education published in 1997. In future the importance of patients' medical histories will increase along with the number of medically complex patients who visit the dental general practice. PMID:16729560

  20. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  1. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes. PMID:14576874

  2. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Manger, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  3. The importance of research in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mauricio José; Rodríguez-Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-11-24

    Currently medical information flows at great speed, bombarding medical students. Students are unfamiliar with fundamental aspects of biomedical literature appraisal. We assert that research performed during medical school will help to reduce the gap between the information available and comprehension by the student. The goal of the present review is to expound the importance of performing research during the undergraduate medical years and the relevance of research in other fields of medicine. We performed a literature review searching MEDLINE with terms consistent with our objective. We discuss the conduct of research projects during medical school training. The analysis of the articles retrieved proves that research is feasible and that it is a critical process during the undergraduate period for medical students.

  4. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  5. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  6. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  7. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  8. The relative importance of uptake and surface adherence in determining the radionuclide contents of subterranean crops.

    PubMed

    Corey, J C; Boni, A L; Watts, J R; Adriano, D C; McLeod, K W; Pinder, J E

    1983-01-01

    The adherence of Pu-bearing particles to external surfaces of carrots, turnips, red potatoes, and sweet potatoes accounted for greater than or equal to 93% of their total Pu content. Uptake, which was measured as Pu content in peeled crops, accounted for less than or equal to 7%. Plutonium concentrations in most peeled crops were below background, and consequently, uptake could not be conclusively demonstrated. However, uptake accounted for most of the 137Cs, 40K, and 226Ra contents of subterranean crops. Concentration ratios for total radionuclide contents (i.e. surface adherence plus uptake) ranged from 3.9 X 10(1) for 40K, to 1.1 X 10(-2) for 239, 240Pu. Approximately 1.5 X 10(-3) pCi 239, 240Pu adhered per cm2 of subterranean crop surface per 1 pCi Pu/g of soil.

  9. [The growing importance of ethics in medical care and research].

    PubMed

    Sass, Hans-Martin

    2009-01-01

    The integration of medical humanities into future patient care and medical research will become as importance for trust, care and health as the natural sciences were during the last 100 years. In particular, improvements of lay health literacy and responsibility, new forms of physician-nurse partnership and expert-lay interaction, also revisions of clinical research towards models of informed contract will improve trust and health on a global scale, allow for healthier and happier citizens and populations and eventually might reduce health care costs. PMID:19823790

  10. Recovery of medically important microorganisms from Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological samples were obtained from the crewmembers of the Apollo 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 spaceflights. These specimens were analyzed for the presence of medically important microorganisms with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, Tricophyton rubrum, and Candida albicans being discussed in detail. Preflight isolation of crewmembers was found to coincide with a complete absence of inflight disease events and is recommended for future spaceflights. No autoinfection response (microbial shock) occurred after any of the reported spaceflights.

  11. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  12. DNA fingerprinting of medically important microorganisms by use of PCR.

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, A

    1994-01-01

    Selected segments of any DNA molecule can be amplified exponentially by PCR. This technique provides a powerful tool to detect and identify minimal numbers of microorganisms. PCR is applicable both in diagnosis and in epidemiology. By amplification of hypervariable DNA domains, differences can be detected even among closely related strains. PCR fingerprinting is a valuable tool for medical microbiologists, epidemiologists, and microbial taxonomists. The current state of PCR-mediated genotyping is reviewed, and a comparison with conventional molecular typing methods is included. Because of its speed and versatility, PCR fingerprinting will play an important role in microbial genetics, epidemiology, and systematics. Images PMID:8055466

  13. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  14. Naegleria fowleri: a free living amoeba of emerging medical importance.

    PubMed

    Parija, S C; Jayakeerthee, S R

    1999-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba is ubiquitous and word-wide in distribution. Infection is due to inhalation or aspiration of aerosols containing cysts found in the environment. Of late, the amoeba is emerging as a pathogen of medical importance causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. The diagnosis of the condition is mainly parasitic which depends on the detection and identification of Naegleria trophozoites in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) or biopsied brain tissue. Serological tests are not useful in the diagnosis of PAM. Most cases are fatal and various amoebicidal agents have been tried unsuccessfully. The present paper provides a review of the recent information on the biology and epidemiology of the disease caused by the amoeba Approaches in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the condition are also discussed.

  15. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  16. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  17. Medical marijuana: important vote coming, you can help.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2004-06-25

    Congress will vote soon on an amendment to stop Attorney General Ashcroft's crusade against medical marijuana, in states where laws recognize medical use. This amendment received 152 votes in Congress last year. PMID:15272460

  18. A computer study of radionuclide production in high power accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Riper, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  19. New Measurements of the Astrophysically Important ^44Ti Radionuclide Through the ^40Ca(α,γ)^44Ti Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Becker, Hans-Werner; Collon, Philippe; Goerres, Joachim; Wiescher, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The relatively short-lived radionuclide ^44Ti (t1/2=58.9 ± 0.3 yrs), is of considerable importance in the study of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar environments. It's production predominantly through the ^40Ca(α,γ)^44Ti reaction, takes place during α-rich freeze-out, in the inner most layers of a core-collapse supernova. A number of experimental studies have been previously performed to determine the stellar reaction rate. These studies included prompt γ-ray measurements from in-beam experiments, atom counting techniques utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and multi energy step measurements at the DRAGON recoil mass separator. The resulting calculated reaction rates show drastic disagreement. New results from experiments at the DTL, Bochum and NSL, Notre Dame, used both gamma spectroscopy and AMS techniques to measure the reaction, and investigate the discrepancies in both the experimental and predicted results. Final results of the experiments and their impact on the reaction rate will be discussed.

  20. Relative importance of metaphor in radiology versus other medical specialties.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephen R; Partyka, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of competence in radiology often entails referring to other realms of knowledge, by which insights are acquired through the use of metaphor. One way in which compelling associations are made and retained is by linking anatomic structures and pathologic conditions with objects, places, and concepts, and codifying these relationships as metaphoric signs. An aggregate of specialty-specific signs were obtained from two general medical dictionaries and from encyclopedic texts in radiology and six other specialties: internal medicine, dermatology, pathology, general surgery, orthopedics, and pediatrics. The signs were then separated into two categories: eponymous (bearing the name of an individual or place) and metaphoric (extending meaning from one context to another). A total of 375 metaphoric signs were collected from citations in the researched dictionaries and texts, the overwhelming majority (66%) of which were radiologic in reference. In every other specialty, eponymous signs outnumbered metaphoric signs. In contrast, eponymous signs were comparatively infrequent in radiology. The striking difference observed in the data highlights the importance of metaphors for discourse and instruction in radiology. In image interpretation, the meaning of perceptual input is often discerned through associations with pictures previously encountered and understood both concretely and metaphorically. The inherent nature of radiologic images as simulacra of both normal anatomy and disease entities makes imaging findings well suited to explanation by means of named patterns borrowed from other realms of knowledge. PMID:22236904

  1. The Importance of Teacher Involvement in Medication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a steady increase in the use of medication therapy to help control student behavior within schools. While psychotropic medications do not "cure" mental illnesses, they have demonstrated efficacy in helping children function better at school and within their home environment. However, it is important…

  2. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  3. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  4. The Importance of Self-Determination Theory for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Saizow, Ronald B.; Ryan, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of human motivation contrasts controlled and autonomous motivation, noting that autonomous motivation (self-determination) involves behaving with a sense of volition, agency, and choice. Suggests that medical students who learn in autonomy-supportive teaching and patient-centered environments, which have been associated with more…

  5. Ruralising Medical Curricula: The Importance of Context in Problem Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard; Sen Gupta, Tarun

    2003-01-01

    Clinical scenarios used in rural medical education often convey inappropriate stereotypes that undermine the intent of the curriculum. Case writers should be clear about the learning or assessment objectives in each case, have access to people with appropriate expertise and understanding of the issues, and ensure that contextual and cultural…

  6. The Importance of Fostering Ownership During Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education, and health care delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shift work in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision ownership in treatment context and suggest possible ways in which the absence of decision ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision making. The article opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision ownership in medical care from the perspective of "diffusion of responsibility." We question the quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We also compare isolated and interrelated choices, assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision ownership impacting the delivery of health care. PMID:27471927

  7. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  8. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  9. The importance of physics to progress in medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; Prentice, Paul; MacDonald, Michael P; Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2012-04-21

    Physics in therapy is as diverse as it is substantial. In this review, we highlight the role of physics--occasionally transitioning into engineering--through discussion of several established and emerging treatments. We specifically address minimal access surgery, ultrasound, photonics, and interventional MRI, identifying areas in which complementarity is being exploited. We also discuss some of the fundamental physical principles involved in the application of each treatment to medical practice.

  10. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates

    PubMed Central

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85%) and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious. PMID:26958656

  11. Older Patients' Perceptions of Medication Importance and Worth: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Denys T.; Briesacher, Becky; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Halpern, Leslie; Osterberg, E. Charles; Jarzebowski, Mary; McKoy, June M.; Mazor, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cost-related medication non-adherence may be influenced by patients' perceived importance of their medications. This exploratory study addresses three related but distinct questions: Do patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications? What factors influence perceptions of medication importance? Is perceived importance associated with medications' worth, and does expense impact that association? METHODS Study participants included individuals aged 60 and older who were taking three or more prescription drugs. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were conducted to measure how patients rated their medications in terms of importance, expense, and worth. Factors that influence medication importance were identified using qualitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between perceived importance and worth of medications, and the impact of expense on that association. RESULTS Among 143 prescription drugs reported among 20 participants, the weighted mean rating of medication importance was 8.2 (SD=1.04) on a scale from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (most important). Of all medications, 38% were considered expensive. The weighted mean rating of worth was 8.4 (SD=1.46) on a scale from 0 (not worth it at all) to 10 (definitely worth it). Three major factors influenced medication importance: drug-related (characteristics, indications, effects, and alternatives); patient-related (knowledge, attitudes, and health); and external (the media, healthcare and family caregivers, and peers). Regression analyses showed an association between perceived importance and worth for inexpensive medications (OR=2.23; p=0.002) and an even greater association between perceived importance and worth for expensive medications (OR=4.29; p<0.001). DISCUSSION This study provides preliminary evidence that elderly patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications based on factors beyond

  12. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H

    1994-01-01

    Of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in Canada and 58 were first isolated in the United States. Six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (WEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and Powassan (POW) viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), LaCrosse (LAC) virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus), and Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus (Reoviridae, Coltivirus). Their scientific histories, geographic distributions, virology, epidemiology, vectors, vertebrate hosts, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical and differential diagnoses, control, treatment, and laboratory diagnosis are reviewed. In addition, mention is made of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), which periodically cause human and equine disease in North America. WEE, EEE, and SLE viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes between birds; POW and CTF viruses, between wild mammals by ticks; LAC virus, between small mammals by mosquitoes; and VEE viruses, between small or large mammals by mosquitoes. Human infections are tangential to the natural cycle. Such infections range from rare to focal but are relatively frequent where they occur. Epidemics of WEE, EEE, VEE, and SLE viruses have been recorded at periodic intervals, but prevalence of infections with LAC and CTF viruses typically are constant, related to the degree of exposure to infected vectors. Infections with POW virus appear to be rare. Adequate diagnostic tools are available, but treatment is mainly supportive, and greater efforts at educating the public and the medical community are suggested if infections are to be prevented. PMID:8118792

  13. Medical Student-Run Health Clinics: Important Contributors to Patient Care and Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Long, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of medical student-run health clinics among U.S. medical schools, there is no information about how many clinics exist, how many students volunteer there, or how many patients they see and what services they offer. Objective We describe, for the first time, the prevalence and operation of medical student-run health clinics nationwide. Design and participants A web-based survey was sent to all 124 Association of American Medical Colleges allopathic schools in the 50 states. Results Ninety-four schools responded (76%); 49 schools had at least 1 student-run clinic (52%). Fifty-nine student-run clinics provided detailed data on their operation. The average clinic had 16 student volunteers a week, and most incorporated preclinical students (56/59, 93%). Nationally, clinics reported more than 36,000 annual patient–physician visits, in addition to more nonvisit encounters. Patients were predominantly minority: 31% Hispanic; 31% Black/African American; 25% White; 11% Asian; and 3% Native American or other. Most student-run health clinics had resources both to treat acute illness and also to manage chronic conditions. Clinics were most often funded by private grants (42/59, 71%); among 27 clinics disclosing finances, a median annual operating budget of $12,000 was reported. Conclusions Medical student-run health clinics offer myriad services to disadvantaged patients and are also a notable phenomenon in medical education. Wider considerations of community health and medical education should not neglect the local role of a student-run health clinic. PMID:17356967

  14. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers.

  15. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. PMID:25850124

  16. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  17. Virtual medical campus: the increasing importance of E-learning in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, along with the integration of a new, integrated curriculum in human medicine, the Virtual Medical Campus Graz was installed. It accompanies the whole curriculum with electronic materials tailored to the needs of the students and the forthcoming examinations. To date, more than 15,000 learning objects have been developed, and students download up to 200,000 learning objects per month. Particular emphasis is placed on Web-Based Training materials, but video and simulations are also included. In part, transfer of basic knowledge is mediated by electronic learning materials, replacing several hours of classroom attendance. Face-to-face education, in turn, is focusing increasingly on small-group clinical teaching. PMID:21818198

  18. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  19. A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

  20. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  1. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  2. Management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the importance of psychosocial and medication treatments.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Winther, Jo; Rennie, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment and treatment in children and adolescents is complex. Key biological and psychosocial risk factors need to be identified and treated because of their potential mediating interaction that affect the onset, progression, and psychosocial and medication treatment response of core ADHD symptoms and common associated co-morbid conditions. Both psychosocial and medication treatments, alone and in combination, have been shown to reduce the core ADHD symptoms and those of its key co-morbid disorders. Yet, to date, the potential synergism between targeted and specific medication and psychosocial treatments remains poorly understood and under-researched. Interestingly, recent positron emission tomography findings emphasise the importance of contextual salience and positive reinforcement strategies for stimulant medication, the primary medication treatment for ADHD, to have its effect. This is not surprising, given recent epigenetic models of gene-environment interaction that are revolutionising our understanding of developmental disorders like ADHD. This annotation briefly outlines the emerging evidence that supports the role of psychosocial treatment alongside medication treatment in the management of ADHD. Future significant clinical directions are noted.

  3. [Quality assurance and quality improvement in medical practice. Part 1. Definition and importance of quality in medical practice].

    PubMed

    Godény, Sándor

    2012-01-22

    In Hungary, financing of healthcare has decreased relative to the GDP, while the health status of the population is still ranks among the worst in the European Union. Since healthcare financing is not expected to increase, the number of practicing doctors per capita is continuously decreasing. In the coming years, it is an important question that in this situation what methods can be used to prevent further deterioration of the health status of the Hungarian population, and within this is the role of the quality approach, and different methods of quality management. In the present and the forthcoming two articles those standpoints will be summarized which support the need for the integration of quality assurance in the everyday medical practice. In the first part the importance of quality thinking, quality management, quality assurance, necessity of quality measurement and improvement, furthermore, advantages of the quality systems will be discussed.

  4. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  5. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs.

  6. Medically important micro-organisms recovered from Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crew members.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R; Zaloguev, S N

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of significant alterations in the microbial populations inhabiting the integument and upper respiratory tract of space flight crew members has been proposed by various authors. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), a unique space flight in which two teams of crew members from different geographical areas joined in space, presented an unusual opportunity to evaluate in-flight cross-contamination and other anomalous behavior of the microbial populations. Accordingly, the medically important microbes recovered from the five (3 USA and 2 USSR) ASTP crew members before and after flight were evaluated in relation to specific theoretical alterations. The phenomenon of "simplification", in which the number of different types of species is reduced during spaceflight, did not occur within the population of medically important micro-organisms. Spontaneous post-flight illness due to infectious agents ("Microbial Shock") was also absent. Intracrew transfer of pathogens was established, but intercrew transfer was absent. Dysbacteriosis, in which sampled areas are flooded with unusually large numbers of a single type of micro-organism, was not demonstrated although there was a significant increase in the incidence of gram-negative rods in the oral cavities of the two cosmonauts. The importance of all of these and other observations of the medically important micro-organisms recovered from ASTP crew members are explored with respect to past and future space flights.

  7. Respiration of medically important Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to glucose effect.

    PubMed

    Niimi, M; Kamiyama, A; Tokunaga, M

    1988-06-01

    Strains of medically important Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. [Torulopsis] glabrata) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined for a glucose effect on respiratory activity. Reduced O2-consuming ability and a relative decrease in cytochrome type c, as determined by polarography and spectrophotometry, respectively, were observed in glucose-grown S. cerevisiae cells in contrast with acetate- or ethanol-grown cells. In glucose-grown cells of C. glabrata, O2 consumption was also reduced without any change in the cytochrome pattern compared to acetate-grown cells, while no such decrease was detected in any of the other strains of Candida species tested. These results suggest that the medically important Candida species, except for C. glabrata, can be categorized as members of the glucose-insensitive yeast type with respect to respiration.

  8. Report of the CIRRPC Executive Committee regarding EPA NESHAP regulations on radionuclides for medical research institutions and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    There appears to be no compelling public health protection reason for EPA`s promulgation of NESHAP regulations to control air emissions of radioactive materials from NRC-licensed facilities engaged in activities associated with the practice and development of nuclear medicine. The NRC`s existing regulations provide the necessary controls for protection and EPA`s regulations would only add burdensome reporting requirements at substantial cost to medical treatment and diagnosis. Availability of nuclear medicine practice could be impacted and advancements through research delayed.

  9. 77 FR 22328 - Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... a guidance for industry (GFI 209) entitled ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial... thinking on the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in animal agriculture. DATES: Submit...

  10. Clinical Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea: The Importance of Medical History over Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Berk; Westover, M. Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. Methods: We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. Results: For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. Conclusion: To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. Citation: Ustun B, Westover MB, Rudin C, Bianchi MT. Clinical prediction models for sleep apnea: the importance of medical history over symptoms

  11. Use of imported folk remedies and medications in the Wisconsin Hmong community.

    PubMed

    Werner, M A; Knobeloch, L M; Erbach, T; Anderson, H A

    2001-01-01

    The Marathon County Health Department and the Wisconsin Division of Public Health evaluated several imported drugs and folk remedies that were being used by 2 Hmong families. These included a powdered blend of folk remedies that had been purchased in California and 5 packets of medication that had been imported from Thailand. The powdered folk remedy contained arsenic sulfide as a principal ingredient. The drug packets contained acetyl aspirin, acetaminophen and chloramphenicol. The purity of these drugs was not assessed, and their dates of manufacture could not be determined. To discourage use of folk remedies and imported drugs, the county health department issued a press release that was published in a Hmong community newsletter. Despite these efforts, many Asian immigrants may continue to use these products.

  12. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  13. The importance of organ geometry and boundary constraints for planning of medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Macura, K J; Ramesh, K T; Okamura, A M

    2009-03-01

    Realistic modeling of medical interventions involving tool-tissue interactions has been considered to be a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity simulators and planners. Organ geometry, soft-tissue constitutive laws, and boundary conditions imposed by the connective tissues surrounding the organ are some of the factors that govern the accuracy of medical intervention planning. In this study it is demonstrated that, for needle path planning, the organ geometry and boundary constraints surrounding the organ are the most important factors influencing the deformation. As an example, the procedure of needle insertion into the prostate (e.g. for biopsy or brachytherapy) is considered. Image segmentation is used to extract the anatomical details from magnetic resonance images, while object-oriented finite element analysis (OOF) software is used to generate finite element (FE) meshes from the segmented images. Two-dimensional FE simulations that account for complex anatomical details along with relative motion between the prostate and its surrounding structure using cohesive zone models are compared with traditional simulation models having simple organ geometry and boundary constraints. Nodal displacements for these simpler models were observed to be up to 14 times larger than those obtained from the anatomically accurate models.

  14. Status and prospects of DNA barcoding in medically important parasites and vectors.

    PubMed

    Ondrejicka, Danielle A; Locke, Sean A; Morey, Kevin; Borisenko, Alex V; Hanner, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    For over 10 years, DNA barcoding has been used to identify specimens and discern species. Its potential benefits in parasitology were recognized early, but its utility and uptake remain unclear. Here we review studies using DNA barcoding in parasites and vectors affecting humans and find that the technique is accurate (accords with author identifications based on morphology or other markers) in 94-95% of cases, although aspects of DNA barcoding (vouchering, marker implicated) have often been misunderstood. In a newly compiled checklist of parasites, vectors, and hazards, barcodes are available for 43% of all 1403 species and for more than half of 429 species of greater medical importance. This is encouraging coverage that would improve with an active campaign targeting parasites and vectors.

  15. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents. PMID:21824079

  16. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents.

  17. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  18. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    PubMed

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people

  19. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  20. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically-important Staphyloccocus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically-important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help designing novel anti-adhesion agents. PMID:24057018

  1. The attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin in the development of an anatomical and medical vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2016-09-01

    Students on entering medical school are faced with acquiring new, and voluminous, anatomical and medical terminologies. A reason why acquiring these terminologies may be problematic relates to the fact that many terms are derived from classical Greek and Latin; languages nowadays that are rarely taught at school. It might also be supposed that the often reported reduction in exposure to anatomy, and time spent in the dissection room, impairs the students' knowledge and understanding of anatomical relationships, and thus further complicates the acquisition of the terminologies. To date, there have been no studies that have quantified the attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin during their medical training. In order to assess these attitudes, this study was undertaken for the newly-recruited (First Year) medical students and for the Final Year medical students at Cardiff University. They were provided with a brief questionnaire that was devised in accordance with Thurstone and Chave (1951) principles and with ethical approval. One hundred and eighty First Year students and one hundred and nineteen Final Year students responded. Our initial hypothesis was that students throughout the medical curriculum have an unfavorable attitude toward the importance of classical Greek and Latin. This hypothesis was supported by the attitudes of the Final Year students but not by the First Year medical students. While we would still advocate that First Year medical students should acquire some understanding of and have some formal or informal instruction in, classical Greek and Latin as they pertain to medical terminologies, we acknowledge that Final Year students are likely to have become reasonably well-versed in the origins of medical terminologies without formal instruction. Clin. Anat. 29:696-701, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Short-term Fallout Radionuclide Ratios and Mass Balance Identify New Suspended Sediments of Channel Origin and Importance of Catchment Flowpath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, Diana; Pizzuto, James; Aalto, Rolf; Marquard, Julia; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Harpold, Adrian; Benthem, Adam; Skalak, Katherine; Levia, Delphis; Siegert, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    Fallout radionuclides and their ratios, such as beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb), are used to determine suspended sediment source and age in catchments. The ratio of beryllium-7 to lead-210 (7Be/210Pb) on suspended sediment has been used to estimate the fraction of "new" sediment in suspension. In the application of this model, "new" suspended sediment is often assumed to originate from recent landscape surface erosion that is delivered to the stream network. Fallout radionuclide deposition can vary across watersheds and on an event basis in a single watershed due to factors such as storm type, atmospheric height, and storm origin. In the White Clay Creek watershed within the mid-Atlantic USA, single-event deposition of 7Be varies from 15 - 177 Bq m-2 and 210Pb varies from 0 - 10 Bq m-2. 7Be/210Pb ratios vary from 7.9 to 17 within event precipitation and from 0.8 to 12.8 on suspended sediment. "New" sediment varies from 6 - 100% over the course of these events. 7Be mass balance during events shows that the majority of 7Be is retained within the catchment and not exported on suspended sediment. During summer thunderstorms, less than 1% of 7Be deposited on the watershed exits the stream channel. By comparing this flux with the direct channel interception of 7Be deposition in precipitation and throughfall we can determine the minimum amount of 7Be leaving the watershed that could occur in the absence of surface erosion. For example in summer thunderstorms, the entirety of the 7Be exiting the watershed on suspended sediment is less than the total activity deposited on the channel in direct precipitation. Channel-intercepted fallout radionuclides can exit the catchment by multiple mechanisms including the tagging of subaerial fluvial deposits with event precipitation; hence "new" suspended sediment originates from within the channel rather than from surface erosion. During extreme events, such as Hurricane Irene, less of the suspended sediment has been newly

  3. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide...

  4. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  9. New Technology Provides Urgent Medical Information and Protects Privacy: Providing Important Information in Medical Situations for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelig, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fernando Viesca has a 24-year-old son who suffers from Angelman Syndrome, a little known chromosomal disorder that has left him with significant functional deficiencies. When Nando lived at home, his father took care of him full time, thus alleviating any worries about medical care. However, now that Nando lives in a group home, his father is no…

  10. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. [Toxicity of venoms from snakes of medical importance in México].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Estévez-Ramírez, Judith; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F; Litwin, Silvana; Carvajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Dolab, Jorge A; Robles-Ortiz, Luis E; Alagón, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the toxic activities of snake venoms is necessary to understand the physiopathology of the envenomation and to test the potency of the antivenoms used to treat this pathology. Because of the lack of data on the toxic activities of venoms from Mexican snakes of medical importance, we studied the venoms from Bothrops asper, Athropoides nummifrr, Agkistrodon billineatus, Crotalus durissus durissus, Crotalus basiliscus, Crotalus scutulatus, Crotalus atrox and Micrurus nigrocinctus. The studies performed were: SDS-PAOE, determination of lethal potency, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulation on plasma and fibrinogen, phospholipasic and fibri(noge)nolytic activities. In addition we studied the neutralizing capacity of the toxic activities of an antivenom currently used for the treatment of snakebites in Mexico. The venom from viperids showed important hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulative on plasma, prothrombinic, fibrinogenolytic and phospholipase activities. The venoms with the highest lethal potency were those of Micrurus nigrocinctus and Crotalus scutulatus; however, the viperine venom that globally displayed the most potent toxic activities was from Bothrops asper. All the venoms showed toxic activities of similar range to those described for other American venomous snakes. The activity on plasma or fibrinogen varied widely among the different venoms but all displayed capacity to act on the coagulation system. The antivenom tested not only neutralized the lethality B. asper venom but also its other toxic activities. PMID:15754746

  15. AVPdb: a database of experimentally validated antiviral peptides targeting medically important viruses.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral peptides (AVPs) have exhibited huge potential in inhibiting viruses by targeting various stages of their life cycle. Therefore, we have developed AVPdb, available online at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/avpdb, to provide a dedicated resource of experimentally verified AVPs targeting over 60 medically important viruses including Influenza, HCV, HSV, RSV, HBV, DENV, SARS, etc. However, we have separately provided HIV inhibiting peptides in 'HIPdb'. AVPdb contains detailed information of 2683 peptides, including 624 modified peptides experimentally tested for antiviral activity. In modified peptides a chemical moiety is attached for increasing their efficacy and stability. Detailed information include: peptide sequence, length, source, virus targeted, virus family, cell line used, efficacy (qualitative/quantitative), target step/protein, assay used in determining the efficacy and PubMed reference. The database also furnishes physicochemical properties and predicted structure for each peptide. We have provided user-friendly browsing and search facility along with other analysis tools to help the users. Entering of many synthetic peptide-based drugs in various stages of clinical trials reiterate the importance for the AVP resources. AVPdb is anticipated to cater to the needs of scientific community working for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24285301

  16. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Genzel, L; Ahrberg, K; Roselli, C; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Dresler, M; Roenneberg, T

    2013-07-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a questionnaire-based study with 31 medical students of the University of Munich (second and third clinical semesters; surgery and internal medicine). The students kept a diary (in 30-min bins) on their daily schedules (times when they studied by themselves, attended classes, slept, worked on their thesis, or worked to earn money). The project design involved three 2-wk periods (A: during the semester; B: directly before the exam period--pre-exam; C: during the subsequent semester break). Besides the diaries, students completed once questionnaires about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), their chronotype (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire [MCTQ]), and their academic history (previous grades, including the previously achieved preclinical board exam [PBE]). Analysis revealed significant correlations between the actual sleep behavior during the semester (MS(diary); mid-sleep point averaged from the sleep diaries) during the pre-exam period and the achieved grade (p = 0.002) as well as between the grades of the currently taken exam and the PBE (p = 0.002). A regression analysis with MS(diary) pre-exam and PBE as predictors in a model explained 42.7% of the variance of the exam grade (effect size 0.745). Interestingly, MS(diary)--especially during the pre-exam period-was the strongest predictor for the currently achieved grade, along with the preclinical board exam as a covariate, whereas the chronotype did not significantly influence the exam grade. PMID:23750895

  17. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Hartenbach, Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende; Martins do Souto, Renata; Maciel da Silva-Boghossian, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The ecological diversity of the periodontal microenvironment may provide suitable conditions for the colonization of species not usually considered members of the oral microbiota. In this investigation, we aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic species of medical relevance in the microbiota of individuals with distinct periodontal clinical status. Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (H, n = 81), gingivitis (G, n = 55), generalized aggressive (AgP, n = 36) or chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 98), and analyzed for 39 microbial taxa using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Microbial differences among groups, as well as associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were sought by non-parametric and univariate correlation tests. Neisseria spp., Peptostreptococus anaerobius, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eubacterium saphenum, Clostridium difficile and Olsenella uli were detected in high mean prevalence and counts in the subgingival microbiota of the study population. Species that were more related to periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction at the patient and site levels included enterobacteria, C. albicans, Neisseria spp., P. aeruginosa, O. uli, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens and Filifactor alocis (p < 0.05). In contrast, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were associated with periodontal health (p < 0.05). Pathogenic species of medical importance may be detected in high prevalence and levels in the periodontal microbiota. Regardless of their role in periodontal health or disease, the periodontal biofilm may be a source for dissemination and development of systemic infections by these pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26416306

  18. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  19. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Lacey, C M

    1990-06-01

    The medical importance, ecology and control of riceland mosquitoes using alternative strategies is reviewed. Over 135 pest and vector anopheline and culicine mosquito species found in association with riceland habitats and their medical importance are presented. Malaria and Japanese encephalitis are the two most serious human diseases transmitted by riceland mosquitoes, but they have been incriminated as vectors of dozens of arboviruses and other parasites and pathogens including the causal agents of West Nile and Rift Valley Fevers and lymphatic filariasis. Control of vector and pest mosquitoes using chemical pesticides has generated several problems including: insecticide resistance, safety risks for humans and domestic animals, and other environmental concerns. These problems and the high cost and sustainability of programs based predominantly on conventional insecticides have stimulated increased interest in integrated control measures in ricelands. The integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for mosquito control, also known as integrated vector control (IVC), is an ecologically based approach that may involve several complementary interventions used in combination or singly. Environmental management, and chemical, biological and mechanical control, comprise the elements of IVC proposed for use in or near riceland habitats. Some of the elements of environmental management include the use of intermittent irrigation; flushing of fields; use of rice cultivars that require less water; shifting of planting schedules to avoid optimal mosquito breeding conditions; relocation of communities or use of dry belt farming around them; and zooprophylaxis and other personal protection methods, especially use of insecticide-impregnated bed nets. Biological control agents that have been used successfully in rice fields include several species of larvivorous fish, a mermithid nematode (Romanomermis culicivorax), a fungus (Lagenidium giganteum) and bacteria (Bacillus

  20. PCR identification of four medically important Candida species by using a single primer pair.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, J A

    1994-01-01

    A single pair of primers was used in a PCR assay to amplify and identify the DNAs from four medically important Candida species: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. (Torulopsis) glabrata. The report describes the first successful amplification of a chitin synthase-specific fragment from the four Candida species responsible for more than 90% of all cases of neonatal candidemia. The primer pair sequence was based on that from the C. albicans chitin synthase gene, CHS1 (J. Au-Young and P.W. Robbins, Mol. Microbiol. 4:197-207, 1990). Each of the four amplified products is a single band of a different size. The DNA sequence of each PCR product was determined, and four species-specific probes were synthesized. The DNAs from as few as 10 organisms in 100 microliters of plasma could be detected after amplification and Southern blot analysis. In a retrospective study of 27 paired blood samples from 16 patients with culture-proven candidemia, PCR analysis was successful at detecting and correctly identifying to the species level 26 of the 27 Candida isolates. The speed and accuracy of this PCR-based technology make it a very powerful tool for detecting and diagnosing candidemia. Implementation of this assay for analyzing blood samples should result in the more timely treatment of neonatal candidemia, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Images PMID:7883883

  1. Assessment of plant lectin antifungal potential against yeasts of major importance in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmitt Garcia; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Pereira, Juliano Lacava; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    2013-02-01

    The search for new compounds with antifungal activity is accelerating due to rising yeast and fungal resistance to commonly prescribed drugs. Among the molecules being investigated, plant lectins can be highlighted. The present work shows the potential of six plant lectins which were tested in vitro against yeasts of medical importance, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed in accordance with standard protocols to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined at 80% yeast growth inhibition, whereas the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was evaluated after making the subcultures of each dilution. Only C. parapsilosis growth was inhibited by the lectins tested. Abelmoschus esculentus lectin showed the highest MIC (0.97 μg ml(-1)). Lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Clitoria fairchildiana presented the highest MFC at (3.90 μg ml(-1)). These results encourage further studies with wider yeast strain selections, and open new perspectives for the development of pharmacological molecules. PMID:23161017

  2. Multicenter Study Evaluating the Vitek MS System for Identification of Medically Important Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Westblade, Lars F.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Branda, John A.; Bythrow, Maureen; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Sercia, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The optimal management of fungal infections is correlated with timely organism identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is revolutionizing the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens. We present a multicenter study assessing the performance of the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux) in identifying medically important yeasts. A collection of 852 isolates was tested, including 20 Candida species (626 isolates, including 58 C. albicans, 62 C. glabrata, and 53 C. krusei isolates), 35 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, and 191 other clinically relevant yeast isolates; in total, 31 different species were evaluated. Isolates were directly applied to a target plate, followed by a formic acid overlay. Mass spectra were acquired using the Vitek MS system and were analyzed using the Vitek MS v2.0 database. The gold standard for identification was sequence analysis of the D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. In total, 823 isolates (96.6%) were identified to the genus level and 819 isolates (96.1%) were identified to the species level. Twenty-four isolates (2.8%) were not identified, and five isolates (0.6%) were misidentified. Misidentified isolates included one isolate of C. albicans (n = 58) identified as Candida dubliniensis, one isolate of Candida parapsilosis (n = 73) identified as Candida pelliculosa, and three isolates of Geotrichum klebahnii (n = 6) identified as Geotrichum candidum. The identification of clinically relevant yeasts using MS is superior to the phenotypic identification systems currently employed in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:23658267

  3. Multicenter study evaluating the Vitek MS system for identification of medically important yeasts.

    PubMed

    Westblade, Lars F; Jennemann, Rebecca; Branda, John A; Bythrow, Maureen; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Garner, Omai B; Ginocchio, Christine C; Lewinski, Michael A; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A Brian; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S; Rychert, Jenna A; Sercia, Linda; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2013-07-01

    The optimal management of fungal infections is correlated with timely organism identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is revolutionizing the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens. We present a multicenter study assessing the performance of the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux) in identifying medically important yeasts. A collection of 852 isolates was tested, including 20 Candida species (626 isolates, including 58 C. albicans, 62 C. glabrata, and 53 C. krusei isolates), 35 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, and 191 other clinically relevant yeast isolates; in total, 31 different species were evaluated. Isolates were directly applied to a target plate, followed by a formic acid overlay. Mass spectra were acquired using the Vitek MS system and were analyzed using the Vitek MS v2.0 database. The gold standard for identification was sequence analysis of the D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. In total, 823 isolates (96.6%) were identified to the genus level and 819 isolates (96.1%) were identified to the species level. Twenty-four isolates (2.8%) were not identified, and five isolates (0.6%) were misidentified. Misidentified isolates included one isolate of C. albicans (n = 58) identified as Candida dubliniensis, one isolate of Candida parapsilosis (n = 73) identified as Candida pelliculosa, and three isolates of Geotrichum klebahnii (n = 6) identified as Geotrichum candidum. The identification of clinically relevant yeasts using MS is superior to the phenotypic identification systems currently employed in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  4. DNA barcoding and molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Parajulee, Megha N; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. The standard method of utilisation of morphological characters becomes challenging due to various factors such as phenotypical variations. We explored the complementary approach of CO1 gene-based identification, analysing ten species of mosquito vectors belonging to three genera, Aedes, Culex and Anopheles from India. Analysed nucleotide sequences were found without pseudo genes and indels; they match with high similarity in nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) search. The partial CO1 sequence of Anopheles niligricus was the first time record submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Mean intra- and interspecies divergence was found to be 1.30 and 3.83 %, respectively. The congeneric divergence was three times higher than the conspecifics. Deep intraspecific divergence was noted in three of the species, and the reason could be explained more accurately in the future by improving the sample size across different locations. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. Ts and Tv substitutions in all the 1st, 2nd and 3rd codons were estimated to be (0.44, 99.51), (40.35, 59.66) and (59.16, 40.84), respectively. Saturation of the sequences was resolved, since both the Ts and Tv exhibited a linear relationship suggesting that the sequences were not saturated. NJ and ML tree analysis showed that the individuals of the same species clustered together based on the CO1 sequence similarity, regardless of their collection site and geographic location. Overall, this study adds basic knowledge to molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance and may be useful to improve biotechnological tools employed in Culicidae control programmes. PMID:26358100

  5. Identification of Medically Important Yeast Species by Sequence Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Leaw, Shiang Ning; Chang, Hsien Chang; Sun, Hsiao Fang; Barton, Richard; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by yeasts have increased in previous decades due primarily to the increasing population of immunocompromised patients. In addition, infections caused by less common species such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Saccharomyces spp. have been widely reported. This study extensively evaluated the feasibility of sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for the identification of yeasts of clinical relevance. Both the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 373 strains (86 species), including 299 reference strains and 74 clinical isolates, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequences were compared to reference data available at the GenBank database by using BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) to determine if species identification was possible by ITS sequencing. Since the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some yeasts, the ITS sequences of type (or reference) strains of 15 species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate identification of these species. Strains producing discrepant identifications between the conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were further analyzed by sequencing of the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The rates of correct identification by ITS1 and ITS2 sequence analysis were 96.8% (361/373) and 99.7% (372/373), respectively. Of the 373 strains tested, only 1 strain (Rhodotorula glutinis BCRC 20576) could not be identified by ITS2 sequence analysis. In conclusion, identification of medically important yeasts by ITS sequencing, especially using the ITS2 region, is reliable and can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional identification methods. PMID:16517841

  6. DNA barcoding and molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Parajulee, Megha N; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. The standard method of utilisation of morphological characters becomes challenging due to various factors such as phenotypical variations. We explored the complementary approach of CO1 gene-based identification, analysing ten species of mosquito vectors belonging to three genera, Aedes, Culex and Anopheles from India. Analysed nucleotide sequences were found without pseudo genes and indels; they match with high similarity in nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) search. The partial CO1 sequence of Anopheles niligricus was the first time record submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Mean intra- and interspecies divergence was found to be 1.30 and 3.83 %, respectively. The congeneric divergence was three times higher than the conspecifics. Deep intraspecific divergence was noted in three of the species, and the reason could be explained more accurately in the future by improving the sample size across different locations. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. Ts and Tv substitutions in all the 1st, 2nd and 3rd codons were estimated to be (0.44, 99.51), (40.35, 59.66) and (59.16, 40.84), respectively. Saturation of the sequences was resolved, since both the Ts and Tv exhibited a linear relationship suggesting that the sequences were not saturated. NJ and ML tree analysis showed that the individuals of the same species clustered together based on the CO1 sequence similarity, regardless of their collection site and geographic location. Overall, this study adds basic knowledge to molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance and may be useful to improve biotechnological tools employed in Culicidae control programmes.

  7. [FORMATION OF CLINICAL MENTALITY--AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Golovskoy, B V; Khovaeva, Ya B; Burdina, E N; Khovaev, S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The notion of clinical mentality is considered from the standpoint of its semantic meaning and significance for efficient medical activity. The main signs and implications of this notion are determined. It is shown, based on pedagogical methods (observations, conversations, solution of clinical problems, testing, etc.), that clinical mentality forms after 10 years of work in a given field. Criteria are proposed for distinguishing between health providers with and without clinical mentality. The free association method demonstrated that 37% of the doctors with a period of clinical work over 10 years have peculiarities of clinical mentality described as "internal medical mentality". Clinicians with the experience of work over 15 years exhibit empathy as a component of clinical mentality. The methods are proposed for the formation of clinical mentality during post-graduate education taking account of the modern differentiation of medical disciplines and the necessity to reconcile standards of medical aid and their application on an individual basis. PMID:26964471

  8. The Importance of Medication Errors Reporting in Improving the Quality of Clinical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Elden, Nesreen Mohamed Kamal; Ismail, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication errors have significant implications on patient safety. Error detection through an active management and effective reporting system discloses medication errors and encourages safe practices. Objectives: To improve patient safety through determining and reducing the major causes of medication errors (MEs), after applying tailored preventive strategies. Methodology: A pre-test, post-test study was conducted on all inpatients at a 177 bed hospital where all medication procedures in each ward were monitored by a clinical pharmacist. The patient files were reviewed, as well. Error reports were submitted to a hospital multidisciplinary committee to identify major causes of errors. Accordingly, corrective interventions that consisted of targeted training programs for nurses and physicians were conducted. Results: Medication errors were higher during ordering/prescription stage (38.1%), followed by administration phase (20.9%). About 45% of errors reached the patients: 43.5% were harmless and 1.4% harmful. 7.7% were potential errors and more than 47% could be prevented. After the intervention, error rates decreased from (6.7%) to (3.6%) (P≤0.001). Conclusion: The role of a ward based clinical pharmacist with a hospital multidisciplinary committee was effective in recognizing, designing and implementing tailored interventions for reduction of medication errors. A systematic approach is urgently needed to decrease organizational susceptibility to errors, through providing required resources to monitor, analyze and implement effective interventions. PMID:27045415

  9. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  10. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  11. [Assessment of the sterilization of medical devices--an important challenge to health care in Poland].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of sterilization of medical devices in Polish hospitals. The system that we use to establish which sterilization procedures should be employed to reduce the risk of hospital infections associated with medical devices. Based on inquiries, the conditions for the sterilization of medical devices in 21 Warsaw hospitals were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: preparation of medical supplies for sterilization, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system. In order to evaluate hygienic conditions due to sterilization points system was applied. 10% of the hospitals had Central Sterilization Service Department with 3 zones where automatic washing and disinfection, sorting, packaging, sterilization and storage of medical devices had been performed. The other 20% had CSSD without zones. In more than 65% there were common services for sterilization only. Instruments were delivered already prepared for sterilization. In remaining hospitals all steps, including sterilization were performed in words. According preparation of medical devices for sterilization it was established that mainly chemical disinfection just after use and than manual cleaning was used; the automatic cleaning in washer-disinfectors is used mainly in CSSD. Steam was the preferred method of sterilization, but also low temperature methods were used for heat sensitive devices. The monitoring of sterilization processes was satisfactory. There were first trials of the validation of the sterilization processes. There is still a need for improvement in the sterilization of medical devices, especially including: the organisation of CSSD in all Polish hospitals; replacement of manual cleaning processes by automatic cleaning; organisation of advanced training courses for the heads and staff of the CSSD. PMID:15730015

  12. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  13. Inventory of radionuclides for the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report uses a material balance approach to describe the quantities and composition of reported releases of radionuclides to air and water, and the distribution of these nuclides in atmospheric, aquatic, and biotic compartments of the Great Lakes ecosystem. The primary sources considered are discharges from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Great Lakes Basin. Other sources include commercial, industrial, medical, and research institutions. Radionuclide inventories are first presented by source, both natural and anthropogenic, then by geographical and environmental distribution. The concluding section discusses the adequacy of radionuclide monitoring, the need for a reassessment of environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities, radionuclide data reporting, harmonization of monitoring and data reporting, biological transfer factors for lake systems, and radionuclides of concern. A glossary is included.

  14. The Importance of "High Valence" Events in a Successful Program for Teaching Geriatrics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Peter A.; Willett, Rita M.; Gentili, Angela; Abbey, Linda J.; Lawson, Sonya R.; Schlesinger, Jeanne B.; Meyers, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University developed an enhanced medical student geriattic curriculum that includes required home visits and nursing home visits for second year students (180 per year), an annual Forum on Aging for all first and second year students, and small group exercises. We added 30 hours of basic science material to pre-clinical…

  15. Menopause and the virtuous woman: the importance of the moral order in accounting for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) around the time of menopause is seen as an important decision for many mid-aged women. Recent studies of information provided to women to assist them in making a medical decision about the use of HRT have highlighted the importance of understanding the broader social context of the decision. In this article we examine one important aspect of western mid-aged women's social world: the moral order and the imperative of virtue. Qualitative data from a survey, focus group discussions, and interviews with mid-aged women about HRT use are used to provide examples of the importance of the local moral order in women's talk about menopause and HRT use. The implications of these data will be discussed in terms of the different narrative resources available to construct menopause and HRT, the role of morality, and the demonstration of virtue in daily social life, including medical decision making.

  16. 75 FR 37450 - Draft Guidance: The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Animals.'' This draft guidance is intended to inform the public of FDA's current thinking on the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals. DATES: Although you can comment on...

  17. Medical device reporting: manufacturer reporting, importer reporting, user facility reporting, distributor reporting. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-01-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing reporting by manufacturers, importers, distributors and health care (user) facilities of adverse events related to medical devices. Amendments are being made to implement revisions to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA).

  18. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  19. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  20. Relevance of immobility and importance of risk assessment management for medically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hull, Russell D

    2013-06-01

    Recent or continued immobility is a significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. Patients may benefit from thromboprophylaxis; however, its optimal duration remains unclear. The Extended Clinical Prophylaxis in Acutely Ill Medical Patients (EXCLAIM) study was the first trial to systematically investigate how the degree of immobilization relates to the risk of developing VTE. EXCLAIM offers insights into the duration of VTE risk associated with reduced mobility and helps identify which patients would benefit most from extended-duration thromboprophylaxis. Further recent studies suggest that extended-duration thromboprophylaxis may be in order in certain high-risk patients to protect the patients from the risk of VTE events occurring, particularly in the posthospitalization period. Baseline d-dimer data and level of mobility could be included in risk assessment. Physicians are recommended to consider the use of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis based on individual risk assessment management (RAM) and balance of benefit and harm.

  1. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis.

  2. Medical leadership: why it's important, what is required, and how we develop it.

    PubMed

    Warren, Oliver J; Carnall, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Good medical leadership is vital in delivering high-quality healthcare, and yet medical career progression has traditionally seen leadership lack credence in comparison with technical and academic ability. Individual standards have varied, leading to variations in the quality of medical leadership between different organisations and, on occasions, catastrophic lapses in the standard of care provided to patients. These high-profile events, plus increasing evidence linking clinical leadership to performance of units, has led recently to more focus on leadership development for all doctors, starting earlier and continuing throughout their careers. There is also an increased drive to see doctors take on more significant leadership roles throughout the healthcare system. The achievement of these aims will require doctors to develop strong personal and professional values, a range of non-technical skills that allow them to lead across professional boundaries, and an understanding of the increasingly complex environment in which 21st century healthcare is delivered. Developing these attributes will require dedicated resources and the sophisticated application of a variety of different learning methodologies such as mentoring, coaching, action learning and networking.

  3. Hepatitis B and influenza vaccines: important occupational vaccines differently perceived among medical students.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Sabine; Rabenau, Holger F; von Gierke, Laura; François, Guido; Hambach, Ramona; De Schryver, Antoon

    2013-10-17

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk from occupational exposure to airborne and bloodborne pathogens, and the risk of infection among HCP is greater than among the general population. The aim of the study was to characterize attitudes toward occupational recommended vaccines as well as the perception of risks of occupationally acquired infections. We surveyed 650 medical students to assess their perception of influenza and hepatitis B and their opinions and beliefs about influenza and hepatitis B vaccines. We found differences between pre-clinical and clinical students regarding the uptake of influenza and hepatitis B vaccines, about the chances of being occupationally infected with influenza or hepatitis B, and about the likelihood of suffering from severe side-effects following immunization. Interestingly, the risk perception varied drastically between the two vaccine-preventable diseases hepatitis B and influenza. Medical students rated the probability of contracting hepatitis B due to a work-related exposure and the severity of disease significantly higher than for influenza, and this may be an explanation for the greater acceptance of the hepatitis B vaccine. Furthermore, our findings suggest that medical students are frequently inaccurate in assessing their own risk level, and their specific knowledge about both diseases and the severity of these diseases proved to be unsatisfactory.

  4. Medical leadership: why it's important, what is required, and how we develop it.

    PubMed

    Warren, Oliver J; Carnall, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Good medical leadership is vital in delivering high-quality healthcare, and yet medical career progression has traditionally seen leadership lack credence in comparison with technical and academic ability. Individual standards have varied, leading to variations in the quality of medical leadership between different organisations and, on occasions, catastrophic lapses in the standard of care provided to patients. These high-profile events, plus increasing evidence linking clinical leadership to performance of units, has led recently to more focus on leadership development for all doctors, starting earlier and continuing throughout their careers. There is also an increased drive to see doctors take on more significant leadership roles throughout the healthcare system. The achievement of these aims will require doctors to develop strong personal and professional values, a range of non-technical skills that allow them to lead across professional boundaries, and an understanding of the increasingly complex environment in which 21st century healthcare is delivered. Developing these attributes will require dedicated resources and the sophisticated application of a variety of different learning methodologies such as mentoring, coaching, action learning and networking. PMID:20935344

  5. [Save or destroy? The importance of medical record for former patients and future patients].

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F E; Schornagel, J H

    2001-03-10

    In 1995, a new privacy law was introduced in the Netherlands. According to this law, medical records should be saved for 10 years, and then destroyed, unless keeping the records for a longer period follows reasonably from the duties of the treating physician (as is the case, for example, when treating patients with a chronic disease). There are serious concerns with regard to the future availability of medical record data for clinical research and patient care after 2005. Evaluation of the late effects of many medical treatments will no longer be possible in the Netherlands. Patient care, particularly genetic counselling, will be also seriously compromised. As a possible solution the profession might name diagnoses and treatments regarding for which, from the point of view of good care, it is necessary for files to be kept for longer than 10 years. For a uniform nationwide policy it would be better if all files, perhaps after sorting by diagnosis and treatment, should be obligatorily kept for much longer than 10 years, preferably for the duration of the life expectancy.

  6. [The importance of a medical evaluation in adolescence within the field of vocational guidance].

    PubMed

    Mustać, M; Barbarić, S

    1996-03-01

    An investigation was carried out among the rural adolescent population in the Zadar region. The objective was to examine their health status, to gain information about occupations they wish to be trained for and to find out whether there are any medical contraindications in respect to those occupations. Using methods of vocational guidance medicine health disorders were found to be present in 30% of the examined adolescents. Of a total of 668 examinees 68 had relative and 24 absolute contraindications to the desired occupation. The commonest impairments were those of vision (39%) and the locomotor system (31%). The greatest number of contraindications was established among the examinees who wanted to become craftmen, mechanics or traffic officers. It is concluded that all adolescents with health disorders and all those wanting to be trained for specific occupations should undergo a medical examination in addition to a vocational guidance interview so that possible medical contraindications could be detected and professional advice given as to the choice of the most appropriate occupation.

  7. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  8. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  9. Medics and Marine Mammals - An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity's Survival.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  10. Medics and Marine Mammals – An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity’s Survival

    PubMed Central

    PONNAMPALAM, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  11. Medics and Marine Mammals - An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity's Survival.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity.

  12. Private or public? An empirical analysis of the importance of work values for work sector choice among Norwegian medical specialists.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Linda

    2007-03-01

    In the aftermath of the Norwegian hospital reform of 2002, the private supply of specialized healthcare has increased substantially. This article analyses the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector. Sector choice is operationalized in two ways: first, as the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector at all (at least 1% of the total work hours), and second, as the likelihood of working full-time (90-100%) privately. The theoretical framework is embedded in work values theory and the results suggest that work values are important predictors of sector choice. All analyses are based on a postal questionnaire survey of medical specialists working in private contract practices and for-profit hospitals and a control group of specialists selected from the Norwegian Medical Association's member register. The analyses revealed that while autonomy values impact positively on the propensity for allocating any time at all to the private sector, professional values have a negative effect. Given that the medical specialist already works in the private sector, a high valuation of professional values and payment and benefit values increases the likelihood of having a dual sector job rather than a full-time private position. However, due to the cross-sectional structure of the data and limitations in the dataset, causality questions cannot be fully settled on the basis of the analyses. The relationship between work values and sector choice should, therefore, be regarded as associations rather than causality links. Finally, the likelihood of working in the private sector varies significantly at the municipality level, suggesting that medical specialist's location is important for sector choice. PMID:17161892

  13. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  14. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  15. Wound emergencies: the importance of assessment, documentation, and early treatment using a wound electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Golinko, Michael S; Clark, Sunday; Rennert, Robert; Flattau, Anna; Boulton, Andrew J M; Brem, Harold

    2009-05-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers are a major source of morbidity and mortality. To describe wound characteristics associated with a wound emergency, the Wound Electronic Medical Records (WEMR) of 200 consecutive admissions (139 patients, average number of admissions 1.4) to a dedicated inpatient wound healing unit over a period of 5 months were retrospectively reviewed. Patient mean age was 62 +/- 16 years, 59% were men, 27% had a foot ulcer and diabetes mellitus, and 29% had venous ulcers. Presenting signs and symptoms included wound pain, cellulitis, nonpurulent drainage, and undermining, but few presented with classic local clinical signs of infection. Treatment consisted of sharp debridement with deep tissue culture and pathology from the wound base and/or systemic antibiotics. Twenty-percent (20%) of patients had pathology-confirmed and 38% had pathology- or radiology-confirmed osteomyelitis on admission, supporting that new or increasing wound pain, cellulitis, and/or nonpurulent drainage or presence of significant undermining may be indicative of an invasive infection and that patients presenting with these signs and symptoms require an immediate treatment plan and consideration of hospital admission. Use of an objective documentation system such as the WEMR may help alert clinicians to subtle wound changes that require aggressive treatment; thereby, avoiding emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Future research is needed utilizing the WEMR across multiple medical centers to further define criteria for a chronic wound emergency.

  16. Chapter 3: choosing the important outcomes for a systematic review of a medical test.

    PubMed

    Segal, Jodi B

    2012-06-01

    In this chapter of the Evidence-based Practice Centers Methods Guide for Medical Tests, we describe how the decision to use a medical test generates a broad range of outcomes and that each of these outcomes should be considered for inclusion in a systematic review. Awareness of these varied outcomes affects how a decision maker balances the benefits and risks of the test; therefore, a systematic review should present the evidence on these diverse outcomes. The key outcome categories include clinical management outcomes and direct health effects; emotional, social, cognitive, and behavioral responses to testing; legal and ethical outcomes, and costs. We describe the challenges of incorporating these outcomes in a systematic review, suggest a framework for generating potential outcomes for inclusion, and describe the role of stakeholders in choosing the outcomes for study. Finally, we give examples of systematic reviews that either included a range of outcomes or that might have done so. The following are the key messages in this chapter: Consider both the outcomes that are relevant to the process of testing and those that are relevant to the results of the test. Consider inclusion of outcomes in all five domains: clinical management effects, direct test effects; emotional, social, cognitive and behavioral effects; legal and ethical effects, and costs. Consider to which group the outcomes of testing are most relevant. Given resource limitations, prioritize which outcomes to include. This decision depends on the needs of the stakeholder(s), who should be assisted in prioritizing the outcomes for inclusion.

  17. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  18. Importance of philosophy of science to the history of medical thinking.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Z

    1999-03-01

    Popular approach to the history of medicine rests on naive assumptions that: 1) only the present state of medical knowledge can be counted as scientific and only those elements of the former knowledge and practice which fitted the body of contemporary science should be regarded by the historians of medicine (presentism); 2) medical sciences, like the other natural sciences, portray natural phenomena as they really are (naturalism); 3) progress in sciences consists of cumulative growth of information and explanation. The twentieth century philosophical critique of science revealed that none of these assumptions were true. Empirical facts, which are taken as a basis for any true knowledge, are dependent on the presumed theories; theories are intertwined into a broader socio-cultural context; theory-changing processes are caused by social factors rather than by the theoretical content. Therefore, it is a common task of historians of medicine and philosophers of science to reveal all theoretical and cultural premises on which our comprehension of the contemporary medicine is founded. PMID:9933889

  19. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  20. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  1. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  2. [Medical clowns--dream doctors as important team members in the treatment of young children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Oren-Ziv, Amit; Hanuka, Penny; Rotchild, Michal; Gluzman, Aliza; Uziel, Yosef

    2012-06-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in children. An intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IAS), one of the cornerstones of treatment for this disease, is usuaLLy associated with anxiety and pain. A major part of the success in reducing the pain is associated with the level of the child's anxiety even before starting the procedure. This is a case study of a 5 year old girl with JIA, who has been treated with an intra-articular corticosteroid injection to her knee joint. The case study is presented from the point of view of the medical clown, who is an important integral part of the team of the IAS procedure. In this article we will discuss the participation of medical clowns in the treatment of children in general, and in the IAS procedure in particular. The importance of the subject stems from the fact that it has been proven that the presence of medical clowns significantly alleviates the children's anxiety and pain. This study, as well as others on this subject, shows that we should encourage medical clowns as an integraL part of the treatment of children. PMID:22991860

  3. [Medical clowns--dream doctors as important team members in the treatment of young children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Oren-Ziv, Amit; Hanuka, Penny; Rotchild, Michal; Gluzman, Aliza; Uziel, Yosef

    2012-06-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in children. An intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IAS), one of the cornerstones of treatment for this disease, is usuaLLy associated with anxiety and pain. A major part of the success in reducing the pain is associated with the level of the child's anxiety even before starting the procedure. This is a case study of a 5 year old girl with JIA, who has been treated with an intra-articular corticosteroid injection to her knee joint. The case study is presented from the point of view of the medical clown, who is an important integral part of the team of the IAS procedure. In this article we will discuss the participation of medical clowns in the treatment of children in general, and in the IAS procedure in particular. The importance of the subject stems from the fact that it has been proven that the presence of medical clowns significantly alleviates the children's anxiety and pain. This study, as well as others on this subject, shows that we should encourage medical clowns as an integraL part of the treatment of children.

  4. 77 FR 19716 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine (9300), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company manufactures a product containing morphine in...

  5. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  6. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-12-25

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom.

  7. Medical data capture and display: the importance of clinicians' workstation design.

    PubMed Central

    Dayhoff, R.; Kirin, G.; Pollock, S.; Miller, C.; Todd, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs is developing, testing and evaluating the benefits of physicians' workstations as an aid to medical data capture in an outpatient clinic setting. The physician's workstation uses a graphical user interface to aid the clinician in recording encounter data. Various input devices including keyboard, mouse, pen, voice, barcode reader, and tablet are available on the workstations, and user preferences will be examined. Access to general services such as electronic mail and reference databases is also available. The workstation provides a wide variety of patient specific data from the hospital information system, including image data. The single data collection process by the clinician will also provide data for the cost recovery process. Images Figure 2 PMID:7949987

  8. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2016-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  9. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. ); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. ); Wobber, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. The Importance of State and Context in Safe Interoperable Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Michael B.; Robkin, Michael; Rausch, Tracy; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes why “device state” and “patient context” information are necessary components of device models for safe interoperability. This paper includes a discussion of the importance of describing the roles of devices with respect to interactions (including human user workflows involving devices, and device to device communication) within a system, particularly those intended for use at the point-of-care, and how this role information is communicated. In addition, it describes the importance of clinical scenarios in creating device models for interoperable devices. PMID:27730013

  11. Medical student selection: which matriculation scores and personality factors are important?

    PubMed

    Chan-Ob, T; Boonyanaruthee, V

    1999-06-01

    Sixty-five from a total of 160 medical students were administered the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) to identify which of all 18 scales can be used as a predictor for academic performance. The entrance examination scores of six subjects were also combined with the CPI variables for the purpose of the study. Students' performances were determined by Grade Point Average (GPA) collected between 1993-1997 (year 1 to year 5). Data was analyzed by descriptive and stepwise method of multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that mathematics, biology and English language were positively correlated with all year GPAs-r2 value was 10-18 per cent. Scales of "dominance", "flexibility" and "socialization" were positively correlated to the GPA, while "sociability" and "sense of well-being" were negatively correlated. R2 value was increased to 16-59 per cent as prediction of GPA when the CPI variables were combined with scores of entrance examination. A comparison of this finding with other studies was conducted.

  12. A review of important medical and surgical considerations for obese patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prodromo, John; Rackley, Justin; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2016-09-01

    Obesity represents a unique challenge in orthopaedic surgery, the impact of which is seen through all phases of injury: in the development of disease, during the operative procedure, and throughout the rehabilitation period. Given the high prevalence of obesity in the United States and around the world, this patient population represents a substantial proportion of patients in need of orthopedic care. The effects of this disease constrain both medical and financial resources. For obese patients undergoing orthopedic procedures, adequate steps must be taken to minimize the risks that occur before, during, and after surgical intervention. This literature review discusses the impact of obesity on arthroscopic procedures, with a focus on procedures involving the shoulder, hip, and knee. The management of obese patients during the perioperative period should address the specific concerns relating to these patients. Obesity is a risk factor for numerous comorbidities, is associated with surgical complications, and is a predictor of poor functional outcomes following arthroscopy. Efforts to minimize the negative impact of obesity on arthroscopic procedures are crucial. PMID:27578242

  13. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  14. Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Snakebites continue to be a major medical concern in India. However, there is very little hard evidence of a numerical nature to enable us to understand which species are responsible for mortality and morbidity. For many decades, the concept of the "Big 4" Snakes of Medical Importance has reflected the view that 4 species are responsible for Indian snakebite mortality--the Indian cobra (Naja naja), the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). However, a recent discovery that another species, the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale), is capable of causing lethal envenomation, and that this problem was being concealed by systematic misidentification of this species as the saw-scaled viper, has necessitated a review of the concept of the "Big 4." The concept of the "Big 4" snakes is reviewed to demonstrate its failure to include all currently known snakes of medical significance in India, and its negative effects related to clinical management of snakebite. The emergence of the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) as a snake of medical significance has rendered the "Big 4" obsolete in terms of completeness. The concept of the "Big 4" is restricting sound epidemiological work and the development of effective snake antivenoms. It should be replaced by the model introduced in the 1980s by the World Health Organization, which has not received adequate circulation and implementation. PMID:17447706

  15. 77 FR 31388 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Technologies By Notice dated March 23, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2012, 77 FR... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to ] be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the...

  16. 78 FR 30331 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Technologies By Notice dated March 7, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on March 13, 2013, 78 FR... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the world....

  17. 78 FR 15974 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the world....

  18. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  19. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; HAGHANI, FARIBA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners' needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students' viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students' views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government's responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on practical skills, and

  20. Insights into the development of Ixodes scapularis: a resource for research on a medically important tick species.

    PubMed

    Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José; Coburn, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are arthropod ectoparasites dependent on a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host at each developmental stage for completion of their life cycle. This tick feeding cycle impacts animal health by causing damage to hides, secondary infections, immune reactions and diseases caused by transmission of pathogens. The genus Ixodes includes several medically important species that vector diseases, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged or deer tick, is a medically-important tick species in North America and therefore was the first tick genome to be sequenced, thus serving as an important resource for tick research. This Primer focuses on the normal developmental cycle and laboratory rearing of I. scapularis. Definition of normal morphology, along with a consistent source of laboratory-reared I. scapularis, are fundamental for all aspects of future research, especially the effects of genetic manipulation and the evaluation of tick vaccine efficacy. Recent research important for the advancement of tick research, namely the development of tick cell culture systems for study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, RNA interference for genetic manipulation of ticks and discovery of candidate antigens for development of tick vaccines, are briefly presented along with areas to target for future research. PMID:26576940

  1. Insights into the development of Ixodes scapularis: a resource for research on a medically important tick species.

    PubMed

    Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José; Coburn, Lisa A

    2015-11-14

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are arthropod ectoparasites dependent on a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host at each developmental stage for completion of their life cycle. This tick feeding cycle impacts animal health by causing damage to hides, secondary infections, immune reactions and diseases caused by transmission of pathogens. The genus Ixodes includes several medically important species that vector diseases, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged or deer tick, is a medically-important tick species in North America and therefore was the first tick genome to be sequenced, thus serving as an important resource for tick research. This Primer focuses on the normal developmental cycle and laboratory rearing of I. scapularis. Definition of normal morphology, along with a consistent source of laboratory-reared I. scapularis, are fundamental for all aspects of future research, especially the effects of genetic manipulation and the evaluation of tick vaccine efficacy. Recent research important for the advancement of tick research, namely the development of tick cell culture systems for study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, RNA interference for genetic manipulation of ticks and discovery of candidate antigens for development of tick vaccines, are briefly presented along with areas to target for future research.

  2. Perceived familiarity with and importance of family health history among a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Goodman, Melody S; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate knowledge of family health history (FHH) continues to be a major obstacle limiting its usefulness in public health and clinical practice; strategies to facilitate FHH dissemination are needed. Data (N = 1,334) were obtained through waiting-room surveys completed by a diverse sample of patients attending three community health centers. Perceptions about the importance of genetic information (β = 0.13, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001) and higher genetic self-efficacy (β = 0.14, p < 0.001; β = 0.23, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher levels of perceived familiarity with and importance of FHH, respectively. Furthermore, beliefs about genetic causation of illnesses (β = 0.12, p < 0.001) and a wider reach of health communication within one's family (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) were associated with higher levels of perceived familiarity with one's FHH. Participants in the oldest group (>50 years) reported higher familiarity than those in the youngest (18-25 years). Those with higher familiarity were significantly less likely to answer "don't know" when reporting diabetes and heart disease diagnoses among immediate (OR = 0.35 and OR = 0.29, respectively) and extended (OR = 0.50 and OR = 0.46, respectively) family members. Having a wider health communication reach within a family may be beneficial in increasing familiarity with FHH; however, the reported levels of communication reach were limited among most participants. Women, older-generation family members, and those who believe in the importance of genetics in health or feel confident about using genetic information may be particularly important as targets of public health interventions to facilitate FHH dissemination within families.

  3. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

  4. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  5. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  9. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  11. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Casewell, Nicholas R.; Wagstaff, Simon C.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Cook, Darren A. N.; Bolton, Fiona M. S.; King, Sarah I.; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Harrison, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that processes acting on gene transcription and translation may have on the production of the venom proteome. Here, we assess the venom composition of six related viperid snakes and compare interspecific changes in the number of toxin genes, their transcription in the venom gland, and their translation into proteins secreted in venom. Our results reveal that multiple levels of regulation are responsible for generating variation in venom composition between related snake species. We demonstrate that differential levels of toxin transcription, translation, and their posttranslational modification have a substantial impact upon the resulting venom protein mixture. Notably, these processes act to varying extents on different toxin paralogs found in different snakes and are therefore likely to be as important as ancestral gene duplication events for generating compositionally distinct venom proteomes. Our results suggest that these processes may also contribute to altering the toxicity of snake venoms, and we demonstrate how this variability can undermine the treatment of a neglected tropical disease, snakebite. PMID:24927555

  12. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals.

  13. Barcode Identifiers as a Practical Tool for Reliable Species Assignment of Medically Important Black Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2012-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives. PMID:22785187

  14. IMPORTANCE OF A NATIONAL ARTHROPLASTY REGISTER FOR IDENTIFICATION BY MEDICAL EXAMINER

    PubMed Central

    Durão, Carlos Henrique; Pinto, Rui; Ribeiro, Costa; Vieira, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Mass catastrophes are realities that come to pass with lamentable frequency. In such situations, one of the fundamental forensic problems is in relation to identifying the victims. All the elements that might be capable of contributing towards this identification process are essential, and among these are orthopedic prostheses, which frequently remain intact. These prostheses consist basically of polymers, ceramics or metals. Metal components, which are usually composed of titanium, chromium, cobalt or steel alloys, are resistant to violent trauma or high temperatures. Human identification is possible if the identity of the implant is established and if this can be correlated with the individual in whom it was implanted. The logo on the prosthesis establishes who the manufacturer was and the serial number can be compared with the clinical process or with a prosthesis register, as has been implemented in several countries. The information in the database should include the patient's name, the implant model and its serial number, for consultation only in cases of forensic identification, while obviously respecting ethical issues of privacy. This article highlights the importance of creating a national prosthesis register. PMID:27047880

  15. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms.

  16. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  17. Reconsidering Current Decorporation Strategies after Incorporation of Radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Rump, A; Stricklin, D; Lamkowski, A; Eder, S; Abend, M; Port, M

    2016-08-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb," there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. Internal irradiation as a consequence of radionuclide incorporation is associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e.g., tumors). Decorporation treatment will enhance the elimination of radionuclides and reduce the committed effective dose as a metric of stochastic health effects. Although treatment efficacy is better when started early, beginning the therapy without knowing the committed effective dose may unnecessarily expose the patient to the side effects of the medication. The question is: Delay the therapy to wait for the results of internal dosimetry or start the therapy promptly on spec? To prove insight into this question, a selective review of the literature was conducted. The importance of the initiation time of treatment in the efficacy of decorporation treatment can be explained with pharmacokinetic laws and first order processes determining the disposition of xenobiotics in the organism. Nevertheless, there is no internationally accepted standard on when to start a decorporation therapy (exception: iodide). The "precautionary approach," emphasizing the importance of the committed effective dose for the indication of treatment, is competing with the "urgent approach" advocating the administration of medication "a priori" within several hours. A review of the literature actually indicates that the most important drugs used for decorporation are well tolerated with few adverse effects. In consideration of the higher efficacy and the low side-effects of a short-term treatment, initiating decorporation therapy as soon as possible after internal contamination, even before the committed effective dose has been assessed, appears to be a reasonable approach. The decision of continuation or discontinuation of the therapy should be taken after internal

  18. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Austin, E.H.; Peter, C.A.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography provides a noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and blood flow through the heart and lungs. During the past three years, this procedure has been used at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of 343 patients with congenital heart disorders. A review of this experience shows tat the resulting data were frequently useful in the surgical management of these patients. In patients with abnormal blood flow patterns, noninvasive imaging of blood flow was useful before and after operative correction. Radionuclide measurements of left-to-right intracardiac shunts were sufficiently accurate for use in the initial evaluation of patients with murmurs and to document the absence of shunt after operative closure of intracardiac septal defects. Moreover, measurements of right-to-left cardiac shunts were of benefit in the management of children with cyanotic heart disease. Measurements of left ventricular function obtained during rest and exercise were most useful in patients with origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and in patients with congenital valvular insufficiency. This experience demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides important measurements of central hemodynamics and cardiac function which are useful in the management of patients with congenital heart disorders.

  19. [Scientific medical forum as important source of scientific-information provision for innovation processes in the healthcare sector of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V

    2013-12-01

    The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.

  20. Medical management of frontotemporal dementias: the importance of the caregiver in symptom assessment and guidance of treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Jicha, Gregory A

    2011-11-01

    There are no currently Food and Drug Administration-approved or proven off-label treatments for the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Clinicians, caregivers, and patients struggle regularly to find therapeutic regimens that can alleviate the problematic behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these devastating conditions. Success is "hit or miss" and the lessons learned are largely anecdotal to date. Drug discovery in this area has been largely hampered by the heterogeneous clinical presentations and pathological phenotypes of disease that represent significant obstacles to progress in this area. Biologically, plausible treatment strategies include the use of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antihypertensives, and agents that may ameliorate the symptoms of parkinsonism, pseudobulbar affect, and motor neuron disease that can often coexist with FTD. These medications all carry potential risks as well as possible benefits for the person suffering from FTD, and a clear understanding of these factors is critical in selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen to maximize cognition and daily functions, reduce behavioral symptoms, and alleviate caregiver burden in an individual patient. The role of the caregiver in tracking and reporting of symptoms and the effects of individual therapeutic interventions is pivotal in this process. This manuscript highlights the importance of establishing an effective therapeutic partnership between the physician and caregiver in the medical management of the person suffering from FTD.

  1. Medical Management of Frontotemporal Dementias: The Importance of the Caregiver in Symptom Assessment and Guidance of Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are no currently Food and Drug Administration-approved or proven off-label treatments for the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Clinicians, care-givers, and patients struggle regularly to find therapeutic regimens that can alleviate the problematic behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these devastating conditions. Success is “hit or miss” and the lessons learned are largely anecdotal to date. Drug discovery in this area has been largely hampered by the heterogeneous clinical presentations and pathological phenotypes of disease that represent significant obstacles to progress in this area. Biologically, plausible treatment strategies include the use of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antihypertensives, and agents that may ameliorate the symptoms of parkinsonism, pseudobulbar affect, and motor neuron disease that can often coexist with FTD. These medications all carry potential risks as well as possible benefits for the person suffering from FTD, and a clear understanding of these factors is critical in selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen to maximize cognition and daily functions, reduce behavioral symptoms, and alleviate caregiver burden in an individual patient. The role of the caregiver in tracking and reporting of symptoms and the effects of individual therapeutic interventions is pivotal in this process. This manuscript highlights the importance of establishing an effective therapeutic partnership between the physician and caregiver in the medical management of the person suffering from FTD. PMID:21647712

  2. Molecular systematics of filarial parasites, with an emphasis on groups of medical and veterinary importance, and its relevance for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro

    2009-09-01

    Filarial parasites are members of the Phylum Nemata that comprise several species of medical and veterinary importance. Among the human diseases caused by members of this group of nematodes are river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, which afflict millions of people in the tropics. These diseases not only have an impact on the health of the people affected but also bear a great socioeconomic burden. Despite their relevance, the systematics of the filarial parasites is not well understood yet, and additional molecular phylogenetic studies are required to comprehend the evolution of these parasites. Identifying the patterns of evolution of these parasites will be of relevance in preventing emerging zoonoses. The present review examines the information about the molecular systematics of filarial parasites available in the literature and evaluates the relevance of the different directions of future research. Furthermore, it is also intended to highlight the relevance of molecular systematic studies in the molecular epidemiology research area.

  3. Medical device reporting: manufacturer reporting, importer reporting, user facility reporting, and distributor reporting--FDA. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    1998-05-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing reporting by manufacturers, importers, distributors, and health care (user) facilities of adverse events related to medical devices. Amendments are being made to implement revisions to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). FDA is publishing these amendments in accordance with its direct final rule procedures. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is publishing a companion proposed rule under FDA's usual procedures for notice and comment to provide a procedural framework to finalize the rule in the event the agency receives a significant adverse comment and withdraws this direct final rule.

  4. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined. PMID:26239801

  5. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.

  6. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  7. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

  9. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  10. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  11. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.

  12. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    PubMed Central

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  13. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: Practical Applications and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Jadvar, Hossein; Capala, Jacek; Fahey, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation in the development of targeted radionuclide cancer therapy. It is now possible to use baseline clinical and imaging assessments to determine the most effective therapy and to tailor this therapy during the course of treatment based on radiation dosimetry and tumor response. Although this personalized approach to medicine has the advantage of maximizing therapeutic effect while limiting toxicity, it can be challenging to implement and expensive. Further, in order to use targeted radionuclide therapy effectively, there is a need for multidisciplinary awareness, education, and collaboration across the scientific, industrial, and medical communities. Even more important, there is a growing understanding that combining radiopharmaceuticals with conventional treatment such as chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy may limit patient morbidity while improving survival. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals as biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response and targeting disease are playing a central role in medical research. Adoption of a practical approach to manufacturing and delivering radiopharmaceuticals, assessing patient eligibility, optimizing post-therapy follow-up, and addressing reimbursement issues will be essential for their success. PMID:27226737

  14. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis) and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis). The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis) and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9%) and tree cover (28.2%) for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8%) and thermal amplitude (12.6%) for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State revealed a higher

  15. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  16. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  17. Arachnids of medical importance in Brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Francielle A; Amorim, Fernanda G; Anjolette, Fernando A P; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). Many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. These animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. Several protein and non-protein compounds present in the venom and saliva of these animals are responsible for symptoms observed in envenoming, exhibiting neurotoxic, dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities. The phylogenomic analysis from the complementary DNA of single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes shows that these animals share some common protein families known as neurotoxins, defensins, hyaluronidase, antimicrobial peptides, phospholipases and proteinases. This indicates that the venoms from these animals may present components with functional and structural similarities. Therefore, we described in this review the main components present in spider and scorpion venom as well as in tick saliva, since they have similar components. These three arachnids are responsible for many accidents of medical relevance in Brazil. Additionally, this study shows potential biotechnological applications of some components with important biological activities, which may motivate the conducting of further research studies on their action mechanisms.

  18. Wolbachia supergroups A and B in natural populations of medically important filth flies (diptera: muscidae, calliphoridae, and sarcophagidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mingchay, Pichanon; Sai-Ngam, Arkhom; Phumee, Atchara; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Lorlertthum, Kittitouch; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Choochote, Wej; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2014-03-01

    Filth flies, belonging to suborder Brachycera (Family; Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae), are a major cause of nuisance and able to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. These insects are distributed worldwide and their populations are increasing especially in sub-tropical and tropical areas. One strategy for controlling insects employs Wolbachia, which is a group of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria, found in many insect species. The bacteria can cause reproductive abnormalities in their hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminization, parthenogenesis, and male lethality. In this study we determined Wolbachia endosymbionts in natural population of medically important flies (42 females and 9 males) from several geographic regions of Thailand. Wolbachia supergroups A or B were detected in 7 of female flies using PCR specific for wsp. Sequence analysis of wsp showed variations between and within the Wolbachia supergroup. Phylogenetics demonstrated that wsp is able to diverge between Wolbachia supergroups A and B. These data should be useful in future Wolbachia-based programs of fly control.

  19. Release of patients after therapy with unsealed radionuclides.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    After some therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures with unsealed radionuclides, precautions may be needed to limit doses to other people, but this is rarely the case after diagnostic procedures. Iodine-131 results in the largest dose to medical staff, the public caregivers, and relatives. Other radionuclides used in therapy are usually simple beta emitters (e.g. phosphorus-32, strontium-89, and yttrium-90) that pose much less risk. Dose limits apply to exposure of the public and medical staff from patients. Previously, the ICRP has recommended that a source-related dose constraint for optimisation of a few mSv/episode applies to relatives, visitors, and caregivers at home, rather than a dose limit. The present report recommends that young children and infants, as well as visitors not engaged in direct care or comforting, should be treated a s members of the public (i.e. be subject to the public dose limit.) The modes of exposure to other people are: external exposure; internal exposure due to contamination; and environmental pathways. Dose to adults from patients is mainly due to external exposure. Contamination of infants and children with saliva from a patient could result in significant doses to the child's thyroid. It is important to avoid contamination of children and pregnant women. After radioiodine therapy, mothers must cease breastfeeding immediately. Many types of therapy with unsealed radionuclides are contraindicated in pregnant females. Women should not become pregnant for some time after radioisotope therapy. Technetium-99m dominates discharges to the environment from excreta of nuclear medicine patients, but its short half-life limits its importance. The second largest discharges, iodine-131, can be detected in the environment after medical uses but with no measurable environmental impact. Storing patient's urine after therapy appears to have minimal benefit. Radionuclides released into modern sewage systems are likely to result in doses to sewer

  20. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  1. [The importance of the examination of, education on, and infection control of tuberculosis in medical school hospitals in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kurane, Shuji; Kudoh, Shoji

    2003-09-01

    Rs and 68.4% of Is) considered MSHs should be able to offer treatment to TB patients with underlying complications. As to the educational aspect, most medical schools (MSs) devoted little time to lectures on TB (the median was 1 to 1.5 hour); on the other hand, some MSs (31.8%: 14/44 of MSHs without TB rooms) included a clinical practices in TB hospitals for TB education, although its term was short. Regarding TB infection control issues, most of the MSHs had active infection control committees in their hospitals and TB was thought to be one of the most important targets for these committees. About 40% (20/51) of these hospitals over the past few years had experienced nosocomial TB infection due in part to the so called "Doctor's delay". As one of the strategies to prevent nosocomial TB infection, special education sessions, not only for staff and residents but also students, were therefore performed in 60.8% (31/51) of MSHs. As to the evaluation of the tuberculin skin test (TST) status of medical students, the two-step TST was performed in 47.1% (24/51) of MSs (as most Japanese underwent their BCG vaccination in their childhood) and 54.9% (28/51) of MSs had a BCG revaccination policy for TST negative students. Although steps toward reforms in TB issues in MSHs were slow, some minor progress had been made as compared with previous surveys performed by us and others. Even though the numbers of TB patients examined in MSHs have been smaller than before, MHSs still have to take care of some TB patients with some complications. A great deal of effort still needs to be expended to establish efficient and effective TB education and infection control systems. Even though many ideas have been put forward to improve the current situation, one of the most successful answers is to set up small number of special rooms, not only for TB patients but also for other airborne infectious diseases, in all MHSs. The other clue is to establish an intimate collaboration between MSHs and

  2. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  3. Guidelines for interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence-based results for identification of medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Wu, Jeff K L; Leung, Fion P S; Tse, Herman; Fung, Ami M Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-08-01

    This study is believed to be the first to provide guidelines for facilitating interpretation of results based on full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MicroSeq databases used for identifying medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing can identify 24 and 40 % of medically important Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and 21 and 34 % of medically important Gram-positive rods (GPR) confidently to the species level, whereas the full-MicroSeq and 500-MicroSeq databases can identify 15 and 34 % of medically important GPC and 14 and 25 % of medically important GPR confidently to the species level. Among staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, mycobacteria, corynebacteria, nocardia and members of Bacillus and related taxa (Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus and Virgibacillus), the methods and databases are least useful for identification of staphylococci and nocardia. Only 0-2 and 2-13 % of staphylococci, and 0 and 0-10 % of nocardia, can be confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. However, these methods and databases are most useful for identification of Bacillus and related taxa, with 36-56 and 11-14 % of Bacillus and related taxa confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. A total of 15 medically important GPC and 18 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by full 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the full-MicroSeq database. A total of 9 medically important GPC and 21 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the 500-MicroSeq database. 16S rRNA gene sequence results of Gram-positive bacteria should be interpreted with basic phenotypic tests results. Additional biochemical tests or sequencing of additional gene loci are often required for definitive identification. To improve the usefulness of the MicroSeq databases, bacterial species that can be confidently identified by 16S r

  4. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  5. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  6. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  7. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  8. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted.

  9. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted. PMID:26541154

  10. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  11. Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae): redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation, and medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Keirans, J E; Hutcheson, H J; Durden, L A; Klompen, J S

    1996-05-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis Say, 1821, is redescribed, based on laboratory reared specimens originating in Bulloch County, Georgia. Information on distribution, host associations, morphological variation, and medical/veterinary importance is also presented. A great deal of recent work has focused on this species because it is the principal vector of the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwaldt & Brenner) in eastern North America. Its distribution appears to be expanding, and includes the state of Florida in the southeastern United States north to the provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada, west to North and South Dakota, United States, and south to the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Although I. scapularis feeds on at least 125 species of North American vertebrates (54 mammalian, 57 avian, and 14 lizard species), analysis of the U.S. National Tick Collection holdings show that white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), cattle, Bos taurus L., dogs, Canis lupus L., and other medium-to-large sized mammals are important hosts for adults as are native mice and other small mammals, certain ground-frequenting birds, skinks, and glass lizards for nymphs and larvae. This tick is a polytypic species exhibiting north-south and east-west morphological clines. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons revealed significant interpopulational variation that is expressed most significantly in the nymphal stage. Nymphs from northern (Minnesota, Massachusetts, Maryland) populations had relatively larger basis capituli with shorter cornua (except Maryland) than southern (North Carolina, Georgia) populations. Midwestern populations (Minnesota, Missouri) differed from eastern populations (Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia) in idiosomal characters (broader scuta, larger coxae III, and IV). In addition to Lyme disease, this tick is also a primary vector of the

  12. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  13. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  14. The Epidemiology of Imported Malaria in Taiwan between 2002–2013: The Importance of Sensitive Surveillance and Implications for Pre-Travel Medical Advice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2013. We analyzed the national data recorded by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malarial transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 229 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were imported. One hundred and ninety-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within 13 days of the start of symptoms/signs; 43% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 44% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (56%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.36 per 1,000,000 travelers (range 1.20–5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that a vigilant surveillance system, vector-control efforts, case management, and an educational approach focused on travelers and immigrants who visit malaria endemic countries are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the elimination of malaria in Taiwan. PMID:24871257

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  17. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  19. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  20. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  1. Medical device reporting: manufacturer reporting, importer reporting, user facility reporting, distributor reporting--FDA. Direct final rule; withdrawal.

    PubMed

    1998-08-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published in the Federal Register of May 12, 1998, a proposed rule (63 FR 26129) and a direct final rule (63 FR 26069) to implement amendments to the medical device reporting provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended by the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The comment period closed July 27, 1998. FDA is withdrawing the direct final rule because the agency received significant adverse comment.

  2. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Meares, Claude F.; Li, Min; DeNardo, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  3. Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.

  4. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  6. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  7. [Prehospital cardiac resuscitation in Queretaro, Mexico. Report of 3 cases. Importance of an integral emergency medical care system].

    PubMed

    Fraga-Sastrías, Juan Manuel; Aguilera-Campos, Andrea; Barinagarrementería-Aldatz, Fernando; Ortíz-Mondragón, Claudio; Asensio-Lafuente, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a health problem that represents 33,000 to 150,000 or more deaths per year. The few existent reports show mortality as high as 100% in contrast to some international reports that show higher survival rates. In Queretaro, during the last 5 years there were no successful resuscitation cases. However, in 2012 some patients were reported to have return of spontaneous circulation. We report in this article 3 cases with return of spontaneous circulation and pulse at arrival to the hospital. Two of the patients were discharged alive, one of them with poor cerebral performance category. Community cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and better emergency medical system response times, are related with survival. This poorly explored health problem in Queretaro could be increased with quality and good public education, bystander assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, police involvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, public access defibrillation programs and measurement of indicators and feedback for better results.

  8. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  9. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Wessels, B W; Meares, C F

    2000-04-01

    As more radionuclide therapies move from laboratory feasibility studies into clinical reality, it becomes increasingly important for the labeling chemistry to produce consistently a stable radiopharmaceutical that remains intact under the challenge of human catabolism. Similarly, once proof of principle is established to bring a radionuclide conjugate into clinical therapy trials, dosimetric estimates should be made to select the appropriate radionuclide properties, which are based on animal-specific or patient-specific pharmacokinetics and match a set of specific clinical endpoints. These properties may include the radionuclide physical half-life, radiolabeled conjugate biological uptake and clearance, product-specific activity, range and type of emissions, and resultant effects on tumor and normal tissue cellular survival. The immunologist and labeling chemist have now produced a variety of strategies that have potential to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor-to-normal tissue dose ratio). The advent of normal tissue clearing agents, fragmented or chimerized carriers to improve targeting, and the method of bispecific or two-step and three-step targeting agents has increased the need for realistic modeling of the carrier in vivo to guide prospectively the competitive development of these radiopharmaceuticals. In this article, examples have been taken from the literature to elucidate the benchmark of success that careful experimental design has fostered to bring these agents into clinical practice by creative and logical methodologies.

  11. Development of RFLP-PCR method for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species using single restriction enzyme MwoI.

    PubMed

    Diba, K; Mirhendi, H; Kordbacheh, P; Rezaie, S

    2014-01-01

    In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species.

  12. Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Robert Angelo

    The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that

  13. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  14. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  15. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  16. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  17. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  18. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  19. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  20. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  1. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  2. Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

    1989-11-01

    A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Exploring the importance of different items as reasons for leaving emergency medical services between fully compensated, partially compensated, and non-compensated/volunteer samples.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan; Gibson, Gregory; Bentley, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of different items as reasons for leaving the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) profession. An exit survey was returned by three distinct EMS samples: 127 full compensated, 45 partially compensated and 72 non-compensated/volunteer respondents, who rated the importance of 17 different items for affecting their decision to leave EMS. Unfortunately, there were a high percentage of "not applicable" responses for 10 items. We focused on those seven items that had a majority of useable responses across the three samples. Results showed that the desire for better pay and benefits was a more important reason for leaving EMS for the partially compensated versus fully compensated respondents. Perceived lack of advancement opportunity was a more important reason for leaving for the partially compensated and volunteer groups versus the fully compensated group. Study limitations are discussed and suggestions for future research offered.

  4. Implementation of "social and communicative competencies" in medical education. The importance of curriculum, organisational and human resource development

    PubMed Central

    Pruskil, Susanne; Deis, Nicole; Druener, Susanne; Kiessling, Claudia; Philipp, Swetlana; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With this article we want to support teachers and curriculum planners to be aware of and apply knowledge and recommendations of organisational (OD), curriculums (CD) and human resource development (HRD) ideas already in the planning phase of a project. Taking these into account can influence the process of change successfully and controlled during the introduction and establishment of curricula in the field of communication and social skills in medical education. Approach and Results: In the context of a multi-stage developmental process, a recommendation on CD for "Communicative and social competencies" was developed. The basis for it was made during two workshops of the GMA-committee "Communicative and social competencies" and supplemented by the available literature and the experience of communication experts. The "Undeloher Recommendation" (see attachment ) includes a compilation of recommendations and guiding questions, which is geared to the various phases of CD. Additionally, general approaches and recommendations of organisational and human resource development were integrated, which turned out to be particularly relevant in the process of CD. Thus, the "Undeloher recommendation" includes an orientation for each phase of the curriculum development process, the organisation and the staff in order to successfully implement a longitudinal curriculum. In addition to theoretical models the long-term discussion process and the personal experiences of a variety of curriculum planners and teachers have been integrated. Conclusion: The "Undeloher recommendation" can support the implementation processes of curricula in communication and social skills during development and realisation. Its application was reviewed in the context of workshops based on concrete examples. The participating teachers and curriculum planners assessed it to be very helpful. The recommendation goes beyond of what has been described in terms of content models in the CD so fare. In

  5. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors.

  6. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  7. Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Finnegan, D L; Tompson, A F B; Esser, B K; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J; Pawloski, G A

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus the RST changes with time due to radioactive decay. The abundance of a

  8. A rapid identification guide for larvae of the most common North American container-inhabiting Aedes species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Price, Dana C

    2013-09-01

    Mosquitoes are the single most important taxon of arthropods affecting human health globally, and container-inhabiting Aedes are important vectors of arthropod-borne viruses. Desiccation-resistant eggs of container Aedes have facilitated their invasion into new areas, primarily through transportation via the international trade in used tires. The public health threat from an introduced exotic species into a new area is imminent, and proactive measures are needed to identify significant vectors before onset of epidemic disease. In many cases, vector control is the only means to combat exotic diseases. Accurate identification of vectors is crucial to initiate aggressive control measures; however, many vector control personnel are not properly trained to identify introduced species in new geographic areas. We provide updated geographical ranges and a rapid identification guide with detailed larval photographs of the most common container-inhabiting Aedes in North America. Our key includes 5 native species (Aedes atropalpus, Ae. epactius, Ae. hendersoni, Ae. sierrensis, Ae. triseriatus) and 3 invasive species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus).

  9. [Determination of blood alcohol level of people who are involved in a judicial event of medical importance (case report)].

    PubMed

    Alkan, N; Demircan, T

    2001-10-01

    In some cases, determination of blood alcohol level is very important. The alcohol level at the time of an event, can affect the court decision and may lead to aggravate the penalty or on the contrary an acquittal. In this article, a criminal action, in one of Turkish High Criminal Court is examined. The case was about the death of a drunk person who had fallen down from the window of his girl friend's house which is on the third floor of an apartment. This person's parent applied to public prosecutor saying that their child did not fall down but was murdered by his girl friend. During this trial, in the victim's autopsy, no alcohol detected in blood in contrast with his girl friend's testimony. Because of this contradiction, a reasonable doubt has emerged that she was the murderer in this suspicious death. However, in the further stages of trial, the reasons of no alcohol detection in the autopsy is investigated. In the basis of this case, the importance and techniques of alcohol detection in blood is discussed with literature.

  10. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  11. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly

  12. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas O; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian F; Hansen, Michael A E; Samson, Robert A; Frisvad, Jens C

    2007-05-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl-sulochrin, TR-2, verruculogen, helvolic acid and pyripyropenes. Major compounds from A. lentulus were cyclopiazonic acid, terrein, neosartorin, auranthine and pyripyropenes A, E and O. Thus in the present study A. fumigatus and A. lentulus did not produce any of the same metabolites except for pyripyropenes. The fact that A. lentulus apparently does not produce gliotoxin supports the idea that other compounds than gliotoxin might play an important role in the effective invasiveness of A. lentulus. An overall comparison of secondary metabolite production by strains of the six species was achieved by analysis of fungal extracts by direct injection mass spectrometry and cluster analysis. Separate groupings were seen for all the six species even though only one isolate was included in this study for the two species A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis. PMID:17464844

  13. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand VII. Report on 42 species of calliphorid flies, including the taxonomic keys (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Tumrasvin, W; Kurahashi, H; Kano, R

    1979-12-01

    The calliphorid flies collected from different localities in Thailand were examined to study their medical importance as well as to study from the zoogeographical standpoint of view. Fourty-two species of 15 genera, Bengalia, Caliphora, Catapicephala, Chrysomya, Hemipyrellia, Hypopygiopsis, Lucilia, Melinda, Onesia, Phumosia, Pollenia, Polleniopsis, Tainanina, Tricycleopsis and Verticia belonging to both the subfamilies Calliphorinae and Chrysomyinae were found in Thailand. Many species are newly recorded from this country. The little known species, which are redescribed in detail with the illustration of the male genitalia and female ovipositors, and the key, which is revised to the genera and species, are also presented in this paper.

  14. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  15. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  16. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  17. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  18. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  19. Recent Advances in Molecular Image-Guided Cancer Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Duo; Sun, Xianlei; Gao, Liquan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-targeted radionuclide therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, especially those resistant to conventional therapies. However, to improve the use of targeted radionuclide therapy for the management of cancer patients, the in vivo behaviors, dosimetry, and efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents need to be well characterized and monitored. Molecular imaging, which is a powerful tool for the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes in living subjects at the cellular and molecular levels, plays an important role in the guidance of cancer radionuclide therapy. In this review, we introduce the radiotherapeutics for cancer-targeted therapy and summarize the most recent evidence supporting the use of molecular imaging to guide cancer radionuclide therapy.

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  1. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  3. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  4. The Importance of Medical Students' Attitudes Regarding Cognitive Competence for Teaching Applied Statistics: Multi-Site Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milic, Natasa M.; Masic, Srdjan; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena; Trajkovic, Goran; Bukumiric, Zoran; Savic, Marko; Milic, Nikola V.; Cirkovic, Andja; Gajic, Milan; Kostic, Mirjana; Ilic, Aleksandra; Stanisavljevic, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Background The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students’ attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students. Methods A validated Serbian Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) questionnaire was administered to medical students attending obligatory introductory courses in biostatistics from three medical universities in the Western Balkans. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications was performed through searches of Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Medline, and APA databases through 1994. A meta-analysis was performed for the correlation coefficients between SATS component scores and statistics achievement. Pooled estimates were calculated using random effects models. Results SATS-36 was completed by 461 medical students. Most of the students held positive attitudes towards statistics. Ability in mathematics and grade point average were associated in a multivariate regression model with the Cognitive Competence score, after adjusting for age, gender and computer ability. The results of 90 paired data showed that Affect, Cognitive Competence, and Effort scores demonstrated significant positive changes. The Cognitive Competence score showed the largest increase (M = 0.48, SD = 0.95). The positive correlation found between the Cognitive Competence score and students’ achievement (r = 0.41; p<0.001), was also shown in the meta-analysis (r = 0.37; 95% CI 0.32–0.41). Conclusion Students' subjective attitudes regarding Cognitive Competence at the beginning of the

  5. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  6. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  7. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  8. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  9. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

  10. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  11. Patient selection for personalized peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Ga-68 somatostatin receptor PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are malignant solid tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body. Differentiated neuroendocrine tumors overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which enable the diagnosis using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. Internalization and retention within the tumor cell are important for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using the same peptide. The use of the same DOTA-peptide for SSTR PET/CT using (68)Ga and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using therapeutic radionuclides like (177)Lu and (90)Y offers a unique theranostic advantage.

  12. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  13. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  14. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies. PMID:27582707

  15. Importance of Self-Motivation and Social Support in Medication Adherence in HIV-Infected Adolescents in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A Multicentre HYPNet Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; McDonald, Susan; Kim, Samuel; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents are a vulnerable population, not only to the acquisition of HIV, but also to poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with disease progression and a increased risk of onward viral transmission. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that aid or act as barriers to adherence in a UK population of adolescents and young adults receiving ART. A cross-sectional survey was completed of 138 adolescents (12-24 years) across 14 clinical and community sites in the UK and Ireland. Analysis of results was undertaken using Chi-square testing in SPSS. Of the 138 patients, 48% were female, and 52% were born outside of the UK. Fifty-two of the 138 (43%) reported being on ART for at least 8 years. More than a third of the patients have ever interrupted treatment since initiating ART. One hundred four of the 138 (75%) patients self-reported being >85% adherent to medication for 7 day recall. Self-motivation (e.g., having a routine, specific goal) was cited as being most helpful in medication compliance (33%), followed by reminders by friends and family (25%), with 20% identifing no specific factor. Only 15% chose interventions such as an adherence diary or mobile phone reminders as helpful factors, and 1% chose healthcare professional input such as home visits. This study highlights the importance of self-motivation and social support in medication adherence in an HIV-infected adolescent population, in preference to healthcare professional input. Education and motivational strategies may confer the biggest impact on sustained ART adherence amongst this vulnerable group. PMID:25825814

  16. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  17. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.

  18. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  19. Relationships between tumor size and curablity for uniformly targeted therapy with beta-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donoghue, J.A.; Bardies, M.; Wheldon, T.E. |

    1995-10-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is a new form of radiotherapy that differs in some important respects from external beam irradiation. One of the most important differences is due to the finite range of ionizing beta particles emitted as a result of radionuclide disintegration. The effects of particle range have important implications for the curability of tumors. We used a mathematical model to examine tumor curability and its relationship to tumor size for 22 beta-emitting radionuclides that may have therapeutic potential. The model assumed a uniform distribution of radionuclide throughout. For targeted radionuclide therapy, the relationship between tumor curability and tumor size is different from that for conventional external beam radiotherapy. With targeted radionuclides, there is an optimal tumor size for cure. Tumors smaller than the optimal size are less vulnerable to irradiation from radionuclides because a substantial proportion of the disintegration energy escapes and is deposited outside the tumor volume. We found an optimal tumor size for radiocurability by each of the 22 radionuclides considered. Optimal cure diameters range from less than 1 mm for short-range emitters such as {sup 199}Au and {sup 33}P to several centimeters for long-range emitters such as {sup 90}Y and {sup 188}Re. The energy emitted per disintegration may be used to predict optimal cure size for uniform distributions of radionuclide. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p < .0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.

  1. The preferences of users of electronic medical records in hospitals: quantifying the relative importance of barriers and facilitators of an innovation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently electronic medical records (EMRs) are implemented in hospitals, because of expected benefits for quality and safety of care. However the implementation processes are not unproblematic and are slower than needed. Many of the barriers and facilitators of the adoption of EMRs are identified, but the relative importance of these factors is still undetermined. This paper quantifies the relative importance of known barriers and facilitators of EMR, experienced by the users (i.e., nurses and physicians in hospitals). Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among physicians and nurses. Participants answered ten choice sets containing two scenarios. Each scenario included attributes that were based on previously identified barriers in the literature: data entry hardware, technical support, attitude head of department, performance feedback, flexibility of interface, and decision support. Mixed Multinomial Logit analysis was used to determine the relative importance of the attributes. Results Data on 148 nurses and 150 physicians showed that high flexibility of the interface was the factor with highest relative importance in their preference to use an EMR. For nurses this attribute was followed by support from the head of department, presence of performance feedback from the EMR and presence of decisions support. While for physicians this ordering was different: presence of decision support was relatively more important than performance feedback and support from the head of department. Conclusion Considering the prominent wish of all the intended users for a flexible interface, currently used EMRs only partially comply with the needs of the users, indicating the need for closer incorporation of user needs during development stages of EMRs. The differences in priorities amongst nurses and physicians show that different users have different needs during the implementation of innovations. Hospital management may use this information to

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric air over Switzerland during the last few decades.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, J A Corcho; Steinmann, P; Estier, S; Bochud, F; Haldimann, M; Froidevaux, P

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the burn-up of the SNAP-9A satellite led to large injections of radionuclides into the stratosphere. It is generally accepted that current levels of plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere are negligible. Here we show that those radionuclides are present in the stratosphere at higher levels than in the troposphere. The lower content in the troposphere reveals that dry and wet deposition efficiently removes radionuclides within a period of a few weeks to months. Since the stratosphere is thermally stratified and separated from the troposphere by the tropopause, radioactive aerosols remain longer. We estimate a mean residence time for plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere of 2.5-5 years. Our results also reveal that strong volcanic eruptions like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 have an important role in redistributing anthropogenic radionuclides from the stratosphere to the troposphere. PMID:24398434

  4. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  5. Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-05-01

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: {sup 27}Al (n, 2n){sup 26}Al, {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni, {sup 94}Mo(n,p) {sup 94}Nb, {sup 109}Ag(n,2n){sup 108m}Ag, {sup 179}Hf(n,2n) {sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 182}W(n,n{sup `}a){sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 151}Eu(n,2n) {sup 150}gEu, {sup 153}Eu(n,2n){sup 152+m2}Eu, {sup 159}Tb(n, 2n){sup 158}Tb, {sup 158}Dy(n,p){sup 158}Tb, {sup 193}Ir(n,2n) {sup 192m2}Ir, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186m}Re, {sup 62}Ni(n{gamma}) {sup 63}Ni, {sup 98}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 99}Mo({beta}-){sup 99}Tc, {sup 165}Ho(n,{gamma}) {sup 166m}Ho and {sup 191}Ir(n,{gamma}){sup 192m2}Ir. this paper documents progress achieved from the start of the program through mid- 1993.

  6. Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

  7. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary

  8. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary

  9. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  10. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  11. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  13. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  15. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  16. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  17. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  18. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  19. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of 82Rb and 72As, two important medical isotopes used in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Michael; McCutchan, E.; Smith, S.; Sonzogni, A.; Muench, L.; Greene, J.; Carpenter, M.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C.

    2015-10-01

    Both 82Rb and 72As are very important medical isotopes used in imaging procedures, yet their full decay schemes were last studied decades ago using low-sensitivity detection systems; high quality decay data is necessary to determine the total dose received by the patient, the background in imaging technologies, and shielding requirements in production facilities. To improve the decay data of these two isotopes, sources were produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) and then the Gammasphere array, consisting of 89 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, at Argonne National Laboratory was used to analyze the gamma-ray emissions from the daughter nuclei 82 Kr and 72 Ge. Gamma-ray singles and coincidence information were recorded and analyzed using Radware Gf3m software. Significant revisions were made to the level schemes including the observation of many new transitions and levels as well as a reduction in uncertainty on measured γ-ray intensities and deduced β-feedings. The new decay schemes as well as their impact on dose calculations will be presented. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contract Nos. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357 and by the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  20. [Evaluation of a new chromogenic medium (Candida ID) for the isolation and presumptive identification of Candida albicans and other medically important yeasts].

    PubMed

    Quindós, G; Alonso-Vargas, R; Helou, S; Arechavala, A; Martín-Mazuelos, E; Negroni, R

    2001-03-01

    Candidiasis is a frequent human infection caused mainly by Candida albicans. However, other species are emerging as important pathogens, as Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei or Candida guilliermondii. Rapid identification of clinical isolates could facilitate diagnosis and treatment. Candida ID (bioMerieux, Spain) is a new medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of yeasts: C. albicans grows as blue colonies, and C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, Candida kefyr and Candida lusitaniae as pink ones. The utility of Candida ID was evaluated with more than 700 clinical isolates and type culture collection strains from different genera including Candida, Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, and Rhodotorula. Presumptive identification was confirmed by germ tube test, microscopic morphology and chlamydoconidia production on corn meal agar and carbohydrate assimilation on API-ATB ID 32C or Vitek (bioMerieux). Growth on Candida ID was rapid (18-24 h) for most of the yeast strains tested. Sensitivity and specificity of identification of C. albicans was significantly high (>98%), since a very low number of isolates were found to be false negative or false positive. A better result was obtained for species growing as pink colonies (>99.5%). Detection of different species of medical important yeasts was easy with Candida ID, as perfectly distinct colors and textures of colonies were observed on this medium. Candida ID allowed the discrimination between C. glabrata (creamy and smooth) and C. krusei (rough and white) colonies. Other species showed different colony textures and colours, white being the predominant colour. Candida ID was very useful for the presumptive identification C. albicans isolates.

  1. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed.

  2. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like /sup 131/I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986.

  3. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in lacustrine sediments in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2011-07-01

    Establishing accurate historical records of the distribution, inventory and source of artificial radionuclides in the environment is important for environmental monitoring and radiological health protection due to their potential toxicity, and is also useful for identification and risk assessment of possible future environmental inputs of radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests and accidental release from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or nuclear power reactors. A sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to study the recent sedimentation of Pu isotopes in 11 lakes in China. The distribution of (137)Cs was investigated using the conventional radiometric analytical methods. Based on the isotopic compositions of Pu and the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu, the sources of artificial radionuclides were identified. The potential applications of Pu isotopes for sediment dating and for regional and global environmental change studies were discussed. PMID:21498412

  4. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, G. J.

    2000-12-01

    In this article a review is given on the research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades. Special attention will be directed to the radio-lanthanides for several reasons: firstly, the radio-lanthanides are three-valent metallic radionuclides which show any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for PET, β-- and Auger electron emission suitable for therapy). Even the alpha decay mode (suitable for therapy in selected cases) is available in the lanthanide group. Secondly, the 15 lanthanides can be seen chemically as one single element for labelling of tracer molecules, providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical molecule parameter and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Very recent developments in bioconjugation chemistry call for three-valent metallic radionuclides for all kinds of nuclear medical application: diagnosis, in vivo dosimetry and radionuclide therapy where the rare-earth elements will play an important role in future.

  5. [Contemporary legislation and importance of psychophysiologic examination in system of medical support for workers engaged into production with radiation and nuclear danger].

    PubMed

    Torubarov, F S; Isaeva, N A; Zvereva, Z F; Denisova, E A; Metliaeva, N A

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with contemporary legislation, the article covers materials on specification and approbation of concept model for psychophysiologic examination in medical establishments during medical examination of workers engaged into production with raidation and nuclear danger. The authors defined methodology, examination methods and designed an order of psychophysiologic examination. The psychophysiologic examination and purpose-oriented rehabilitation appeared efficient. PMID:23210182

  6. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  7. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  8. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  9. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 2: naturally occurring radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Gil-García, C; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2009-09-01

    Predicting the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for normal release, accidental, disposal or remediation scenarios in order to assess exposure requires the availability of an important number of generic parameter values. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is the solid liquid distribution coefficient, K(d), which is used to predict radionuclide-soil interaction and subsequent radionuclide transport in the soil column. This article presents a review of K(d) values for uranium, radium, lead, polonium and thorium based on an extensive literature survey, including recent publications. The K(d) estimates were presented per soil groups defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), although the texture class seemed not to significantly affect K(d). Where relevant, other K(d) classification systems are proposed and correlations with soil parameters are highlighted. The K(d) values obtained in this compilation are compared with earlier review data.

  10. Medical care employment in the United States, 1968 to 1993: The importance of health sector jobs for African Americans and women.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, D U; Lewontin, J P; Woolhandler, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the social and economic impact of health sector employment. METHODS: US medical care employment was analyzed for each year between 1968 and 1993, with data from the March Current Population Survey. RESULTS: Between 1968 and 1993, medical care employment grew from 4.32 million to 11.40 million persons, accounting for 5.7% of all jobs in 1968 and 8.4% in 1993. Today, one seventh of employed women work in medical care; they hold 78% of medical care jobs. One fifth of all employed African-American women work in medical care. African-Americans hold 15.5% of jobs in the health sector: they hold 24.1% of the jobs in nursing homes, 15.9% of the jobs in hospitals, but only 5.6% of the jobs in practitioners' offices. Hispanics constitute 6.4% of medical care employees. Real wages rose 25% to 50% between 1968 and 1993 for most health occupations. Wages of registered nurses rose 86%; physicians' incomes rose 22%. Wages of nursing home workers were far lower than those of comparable hospital workers, and the gap has widened. In 1993, 11.7% of all medical care workers lacked health insurance and 597 000 lived in poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital cuts and the continuing neglect of long-term care exacerbate unemployment and poverty among women and African Americans. PMID:8604783

  11. Spaced Education and the Importance of Raising Awareness of the Personal Data Protection Act: A Medical Student Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) of Singapore was first passed in 2012, with subsequent enforcement regulations effective in 2014. Although medical education via digital platforms is not often used in medical schools in Singapore as of yet, many current means of communication at all levels in the medical community from medical schools to clinics to hospitals are unsecure and noncompliant with the PDPA. Objective This pilot study will assess the effectiveness of MyDoc, a secure, mobile telehealth application and messaging platform, as an educational tool, secure communications tool, and a tool to raise awareness of the PDPA. Methods By replacing current methods of communication with MyDoc and using weekly clinical case discussions in the form of unidentifiable clinical photos and questions and answers, we raised awareness the PDPA among medical students and gained feedback and determined user satisfaction with this innovative system via questionnaires handed to 240 medical students who experienced using MyDoc over a 6-week period. Results All 240 questionnaires were answered with very positive and promising results, including all 100 students who were not familiar with the PDPA prior to the study attributing their awareness of it to MyDoc. Conclusions Potential uses of MyDoc in a medical school setting include PDPA-compliant student-to-student and student-to-doctor communication and clinical group case discussions with the sharing of patient-sensitive data, including clinical images and/or videos of hospital patients that students may benefit from viewing from an educational perspective. With our pilot study having excellent results in terms of acceptance and satisfaction from medical students and raising awareness of the PDPA, the integration of a secure, mobile digital health application and messaging platform is something all medical schools should consider, because our students of today are our doctors of tomorrow. PMID:27731866

  12. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Automated Identification of Medically Important Bacteria by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Using a Novel Comprehensive Database, 16SpathDB▿

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Yeung, Juilian M. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. To overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16SpathDB (http://147.8.74.24/16SpathDB) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology and evaluated its use for automated identification of these bacteria. Among 91 nonduplicated bacterial isolates collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory, 71 (78%) were reported by 16SpathDB as a single bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, 19 (20.9%) were reported as more than one bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, and 1 (1.1%) was reported as no match. For the 71 bacterial isolates reported as a single bacterial species, all results were identical to their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach. For the 19 bacterial isolates reported as more than one bacterial species, all results contained their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach and all of them had their true identities as the “best match in 16SpathDB.” For the isolate (Gordonibacter pamelaeae) reported as no match, the bacterium has never been reported to be associated with human disease and was not included in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 16SpathDB is an automated, user-friendly, efficient, accurate, and regularly updated database for 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:21389154

  14. A Case of Intractable Left Forearm Congenital Arteriovenous Fistula Ending with Amputation: Importance of New Medical Information Obtained via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajia; Shimada, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to consider the importance of medical information obtained via the Internet for difficult cases in hospitals, especially in those located in rural areas. We report here a case of congenital arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the upper extremities. Patient: A 30-year-old lady was transported to our hospital by ambulance due to massive bleeding in her left hand. She was seen by our current cardiovascular surgery team for the first time, although she had been diagnosed with congenital AVF of the left arm 9 years previously. Because it was asymptomatic, she was followed up by observation. During 5 years of observation, symptoms such as cyanosis, pain, and refractory ulcers gradually developed. When she was 26 years old, she was referred to a university hospital in Akita, but surgery had already been judged to be impossible. When she was 30 years old, traumatic bleeding in her left hand and hemorrhagic shock led her to be taken to our hospital by ambulance. Using the Internet, we found an institution that had treated a large number of cases of AVF. After controlling the bleeding, we referred her to that institution. However, she could not be treated without an above-elbow amputation. Conclusion: Congenital AVF in the upper extremities is a rare vascular anomaly and has been generally accepted to be an extremely difficult disease to treat. Treatment should be started as early as possible before the presence of any symptoms. When a specialist is not available near the hospital, precise information must be found using the Internet and the patient should be referred without any delay. PMID:25650050

  15. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  16. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Meck, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  18. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  19. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  20. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  1. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F

    2015-06-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.

  2. Spreadsheet program to ascertain residuals radionuclide concentrations (SPARRC), version 1.0 (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    Several radionuclides such as radon, radium, uranium, alpha emitters, and beta and photon emitters are to be regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. When water treatment plants remove these contaminants from drinking water sources, the contaminants get transferred to the treatment plant residuals such as wash water, brines, and sludges. The presence of radionuclides in treatment plant wastes, depending on the concentration relative to allowable limits, may limit the use of less expensive disposal options for those residuals, thereby increasing the costs. Depending on the concentration of co-contaminants in residuals, thereby increasing the costs. Depending on the concentration of co-contaminants in residuals, the residuals might be classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cost of residuals disposal is also a function of the volume (and/or mass) of the residuals. Therefore, it is important to estimate the quantities, radionuclide concentrations, and co-contaminant concentrations of residuals generated from water treatment plants that remove naturally-occurring radionuclides. The Spreadsheet Program to Ascertain Residuals radionuclide Concentrations (SPARRC) can be used to estimate the waste volumes and concentrations of radionuclides (and be used co-contaminants) in the residuals from water treatment plants removing naturally-occurring radionuclides. This computer program has been developed in support of the EPA`s revision to the 1990 document entitled `Suggested Guidelines for the Disposal of Drinking Water Treatment Wastes Containing Naturally Occurring Radionuclides`.

  3. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  5. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-01

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  6. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  7. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, Sergey V; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu; Vodeneev, Vladimir A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2015-12-28

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  10. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  11. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  12. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  13. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  14. Medical confidence.

    PubMed

    Havard, J

    1985-03-01

    If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves.

  15. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  16. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  17. Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Syndrome Predisposing to Intellectual Disability: What Prospective Parents Need to Know and the Importance of Non-Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…

  18. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  19. Differences in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1993-12-01

    Government regulations limiting public exposure to radionuclides and chemicals have historically been developed by regulatory agencies using different approaches with the result that levels of protection vary for the two classes of contaminants. These differences create difficulties in determining equitable regulatory measures when both radionuclides and chemical pollutants are involved. Generally, radiation exposure is not regulated as stringently as chemical exposure (Travis et al, 1989). The International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends limiting excess environmental radiation exposure to the general public to 100 millirem per year (mrem/yr) (ICRP, 1991), a lifetime cancer risk of about 3.5E-3. An acceptable level of risk for chemical exposures is generally considered to be below 1E-6. Differences in regulatory approach for radionuclides and chemicals evoke debate over why they are different and which regulation strategy is better. Because these pollutants often coexist (mixed waste sites, contaminated metals and facilities, etc.), it is important to analyze inconsistencies in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides and establish a more consistent approach to defining an acceptable level of exposure for these contaminants.

  20. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

  1. Analysis of radionuclide release from spent ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Su, S.I.; Yim, M.S.

    2000-04-01

    Ion-exchange resins represent one of the most important waste streams in low-level waste management due to the unstabilized nature of the waste form and the large amount of radioactivity contained. To describe the release of radionuclides from ion-exchange resins stored in a disposal facility, a mechanistic release model was developed. The model is based on description of radionuclide migration both in the resin bead phase and the bulk pore water phase within waste containers. This modeling setup provides the capability to describe all the major physical processes taking place for the release of radionuclides. Because of the difficulty in obtaining analytical solutions, the numerical solution approach was employed in this model. The new resin release model was used to examine key processes and parameters in describing radionuclide release. These were found to be diffusion within the bulk pore water phase, flow rate of infiltrating leachant water, concentration of counterions of the leachant water, and sorption during the transport in the bulk pore water phase. Some parameters were found to have little impact in describing the release. These include the interdiffusion coefficient within resin beads and the density and radius of resin beads. Existing simplified modeling approaches were also compared with the new resin release model, and validities of using these simplified models are discussed.

  2. Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides via contaminated wounds.

    PubMed

    Toohey, R E; Bertelli, L; Sugarman, S L; Wiley, A L; Christensen, D M

    2011-05-01

    The NCRP Wound Model, which describes the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment, has been combined with the ICRP element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. These coefficients can be used to generate derived regulatory guidance (i.e., the activity in a wound that would result in an effective dose of 20 or 50 mSv, or in some cases, a organ-equivalent dose of 500 mSv) and clinical decision guidance (i.e., activity levels that would indicate the need for consideration of medical intervention to remove activity from the wound site, administration of decorporation therapy or both). Data are provided for 38 radionuclides commonly encountered in various activities such as nuclear weapons, fuel fabrication or recycling, waste disposal, medicine, research, and nuclear power. These include 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 59Fe, 57,58,60Co, 85,89,90Sr, 99mTc, 106Ru, 125,129,131I, 134,137Cs, 192Ir, 201Tl, 210Po, 226,228Ra, 228,230,232Th, 234,235,238U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 241Am, 242,244Cm, and 252Cf.

  3. Real time cardiac radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jarkewicz, G.G.

    1986-04-29

    A data acquisition system is described for use in radionuclide cardiac imaging of a patient having been administered a myocardium specific radionuclide, comprising: (a) means for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart; (b) first temporary storage means for accumulating respective pages of data corresponding to nuclear events during each cardiac cycle; (c) means, responsive to the means for monitoring, for determining the time duration of each successive cardiac cycle; (d) means for comparing each determined duration of a cardiac cycle with a preselected time duration range; (e) second temporary storage means; and (f) means for conditionally transferring pages of data from the first temporary storage means to the second temporary storage means if the measured duration associated with each page has predetermined correspondence with the preselected duration range, whereby pages of data having the predetermined correspondence may be collated into a quasi-real time study, while pages of data having different correspondence with the preselected time duration range are discarded from the study.

  4. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  5. Patient selection for personalized peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Ga-68 somatostatin receptor PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are malignant solid tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body. Differentiated neuroendocrine tumors overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which enable the diagnosis using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. Internalization and retention within the tumor cell are important for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using the same peptide. The use of the same DOTA-peptide for SSTR PET/CT using (68)Ga and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using therapeutic radionuclides like (177)Lu and (90)Y offers a unique theranostic advantage. PMID:25029937

  6. Radionuclide Inventories for DOE SNF Waste Stream and Uranium/Thorium Carbide Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Goluoglu

    2000-03-28

    The objective of this calculation is to generate radionuclide inventories for the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream destined for disposal at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the calculation of two radionuclide inventories; one for all uranium/thorium carbide fuels in the waste stream and one for the entire waste stream. These inventories will provide input in future screening calculations to be performed by Performance Assessment to determine important radionuclides.

  7. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  8. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  9. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  10. Microbial transformations of natural organic compounds and radionuclides in subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-10-01

    A major national concern in the subsurface disposal of energy wastes is the contamination of ground and surface waters by waste leachates containing radionuclides, toxic metals, and organic compounds. Microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of organic compounds, radionuclides, and toxic metals present in the waste and affect their mobility in subsurface environments. Microbial processes involved in dissolution, mobilization, and immobilization of toxic metals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are briefly reviewed. Metal complexing agents and several organic acids produced by microbial action affect mobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals in subsurface environments. Information on the persistence of and biodegradation rates of synthetic as well as microbiologically produced complexing agents is scarce but important in determining the mobility of metal organic complexes in subsoils. Several gaps in knowledge in the area of microbial transformation of naturally occurring organics, radionuclides, and toxic metals have been identified, and further basic research has been suggested. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  12. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents.

  13. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon–thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m−3, respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  14. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  15. EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACCUMULATION IN SOIL DUE TO LONG-TERM IRRIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    De Wesley Wu

    2006-04-16

    Radionuclide accumulation in soil due to long-term irrigation is an important part of the model for predicting radiation dose in a long period of time. The model usually assumes an equilibrium condition in soil with a constant irrigation rate, so that radionuclide concentration in soil does not change with time and can be analytically solved. This method is currently being used for the dose assessment in the Yucca Mountain project, which requires evaluating radiation dose for a period of 10,000 years. There are several issues associated with the method: (1) time required for the equilibrium condition, (2) validity of constant irrigation rate, (3) agricultural land use for a long period of time, and (4) variation of a radionuclide concentration in water. These issues are evaluated using a numerical method with a simple model built in the GoldSim software. Some key radionuclides, Tc-99, Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 are selected as representative radionuclides. The results indicate that the equilibrium model is acceptable except for a radionuclide that requires long time to accumulate in soil and that its concentration in water changes dramatically with time (i.e. a sharp peak). Then the calculated dose for that radionuclide could be overestimated using the current equilibrium method.

  16. Assessing field-scale migration of radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site: "mobile" species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q H; Rose, T P; Zavarin, M; Smith, D K; Moran, J E; Zhao, P H

    2008-10-01

    Many long-lived radionuclides are present in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. In conjunction with a comprehensive geochemical review of radionuclides (3H, 14C, 36Cl, 99Tc and 129I) that are presumably mobile in the subsurface, we synthesized a body of radionuclide activity data measured from groundwater samples collected at 18 monitoring wells, to qualitatively assess their migration at the NTS over distances of hundreds of meters and over timescales of decades. Tritium and 36Cl showed little evidence of retardation, while the transport of 14C may have been retarded by its isotopic exchange with carbonate minerals in the aquifer. Observed local reducing conditions (either natural or test-induced) will impact the mobility of certain redox-sensitive radionuclides (especially 99Tc) that were otherwise soluble and readily transported under oxidizing conditions. Conversely, strongly oxidizing conditions may impact the mobility of 129I which is mobile under reducing conditions. The effect of iodine speciation on its transport deserves further attention. Indication of delayed transport of some "mobile" radionuclides (especially 99Tc) in the groundwater at the NTS suggested the importance of redox conditions of the natural system in controlling the fate and transport of radionuclides, which has implications in the enhanced performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, located adjacent to the NTS, to store high-level nuclear wastes as well as management of radionuclide contamination in legacy nuclear operations facilities.

  17. Complementary roles of radionuclide and computed tomographic imaging in evaluating trauma.

    PubMed

    Berg, B C

    1983-04-01

    For 6 consecutive months all triage acceptable emergency room patients at the St. Francis Medical Center with blunt or penetrating trauma involving the abdomen were included in this review. Computed tomography and radionuclide imaging of the abdomen and urinary tract was performed in addition to the usually indicated diagnostic procedures. In our hospital the Radiology Department is adjacent to the Emergency Department. Close cooperation of the trauma team, the imaging physician and the technologists, has provided a stable, reproducible pattern in the performance and evaluation of nuclear medicine and radiographic techniques. Teleradiologic techniques of image transmission over the telephone lines permits immediate availability of the expertise of the radiologist. This correlation has provided an opportunity for improving patient care and refining our protocol in the care and management of the acutely traumatized patient. One-hundred-twenty-seven patients classed as acute trauma cases were processed during those 6 mo. Forty-two of these patients were not included in this study. They were triaged as immediate surgical emergencies, had incurred injury limited to the head, extremities or thorax, or were not injured sufficiently to require the special care of the designated trauma team. The 85 patients in this study included 56 males and 29 females. The patient age ranged from 3- to 71-yr-of-age. The median age was 29.3 yr. The author feels the findings in this evaluation of the complementary roles of radionuclide imaging and computed tomography should be of value to others in the formulation of their acute trauma care protocol. Nuclear medicine techniques retain an important role in the diagnosis of several sequelae of head trauma. Sensitivity and accuracy for detection of subdural hematoma are not as high as those of transmission computed tomography even if proper techniques are employed. Other important applications, however, include the diagnosis of normal pressure

  18. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  19. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  20. Analysis of fission and activation radionuclides produced by a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation and identification of the top dose-producing radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Terry; Foster, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The radiological assessment of the nuclear fallout (i.e., fission and neutron-activation radionuclides) from a nuclear detonation is complicated by the large number of fallout radionuclides. This paper provides the initial isotopic source term inventory of the fallout from a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation and identifies the significant and insignificant radiological dose producing radionuclides over 11 dose integration time periods (time phases) of interest. A primary goal of this work is to produce a set of consistent, time phase-dependent lists of the top dose-producing radionuclides that can be used to prepare radiological assessment calculations and data products (e.g., maps of areas that exceed protective action guidelines) in support of public and worker protection decisions. The ranked lists of top dose-producing radionuclides enable assessors to perform atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiological dose assessment modeling more quickly by using relatively short lists of radionuclides without significantly compromising the accuracy of the modeling and the dose projections. This paper also provides a superset-list of the top dose-producing fallout radionuclides from a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation that can be used to perform radiological assessments over any desired time phase. Furthermore, this paper provides information that may be useful to monitoring and sampling and laboratory analysis personnel to help understand which radionuclides are of primary concern. Finally, this paper may be useful to public protection decision makers because it shows the importance of quickly initiating public protection actions to minimize the radiological dose from fallout. PMID:24978286

  1. Analysis of fission and activation radionuclides produced by a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation and identification of the top dose-producing radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Terry; Foster, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The radiological assessment of the nuclear fallout (i.e., fission and neutron-activation radionuclides) from a nuclear detonation is complicated by the large number of fallout radionuclides. This paper provides the initial isotopic source term inventory of the fallout from a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation and identifies the significant and insignificant radiological dose producing radionuclides over 11 dose integration time periods (time phases) of interest. A primary goal of this work is to produce a set of consistent, time phase-dependent lists of the top dose-producing radionuclides that can be used to prepare radiological assessment calculations and data products (e.g., maps of areas that exceed protective action guidelines) in support of public and worker protection decisions. The ranked lists of top dose-producing radionuclides enable assessors to perform atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiological dose assessment modeling more quickly by using relatively short lists of radionuclides without significantly compromising the accuracy of the modeling and the dose projections. This paper also provides a superset-list of the top dose-producing fallout radionuclides from a uranium-fueled nuclear detonation that can be used to perform radiological assessments over any desired time phase. Furthermore, this paper provides information that may be useful to monitoring and sampling and laboratory analysis personnel to help understand which radionuclides are of primary concern. Finally, this paper may be useful to public protection decision makers because it shows the importance of quickly initiating public protection actions to minimize the radiological dose from fallout.

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  3. Radionuclide Transport in Tuff and Carbonate Fractures from Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Pletcher, R; Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Eaton, G; Hu, Q; Ramon, E; Walensky, J; Zhao, P

    2006-02-01

    In the Yucca Flat basin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), 747 shaft and tunnel nuclear detonations were conducted primarily within the tuff confining unit (TCU) or the overlying alluvium. The TCU in the Yucca Flat basin is hypothesized to reduce radionuclide migration to the regional carbonate aquifer (lower carbonate aquifer) due to its wide-spread aerial extent and chemical reactivity. However, shortcuts through the TCU by way of fractures may provide a migration path for radionuclides to the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA). It is, therefore, imperative to understand how radionuclides migrate or are retarded in TCU fractures. Furthermore, understanding the migration behavior of radionuclides once they reach the fractured LCA is important for predicting contaminant transport within the regional aquifer. The work presented in this report includes: (1) information on the radionuclide reactive transport through Yucca Flat TCU fractures (likely to be the primary conduit to the LCA), (2) information on the reactive transport of radionuclides through LCA fractures and (3) data needed to calibrate the fracture flow conceptualization of predictive models. The predictive models are used to define the extent of contamination for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. Because of the complex nature of reactive transport in fractures, a stepwise approach to identifying mechanisms controlling radionuclide transport was used. In the first set of TCU experiments, radionuclide transport through simple synthetic parallel-plate fractured tuff cores was examined. In the second, naturally fractured TCU cores were used. For the fractured LCA experiments, both parallel-plate and rough-walled fracture transport experiments were conducted to evaluate how fracture topography affects radionuclide transport. Tuff cores were prepared from archived UE-7az and UE-7ba core obtained from the USGS core library, Mercury, Nevada. Carbonate cores were prepared from archived ER-6-1 core, also obtained

  4. Evolving Important Role of Lutetium-177 for Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ambikalmajan M R; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) is a late entrant into the nuclear medicine therapy arena but is expected to become one of the most widely used therapeutic radionuclides. This paper analyses the reason for the increasing preference of (177)Lu as a therapeutic radionuclide. While the radionuclidic properties favor its use for several therapeutic applications, the potential for large scale production of (177)Lu is also an important aspect for its acceptability as a therapeutic radionuclide. This introductory discussion also summarizes some developing clinical uses and suggested future directions for applications of (177)Lu.

  5. Role of Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography in Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Endocrine Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David A; Hofman, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This review provides practical guidance for clinicians involved in the management of endocrine malignancies, including endocrinologists, medical oncologists, surgeons and nuclear medicine specialists regarding the indications and use of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose F-18 (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT), particularly with respect to targeted radionuclide therapy. Key principles of FDG PET/CT for radionuclide therapy are explored in detail using gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors as a prototype endocrine malignancy. The relevant literature is reviewed, and practical application in this new and emerging field is highlighted with the use of case examples.

  6. Community understanding of Respondent-Driven Sampling in a medical research setting in Uganda: importance for the use of RDS for public health research

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Tarsh, Matilda Nadagire; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; White, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely-used variant of snowball sampling. Respondents are selected not from a sampling frame, but from a social network of existing members of the sample. Incentives are provided for participation and for the recruitment of others. Ethical and methodological criticisms have been raised about RDS. Our purpose was to evaluate whether these criticisms were justified. In this study RDS was used to recruit male household heads in rural Uganda. We investigated community members’ understanding and experience of the method, and explored how these may have affected the quality of the RDS survey data. Our findings suggest that because participants recruit participants, the use of RDS in medical research may result in increased difficulties in gaining informed consent, and data collected using RDS may be particularly susceptible to bias due to differences in the understanding of key concepts between researchers and members of the community. PMID:24273435

  7. Community understanding of Respondent-Driven Sampling in a medical research setting in Uganda: importance for the use of RDS for public health research.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, Nicky; Tarsh, Matilda Nadagire; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; White, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely-used variant of snowball sampling. Respondents are selected not from a sampling frame, but from a social network of existing members of the sample. Incentives are provided for participation and for the recruitment of others. Ethical and methodological criticisms have been raised about RDS. Our purpose was to evaluate whether these criticisms were justified. In this study RDS was used to recruit male household heads in rural Uganda. We investigated community members' understanding and experience of the method, and explored how these may have affected the quality of the RDS survey data. Our findings suggest that because participants recruit participants, the use of RDS in medical research may result in increased difficulties in gaining informed consent, and data collected using RDS may be particularly susceptible to bias due to differences in the understanding of key concepts between researchers and members of the community.

  8. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-12-31

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  9. Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

    1995-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  10. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk W.; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  11. Predicting exposure of wildlife in radionuclide contaminated wetland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Andersson, P; Beresford, N A; Yankovich, T L; Wood, M D; Johansen, M P; Vives i Batlle, J; Twining, J; Keum, D-K; Bollhöfer, A; Doering, C; Ryan, B; Grzechnik, M; Vandenhove, H

    2015-01-01

    Many wetlands support high biodiversity and are protected sites, but some are contaminated with radionuclides from routine or accidental releases from nuclear facilities. This radiation exposure needs to be assessed to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. Existing biota dose models cover generic terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, not wetlands specifically. This paper, which was produced under IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) II programme, describes an evaluation of how models can be applied to radionuclide contaminated wetlands. Participants used combinations of aquatic and terrestrial model parameters to assess exposure. Results show the importance of occupancy factor and food source (aquatic or terrestrial) included. The influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates is also apparent. In general, terrestrial parameters provided acceptable predictions for wetland organisms. However, occasionally predictions varied by three orders of magnitude between assessors. Possible further developments for biota dose models and research needs are identified. PMID:25463715

  12. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  13. Chelators for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengxin; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of chelating agents for copper radionuclides in positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals has been a highly active and important area of study in recent years. The rapid evolution of chelators has resulted in highly specific copper chelators that can be readily conjugated to biomolecules and efficiently radiolabeled to form stable complexes in vivo. Chelators are not only designed for conjugation to monovalent biomolecules but also for incorporation into multivalent targeting ligands such as theranostic nanoparticles. These advancements have strengthened the role of copper radionuclides in the fields of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. This review emphasizes developments of new copper chelators that have most greatly advanced the field of copper-based radiopharmaceuticals over the past 5 years. PMID:24347474

  14. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  15. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  16. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  17. Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jay Chol

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient.

  18. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena.

  19. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  20. [The importance of simulation in team training on obstetric emergencies: results of the first phase of the national plan for continuous medical training].

    PubMed

    Maio Matos, Francisco; Sousa Gomes, Andrea; Costa, Fernando Jorge; Santos Silva, Isabel; Carvalhas, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Obstetric emergencies are unexpected and random. The traditional model for medical training of these acute events has included lectures combined with sporadic clinical experiences, but this educational method has inherent limitations. Given the variety of manual skills that must be learned and high-risk environment, Obstetrics is uniquely suited for simulation. New technological educational tools provide an opportunity to learn and master technical skills needed in emergent situations as well as the opportunity to rehearse and learn from mistakes without risks to patients. The goals of this study are to assess which are the factors that trainees associate to human fallibility before and after clinical simulation based training; to compare the confidence level to solve emergent obstetric situations between interns and experts with up to 5 years of experience before and after training, and to determine the value that trainees give to simulation as a teaching tool on emergent events. 31 physicians participated at this course sessions. After the course, we verified changes in the factores that trainees associate to human fallibility, an increase in confidence level to solve emergent obstetric and an increase in the value that trainees give to simulation as a teaching tool.

  1. Radionuclide angiography for assessment of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Welji, A.N.; Shapiro, J.H.; Angtuaco, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective study of 66 radionuclide angiograms of the thyroid showed that a simple visual inspection of the images is highly accurate for diagnosing hyperthyroidism. Mathematical analysis with computers is not necessary.

  2. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  3. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  4. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  5. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.

  6. Biodecontamination of radionuclide contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A.; Rogers, R.D.; Benson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Within the nuclear industry, there are literally hundreds of square miles of radionuclide contaminated concrete surfaces. A novel technology for biologically decontaminating concrete is being developed. The technology exploits a naturally occurring phenomenon referred to as microbially influenced degradation (MID) in which bacteria produce acids that dissolve the cement matrix of the concrete. Accelerated testing in laboratory conditions was conducted. The bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans, supplied from a continuous flow bioreactor, was applied to an exposed concrete surface. A control chamber exposing concrete to sterile media was operated under the same conditions. One hundred percent of surrogate cobalt contamination was recovered from the Thiobacillus treated concrete and 1 mm thickness of concrete material was removed in 60 days. Prototype chambers that can be mounted directly to concrete surfaces have been designed to allow control of environmental conditions to promote MID after inoculation of the surface with bacteria. Studies to determine optimum source and quantity of reduced sulfur, bacterial species or consortia best suited for rapid MID, and methods of application and delivery of bacteria and nutrients will be discussed.

  7. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  9. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  10. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  11. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed.

  12. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  13. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  14. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae. PMID:27072901

  15. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae.

  16. Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2012-06-12

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured γ-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found (134)Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1)) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no (134)Cs and background concentrations (~1 Bq kg(-1)) of (137)Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of (134)Cs) and potentially migration timing (using (134)Cs:(137)Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

  17. Distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in chernozem soil/crop system from stationary experiments.

    PubMed

    Sarap, Nataša B; Rajačić, Milica M; Đalović, Ivica G; Šeremešić, Srđan I; Đorđević, Aleksandar R; Janković, Marija M; Daković, Marko Z

    2016-09-01

    The present paper focuses on the determination of radiological characteristics of cultivated chernozem soil and crops from long-term field experiments, taking into account the importance of distribution and transfer of radionuclides in the soil-plant system, especially in agricultural cropland. The investigation was performed on the experimental fields where maize, winter wheat, and rapeseed were cultivated. Analysis of radioactivity included determination of the gross alpha and beta activity as a screening method, as well as the activities of the following radionuclides: natural ((210)Pb, (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (7)Be) and artificial ((90)Sr and (137)Cs). The activities of natural and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry, while the artificial radionuclide (90)Sr was determined by a radiochemical analytical method. Based on the obtained results for the specific activity of (40)K, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr, accumulation factors for these radionuclides were calculated in order to estimate transfer of radionuclides from soil to crops. The results of performed analyses showed that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production through the grown crops. PMID:27250084

  18. Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2012-06-12

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured γ-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found (134)Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1)) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no (134)Cs and background concentrations (~1 Bq kg(-1)) of (137)Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of (134)Cs) and potentially migration timing (using (134)Cs:(137)Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean.

  19. Detectors for medical radioisotope imaging: demands and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.

    2004-10-01

    Radioisotope imaging is used to obtain information on biochemical processes in living organisms, being a tool of increasing importance for medical diagnosis. The improvement and expansion of these techniques depend on the progress attained in several areas, such as radionuclide production, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detectors and image reconstruction algorithms. This review paper will be concerned only with the detector technology. We will review in general terms the present status of medical radioisotope imaging instrumentation with the emphasis put on the developments of high-resolution gamma cameras and PET detector systems for scinti-mammography and animal imaging. The present trend to combine two or more modalities in a single machine in order to obtain complementary information will also be considered.

  20. Assessments for High Dose Radionuclide Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2003-10-01

    Advances in the biotechnology of cell-specific targeting of cancer, and the increased number of clinical trials involving treatment of cancer patients with radiolabeled antibodies, peptides, and similar delivery vehicles have led to an increase in the number of high-dose radionuclide therapy procedures. Optimized radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment is based on the concept of absorbed dose to the dose-limiting normal organ or tissue. The limiting normal tissue is often the red marrow, but it may sometimes be lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or kidneys. Appropriate treatment planning requires assessment of radiation dose to several internal organs and tissues, and usually involves biodistribution studies in the patient using a tracer amount of radionuclide bound to the targeting agent and imaged at sequential time points using a planar gamma camera. Time-activity curves are developed from the imaging data for the major organs tissues of concern, for the whole body, and sometimes for selected tumors. Patient-specific factors often require that dose estimates be customized for each patient. The Food and Drug Administration regulates the experimental use of investigational new drugs and requires reasonable calculation of radiation absorbed dose to the whole body and to critical organs using methods prescribed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Review of high-dose studies in the U.S. and elsewhere shows that 1) some studies are conducted with minimal dosimetry, 2) the marrow dose is difficult to establish and is subject to large uncertainties, and 3) despite the general availability of MIRD software, internal dosimetry methods are often inconsistent from one clinical center to another.

  1. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  2. Reiner Solenander (1524-1601): an important 16th century medical practitioner and his original report of Vesalius' death in 1564.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Goddeeris, Theodoor; Steeno, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Reiner Solenander (1524-1601) was a physician born in the Duchy of Cleves, who got his education at the University of Leuven and at various universities in Italy and in France. Back at home he became the court physician of William V and later of his son John William. In this article his life and works are discussed. A report on the death of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), noted down by Solenander in May 1566, one year and seven months after the death of Vesalius, is discussed in detail. Due to the importance of that document a copy of its first publication is given, together with a transcription and a translation as well. It indicates that Vesalius did not die in a shipwreck. PMID:27604197

  3. Reiner Solenander (1524-1601): an important 16th century medical practitioner and his original report of Vesalius' death in 1564.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Goddeeris, Theodoor; Steeno, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Reiner Solenander (1524-1601) was a physician born in the Duchy of Cleves, who got his education at the University of Leuven and at various universities in Italy and in France. Back at home he became the court physician of William V and later of his son John William. In this article his life and works are discussed. A report on the death of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), noted down by Solenander in May 1566, one year and seven months after the death of Vesalius, is discussed in detail. Due to the importance of that document a copy of its first publication is given, together with a transcription and a translation as well. It indicates that Vesalius did not die in a shipwreck.

  4. Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    PubMed

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M; Brunk, J L; Eagle, R J; Jones, H E

    1997-07-01

    Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of 137Cs, 60Co and 207Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and 90Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. The results from an analysis of the radionuclide concentrations in the flesh samples indicate the removal rates for the 3 radionuclides are significantly different. 137Cs is removed from the lagoons with an effective half life of 9-12 y. Little 60Co is mobilized to the water column so that it is depleted in both environments, primarily through radioactive decay. The properties of 207Bi are different

  5. Estimation of aquifer radionuclide concentrations by postprocessing of conservative tracer model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, M.; Vandersteen, K.; Rogiers, B.

    2012-04-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in aquifers represent an important indicator in estimating the impact of a planned surface disposal for low and medium level short-lived radioactive waste in Belgium, developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS), who also coordinates and leads the corresponding research. Estimating aquifer concentrations for individual radionuclides represents a computational challenge because (a) different retardation values are applied to different hydrogeologic units and (b) sequential decay reactions with radionuclides of various sorption characteristics cause long computational times until a steady-state is reached. The presented work proposes a methodology reducing substantially the computational effort by postprocessing the results of a prior non-reactive tracer simulation. These advective transport results represent the steady-state concentration - source flux ratio and the break-through time at each modelling cell. These two variables are further used to estimate the individual radionuclide concentrations by (a) scaling the steady-state concentrations to the source fluxes of individual radionuclides; (b) applying the radioactive decay and ingrowth in a decay chain; (c) scaling the travel time by the retardation factor and (d) applying linear sorption. While all steps except (b) require solving simple linear equations, applying ingrowth of individual radionuclides in decay chains requires solving the differential Bateman equation. This equation needs to be solved once for a unit radionuclide activity at all arrival times found in the numerical grid. The ratios between the parent nuclide activity and the progeny activities are then used in the postprocessing. Results are presented for discrete points and examples of radioactive plume maps are given. These results compare well to the results achieved using a full numerical simulation including the respective chemical reaction processes

  6. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.; Piepkho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

  7. Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of

  8. High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M; Alto, Barry W; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a "self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.

  9. High-throughput Multiplexed xMAP Luminex Array Panel for Detection of Twenty TWO Medically Important Mosquito-borne Arboviruses based on Innovations in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M.; Alto, Barry W.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a “single tube” setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a “self-avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an “artificially expanded genetic information system” (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex “liquid microarrays” are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6–10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito. PMID:25680538

  10. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  11. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  12. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  14. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  15. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  16. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  17. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  18. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  19. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, William; Peyton, Brent; Gerlach, Robin; Lee, Brady

    2006-06-01

    Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will require understanding the effects of carbon and electron flow through these environments. Important aspects of this flow include the physiological activity of cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic fermentative microbial populations, as well as the subsequent activity of metal and radionuclide reducing bacteria. The activity of subsurface fermentative microbial populations is significantly understudied even though these organisms can affect contaminant migration by at least two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, products of the fermentation process can act as chelators for metals and radionuclides increasing their transport through underlying geological media. The second mechanism is the reduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides since some fermentative bacteria have been shown to directly reduce metals and radionuclides, while their fermentation products can provide carbon and energy for respiratory metal reducing bacteria that can also reduce oxidized metals and radionuclides.

  20. Medical leasing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.

  1. [Targeted radionuclide therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Ohga, Saiji; Sasaki, Tomonari; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Although patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer frequently have metastases to the bone, they have a relatively favorable prognosis. Therefore, it is important to keep or improve the level of patient's quality of life. The use of strontium-89 for the management of the pain from bone metastasis was approved in 2007 in Japan. A new bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals using radium-223 is also promising, because a randomized trial showed an overall survival advantage of radium-223 in prostate patients with bone metastases. In this review, we summarize the role of targeted radionuclide therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer, focusing on strontium-89 and radium-223.

  2. Radionuclides identified at a US Customs Service site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Steadman, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    The movement of radionuclides through the U.S. Customs Service port of entry at Blaine, Washington, has been studied using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and an automated data logging system. Data covering about 10 weeks of operation were obtained and analyzed. The data-acquisition system and the site of the measurement are described. Results are reported and interpreted in light of the known traffic of radioisotopes produced at the Canadian TRIUMF facility and imported into the United States for use in radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Radionuclide Data Analysis and Evaluation: More Information From Fewer Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinke, A.; McIntyre, J.; Cooper, M.; Haas, D.; Lowrey, J.; Miley, H.; Schrom, B.; Suckow, T.

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of the International Monitoring System radionuclide data sets provides daily concentrations for both particulate and radioxenon isotopes. These isotopes can come from many potential sources such as nuclear reactors, nuclear physics experiments, and medical isotope production. These interesting but irrelevant sources have several of the same radio-isotopic signatures from above or underground nuclear explosions and must be ruled out as part of the determination that an event originated as a nuclear explosion. There are several methods under development that aid in this determination and this poster will briefly cover each: radio-isotopic ratios and parent daughter relationships, co-detection of radioxenon and isotopes found on particulates, and past detection history.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern.

  5. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  6. State of radionuclides in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

  7. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  8. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  9. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  10. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per gram

  11. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  12. Effects of radionuclide decay on waste glass behavior: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    This paper is an extension of a chapter in an earlier report [1] that provides an updated review on the status of radiation damage problems in nuclear waste glasses. This report will focus on radiation effects on vitrified borosilicate nuclear waste glasses under conditions expected in the proposed Yucca mountain repository. Radiation effects on high-level waste glasses and their surrounding repository environment are important considerations for radionuclide immobilization because of the potential to alter the glass stability and thereby influence the radionuclide retentive properties of this waste form. The influence of radionuclide decay on vitrified nuclear waste may be manifested by several changes, including volume, stored energy, structure, microstructure, mechanical properties, and phase separation. Radiation may also affect the composition of aqueous fluids and atmospheric gases in relatively close proximity to the waste form. What is important to the radionuclide retentive properties of the repository is how these radiation effects collectively or individually influence the durability and radionuclide release from the glass in the event of liquid water contact.

  13. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  14. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed.

  15. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  16. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  17. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    hemisphere. Although the releases from the Fukushima NPP were pronounced, due to significant dilution of the radioactivity in the atmosphere as it was transported across the globe, the concentrations of radionuclides measured outside Japan were extremely low. The activities of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 in air were estimated to have diluted by a factor of 105 to 108 during trans-Pacific transport. This paper will present a compilation of the radionuclide concentrations measured across the northern hemisphere by various national and international monitoring networks. It will focus on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes will be discussed. Spatial and Temporal patterns and differences will be contrasted. The effects from this global radionuclide dispersal are reported and discussed. The activity ratios of ^131I/^137Cs and ^134Cs/^137Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and thus on the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected across the northern hemisphere have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental concern.

  18. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  19. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. PMID:27292160

  20. Overview of medically important antifungal azole derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A

    1988-01-01

    Fungal infections are a major burden to the health and welfare of modern humans. They range from simply cosmetic, non-life-threatening skin infections to severe, systemic infections that may lead to significant debilitation or death. The selection of chemotherapeutic agents useful for the treatment of fungal infections is small. In this overview, a major chemical group with antifungal activity, the azole derivatives, is examined. Included are historical and state of the art information on the in vitro activity, experimental in vivo activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and uses and adverse reactions of imidazoles currently marketed (clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, ketoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, croconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole) and under development (aliconazole and omoconazole), as well as triazoles currently marketed (terconazole) and under development (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, alteconazole, and ICI 195,739). PMID:3069196

  1. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    PubMed

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-κB, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-κB in macrophages by activating IKKβ.

  2. Selected important characteristics for enlightened medical leaders.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay

    2004-05-01

    An enlightened leader understands that unleashing the creativity and energy of the individuals in an organization is crucial to maximizing the potential of that group. A quality leader is more than a manager and invites the membership to help in the process of directing and caring for an organization and its people. A wise leader promotes communication, learning, innovation, and empowerment for all and always acts with integrity and professionalism.

  3. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  4. Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak atolls

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.L.

    1997-07-01

    Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs {sup 60}Co and {sup 217}Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and {sup 90}Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Exposed medical staff: challenges, available tools, and opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff doses have increased over the past decade, as there is an increasing need for the benefits and use of radiation in medicine. While current average medical staff doses are well within limits, some doses to individuals could exceed 20 mSv y deep dose equivalent or lens dose equivalent (if unprotected), and there is the potential for some workers to exceed 500 mSv y shallow dose equivalent without careful assessment and protection. Nuclear medicine radiochemistry and patient dose preparation present challenging opportunities for improved dose control. In addition, fluoroscopically guided intervention procedures continue to represent an important area for careful protection implementation. Optimization of radiation protection in the medical setting should include tried and true principles of justification, optimization, and limitation with emphasis on training, credentialing, planning, and quality management. As newer and developing uses of radiation in medicine are tested and implemented, it is important to consider effective dosimetric monitoring, lens of eye doses, extremity doses, novel uses, and novel radionuclide characteristics. An ongoing assessment of current and future patterns of use for radiation in medicine is an essential activity to assist in prioritizing limited resources for staff protection. Introduction of Exposed Medical Staff (Video 1:27, http://links.lww.com/HP/A20).

  6. Modeling of radionuclide releases from the geological repository for RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Brazauskaite, Asta

    2007-07-01

    During 2002-2005 the assessment of possibilities for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Lithuania was performed with support of Swedish experts. Potential geological formations for disposal of SNF were selected, disposal concept was developed, reference disposal site was defined and preliminary generic safety assessment was performed. Performing safety assessment the analysis of radionuclides migration from the repository as well as their impact to human and environment were also very important issues. In this paper results on the analysis of the radionuclide releases from the reference geological repository site for RBMK-1500 SNF in crystalline rocks in Lithuania are presented. For radionuclide migration in the near field region of the repository integrated finite difference method and the concept of compartments were used. For radionuclide migration in the far field the discrete channel network concept was used. The assessment of radionuclide migration in the near and far field region was performed using computer codes AMRER4.5 and CHAN3D. The results of analysis show that most of safety relevant radionuclides of RBMK-1500 SNF are effectively retarded in the near field region. The exposure due to possible release of the radionuclides from the crystalline rocks would be dominated by 1291 firstly while after approx. 250 thousand years {sup 226}Ra is dominating already. (authors)

  7. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  8. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  9. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  10. Biogeochemical cycles of Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems: long-term dynamics of the migration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical migration is a dominant factor of the radionuclide transport through the biosphere. In the early XX century, V.I. Vernadskii, a Russian scientist known, noted about a special role living things play in transport and accumulation of natural radionuclide in various environments. The role of biogeochemical processes in migration and redistribution of technogenic radionuclides is not less important. In Russia, V. M. Klechkovskii and N.V. Timofeev-Ressovskii showed some important biogeochemical aspects of radionuclide migration by the example of global fallout and Kyshtym accident. Their followers, R.M. Alexakhin, M.A. Naryshkin, N.V. Kulikov, F.A. Tikhomirov, E.B. Tyuryukanova, and others also contributed a lot to biogeochemistry of radionuclides. In the post-Chernobyl period, this area of knowledge received a lot of data that allowed building the radioactive element balance and flux estimation in various biogeochemical cycles [Shcheglov et al., 1999]. Regrettably, many of recent radioecological studies are only focused on specific radionuclide fluxes or pursue some applied tasks, missing the holistic approach. Most of the studies consider biogeochemical fluxes of radioactive isotopes in terms of either dose estimation or radionuclide migration rates in various food chains. However, to get a comprehensive picture and develop a reliable forecast of environmental, ecological, and social consequences of radioactive pollution in a vast contaminated area, it is necessary to investigate all the radionuclide fluxes associated with the biogeochemical cycles in affected ecosystems. We believe such an integrated approach would be useful to study long-term environmental consequences of the Fukushima accident as well. In our long-term research, we tried to characterize the flux dynamics of the Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems and landscapes as a part of the integrated biogeochemical process. Our field studies were started in June of

  11. Intercomparison of radionuclide calibrator measurements in U.K. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J

    1983-01-01

    The Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology had received various reports of users of radionuclide calibrators experiencing problems in obtaining accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. Working Group members were encouraged to initiate surveys in their own countries to assess the magnitude of these problems. The results of the survey in the United Kingdom are given.

  12. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  13. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  14. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  16. Magnetic resonance propulsion, control and tracking at 24 Hz of an untethered device in the carotid artery of a living animal: an important step in the development of medical micro- and nanorobots.

    PubMed

    Martel, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Our recent demonstration of a ferromagnetic bead being navigated automatically inside the carotid artery of a living animal at an average speed of 10 cm/s using a clinical MRI system may be considered as a significant step in the field of medical micro- and nanorobotics. This is particularly true when we consider that an appropriate tracking method was embedded in the closed-loop control process allowing the blood vessels to be considered as navigational routes, providing maximum access for conducting operations inside the human body. But more importantly, this demonstration not only validates preliminary theoretical models but provides us with initial insights about the strategies and approaches that are likely to be used to navigate under computer control, micro- and nanodevices including nanorobots from the largest to the smallest diameter blood vessels that could be used to reach targets inside the human body. Here, based on these initial experimental data obtained in vivo, such strategies and methods are briefly described with some initial design concepts of medical interventional micro- and nanorobots.

  17. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  18. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  19. Radionuclide distributions and sorption behavior in the Susquehanna--Chesapeake Bay System

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclides released into the Susquehanna--Chesapeake System from the Three Mile Island, Peach Bottom, and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants are partitioned among dissolved, particulate, and biological phases and may thus exist in a number of physical and chemical forms. In this project, we have measured the dissolved and particulate distributions of fallout /sup 137/Cs; reactor-released /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 58/Co; and naturally occurring /sup 7/Be and /sup 210/Pb in the lower Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay. In addition, we chemically leached suspended particles and bottom sediments in the laboratory to determine radionuclide partitioning among different particulate-sorbing phases to complement the site-specific field data. This information has been used to document the important geochemical processes that affect the transport, sorption, distribution, and fate of reactor-released radionuclides (and by analogy, other trace contaminants) in this river-estuarine system. Knowledge of the mechanisms, kinetic factors, and processes that affect radionuclide distributions is crucial for predicting their biological availability, toxicity, chemical behavior, physical transport, and accumulation in aquatic systems. The results from this project provide the information necessary for developing accurate radionuclide-transport and biological-uptake models. 76 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Natural analogue studies of the role of colloids, natural organics and microorganisms on radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    Colloids may be important as a geochemical transport mechanism for radionuclides at geological repositories if they are (1) present in the groundwater, (2) stable with respect to both colloidal and chemical stabilities, (3) capable of adsorbing radionuclides, especially if the sorption is irreversible, and (4) mobile in the subsurface. The available evidence from natural analogue and other field studies relevant to these issues is reviewed, as is the potential role of mobile microorganisms ({open_quotes}biocolloids{close_quotes}) on radionuclide migration. Studies have demonstrated that colloids are ubiquitous in groundwater, although colloid concentrations in deep, geochemically stable systems may be too low to affect radionuclide transport. However, even low colloid populations cannot be dismissed as a potential concern because colloids appear to be stable, and many radionuclides that adsorb to colloids are not readily desorbed over long periods. Field studies offer somewhat equivocal evidence concerning colloid mobility and cannot prove or disprove the significance of colloid transport in the far-field environment. Additional research is needed at new sites to properly represent a repository far-field. Performance assessment would benefit from natural analogue studies to examine colloid behavior at sites encompassing a suite of probable groundwater chemistries and that mimic the types of formations selected for radioactive waste repositories.

  1. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

    2013-08-01

    During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 μm, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 μm. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other.

  2. Application of MINERVA Monte Carlo simulations to targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Descalle, Marie-Anne; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L; Dauffy, Lucile; Nigg, David W; Wemple, Charles A; Yuan, Aina; DeNardo, Gerald L

    2003-02-01

    Recent clinical results have demonstrated the promise of targeted radionuclide therapy for advanced cancer. As the success of this emerging form of radiation therapy grows, accurate treatment planning and radiation dose simulations are likely to become increasingly important. To address this need, we have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA system. The goal of the MINERVA dose calculation system is to provide 3-D Monte Carlo simulation-based dosimetry for radiation therapy, focusing on experimental and emerging applications. For molecular targeted radionuclide therapy applications, MINERVA calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using computed tomography to describe the patient anatomy, combined with a user-defined 3-D radiation source. This paper describes the validation of the 3-D Monte Carlo transport methods to be used in MINERVA for molecular targeted radionuclide dosimetry. It reports comparisons of MINERVA dose simulations with published absorbed fraction data for distributed, monoenergetic photon and electron sources, and for radioisotope photon emission. MINERVA simulations are generally within 2% of EGS4 results and 10% of MCNP results, but differ by up to 40% from the recommendations given in MIRD Pamphlets 3 and 8 for identical medium composition and density. For several representative source and target organs in the abdomen and thorax, specific absorbed fractions calculated with the MINERVA system are generally within 5% of those published in the revised MIRD Pamphlet 5 for 100 keV photons. However, results differ by up to 23% for the adrenal glands, the smallest of our target organs. Finally, we show examples of Monte Carlo simulations in a patient-like geometry for a source of uniform activity located in the kidney. PMID:12667310

  3. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,J.; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; QIAN,MORRIS; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases.

  4. Sorption of radionuclides at tracer level on mineral colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hadem, N.; Fourest, B.; Guillaumont, R.

    1995-12-01

    Transport of radionuclides by colloids through the geosphere is an important issue in exercises aimed to assess the safety of an underground radwaste repository sited in a water saturated zone. The first problems to deal with are the characterization of the colloids and their capabilities to sorb, at trace level and even at tracer level, radionuclides. This study investigates the relationships between the sorption of short lived {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, {sup 223}Ra{sup 2+}, {sup 227}Th and {sup 131}I{sup -} and the zeta potential, {zeta}-potential, of well identified colloids, as a function of pH (2 to 11), ionic strength, I (10{sup -3} to 1 M), and colloid concentration (up to 2000 ppm). {xi}-potential is the essential parameter to be considered since it reflects both the stability and the surface charge of the colloid. SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Th{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4} colloids have been chosen as `model colloids`. They are not really found in natural media, but are representative of particles with isoelectric points (i.e.p.) ranging between pH 2 to 9. In some cases the effect of the concentration of the elements has been studied as well, to check saturation effects (Cs and I from 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -2}M). Experimental data show that the distribution of radionuclides between the two phases considered depends mainly on zeta potential, but also on other identified factors.

  5. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    PubMed

    Roesch, F

    2012-07-01

    (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review describes the current status of (44)Ti production, (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generator development, post-processing of generator eluates towards medical application, identification of ligands adequate to Sc(III) co-ordination chemistry, proof-of-principle labeling of (44)Sc-DOTA-octreotides, investigation of in vitro and in vivo parameters, and initial applications for molecular imaging - both in small animals and humans.

  6. Radionuclide sources and radioactive decay figures pertinent to the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    The origin and radioactive decay schemes of radionuclides currently expected to be the major contributors to potential radiation doses that populations might have received as a result of nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 are identified and illustrated in this report. The reactions considered include actinide neutron capture and decay sequences, fission product decays, and neutron activation reactions. It is important to note that the radioactive half-life of a given nuclide does not, by itself, fully determine the significance of a given radionuclide as a potential source term. This report does not address environmental transport mechanisms, behavior in the environment, or radiological dose impact of any of the radionuclides shown. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  7. Lixiviation of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in tropical soils amended with phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Nisti, M B; Saueia, C R; Malheiro, L H; Groppo, G H; Mazzilli, B P

    2015-06-01

    The main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for the annual production of 5.5 million tons of a residue (phosphogypsum), which is stored in stacks. The presence of radionuclides and metals puts restrictions on the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture. To assure a safe utilization, it is important to estimate the lixiviation of the radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Ra) and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Hg and Pb) present in phosphogypsum. For this purpose, an experiment was carried out, in which columns filled with sandy and clay Brazilian typical soils mixed with phosphogypsum were percolated with water, to achieve a mild extraction of these elements. The results obtained for the concentration of the radionuclides and metals in the leachate were low; giving evidence that, even when these elements are present in the phosphogypsum, they do not contribute to an enhancement of their content in water. PMID:25841114

  8. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment or software that is connected to their computer. However, technological advances have changed the way medical ... this section Medical transcriptionists must be comfortable using computers. Medical transcriptionists typically need postsecondary education. Prospective medical ...

  9. International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Achim, Pascal; Chai, Tianfeng; Deconninck, Benoit; Freeman, Katie; Generoso, Sylvia; Hayes, Philip; Heidmann, Verena; Hoffman, Ian; Kijima, Yuichi; Krysta, Monika; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Ngan, Fantine; Robins, Peter; Ross, J Ole; Saunier, Olivier; Schlosser, Clemens; Schöppner, Michael; Schrom, Brian T; Seibert, Petra; Stein, Ariel F; Ungar, Kurt; Yi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). At entry-into-force, half of the 80 radionuclide stations will be able to measure concentrations of several radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear explosions, and then the full network may be populated with xenon monitoring afterward. An understanding of natural and man-made radionuclide backgrounds can be used in accordance with the provisions of the treaty (such as event screening criteria in Annex 2 to the Protocol of the Treaty) for the effective implementation of the verification regime. Fission-based production of (99)Mo for medical purposes also generates nuisance radioxenon isotopes that are usually vented to the atmosphere. One of the ways to account for the effect emissions from medical isotope production has on radionuclide samples from the IMS is to use stack monitoring data, if they are available, and atmospheric transport modeling. Recently, individuals from seven nations participated in a challenge exercise that used atmospheric transport modeling to predict the time-history of (133)Xe concentration measurements at the IMS radionuclide station in Germany using stack monitoring data from a medical isotope production facility in Belgium. Participants received only stack monitoring data and used the atmospheric transport model and meteorological data of their choice. Some of the models predicted the highest measured concentrations quite well. A model comparison rank and ensemble analysis suggests that combining multiple models may provide more accurate predicted concentrations than any single model. None of the submissions based only on the stack monitoring data predicted the small measured concentrations very well. Modeling of sources by other nuclear facilities with smaller releases than medical isotope production facilities may be important in understanding how to discriminate those releases from

  10. International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Achim, Pascal; Chai, Tianfeng; Deconninck, Benoit; Freeman, Katie; Generoso, Sylvia; Hayes, Philip; Heidmann, Verena; Hoffman, Ian; Kijima, Yuichi; Krysta, Monika; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Ngan, Fantine; Robins, Peter; Ross, J Ole; Saunier, Olivier; Schlosser, Clemens; Schöppner, Michael; Schrom, Brian T; Seibert, Petra; Stein, Ariel F; Ungar, Kurt; Yi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). At entry-into-force, half of the 80 radionuclide stations will be able to measure concentrations of several radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear explosions, and then the full network may be populated with xenon monitoring afterward. An understanding of natural and man-made radionuclide backgrounds can be used in accordance with the provisions of the treaty (such as event screening criteria in Annex 2 to the Protocol of the Treaty) for the effective implementation of the verification regime. Fission-based production of (99)Mo for medical purposes also generates nuisance radioxenon isotopes that are usually vented to the atmosphere. One of the ways to account for the effect emissions from medical isotope production has on radionuclide samples from the IMS is to use stack monitoring data, if they are available, and atmospheric transport modeling. Recently, individuals from seven nations participated in a challenge exercise that used atmospheric transport modeling to predict the time-history of (133)Xe concentration measurements at the IMS radionuclide station in Germany using stack monitoring data from a medical isotope production facility in Belgium. Participants received only stack monitoring data and used the atmospheric transport model and meteorological data of their choice. Some of the models predicted the highest measured concentrations quite well. A model comparison rank and ensemble analysis suggests that combining multiple models may provide more accurate predicted concentrations than any single model. None of the submissions based only on the stack monitoring data predicted the small measured concentrations very well. Modeling of sources by other nuclear facilities with smaller releases than medical isotope production facilities may be important in understanding how to discriminate those releases from

  11. [Medical leadership competency].

    PubMed

    Barth, Sonja; Jonitz, Günther

    2009-01-01

    With all these changes in health care systems the physicians' professional duties are about to undergo changes as well. Especially economic, administrative and legal aspects are becoming more and more important in medical care. In order to take responsibility with respect to leadership aspects a profound professionalisation is required. The Curriculum Medical Leadership edited by the German Medical Association provides an extensive example of a framework for continuing professional development (CPD) courses in medical leadership.

  12. Fe-Mn substance in ocean as reason of regulation radionuclide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Martynov, Konstantin; Konstantinova, Lia

    2013-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclide in marine sediments as yet little studied [Choppin & Wong 1998]. The work mainly focused on effects of nuclear test fallout. In the works are examined isotopes of Pu - 238; Th - 232; U -234;238; Pu - 239,240,241; Am - 241; Np - 237; Cm -244 [Holm 1995]. It has been shown that seems to accumulate radionuclides in marine sediments. In particular, the importance attached to carbonate complexes (corals, etc.). But questions about the possibility of re-mobilization of radionuclide, forms their concentration, their participation in global geochemical cycles in the ocean, remain open. We believe a major factor controlling the distribution of heavy metals is the formation of ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules hydrogenic at the bottom of the ocean and seamounts. It is likely that the process of formation of Fe-manganese hydrogenic can play a major role in the control of radioactive contamination in the oceanic sediment. At least for the U number of works on the subject [Sherman et al. 2008]. The high sensitivity of the Fe-manganese crust is known to the isotopic composition of lead [Loranger & Zayed 1994, Collen et al 2011]. Recent work [Wilkins etal 2006, Renshaw etal 2009] show a large role; Fe (III)-and Mn (IV)-reducing organisms that anaerobic bacteria in oxidation and therefore changes in mobility systems U and Pu. So much interest is data for sorption of radionuclide on hydroxides Fe and Mn. Unfortunately we are not aware of works on the subject. We have therefore taken their own experimental studies on sorption of radionuclide on natural Fe-Mn crusts (sample from Magellan seamount Pacific ocean) [Martynov et al 2012]. The results showed high sorption ability of material crusts for fixation of radionuclides: U-233, Np-237, Pu-238, Am-241. For all radionuclide experiment absorption has been reached already in the first hour it was 96.0% of total substance radionuclide absorbed from the solution, and after the first day it was reached

  13. Review of Russian-language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 4. Transfer to poultry.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-10-01

    Data on radionuclide transfer to domestic chickens and ducks obtained from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to provide transfer coefficient values (Ff) to poultry and edible egg contents. The majority of the data are from experiments with (90)Sr and (137)Cs, reflecting the importance of these radionuclides after global fallout and major radiation accidents. Data for (3)H, (54)Mn, (59)Fe, (60)Co, (22)Na (65)Zn, (131)I and U are also given. The values derived have been compared with those in the current IAEA Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) and the recent revision which incorporates the values from this paper. The Russian-language data give improved estimates for many radionuclides and the revised handbook is now based on the better quality data given for chronic administration.

  14. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Radionuclides of radium in water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the separation of dissolved radium from water for the purpose of measuring its radioactivity. While all radium isotopes are included, the method is limited to alpha-emitting radioisotopes by choice of radiation detector. The most important of these isotopes are radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226. The lower limit of concentration to which this method is applicable is 1 pCi/liter; it may be applied to higher concentration by reduction of sample size. The method includes a discussion of interference, apparatus, reagents, sampling, calibration and standardization, procedure, calculation, and precision. (JMT)

  16. Modeling of the radionuclide release from an initially defective canister

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the effect of geochemical conditions of the repository on the release rate of radionuclides from an initially defective canister, a mathematical model is proposed. The model is based on the concept that ligands diffuse through the damage into the canister and form complexes with uranium, increasing its solubility. The complexes then diffuse out to the surroundings. Accordingly, the model combines a chemical equilibrium model for the solubility of uranium under strongly oxidizing conditions, and a transport model for the release rate of uranium. The transport model takes into account the diffusion resistance in the damage as well as in the surrounding compacted bentonite clay and the water flow in the rock. Using this model, the sensitivity of the release rate of aqueous uranium species to the concentrations of various groundwater component species, to the diffusion coefficient and to other parameters is systematically investigated. The results show that, the concentrations of carbonate, phosphate, silicate and calcium species in deep groundwaters play the most important role in determining the release rate of radionuclides. The results help identify the key diffusion coefficients that are needed to obtain more reliable estimates of the release rate.

  17. Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-10-01

    Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

  18. Radionuclide bone scanning in giant cell tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Madewell, J.E.; McNiesh, L.M.; Kyle, R.W.; Sweet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Radionuclide bone scan findings are described and correlated with pathology in 23 patients with giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. The degree of radionuclide activity was markedly increased in 20 (87%), minimally increased in three (13%), and decreased in none of the patients. Of the 23 patients with increased radioactivity, the pattern was diffuse in 11 (48%) and doughnut in 12 (52%). Extended patterns of radioactivity were present in 19 of 22 patients; however, none were associated with true tumor extension. Bone scanning did not aid in the detection of GCT, was nonspecific, and did not differentiate benign from malignant GCT. Although radioactivity extended beyond the radiographic abnormality in the majority of patients, this was most likely secondary to other bony abnormalities or local and/or regional hyperemia, and caution should be taken in ascribing this extension to either tumor or metastasis.

  19. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  1. [Radionuclide therapy for bone metastases: new opportunities].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Kochetova, T Yu; Voloznev, L V

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple bone metastases accompanied by pain syndrome is a complicated clinical task. Radionuclide therapy is one of its solutions, which is used to achieve long reduction of pain syndrome and significant improvement the quality of patients' life. However mechanism of action of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals suggests not only pain control but antitumor effect as well. In early clinical studies of safety and efficacy of the most common bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in single administration there were not any preferences in overall survival but individual clinical cases with extraordinary tumor regression after radionuclide therapy were reported. Repeated bone targeted therapy and combination with other treatment modalities can help to gain statistical significant increase in overall survival of patients.

  2. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  3. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  4. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  5. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  6. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  7. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  8. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  10. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  11. [Biosorption of Radionuclide Uranium by Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Dong, Fa-qin; Dai, Qun-wei; Liu, Ming-xue; Nie, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Jia-lin; Zhou, Xian

    2015-04-01

    As a biological adsorbent, Living Deinococcus radiodurans was used for removing radionuclide uranium in the aqueous solution. The effect factors on biosorption of radionuclide uranium were researched in the present paper, including solution pH values and initial uranium concentration. Meanwhile, the biosorption mechanism was researched by the method of FTIR and SEM/EDS. The results show that the optimum conditions for biosorption are as follows: pH = 5, co = 100 mg · L(-1) and the maximum biosorption capacity is up to 240 mgU · g(-1). According to the SEM results and EDXS analysis, it is indicated that the cell surface is attached by lots of sheet uranium crystals, and the main biosorpiton way of uranium is the ion exchange or surface complexation. Comparing FTIR spectra and FTIR fitting spectra before and after biosorption, we can find that the whole spectra has a certain change, particularly active groups (such as amide groups of the protein, hydroxy, carboxyl and phosphate group) are involved in the biosorption process. Then, there is a new peak at 906 cm(-1) and it is a stretching vibration peak of UO2(2+). Obviously, it is possible that as an anti radiation microorganism, Deinococcus radiodurans could be used for removing radionuclide uranium in radiation environment.

  12. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  13. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  14. Evaluation of radionuclide dose-calibrator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Paras, P.; Comer, F.M.; Demeis, F.; Coursey, B.M.; Calhoun, J.M.; Golas, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Performance data for radionuclide dose calibrators, which are primarily ionization chambers, are scarce. Large deviations have occasionally been reported, particularly for low photon energies, i.e., emissions from /sup 201/Tl, /sup 133/Xe. The volunteer user program (QB series) of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) (laboratory intercomparison quality control), supported by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS), for quality control of dose calibrators was suspended. The Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) has a quality control program among radiopharmaceutical manufacturers but there is no user program in the US at this time, and the performance of dose calibrators in the field is not known. In addition, a number of professionals expressed a strong feeling for the continuation of the CAP program and the availability of standards for dose calibrators from NBS. The objective of this study is twofold: (a) to evaluate the accuracy of dose calibrator measurements for individual patient radioactivity administered doses, and (b) to provide certified sources of certain radionuclides to calibrate the instruments for these radionuclides.

  15. A dynamic model for evaluating radionuclide distribution in forests from nuclear accidents.

    PubMed

    Schell, W R; Linkov, I; Myttenaere, C; Morel, B

    1996-03-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 caused radionuclide contamination in most countries in Eastern and Western Europe. A prime example is Belarus where 23% of the total land area received chronic levels; about 1.5 x 10(6) ha of forested lands were contaminated with 40--190 kBq m-2 and 2.5 x 10(4) ha received greater than 1,480 kBq m-2 of 137Cs and other long-lived radionuclides such as 90Sr and 239,240Pu. Since the radiological dose to the forest ecosystem will tend to accumulate over long time periods (decades to centuries), we need to determine what countermeasures can be taken to limit this dose so that the affected regions can, once again, safely provide habitat and natural forest products. To address some of these problems, our initial objective is to formulate a generic model, FORESTPATH, which describes the major kinetic processes and pathways of radionuclide movement in forests and natural ecosystems and which can be used to predict future radionuclide concentrations. The model calculates the time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in different compartments of the forest ecosystem based on the information available on residence half-times in two forest types: coniferous and deciduous. The results show that the model reproduces well the radionuclide cycling pattern found in the literature for deciduous and coniferous forests. Variability analysis was used to access the relative importance of specific parameter values in the generic model performance. The FORESTPASTH model can be easily adjusted for site-specific applications.

  16. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

    PubMed

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E

    1999-09-30

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the US as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 million t (million t TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for tens of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently approximately 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is

  17. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by

  18. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  19. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with

  20. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with