Science.gov

Sample records for medically important radionuclide

  1. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  2. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  3. Syringe calibration factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator for selected medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tyler, D K; Woods, M J

    2003-01-01

    Before a radiopharmaceutical is administered to a patient, its activity needs to be accurately assayed. This is normally done via a radionuclide calibrator, using a glass vial as the calibration device. The radionuclide is then transferred to a syringe and it is now becoming common practice to re-measure the syringe and use this value as the activity administered to the patient. Due to elemental composition and geometrical differences, etc. between the glass vial and the syringe, the calibration factors are different for the two containers and this can lead to an incorrect activity being given to the patient unless a correction is applied for these differences. To reduce the uncertainty on syringe measurements, syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator have been derived by NPL for several medically important radionuclides. It was found that the differences between the calibration factors for the syringes and glass vials depend on the energies of the photon emissions from the decay of the radionuclides; the lower the energy, the greater the difference. As expected, large differences were observed for 125I (70%) and only small differences for 131I. However, for radionuclides such as 99mTc and 67Ga, differences of up to 30% have been observed. This work has shown the need for the use of specifically derived syringe calibration factors as well as highlighting the complexity of the problem with regard to syringe types, procurement, etc.

  4. A compact automated radionuclide separation system for nuclear medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A. H.; Horwitz, E. P.; Hines, J. J.; Young, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    The purification of radionuclides for medical applications presents unique challenges; most notably the needs for chemical purity, radionuclidic purity, and reliable production. To address these considerations, a new generator technology and instrument have been developed to permit the rapid chromatographic purification of clinically useful quantities of radionuclides for use in diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine. The device comprises a separations module containing miniature chromatographic columns, a computer controller with driver software, and the fluid delivery components. This instrument is well suited for use in radionuclide generators as separations can typically be performed in <5 min with overall decontamination factors of >106. Chromatographic experiments targeting application in a 212Bi generator have demonstrated the usefulness of the Automated Radionuclide Separator as a low-pressure chromatography system.

  5. Measurement of excitation functions of helion-induced reactions on enriched Ru targets for production of medically important 103Pd and 101mRh and some other radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Skakun, Ye; Qaim, S M

    2008-05-01

    Excitation functions were determined by the stacked-foil and induced radioactivity measurement technique for the reactions (100)Ru(alpha,n)(103)Pd, (101)Ru(alpha,2n)(103)Pd, (101)Ru((3)He,n)(103)Pd, and (102)Ru((3)He,2n)(103)Pd, producing the therapeutic radionuclide (103)Pd, and for the reactions (101)Ru((3)He,x)(101 m)Rh(Cum) and (102)Ru((3)He,x)(101 m)Rh(Cum), producing the medically interesting radionuclide (101 m)Rh. Data were also measured for the reactions (101)Ru((3)He,pn+d)(102 m,g)Rh, (102)Ru((3)He,p2n+dn+t)(102 m,g)Rh, (101)Ru((3)He,x)(101 g)Rh(Cum), (102)Ru((3)He,x)(101 g)Rh(Cum), (101)Ru((3)He,3n)(101)Pd, (102)Ru((3)He,4n)(101)Pd, (101)Ru((3)He,4n)(100)Pd, and (101)Ru((3)He,p3n+d2n+tn)(100)Rh, producing other palladium and rhodium isotopes/isomers. The energy ranges covered were up to 25 MeV for alpha-particles and up to 34 MeV for (3)He ions. The radioactivity of the radionuclide (103)Pd induced in thin metallic foils of the enriched ruthenium isotopes was measured by high-resolution X-ray spectrometry and the radioactivities of other radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. The integral thick target yields of the radionuclide (103)Pd calculated from the excitation functions of the first four of the above-named reactions amount to 960, 1050, 50, and 725 kBq/microAh, respectively, at the maximum investigated energies of the incident particles. The integral thick target yields of the radionuclide (101 m)Rh amount to 16.1 and 2.9 MBq/microAh for (101)Ru and (102)Ru targets, respectively, at 34 MeV energy of incident (3)He ions. The integral yields of the other observed radionuclides were also deduced from the excitation functions of the above-mentioned respective nuclear reactions. The excitation functions and integral yields of some rare reaction products were also determined. The experimental excitation functions of some reactions are compared with the predictions of nuclear model calculations. In general, good agreement was obtained.

  6. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  7. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  8. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  9. MEDECOR--a medical decorporation tool to assist first responders, receivers, and medical reach-back personnel in triage, treatment, and risk assessment after internalization of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Waller, Ed; Wilkinson, Diana

    2010-10-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose aversion (hence risk reduction) is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is optimal when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, it is desirable to have a software tool that compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple diagnosis leading to optimized decorporation treatment strategies. In its most simple application, the software is a large database of radionuclide decorporation strategies and treatments. The software can also be used in clinical interactive mode, in which the user inputs the radionuclide, estimated activity, route of intake and time since exposure. The software makes suggestions as to the urgency of treatment (i.e., triage) and the suggested therapy. Current developments include risk assessment which impacts the potential risk of delivered therapy and resource allocation of therapeutic agents. The software, developed for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is titled MEDECOR (MEdical DECORporation). The MEDECOR tool was designed for use on both personal digital assistant and laptop computer environments. The tool was designed using HTML/Jscript, to allow for ease of portability amongst different computing platforms. This paper presents the features of MEDECOR, results of testing at a major NATO

  10. Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  11. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Okusanya, A A

    2008-09-01

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely (226)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as (137)Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of (137)Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from (226)Ra and (228)Th were found to be low. Although (40)K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed.

  12. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1987-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.; Baratta, E.J.

    1994-11-01

    Findings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration`s Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for foods collected between October 1, 1986, and September 30, 1992. Concentrations of radionuclide activity in the Total Diet Study and reactor-survey foods were in Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations of the Federal Radiation Council; no control actions were suggested. Dietary intake of {sup 90}Sr continued the general decline observed since 1961. Approximately 2600 test portions of imported foods were analyzed for contamination associated with the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Concentrations of radionuclide activity were below limits of detection for the vast majority of the imported food test portions but were above the levels of concern for 23 portions. Since 1986, the fraction of imported food test portions having measurable amounts of contamination has steadily declined, as have the average concentrations of radionuclide activity; however, contamination is still occasionally found. Continued monitoring of both domestic and imported foods is planned. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Prognostic value and limitations of exercise radionuclide angiography in medically treated coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Taliercio, C.P.; Clements, I.P.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Gibbons, R.J.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated whether exercise radionuclide angiography provides prognostic information in addition to that identified by resting left ventricular function and coronary anatomy in patients with medically treated coronary artery disease. Clinical follow-up (median, 21.7 months) was obtained in 424 medically treated patients who underwent exercise radionuclide angiography and coronary angiography. The mean age of the study population was 58 years, and 67% were men. Cardiac death occurred in 16 patients, nonfatal myocardial infarction in 16, and nonfatal out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 1. Univariate analysis showed that multiple variables were associated with future cardiac events, including number of diseased vessels, exercise and rest radionuclide ejection fraction, history of myocardial infarction, exercise and rest left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices, peak exercise workload, age, abnormal resting electrocardiogram, and peak exercise ST-segment depression. Only three variables were independently associated with cardiac events on follow-up: number of diseased vessels, radionuclide ejection fraction at rest, and age. In patients with three-vessel disease and a resting radionuclide ejection fraction of more than 40%, a subgroup with higher risk could not be identified on the basis of exercise radionuclide response.

  14. Nuclear data for production and medical application of radionuclides: Present status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Syed M

    2017-01-01

    The significance of nuclear data in the choice and medical application of a radionuclide is considered: the decay data determine its suitability for organ imaging or internal therapy and the reaction cross section data allow optimisation of its production route. A brief discussion of reaction cross sections and yields is given. The standard SPECT, PET and therapeutic radionuclides are enumerated and their decay and production data are considered. The status of nuclear data is generally good. Some existing discrepancies are outlined. A few promising alternative production routes of (99m)Tc and (68)Ga are discussed. The increasing significance of non-standard positron emitters in organ imaging and of low-energy highly-ionizing radiation emitters in internal therapy is discussed, their nuclear data are considered and a brief review of their status is presented. Some other related nuclear data issues are also mentioned. The data needs arising from new directions in radionuclide applications (multimode imaging, theranostic approach, radionanoparticles, etc.) are considered. The future needs of data associated with possible utilization of newer irradiation technologies (intermediate energy cyclotron, high-intensity photon accelerator, spallation neutron source, etc.) are outlined. Except for a few small discrepancies, the available nuclear data are sufficient for routine production and application of radionuclides. Considerable data needs exist for developing novel radionuclides for applications. The developing future technologies for radionuclide production will demand further data-related activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.C.; Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Baratta, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Findings in the Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for samples collected between October 1, 1982, and September 30, 1986. All radionuclide findings for Total Diet and reactor samples were either in Action Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations given by the Federal Radiation Council. The only long-range trend noted was a continuation of the general decline in dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr since 1961. Imported food samples were analyzed for contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The findings for imported foods indicate that the surveillance efforts successfully targeted contaminated foods, and that contamination levels were below levels of concern for all but one oregano and 3 cheese samples.

  16. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields.

  17. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  18. Production of medical radionuclides in Russia: status and future--a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuikov, B L

    2014-02-01

    We present a review of reactor and accelerator centers in Russia that produce medical isotopes, the majority of which are exported. In the near future, we anticipate increased isotope production for use in nuclear medicine in Russia. The existing linear accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow-Troitsk) and several prospective installations are considered to be particularly capable of providing mass production of radionuclides that can substitute, to a certain extent, for the traditional medical isotopes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Calculation of Nuclear Level Density Parameters of Some Light Deformed Medical Radionuclides Using Collective Excitation Modes of Observed Nuclear Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuducu, Ş.; Akti, N. N.; Saraç, H.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.

    In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40radionuclides. The present calculated results have been compared with the compiled values from the literatures for s-wave neutron resonance data.

  20. Hospital Contracts: Important Issues for Medical Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosolio, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with hospitals and outpatient medical facilities have always been an important part of the business model for private medical practices. As healthcare delivery to patients has evolved in the United States (much of it driven by the new government mandates, regulations, and the Affordable Care Act), the delivery of such services is becoming more and more centered on the hospital or institutional setting, thus making contractual relationships with hospitals even more important for medical practices. As a natural outgrowth of this relationship, attention to hospital contracts is becoming more important.

  1. The continuing important role of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Knapp, F F; Mirzadeh, S

    1994-10-01

    In this review, the continuing importance and status of development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine are discussed. Radioisotope costs and availability are two important factors, and both nuclear reactors and accelerator facilities are required for production of the parent radioisotopes. Radionuclide generator research is currently focused on the development of generators which provide radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) applications and daughter radioisotopes for various therapeutic applications which decay primarily by particle emission. Generator research continues to be influenced by developments and requirements of complementary technologies, such as the increasing availability of PET. In addition, the availability of a wide spectrum of tumor-specific antibodies, fragments, and peptides for radioimmunodiagnosis and radioimmunotherapy has stimulated the need for generator-derived radioisotopes. The advantages of treatment of arthritis of the synovial joints with radioactive particles (radiation synovectomy) may be expected to be of increasing importance as the elderly population increases, and many of these agents are prepared using generator-derived radioisotopes such as yttrium-90 and rhenium-188. Therapeutic use of the "in vivo generator" is a new approach, where the less radiotoxic parent radioisotope is used to prepare tissue-specific therapeutic agents. Following in vivo site localization, decay of the parent provides the daughter for therapy at the target site. The principal foundation of most diagnostic agents will continue to require technetium-99m from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m ("Moly") generator. With the limited availability of nuclear reactors and facilities necessary for production and processing of fission 99mTc and the significant issues and problems associated with radioactive waste processing, however, the possibility of utilizing lower specific activity 99Mo produced from neutron activation of

  2. New irradiation facilities for development of production methods of medical radionuclides at cyclotrons at Forschungszentrum Jülich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellerberg, S.; Scholten, B.; Spahn, I.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Qaim, S. M.; Bai, M.; Neumaier, B.

    2017-05-01

    An essential basis for research and development work on radiopharmaceuticals is the efficient production of radionuclides of high quality. In this process research-oriented studies aiming for elucidation of biochemical processes require novel products. The radionuclide development at INM-5 entails basic research, e.g. the determination of nuclear reaction data, as well as technical aspects of practical production, such as high-current targetry, chemical separation, formulation and quality control. In this work developments, adaptation and optimization of irradiation facilities at the BC 1710, JULIC as Injector of COSY and COSY itself are summarized, which shall allow the extension of radionuclide production possibilities, aiming at innovations in medical applications.

  3. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  4. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  5. [The importance of literature in medical humanities].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This article emphasizes on the importance of including literature as a subject in the medical curriculum and particularly in the teaching of medical humanities. It underlines the importance of the physician-writer and the non-physician writer, who may become patients at the same time, justifying why to include this subject in teaching medicine. Finally, the article suggests four steps to create a course in this field: text selection, definition of the content, time of inclusion within the curriculum, and distancing as a methodological strategy.

  6. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Manger, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  7. How nuclear data collected for medical radionuclides production could constrain nuclear codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Arnaud; Duchemin, Charlotte; Fardin, Arnaud; Guigot, Corentin; Nigron, Etienne; Remy, Charlotte; Haddad, Férid; Michel, Nathalie; Métivier, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this article is to give the status of nuclear data collected in the framework of the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron, and to show constrains that can be put on nuclear codes. In order to assess the cross section of a given production route, experiments have been carried out using the stacked-foil technique and gamma-spectroscopy for a set of radionuclides of medical interest: photon (Tc-99m) and positon (Sc-44g) emitters for diagnosis, electron (Re-186g, Tb-155, Sn-117m) and alpha particle (Th-226, Ra-233, Bi-213) emitters for therapeutic applications. A systematic comparison has been performed between the results from the TALYS code (version 1.6) and the large set of data collected using different projectiles (proton, deuteron and alpha particle) from few MeV up to 70 MeV and covering a wide range of target masses. A better overall agreement with our experimental data has been obtained with a combination of models already included in the TALYS code differing from the default one.

  8. [The importance of ADP for medical statistics].

    PubMed

    Debrunner, H U

    1991-01-01

    Recent german articles concerning medical statistics give priority to data acquisition. This contribution describe the statistical analysis and presentation of the results of the Swiss accident insurance Company (SUVA) with 1.9 million of insured workers. This documentation covers per year approximately 450,000 accidents at work and in free time. The documentation include primarily the insurance-data, for medical purposes we use the adjacent diagnoses (up to 20 per accident). The new medical statistic (SUMEST) begins with the accidents of the year 1984, updated until 1988, this means, that we have a statistic of the outcome of accidents. For the analysis we use properties of the personality, details of what happened, injury, expenses for healing and results. The primary presentation is a collection of tables for every diagnosis (total 417) with the most important criteria for the cases. It is provided to publish results of special problems like time of disability, influence of algodystrophy etc. The possibility to analyse a big documentation (25 MBytes) with a personal computer give to the physician the possibility to perform the statistical analysis himself and to select the significant results immediately.

  9. Virulence factors of medically important fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, L H; Klein, B S; Levitz, S M

    1996-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens have become an increasingly important medical problem with the explosion in the number of immunocompromised patients as a result of cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy, and AIDS. Additionally, the globalization of travel and expansion of humankind into previously undisturbed habitats have led to the reemergence of old fungi and new exposure to previously undescribed fungi. Until recently, relatively little was known about virulence factors for the medically important fungi. With the advent of molecular genetics, rapid progress has now been made in understanding the basis of pathogenicity for organisms such as Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The twin technologies of genetic transformation and "knockout" deletion construction allowed for genetic tests of virulence factors in these organisms. Such knowledge will prove invaluable for the rational design of antifungal therapies. Putative virulence factors and attributes are reviewed for Aspergillus species, C. neoformans, the dimorphic fungal pathogens, and others, with a focus upon a molecular genetic approach. Candida species are excluded from coverage, having been the subject of numerous recent reviews. This growing body of knowledge about fungal pathogens and their virulence factors will significantly aid efforts to treat the serious diseases they cause. PMID:8894347

  10. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  11. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know my family medical history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A ... certificates) can help complete a family medical history. It is important to keep this information up-to- ...

  12. Host cell invasion by medically important fungi.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Donald C; Filler, Scott G

    2014-11-03

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Medication errors: the importance of safe dispensing

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; Bouvy, Marcel L; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2009-01-01

    Although rates of dispensing errors are generally low, further improvements in pharmacy distribution systems are still important because pharmacies dispense such high volumes of medications that even a low error rate can translate into a large number of errors. From the perspective of pharmacy organization and quality assurance, pharmacists should intensify their checking of prescriptions, in order to reduce prescription errors, and should implement strategies to communicate adequately with patients, in order to prevent administration errors. More and better studies are still needed in these areas. More research is also required into: dispensing errors in out-patient health-care settings, such as community pharmacies in the USA and Europe; dispensing errors in hospitals and out-patient health-care settings in middle- and low-income countries; and the underlying causes of dispensing errors. PMID:19594537

  14. Host Cell Invasion by Medically Important Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    To infect the host and cause disease, many medically important fungi invade normally nonphagocytic host cells, such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Host cell invasion is a two-step process consisting of adherence followed by invasion. There are two general mechanisms of host cell invasion, induced endocytosis and active penetration. Furthermore, fungi can traverse epithelial or endothelial cell barriers either by proteolytic degradation of intercellular tight junctions or via a Trojan horse mechanism in which they are transported by leukocytes. Although these mechanisms of host cell invasion have been best studied using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, it is probable that other invasive fungi also use one or more of these mechanisms to invade host cells. Identification of these invasion mechanisms holds promise to facilitate the development of new approaches to inhibit fungal invasion and thereby prevent disease. PMID:25367974

  15. The Response of Radiation Portal Monitors to Medical Radionuclides at Border Crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2006-05-01

    Radio-pharmaceuticals are found at detectable levels in about one in 2600 Americans. Such individuals are thus commonly found at border crossings where equipment exists for radiation detection, and the resulting alarms must be handled by cognizant officials. A total of approximately 14.4 million medical procedures using radionuclides were performed in the U.S. during 2001. Of this total number of procedures during 2001, approximately 14.2 million were diagnostic procedures and 0.2 million were therapeutic procedures. Although there were over 45 different commercially-available products used in over 75 different types of procedures, 17 isotopes comprise the complete set of active ingredients in the commercially available radiopharmaceuticals in the U.S. Of these, 12 are customarily administered to outpatients, and 9 of these produce energetic photons. At 91.5%, the isotope 99mTc is the one most likely administered by an overwhelming margin. This paper reports on various impacts of radiopharmaceuticals observed at border crossings. Calculations were performed to simulate the photon response of portal radiation monitors to these types of sources. It is shown that at any time, about one in 2600 Americans carries a detectable radiation burden. (PIET-43741-TM-326)

  16. Skin decontamination of commonly used medical radionuclides. [Comparative effectiveness of tap water, soap and water, Radiacwash, and Isoclean

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. Jr.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The increasing use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis raises the possibility of accidental spills and skin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of several decontaminating agents. Most nuclides were easily removed to levels of less than 5% of their original activity. Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) was the most difficult compound to remove. Little difference was found between the effectiveness of tap water, soap and water, and two commercially available decontaminating agents.

  17. Has medical history importance for surgeons?

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, O W

    1975-03-01

    Surgeons will do well to remember that the two most important contributions to the growth and extension of surgery came from two disciplines, not then regarded as the most innovative. Anesthesia came from dentistry, the work primarily of W.T.G. Morton of Boston; prophylactic surgical antisepsis originated with the obstetrician Semmelweis, who developed a scheme of prophylactic chemical antisepsis that still remains the core of surgical antisepsis. In the mid 1880's, largely as a result of the work of Chamberland and others of the Pasteur school, surgeons in France and Germany substituted thermal for chemical antisepsis, whenever applicable. Whereas Lister's influence was tremendous in fostering acceptance of antisepsis by surgeons, by the end of his professorial career he had begun his capitulation to prophylactic antisepsis, which was complete by 1896 to the very practices that Semmelweis had proved the value of almost five decades previously. These were 19th century innovations. The greatest boon to surgery's advance in this century has been control of cellulitic infections through chemotherapeutic agencies, the sulfonamides and antibiotics. The tremendous upsurge of interest in research at the end of World War II brought surgeons to a fuller realization of the significant part they could play in the advance of their discipline. Intimate alignment of surgeons with physiologists of the circulation begot intracardiac surgery, a significant innovation with consequences of tremendous import for greater medicine's advance. Today, surgeons attacking the problem of tissue transplantation are aligning themselves with biochemists, geneticists, immunologists, experimental pathologists, and pharmacologists in their broad approach to the phenomenon of allograft rejection. The great extension of vascular surgery since World War II has made jewelers of surgeons of small tubular structures. The technical phases of these demanding operative procedures have largely been overcome

  18. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  19. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  20. [The importance of adequate medical history taking in dentistry].

    PubMed

    van Diermen, D E; Brand, H S; Vissink, A

    2006-05-01

    A patient's medical history is a vital part of his or her dental history and increases the dentist's awareness of diseases and medication which might interfere with the patient's dental treatment. This article describes the essential characteristics of a solid medical history, according to the Dutch Guidelines for Dental Education published in 1997. In future the importance of patients' medical histories will increase along with the number of medically complex patients who visit the dental general practice.

  1. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  2. Phylogenetics, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Wutzler, Peter; Zell, Roland

    2009-09-01

    The increasing frequency of tissue transplantation, recent progress in the development and application of immunomodulators, and the depressingly high number of AIDS patients worldwide have placed human polyomaviruses, a group of pathogens that can become reactivated under the status of immunosuppression, suddenly in the spotlight. Since the first description of a polyomavirus a half-century ago in 1953, a multiplicity of human and animal polyomaviruses have been discovered. After reviewing the history of research into this group, with a special focus is made on the clinical importance of human polyomaviruses, we conclude by elucidating the phylogenetic relationships and thus evolutionary history of these viruses. Our phylogenetic analyses are based on all available putative polyomavirus species as well as including all subtypes, subgroups, and (sub)lineages of the human BK and JC polyomaviruses. Finally, we reveal that the hypothesis of a strict codivergence of polyomaviruses with their respective hosts does not represent a realistic assumption in light of phylogenetic findings presented here.

  3. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  4. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  5. Nuclear medical imaging using β+γ coincidences from 44Sc radio-nuclide with liquid xenon as detection medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignon, C.; Barbet, J.; Bardiès, M.; Carlier, T.; Chatal, J. F.; Couturier, O.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Faivre, A.; Ferrer, L.; Girault, S.; Haruyama, T.; Le Ray, P.; Luquin, L.; Lupone, S.; Métivier, V.; Morteau, E.; Servagent, N.; Thers, D.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new nuclear medical imaging technique based on the measurement of the emitter location in the three dimensions with a few mm spatial resolution using β+γ emitters. Such measurement could be realized thanks to a new kind of radio-nuclides which emit a γ-ray quasi-simultaneously with the β+ decay. The most interesting radio-nuclide candidate, namely 44Sc, will be potentially produced at the Nantes cyclotron ARRONAX. The principle is to reconstruct the intersection of the classical line of response (obtained with a standard PET camera) with the direction cone defined by the third γ-ray. The emission angle measurement of this additional γ-ray involves the use of a Compton telescope for which a new generation of camera based on a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber is considered. GEANT3 simulations of a large acceptance LXe Compton telescope combined with a commercial micro-PET (LSO crystals) have been performed and the obtained results will be presented. They demonstrate that a good image can be obtained from the accumulation of each three-dimensional measured position. A spatial resolution of 2.3 mm has been reached with an injected activity of 0.5 MBq for a 44Sc point source emitter.

  6. The Importance of the Medical Record: A Critical Professional Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Elizabeth; Patel, Nachiket; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Tajik, A Jamil; Paterick, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, detailed documentation in the medical record is critical to patient care and to a physician when allegations of negligence arise. Physicians, therefore, would be prudent to have a clear understanding of this documentation. It is important to understand who is responsible for documentation, what is important to document, when to document, and how to document. Additionally, it should be understood who owns the medical record, the significance of the transition to the electronic medical record, problems and pitfalls when using the electronic medical record, and how the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act affects healthcare providers and health information technology.

  7. The importance of the accuracy of image registration of SPECT images for 3D targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Periklis; Divoli, Antigoni; Hatziioannou, Konstantinos; Flux, Glenn D

    2007-12-21

    In this paper, the importance of the accuracy of image registration of time-sequential SPECT images for 3D targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry is studied. Image registration of a series of SPECT scans is required to allow the computation of the 3D absorbed dose distribution for both tumour sites and normal organs. Three simulated 4D datasets, based on patient therapy studies, were generated to allow the effect of mis-registration on the absorbed dose distribution to be investigated. The tumour sites studied range in size, shape and position, relative to the centre of the 3D SPECT scan. Randomly generated transformations along the x-, y- and z-axes and rotations around the z-axis were employed and the maximum and average absorbed dose distribution statistics, for the tumour sites present, were computed. It was shown that even small mis-registrations, translation of less than 9 mm and rotation of less than 5 degrees might cause differences in the absorbed dose statistics of up to 90%, especially when the size of the tumour is comparable to the induced mis-registration or when the tumour is situated close to the edge of the 3D dataset.

  8. The importance of research in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mauricio José; Rodríguez-Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-11-24

    Currently medical information flows at great speed, bombarding medical students. Students are unfamiliar with fundamental aspects of biomedical literature appraisal. We assert that research performed during medical school will help to reduce the gap between the information available and comprehension by the student. The goal of the present review is to expound the importance of performing research during the undergraduate medical years and the relevance of research in other fields of medicine. We performed a literature review searching MEDLINE with terms consistent with our objective. We discuss the conduct of research projects during medical school training. The analysis of the articles retrieved proves that research is feasible and that it is a critical process during the undergraduate period for medical students.

  9. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  10. Importance of coccolithophore-associated organic biopolymers for fractionating particle-reactive radionuclides (234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be) in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sun, Luni; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Bretherton, Laura; Quigg, Antonietta; Santschi, Peter H.

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory incubation experiments using the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were conducted in the presence of 234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be to differentiate radionuclide uptake to the CaCO3 coccosphere from coccolithophore-associated biopolymers. The coccosphere (biogenic calcite exterior and its associated biopolymers), extracellular (nonattached and attached exopolymeric substances), and intracellular (sodium-dodecyl-sulfate extractable and Fe-Mn-associated metabolites) fractions were obtained by sequentially extraction after E. huxleyi reached its stationary growth phase. Radionuclide partitioning and the composition of different organic compound classes, including proteins, total carbohydrates (TCHO), and uronic acids (URA), were assessed. 210Po was closely associated with the more hydrophobic biopolymers (high protein/TCHO ratio, e.g., in attached exopolymeric substances), while 234Th and 233Pa showed similar partitioning behavior with most activity being distributed in URA-enriched, nonattached exopolymeric substances and intracellular biopolymers. 234Th and 233Pa were nearly undetectable in the coccosphere, with a minor abundance of organic components in the associated biopolymers. These findings provide solid evidence that biogenic calcite is not the actual main carrier phase for Th and Pa isotopes in the ocean. In contrast, both 210Pb and 7Be were found to be mostly concentrated in the CaCO3 coccosphere, likely substituting for Ca2+ during coccolith formation. Our results demonstrate that even small cells (E. huxleyi) can play an important role in the scavenging and fractionation of radionuclides. Furthermore, the distinct partitioning behavior of radionuclides in diatoms (previous studies) and coccolithophores (present study) explains the difference in the scavenging of radionuclides between diatom- and coccolithophore-dominated marine environments.

  11. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  12. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  13. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  14. Name Changes for Fungi of Medical Importance, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Warnock, David W

    2017-01-01

    This article lists proposed new or revised species names and classification changes associated with fungi of medical importance for the years 2012 through 2015. While many of the revised names listed have been widely adopted without further discussion, some may take longer to achieve more general usage. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Importance of Pharmaceutical Training and Clinical Research at Medical Facilities.

    PubMed

    Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

     To respond to advancements in medical techniques, and to address the separation of medical and dispensary practices, clinical professors are required to educate human resource staff to become highly-skilled pharmacists. For this purpose, it is extremely important for these professors to learn about cutting-edge practical skills and knowledge, as well as to advance their expertise. In addition, they need to conduct clinical research in cooperation with relevant facilities. As our university does not have its own hospital or pharmacy, it is important to provide training for clinical professors in clinical facilities. Such training mainly involves medical teams' in-hospital rounds and participation in conferences (nutrition support team; NST), operation of the pharmacy department, and intervention targeting improvement in the department's duties. We have conducted collaborative studies, provided research instructions, implemented studies aimed at improving the department's work (pharmacists appointed on wards at all times to ensure medical safety) as well as studies regarding team medical care (nutritional evaluation during outpatient chemotherapy), and resolved issues regarding this work (drug solution mixability in a hand-held constant infusion pump, and a safe pump-filling methods). Thus, it has become possible to keep track of the current state of a pharmacists' work within team medical care, to access information about novel drugs, to view clinical and prescription-claim data, to cooperate with other professionals (e.g., doctors and nurses), to promote pharmacists' self-awareness of their roles in cooperative medical practice, and to effectively maintain the hospital's clinical settings.

  16. Infections due to emerging and uncommon medically important fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T J; Groll, A; Hiemenz, J; Fleming, R; Roilides, E; Anaissie, E

    2004-03-01

    The emergence of less common but medically important fungal pathogens contributes to the rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in the increasingly expanding population of immunocompromised patients. These pathogens include septate filamentous fungi (e.g., Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., Trichoderma spp.), nonseptate Zygomycetes, the endemic dimorphic pathogen Penicillium marneffei, and non-Cryptococcus, non-Candida pathogenic yeast (e.g., Trichosporon spp.). The medical community is thus called upon to acquire an understanding of the microbiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of these previously uncommon pathogens in order to become familiar with the options for prevention and treatment.

  17. Why teaching empathy is important for the medical degree.

    PubMed

    Díez-Goñi, N; Rodríguez-Díez, M C

    Empathy is a basic skill in the exercise of medicine and increases patient and physician satisfaction and improves clinical results. However, the teaching of empathy is poorly covered in the teaching plans. A number of studies have observed a reduction in empathy during the final training courses. The reasons for this decline include, the students' excessive academic workload, the prioritisation of acquiring medical expertise over humanistic knowledge, the patient load in hospitals and health centres and the physicians' need to distance themselves from their patients. Nevertheless, intervention studies through simulation with standardised patients have shown an increase in empathy in students, which can be evaluated through the Jefferson scales: JSE-S and JSPPPE. The teaching of empathy to medical students is an important commitment in the curricular programs of medical schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. Role modelling in medical education: the importance of teaching skills.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. How important are economic factors in choice of medical specialty?

    PubMed

    Thornton, James; Esposto, Fred

    2003-01-01

    An ongoing debate exists among health care researchers about the mechanism that allocates physicians across medical specialties, and appropriate policy measures to correct imbalances that may arise from time to time. Most researchers believe that choice of residency program by medical school graduates is key to understanding how physicians are distributed across specialties, but there is much disagreement about whether economic or non-economic factors are most influential in determining this choice. We undertake an empirical investigation of two potentially important economic factors: income and leisure. To do so, we specify a two way error component regression model to estimate the effects of expected earnings and available leisure time, and uncertainty of earnings and leisure, on specialty choices of medical residents. Our findings indicate that economic factors are an important influence in the specialty choice process; in particular, medical residents are attracted to specialties that offer the prospect of longer and more certain annual vacations, higher earnings, shorter residency programs, and more certain work schedules. Our results suggest that employment contracts that provide generous annual vacation time and promise regular weekly work schedules may be more effective than increased earnings in correcting the current perceived shortage of primary care physicians.

  20. Updating knowledge on new medically important scorpion species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo R; Santibañez-López, Carlos E; Güereca, Leopoldo; Uribe-Romero, Selene J; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse V; Cárcamo-Noriega, Edson N; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2017-11-01

    The increment in the number of scorpion envenoming cases in Mexico is mainly associated to the rapid growth of the urban areas, and consequently, to the invasion of natural habitats of these arachnids. On the other hand, there is a great diversity of scorpion species, so it is indispensable to identify those of medical importance, which we now know are many more than the 7-8 previously reported as dangerous to humans. Because different LD50 values have been reported for the venom of the same species, probably due to variations in the experimental conditions used, in this work we determined the LD50 values for the venoms of 13 different species of scorpions using simple but systematic procedures. This information constitutes a referent on the level of toxicity of medically important scorpion species from Mexico and establishes the bases for a more comprehensive assessment of the neutralizing capacity of current and developing antivenoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of medically important microorganisms from Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological samples were obtained from the crewmembers of the Apollo 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 spaceflights. These specimens were analyzed for the presence of medically important microorganisms with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, Tricophyton rubrum, and Candida albicans being discussed in detail. Preflight isolation of crewmembers was found to coincide with a complete absence of inflight disease events and is recommended for future spaceflights. No autoinfection response (microbial shock) occurred after any of the reported spaceflights.

  2. [Importance of early Anatolian medical books regarding Turkish medical terms and the language of medicine].

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ali Haydar

    Turkish language was under the dominance of Arabian and Persian languages during the Seljukian period in Anatolia. Turkish gained importance at the period of the small Turcomen states, founded after the great Seljukian State had fallen this period some books were written with the countenance of the statesmen, and about thirty of this books were on medicine. These books were written in plain Turkish, and they are important regarding the Turkish language, because of the Turkish medical terms, besides medical knowledge. The development of Turkish in these books and examples of medical terms are given in this study.

  3. [Medical malpractice in relation to its social political importance].

    PubMed

    Franzki, H

    1990-02-01

    Despite an unchanged legal basis the number of proceedings concerning medical practitioner's liability has increased substantially and medical law has developed into an independent field of law in the last 20 years. On one hand this is a result of modern medicine's extended possibilities to act and control, on the other hand it is caused by the patient's changed attitude towards both, his disease and his physician. Hereby the mass media exercise considerable influence with their commentaries, that are often exaggerated in their criticism and their representation. But this development gives no rise to concern. The jurisdiction in the field of medical practitioner's liability is--apart from a few exceptions--not overstated but necessary for the safeguarding of the patient's interests. It doesn't impede progress, doesn't give cause for a defensive medicine and doesn't burden our public health system. For the patient's wellbeing it often even accomplishes the important function of convincing the public health administration, that sometimes shows a tendency to act economically, of strict medical demands. There still is no room for the general conclusion, that the control of medicine by jurisdiction has undermined the confidential relationship between patient and physician. The recently published result of an opinion poll has shown, that physicians still enjoy a high reputation, while journalists--in spite of some contradictory statements--find themselves in the last ranks.

  4. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  5. Optimal shielding design for bunkers of compact cyclotrons used in the production of medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Facure, A; França, W F

    2010-12-01

    There are several options to consider in the design of a vault that will house a cyclotron for radioisotopes production with regards to the door entrance. Alternatives are a direct-shielded door, a simple maze, or a double-legged maze. In this work, the impact of the neutron and photon doses at the vault entrance was evaluated for these options. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out in order to assess photon and neutron ambient dose equivalents. Simulations results were compared to experimental measurements taken inside a vault with a direct-shielded door. The double-legged maze is the configuration that provides the higher degree of radiological protection at the vault entrance. In addition, the fact of the location of the cyclotron target plays an important role in the ambient dose equivalents. The comparison performed between measurements and results of MCNP simulations confirmed a favorable agreement; maze legs reduce the neutron energies at the entrances of the vault. However, a degree of dose reduction similar to the one obtained for a two-legged maze can be achieved with the addition of shielding against neutrons in the inner maze entrance to act as a second door. A choice of a vault design is more evident by comparing the results of this study.

  6. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  7. Cockroaches as carriers of fungi of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Lemos, A A; Lemos, J A; Prado, M A; Pimenta, F C; Gir, E; Silva, H M; Silva, M R R

    2006-01-01

    The fungal pathogenic flora of the external surface of 103 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) collected from the intensive care unit of a hospital were investigated. In this study, a high percentage of test cockroaches (93.2%) were found to carry fungi of medical importance. The main fungi isolated were species of Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Information about the carriage of pathogenic fungi by cockroaches in hospital environment is scanty. The results suggest that cockroaches can play a role in dissemination of fungi, which they can carry on their external surface.

  8. [The importance of clinical observations for medical research].

    PubMed

    Koller, F

    1976-10-30

    Medical progress owes a great deal to the fundamental medical sciences and to the application of chemistry, physics and mathematics to medical problems. However, clinical observations and investigations are still of decisive importance in any field of medicine. By a feed-back mechanism they may even stimulate and fertilize fundamental medical sciences. Thus, our knowledge of the blood coagulation mechanism has been considerably enlarged by clinical analysis of hereditary bleeding disorders. - Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases started from clinical observations during World War I (production of leucopenia by sulfur mustard gas). - Surgical procedures and their consequences have contributed greatly to our knowledge of thyroid function, of the segmental anatomy of the lung, and of the conduction system of the heart. - Observations of side effects of drugs have often enlarged or completely changed their primary clinical indications: from antibacterial sulfonamides, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive and powerful diuretic drugs have been developed, and from histaminics the modern neuroleptics and antidepressants. - Fundamental immunology has been enormously activated by clinical transplantation of kidney and bone marrow. Selective immunological defects in men, real experiments of nature, contributed much to our knowledge of the various types of allergic response. The quality of clinical investigations, particularly of controlled clinical trials, has been considerably improved during the last two decades. Although it is an applied science the reliability of its results is to-day comparable with that of "pure" natural sciences. However, medicine is more than a natural science: examples of outstanding scientists who at the same time were great and human physicians are presented.

  9. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  10. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers.

  11. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  12. [Utilization of radionuclide therapy facility and assembly-temporary type therapeutic facility for medical treatment of radioactivity contaminated patients in nuclear emergency].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satro, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-05-01

    Medical management of patients internally contaminated in nuclear emergency needs, in addition to general medical treatment, to evaluate doses due to intakes of radioactive materials, to conduct effective treatment with stable isotopes and chelating agents and to keep public away from radioactive materials in and excreted from patients. The idea of medical treatment for internal contamination is demonstrated in the general principles on medical management of victims in nuclear emergency issued by the Cabinet Office in Japan. However, if impressive number patients with internal contamination are generated, the current medical management scheme in nuclear emergency is not able to admit them. The utilization of radionuclide therapy facilities where patients with thyroid diseases are treated with radioisotope and assembly-temporary housing type treatment facilities dedicated for internal contaminated patients may be expected to complement the medical management scheme in nuclear emergency. The effect or more medical management system for patients internally contaminated may become one of the safety nets in the contemporary society that inclines to use nuclear energy on account of accessibility.

  13. Effectiveness of the Medical Emergency Team: the importance of dose.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl; Bellomo, Rinaldo; DeVita, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Up to 17% of hospital admissions are complicated by serious adverse events unrelated to the patients presenting medical condition. Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) review patients during early phase of deterioration to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. However, reports of the efficacy of these teams are varied. The aims of this article were to explore the concept of RRT dose, to assess whether RRT dose improves patient outcomes, and to assess whether there is evidence that inclusion of a physician in the team impacts on the effectiveness of the team. A review of available literature suggested that the method of reporting RRT utilization rate, (RRT dose) is calls per 1,000 admissions. Hospitals with mature RRTs that report improved patient outcome following RRT introduction have a RRT dose between 25.8 and 56.4 calls per 1,000 admissions. Four studies report an association between increasing RRT dose and reduced in-hospital cardiac arrest rates. Another reported that increasing RRT dose reduced in-hospital mortality for surgical but not medical patients. The MERIT study investigators reported a negative relationship between MET-like activity and the incidence of serious adverse events. Fourteen studies reported improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of a RRT, and 13/14 involved a Physician-led MET. These findings suggest that if the RRT is the major method for reviewing serious adverse events, the dose of RRT activation must be sufficient for the frequency and severity of the problem it is intended to treat. If the RRT dose is too low then it is unlikely to improve patient outcomes. Increasing RRT dose appears to be associated with reduction in cardiac arrests. The majority of studies reporting improved patient outcome in association with the introduction of an RRT involve a MET, suggesting that inclusion of a physician in the team is an important determinant of its effectiveness.

  14. Are medical breakthroughs declining – The importance of case reports?

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Case reports are a valuable though oft-underestimated source of clinical knowledge, even wisdom. They are extremely valuable to clinicians faced with new diseases, new investigations, and new therapies, where they provide the initial information, which serves as a basis to plan a detailed comparative study to provide definitive answers. The publication of cases and images-related reports is undoubtedly a gain for all, including medical students, medical teachers, the scientific community, medical professionals, healthcare managers, and patients. PMID:26995410

  15. Are medical breakthroughs declining - The importance of case reports?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-12-01

    Case reports are a valuable though oft-underestimated source of clinical knowledge, even wisdom. They are extremely valuable to clinicians faced with new diseases, new investigations, and new therapies, where they provide the initial information, which serves as a basis to plan a detailed comparative study to provide definitive answers. The publication of cases and images-related reports is undoubtedly a gain for all, including medical students, medical teachers, the scientific community, medical professionals, healthcare managers, and patients.

  16. Relative importance of metaphor in radiology versus other medical specialties.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephen R; Partyka, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of competence in radiology often entails referring to other realms of knowledge, by which insights are acquired through the use of metaphor. One way in which compelling associations are made and retained is by linking anatomic structures and pathologic conditions with objects, places, and concepts, and codifying these relationships as metaphoric signs. An aggregate of specialty-specific signs were obtained from two general medical dictionaries and from encyclopedic texts in radiology and six other specialties: internal medicine, dermatology, pathology, general surgery, orthopedics, and pediatrics. The signs were then separated into two categories: eponymous (bearing the name of an individual or place) and metaphoric (extending meaning from one context to another). A total of 375 metaphoric signs were collected from citations in the researched dictionaries and texts, the overwhelming majority (66%) of which were radiologic in reference. In every other specialty, eponymous signs outnumbered metaphoric signs. In contrast, eponymous signs were comparatively infrequent in radiology. The striking difference observed in the data highlights the importance of metaphors for discourse and instruction in radiology. In image interpretation, the meaning of perceptual input is often discerned through associations with pictures previously encountered and understood both concretely and metaphorically. The inherent nature of radiologic images as simulacra of both normal anatomy and disease entities makes imaging findings well suited to explanation by means of named patterns borrowed from other realms of knowledge. © RSNA, 2012.

  17. Diseases of insects of medical importance in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Jaroslav

    1963-01-01

    The biological control of insects carrying human diseases was first attempted many years ago, but the results were disappointing owing to the insufficiency of information on the ecology and pathology of such insects at the time. In recent years, however, increased knowledge of insect pathology and ecology and the development of insecticide-resistance have led to a revival of interest in this method of vector control. Most of the recent published work on this subject relates to findings in North America; comparatively little information has hitherto been available in respect of Europe. This paper, which is based on a survey of the literature and on the author's own experience, presents the results of research on diseases of insects of medical importance in Europe. Infection with viruses, rickettsiae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and nematodes are discussed and suggested lines for future European research on biological control are put forward. ImagesFIG. 7-9FIG. 10-12FIG. 4-6FIG. 1-3 PMID:13999691

  18. The Importance of Teacher Involvement in Medication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a steady increase in the use of medication therapy to help control student behavior within schools. While psychotropic medications do not "cure" mental illnesses, they have demonstrated efficacy in helping children function better at school and within their home environment. However, it is important…

  19. Children with autism spectrum disorders - the importance of medical investigations.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Jørn; Bryn, Vesna; Diseth, Trond H; Heiberg, Arvid; Schjølberg, Synnve; Skjeldal, Ola H

    2013-01-01

    Considerable knowledge about medical comorbidity in cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is available, still it is not well established how extensive the medical investigations should be in individual cases. The aim is to explore proportions of possible specific medical conditions in ASD. 79 subjects went through extensive medical evaluations according to pre-defined procedures, including medical and developmental history, physical and biomedical investigations. Clinical neurological findings were quite common, and we found a high number of pathological findings in the additional medical investigations. Our study revealed that these pathological deviations occurred more frequently in patients with childhood autism than in the other diagnostic sub-groups, the exception were chromosomal findings which occurred more often in patients not-diagnosed with childhood autism. Medical and laboratory investigations should still be performed as a consequence of the patient's history, clinical presentations or family history. We should basically continue the use of non-routine and invasive procedures which do not put the patient at some unnecessary risk, in the absence of relevant clinical indications. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Why decision support systems are important for medical education

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  1. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  2. The Importance of Fostering Ownership during Medical Training

    PubMed Central

    Dubov, Oleksandr; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education and healthcare delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shiftwork in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision-ownership in treatment context and suggests possible ways in which the absence of decision-ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision-making. The paper opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision-ownership in medical care from the perspective of “diffusion of responsibility”. We will question quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We will also compare isolated and interrelated choices assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision-ownership impacting the delivery of healthcare. PMID:27471927

  3. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  4. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit.

  5. [Herbal medications. Possible importance for anaesthesia and intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, S; Rump, G; Kotter, J

    2007-12-01

    There is a great enthusiasm for herbal medications with increasing and widespread use among the population in various countries. A certain scepticism towards the use of pharmaceutical drugs may promote the use of herbal medicines such as echinacea, ginger, garlic, ginkgo, cranberry, valerian or St. John's wort even in western countries. Although considered safe among users, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies, hypertension and hepatotoxicity can occur. Physicians should caution patients on the adverse side effects of herbal medicines and interactions between herbal medicines and pharmaceutical drugs, leading to various and uncontrollable deterioration of vital functions in the perioperative period. Although evidence-based data are lacking, anaesthesiologists and surgeons should be familiar with the effects of herbal medicines and should enquire about the use of these agents in the preoperative assessment. Currently available data suggest that herbal medications should be discontinued up to 2 weeks before elective surgery, although no guidelines of scientific societies have yet been published.

  6. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates

    PubMed Central

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85%) and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious. PMID:26958656

  7. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates.

    PubMed

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates' view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently "a doctorate is usual" (85%) and "improvement of job opportunities" (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious.

  8. The importance of physics to progress in medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; Prentice, Paul; MacDonald, Michael P; Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2012-04-21

    Physics in therapy is as diverse as it is substantial. In this review, we highlight the role of physics--occasionally transitioning into engineering--through discussion of several established and emerging treatments. We specifically address minimal access surgery, ultrasound, photonics, and interventional MRI, identifying areas in which complementarity is being exploited. We also discuss some of the fundamental physical principles involved in the application of each treatment to medical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Importance of Medication in Consumer Definitions of Recovery from Serious Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Sabetti, Judith; Bloom, David

    2016-01-01

    The role of medication in the recovery of mental health consumers is important. In the context of a multi-site Canadian study on the meaning of recovery, five themes related to medication and recovery emerged from qualitative interviews with 60 consumers. For these consumers, recovery meant: finding a medication that works; taking medication in combination with services and supports; complying with medication; having a say about medication; and living without medication. Findings underlined consumers’ need to communicate their concerns around medication and be supported in developing self-management strategies and more collaborative relationships with providers. The study suggests an expanded role for nursing practice in these areas. PMID:19591021

  10. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H

    1994-01-01

    Of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in Canada and 58 were first isolated in the United States. Six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (WEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and Powassan (POW) viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), LaCrosse (LAC) virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus), and Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus (Reoviridae, Coltivirus). Their scientific histories, geographic distributions, virology, epidemiology, vectors, vertebrate hosts, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical and differential diagnoses, control, treatment, and laboratory diagnosis are reviewed. In addition, mention is made of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), which periodically cause human and equine disease in North America. WEE, EEE, and SLE viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes between birds; POW and CTF viruses, between wild mammals by ticks; LAC virus, between small mammals by mosquitoes; and VEE viruses, between small or large mammals by mosquitoes. Human infections are tangential to the natural cycle. Such infections range from rare to focal but are relatively frequent where they occur. Epidemics of WEE, EEE, VEE, and SLE viruses have been recorded at periodic intervals, but prevalence of infections with LAC and CTF viruses typically are constant, related to the degree of exposure to infected vectors. Infections with POW virus appear to be rare. Adequate diagnostic tools are available, but treatment is mainly supportive, and greater efforts at educating the public and the medical community are suggested if infections are to be prevented. PMID:8118792

  11. Migraine medication attributes are important for patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Massiou, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    The determinant of patient compliance with an anti-migraine drug is a complex alchemy. Studies of patient needs consistently show that pain freedom, speed of onset and no headache recurrence are important features of an anti-migraine product. Adverse events are important in migraine management, and concerns about them may significantly affect patient compliance. A high efficacy/tolerance ratio is definitely an essential factor, but irrational factors, such as the patient's expectations, knowledge, prejudices and concerns about the drug, may also interfere. Patients' worries about such events may instigate avoidance of prescription medicine that leads to increased intensity and duration of pain, an increased need to rest, reduced productivity and cancellation of social and work-related activities.

  12. Impact of medical travel on imports and exports of medical services.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tricia J; Garman, Andrew N

    2010-12-01

    Medical travel is travel outside of an individual's home region or country in pursuit of medical care that is more accessible, of higher quality and/or of lower cost. This paper estimates the inflows of foreign residents seeking medical care in the U.S. and outflows of U.S. residents seeking care abroad. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. International Trade Administration and a survey of domestic health care providers, we estimate the lower and upper bounds for the number of medical travelers into and out of the U.S. and the value of these services. We estimate that between 43,000 and 103,000 foreigners came into the U.S. for medical care, and between 50,000 and 121,000 U.S. residents traveled abroad for care in 2007. Despite a net loss in the number of medical travelers flowing out of the U.S. for care, the trade surplus for medical travel could be as high as $1 billion. While a slight net outflow of patients leaving the U.S. for medical care may exist, the resulting impact on exports is still positive for the U.S., due to a higher average spending per patient coming to the U.S. New mechanisms are needed to track the balance of mobility and trade for medical care on a regular basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Older Patients' Perceptions of Medication Importance and Worth: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Denys T.; Briesacher, Becky; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Halpern, Leslie; Osterberg, E. Charles; Jarzebowski, Mary; McKoy, June M.; Mazor, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cost-related medication non-adherence may be influenced by patients' perceived importance of their medications. This exploratory study addresses three related but distinct questions: Do patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications? What factors influence perceptions of medication importance? Is perceived importance associated with medications' worth, and does expense impact that association? METHODS Study participants included individuals aged 60 and older who were taking three or more prescription drugs. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were conducted to measure how patients rated their medications in terms of importance, expense, and worth. Factors that influence medication importance were identified using qualitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between perceived importance and worth of medications, and the impact of expense on that association. RESULTS Among 143 prescription drugs reported among 20 participants, the weighted mean rating of medication importance was 8.2 (SD=1.04) on a scale from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (most important). Of all medications, 38% were considered expensive. The weighted mean rating of worth was 8.4 (SD=1.46) on a scale from 0 (not worth it at all) to 10 (definitely worth it). Three major factors influenced medication importance: drug-related (characteristics, indications, effects, and alternatives); patient-related (knowledge, attitudes, and health); and external (the media, healthcare and family caregivers, and peers). Regression analyses showed an association between perceived importance and worth for inexpensive medications (OR=2.23; p=0.002) and an even greater association between perceived importance and worth for expensive medications (OR=4.29; p<0.001). DISCUSSION This study provides preliminary evidence that elderly patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications based on factors beyond

  14. Case reports and their importance in Medical Literature.

    PubMed

    Danish, Syed Hasan; Reza, Zawwar; Sohail, Abdul Ahad

    2017-03-01

    It is important to appreciate how case reports have paved the way for modern research. They are still largely considered the first line of evidence. Indeed global endemics such as HIV and Zika Virus have been traced back to initial case reports. Strictly speaking; case reports are anecdotes - a factual story telling about nature's own experiment. Case reports can be characterized by two huge advantages, their ability to present novel, rare cases in a manner that can lead to the expansion in research of such cases and their use in generating new, innovative hypothesis that can be used to direct further research. The aim of this article is to identify the place and purpose of case reports in the current research setting with a focus on highlighting its merits and limitation amongst other things.

  15. Biology, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses: An update.

    PubMed

    Moens, Ugo; Krumbholz, Andi; Ehlers, Bernhard; Zell, Roland; Johne, Reimar; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Lauber, Chris

    2017-10-01

    The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined. The large and small tumour antigens have domains conserved among the polyomaviruses, which are responsible for specific interactions with cellular proteins and may result in alteration of the cell cycle. Additional open reading frames (ORFs) are present in the genomes of the different polyomavirus species. Some of these ORFs are transcribed and translated in viral proteins, but their functions remain poorly understood. Polyomaviruses have a restricted host specificity. This may indicate that co-divergence with their hosts, which has been demonstrated in a few cases, was an important factor during polyomavirus diversification. However, a strict co-divergence scenario fails to explain family-wide patterns of diversity, suggesting an important contribution of lineage duplication and, possibly to a lesser extent, recombination and cross-species transmission. Polyomaviruses are pathogens that can cause various malignant and non-malignant diseases in birds and mammals, including humans, but so far they have not been linked to disease in lower vertebrates. In immunosuppressed individuals, reactivation of polyomavirus BK or JC can cause serious disease of the urogenital tract and brain, respectively, while Merkel cell polyomavirus is most probably associated with the development of a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumour in elderly or patients with pre-existing conditions. This review provides an update on the life

  16. The growing dependency in health care. Recent changes in medical technology imports and exports in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Semin, S; Güldal, D

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates recent changes related to the import and export of medical technology and their results in Turkey. Between 1980 and 1993 the number of medical technology imports in Turkey rose, and there was a parallel rise in its ratio to total imports and health expenditures. In contrast the ratio of medical technology exports to total exports decreased significantly in the same period. The liberalization of foreign trade and the changes of health services toward free market policy has caused growing import of medical technology in Turkey.

  17. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  18. Just a piece of equipment? The importance of medical device education.

    PubMed

    Brand, Darren

    2012-12-01

    The use of medical devices is an increasingly important element of a healthcare professional's role. It is crucial that users receive regular teaching and education to ensure that they are competent in the use of devices. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly litigious society in which we live. This article focuses upon the importance of a medical device education.

  19. Report of the CIRRPC Executive Committee regarding EPA NESHAP regulations on radionuclides for medical research institutions and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    There appears to be no compelling public health protection reason for EPA`s promulgation of NESHAP regulations to control air emissions of radioactive materials from NRC-licensed facilities engaged in activities associated with the practice and development of nuclear medicine. The NRC`s existing regulations provide the necessary controls for protection and EPA`s regulations would only add burdensome reporting requirements at substantial cost to medical treatment and diagnosis. Availability of nuclear medicine practice could be impacted and advancements through research delayed.

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  1. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A flesh fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sanit, Sangob; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom

    2014-04-01

    Although tropical climate of Thailand is suitably endowed with biodiversity of insects, flies of medical importance is not well investigated. Using information from literature search, fly survey approach and specialist's experience, we review database of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), one of the priorities flesh fly species of medical importance in Thailand. This review deals with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important morphological characteristics of egg, larva, puparia and adult were highlighted with illustration and/or micrographs. Search pertaining to molecular analysis used for fly identification and developmental rate of larvae were included. Medical involvement of larvae was not only myiasis-producing agent in humans and animals, but associated with human death investigations. This information will enable us to accurate identify this species and to emphasis the increase medically important scene in Thailand.

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  4. Short-term Fallout Radionuclide Ratios and Mass Balance Identify New Suspended Sediments of Channel Origin and Importance of Catchment Flowpath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, Diana; Pizzuto, James; Aalto, Rolf; Marquard, Julia; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Harpold, Adrian; Benthem, Adam; Skalak, Katherine; Levia, Delphis; Siegert, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    Fallout radionuclides and their ratios, such as beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb), are used to determine suspended sediment source and age in catchments. The ratio of beryllium-7 to lead-210 (7Be/210Pb) on suspended sediment has been used to estimate the fraction of "new" sediment in suspension. In the application of this model, "new" suspended sediment is often assumed to originate from recent landscape surface erosion that is delivered to the stream network. Fallout radionuclide deposition can vary across watersheds and on an event basis in a single watershed due to factors such as storm type, atmospheric height, and storm origin. In the White Clay Creek watershed within the mid-Atlantic USA, single-event deposition of 7Be varies from 15 - 177 Bq m-2 and 210Pb varies from 0 - 10 Bq m-2. 7Be/210Pb ratios vary from 7.9 to 17 within event precipitation and from 0.8 to 12.8 on suspended sediment. "New" sediment varies from 6 - 100% over the course of these events. 7Be mass balance during events shows that the majority of 7Be is retained within the catchment and not exported on suspended sediment. During summer thunderstorms, less than 1% of 7Be deposited on the watershed exits the stream channel. By comparing this flux with the direct channel interception of 7Be deposition in precipitation and throughfall we can determine the minimum amount of 7Be leaving the watershed that could occur in the absence of surface erosion. For example in summer thunderstorms, the entirety of the 7Be exiting the watershed on suspended sediment is less than the total activity deposited on the channel in direct precipitation. Channel-intercepted fallout radionuclides can exit the catchment by multiple mechanisms including the tagging of subaerial fluvial deposits with event precipitation; hence "new" suspended sediment originates from within the channel rather than from surface erosion. During extreme events, such as Hurricane Irene, less of the suspended sediment has been newly

  5. Soil-fungi transfer coefficients: Importance of the location of mycelium in soil and of the differential availability of radionuclides in soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Guillén, J; Bernedo, J M

    2005-01-01

    Soil-fungus transfer coefficients are usually defined as the ratio between the content of the fruiting bodies and that of the soil. Since, however, the methodology of how to determine the soil content is not firmly established, there exist a variety of definitions in the literature. We analyzed the 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K, and 226Ra content of mushroom and soil samples from two pine-wood ecosystems in Spain. The location of the mycelium in the soil profiles of these ecosystems was determined by means of the ergosterol concentration. The results showed the mycelium to generally be localized in the surface layer of soil (0-5 cm). We also carried out a speciation procedure for this layer of soil to determine the different degrees of association of the radionuclides in the soil. The results led us to propose some variations to the traditional definition used in quantifying radionuclide transfer. With these modifications, we were able to analyze Cs-K competition in several species of mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  6. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  7. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  8. Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Diptera:Sarcophagidae): a flesh fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Suwannayod, S; Sanit, S; Sukontason, K; Sukontason, K L

    2013-06-01

    Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis is a well-known flesh fly species of medical importance, both as a myiasis-producing agent and fly seen in a forensic entomology context. This study performed a comprehensive literature review of this fly species, dealing with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important characteristics used to identify P. ruficornis have been provided for both its third instar and adult for identification purpose in the future.

  9. Mapping Perceptions of Lupus Medication Decision-Making Facilitators: The Importance of Patient Context.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Alarcón, Graciela; Fraenkel, Liana; Leong, Amye; Dall'Era, Maria; Yazdany, Jinoos; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors can impede or facilitate patients' medication decision-making and adherence to physicians' recommendations. Little is known about how patients and physicians jointly view issues that affect the decision-making process. Our objective was to derive an empirical framework of patient-identified facilitators to lupus medication decision-making from key stakeholders (including 15 physicians, 5 patients/patient advocates, and 8 medical professionals) using a patient-centered cognitive mapping approach. We used nominal group patient panels to identify facilitators to lupus treatment decision-making. Stakeholders independently sorted the identified facilitators (n = 98) based on their similarities and rated the importance of each facilitator in patient decision-making. Data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. A cognitive map was derived that represents an empirical framework of facilitators for lupus treatment decisions from multiple stakeholders' perspectives. The facilitator clusters were 1) hope for a normal/healthy life, 2) understand benefits and effectiveness of taking medications, 3) desire to minimize side effects, 4) medication-related data, 5) medication effectiveness for "me," 6) family focus, 7) confidence in physician, 8) medication research, 9) reassurance about medication, and 10) medication economics. Consideration of how different stakeholders perceive the relative importance of lupus medication decision-making clusters is an important step toward improving patient-physician communication and effective shared decision-making. The empirically derived framework of medication decision-making facilitators can be used as a guide to develop a lupus decision aid that focuses on improving physician-patient communication. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of embryology.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Standley, Henrietta; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Chirculescu, Andy

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many studies reporting the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy, little is known about their opinions concerning the clinical importance of embryology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, nearly 1,600 medical students across Europe in the early stages of their training provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that they do not regard embryology as highly clinically relevant. Indeed, we further proposed that student attitudes to gross anatomy are much more positive than those toward embryology. Our findings show that our hypotheses hold, regardless of the university and country surveyed and regardless of the teaching methods employed for embryology. Clearly, embryology has a significant part to play in medical education in terms of understanding prenatal life, of appreciating how the organization of the mature human body has developed, and of providing essential information for general medical practice, obstetrics and pediatrics, and teratology. However, while newly recruited medical students understand the importance of gross anatomy in the development of professional competence, understanding the importance of embryology requires teachers, medical educationalists, and devisors of medical curricula to pay special attention to informing students of the significant role played by embryology in attaining clinical competence and achieving the knowledge and understanding of the biomedical sciences that underpins becoming a learned member of a health care profession. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Microbial detoxification of metals and radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J R; Lovley, D R

    2001-06-01

    Microorganisms have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of toxic metals and radionuclides. Recent advances have been made in understanding metal-microbe interactions and new applications of these processes to the detoxification of metal and radionuclide contamination have been developed.

  12. Effect of a pharmacist intervention on clinically important medication errors after hospital discharge: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kripalani, Sunil; Roumie, Christianne L; Dalal, Anuj K; Cawthon, Courtney; Businger, Alexandra; Eden, Svetlana K; Shintani, Ayumi; Sponsler, Kelly Cunningham; Harris, L Jeff; Theobald, Cecelia; Huang, Robert L; Scheurer, Danielle; Hunt, Susan; Jacobson, Terry A; Rask, Kimberly J; Vaccarino, Viola; Gandhi, Tejal K; Bates, David W; Williams, Mark V; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2012-07-03

    Clinically important medication errors are common after hospital discharge. They include preventable or ameliorable adverse drug events (ADEs), as well as medication discrepancies or nonadherence with high potential for future harm (potential ADEs). To determine the effect of a tailored intervention on the occurrence of clinically important medication errors after hospital discharge. Randomized, controlled trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessors. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00632021) Two tertiary care academic hospitals. Adults hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes or acute decompensated heart failure. Pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and individualized telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome was the number of clinically important medication errors per patient during the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included preventable or ameliorable ADEs, as well as potential ADEs. Among 851 participants, 432 (50.8%) had 1 or more clinically important medication errors; 22.9% of such errors were judged to be serious and 1.8% life-threatening. Adverse drug events occurred in 258 patients (30.3%) and potential ADEs in 253 patients (29.7%). The intervention did not significantly alter the per-patient number of clinically important medication errors (unadjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10]) or ADEs (unadjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.09 [CI, 0.86 to 1.39]). Patients in the intervention group tended to have fewer potential ADEs (unadjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.80 [CI, 0.61 to 1.04]). The characteristics of the study hospitals and participants may limit generalizability. Clinically important medication errors were present among one half of patients after hospital discharge and were not significantly reduced by a health-literacy-sensitive, pharmacist-delivered intervention. National Heart, Lung, and

  13. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  14. Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as carriers of microorganisms of medical importance in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483

  15. Factors important in the choice of a medical career: a Finnish national study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Teppo J; Hyppölä, Harri; Vänskä, Jukka; Aine, Tiina; Halila, Hannu; Kujala, Santero; Virjo, Irma; Sumanen, Markku; Mattila, Kari

    2015-10-05

    Applying for medical school is the first and also one of the most important career choices a physician makes. It is important to understand the reasons behind this decision if we are to choose the best applicants for medical schools and enable them to pursue satisfying careers. Respondents to the Finnish Junior Physician 88, Physician 1998 and Physician 2008 studies were asked: "To what extent did the following factors influence your decision to apply for medical school?" In 1998 and 2008 the respondents were also asked: "If you were starting your studies now, would you start studying medicine?" and had to answer "Yes" or "No". The odds ratios for the answer "No" were tested using logistic regression models. "Interest in people" was the main motive for starting to study medicine. "Good salary" and "Prestigious profession" were more important motives for males and "Vocation" and "Interest in people" for females. There were some significant changes in the motives for entering medicine in the 20-year period between studies. "Vocation" and "Wide range of professional opportunities" as important motives for entering medicine predicted satisfaction with the medical profession. Strong inner motivation may indicate the ability to adapt to the demands of work as a physician. Medical schools should try to select those applicants with the greatest vocational inclination towards a medical career.

  16. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  17. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  18. Taxonomic update on proposed nomenclature and classification changes for bacteria of medical importance, 2016.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael

    2017-05-01

    A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate identification and rapid reporting and communication to medical staff regarding patients with infectious agents of clinical importance. Microbial taxonomy in the age of molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics creates changes in taxonomy at a logarithmic rate further complicating this process. This update focuses on the description of new species and classification changes proposed in 2016. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

  20. Importance of the Emergency Medicine Application Components: The Medical Student Perception.

    PubMed

    McCann, Scott D; Nomura, Jason T; Terzian, W T Hillman; Breyer, Michael J; Davis, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    The National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) application has several elements. With limited time and resources, students must prioritize the key application elements on which to focus. It is unclear if medical students applying to emergency medicine (EM) prioritize the same items as program directors. We sought to determine medical student perception of the importance of each factor of the NRMP application to an EM residency. This was a cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board at an academic tertiary care Level I trauma center. A pilot-tested and validated survey tool was given to all medical students rotating in EM during an 18-month period. The students ranked each application item on a 5-point scale (1 = not important and 5 = very important) with verbal anchors. Of 136 medical students, 85.3% responded. Excluded were 31% who were not planning to apply to EM, leaving 80 responses for analysis. Items ranked higher were EM rotation grade, interview, clinical rotation grades, and letters of recommendation. Less emphasis was placed on Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor society status, publication in medical literature, and personal statement. Items most agreed upon and believed to be most important by the students were EM rotation grade, interviews, and clinical rotation grades. This is similar to previously reported rankings by program directors. Although medical students agreed on the importance of most aspects of the NRMP application, areas of discordance included emphasis on extracurricular activities and AOA. This can have implications for medical student mentoring and advising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito

  2. Exemption from import/export requirements for personal medical use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2004-09-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is amending its regulations to expressly incorporate the restrictions on personal use importation imposed by Congress in 1998 and to expand upon those restrictions to curtail the diversion that has continued even after the 1998 congressional amendment. Specifically, DEA is limiting to 50 dosage units the total amount of controlled substances that a United States resident may bring into the United States for legitimate personal medical use when returning from travel abroad at any location and by any means. This regulation will help prevent importation of controlled substances for unlawful use while still accommodating travelers who have a legitimate medical need for controlled substances during their journey.

  3. Analysis of metallic medical devices after cremation: The importance in identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Collini, Federica; Muccino, Enrico; Cappella, Annalisa; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzucchi, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of a charred cadaver raises many issues concerning personal identification; the presence of prosthetic materials may provide very important and decisive information. Who is involved in the recovery of a charred body or of burnt human fragments, should therefore be able to recognize medical devices even if modified by fire effects. Metallic residues (585kg) that came from 2785 cremations were studied. Medical devices were then divided by type and material in order to esteem the representativeness of each typology. The study illustrates the great presence of metal medical devices that could be of great help in identifying bodies and underlines that metallic medical devices types and morphology should be known by forensic practitioner involved in identification cases and that this kind of material can still be identified by physician and dentists, even if exposed to very high temperatures.

  4. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education.

    PubMed

    Sandars, John; Patel, Rakesh S; Goh, Poh Sun; Kokatailo, Patricia K; Lafferty, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology. The use of illustrative examples of the main educational theories to demonstrate the importance of theories informing the design of interventions using technology. Highlights the use of educational theories for theory-based and realistic evaluations of the use of technology in medical education. An explicit description of the educational theories used to inform the design of an intervention with technology can provide potentially useful insights into why some interventions with technology are more effective than others. An explicit description is also an important aspect of the scholarship of using technology in medical education.

  5. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  6. 21 CFR 1301.26 - Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use. 1301.26 Section 1301.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... name and address of the pharmacy or practitioner who dispensed the substance and the prescription...

  7. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culcidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGE.M) TO KEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Annual Report Terry L. Erwin June...GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Annual--1 September 1979- (SEIGEM) TO MEDICALLY ThWORTANT ARTHROPODS 30 May 1980 (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) 6

  8. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  9. GHSI EMERGENCY RADIONUCLIDE BIOASSAY LABORATORY NETWORK - SUMMARY OF THE SECOND EXERCISE.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Böttger, Axel; Bouvier, Céline; Capote-Cuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L; Kim, Eunjoo; Ko, Raymond; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Paquet, Francois; Quayle, Debora; Rulik, Petr; Sadi, Baki; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; de Oliveira Sousa, Wanderson; Szabό, Gyula

    2016-08-29

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ((90)Sr, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, and (239)Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response.

  10. The importance of being marginal: Norma Ford Walker and a Canadian school of medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Fiona

    2002-08-30

    This study reviews the development of a medical genetics research tradition in Toronto, Canada. This research tradition, what I call the "Ford Walker school," was forged in the 1930s in an iconoclastic mold. It was female-dominated in an era when leading-edge science was definitely not "women's work." It emerged in a leading research university, but in a country that lagged in the sciences. These social relations of gender and nation symbolized and sustained a marginality that was reinforced by the substantive concerns of members of this research school. They adopted a service orientation toward medicine, were sympathetic to heterodox approaches to genetic and medical science, and were principally reliant on a marginal research tool-dermatoglyphics. Despite this marginality, Norma Ford Walker was among the founding members of the institutions of human and medical genetics in North America in the postwar period. She forged a research tradition that served as the basis for further developments in medical genetics in Toronto and educated a generation of students, many of them women, who went on to populate and then institutionalize the growing science and practice of medical genetics in Canada. The heterodox approach of the early Ford Walker school was displaced as the field grew in the postwar period. Yet many members of the research school retained dermatoglyphic technique and used it to contribute to progress in medical cytogenetics. In this article, I explore why the history of this marginal research school is important.

  11. Providing context for a medical school basic science curriculum: The importance of the humanities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Britta M; Vannatta, Jerry B; Scobey, Laura E; Fergeson, Mark; Humanities Research Group; Crow, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    To increase students' understanding of what it means to be a physician and engage in the everyday practice of medicine, a humanities program was implemented into the preclinical curriculum of the medical school curriculum. The purpose of our study was to determine how medical students' views of being a doctor evolved after participating in a required humanities course. Medical students completing a 16-clock hour humanities course from 10 courses were asked to respond to an open-ended reflection question regarding changes, if any, of their views of being a doctor. The constant comparative method was used for coding; triangulation and a variety of techniques were used to provide evidence of validity of the analysis. A majority of first- and second-year medical students (rr = 70%) replied, resulting in 100 pages of text. A meta-theme of Contextualizing the Purpose of Medicine and three subthemes: the importance of Treating Patients Rather than a Disease, Understanding Observation Skills are Important, and Recognizing that Doctors are Fallible emerged from the data. Results suggest that requiring humanities as part of the required preclinical curriculum can have a positive influence on medical students and act as a bridge to contextualize the purpose of medicine.

  12. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  13. Patient-specific internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Tsougos, Ioannis; Loudos, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Theodorou, Kiki; Kappas, Constantin

    2010-02-01

    The development of patient-specific treatment planning systems is of outmost importance in the development of radionuclide dosimetry, taking into account that quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging can be used in this regard. At present, the established method for dosimetry is based on the measurement of the biokinetics by serial gamma-camera scans, followed by calculations of the administered activity and the residence times, resulting in the radiation-absorbed doses of critical organs. However, the quantification of the activity in different organs from planar data is hampered by inaccurate attenuation and scatter correction as well as because of background and organ overlay. In contrast, dosimetry based on quantitative three-dimensional data can be more accurate and allows an individualized approach, provided that all effects that degrade the quantitative content of the images have been corrected for. In addition, inhomogeneous organ accumulation of the radionuclide can be detected and possibly taken into account. The aim of this work is to provide adequate information on internal emitter dosimetry and a state-of-the-art review of the current methodology and future trends.

  14. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of histology.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Kucera, Tomas; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Scholz, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Luis Bueno-López, José; Alfonso Arraez Aybar, Luis; De Caro, Raffaele; Arsic, Stojanka; Lignier, Baptiste; Chirculescu, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have been undertaken to assess the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy. However, much less is known about their attitudes toward the clinical importance of histology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, over 2,000 early stage medical students across Europe provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that the students have a high regard for histology's clinical relevance. Regardless of the university and country surveyed, and of the teaching methods employed for histology, our findings were not consistent with our hypotheses, students providing a more moderate assessment of histology's importance compared to gross anatomy but more positive than their attitudes toward embryology. Histology should play a significant role in medical education in terms of appreciating not just normal structure and function but also pathology. We conclude that teachers of histology should pay special attention to informing newly-recruited medical students of the significant role played by histology in attaining clinical competence and in underpinning their status as being learned members of a healthcare profession. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Trans-European Pedagogic Research Group (TEPARG). Clin. Anat. 30:635-643, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. How important is medical ethics and history of medicine teaching in the medical curriculum? An empirical approach towards students' views.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE)--or the lack thereof--has on the judgement of these subjects. From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE

  16. How Important is Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Teaching in the Medical Curriculum? An Empirical Approach towards Students' Views

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE) - or the lack thereof - has on the judgement of these subjects. Methods: From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). Results: 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Conclusion: Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative

  17. (Biogeochemical pathways at artificial radionuclides)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1989-06-26

    Many of the present computer codes used to assist management decisions on hazardous waste management issues have not been verified or tested and, in many instances, are operated by individuals lacking specific expertise about the overall behavior of radionuclides in the environment. BIOMOVS is an international effort to test such codes. SCOPE-RADPATH has been organized to address the data needs for reliable environmental assessment of radionuclides and the data required for code testing. Concern was expressed at both meetings that computer codes are being inadvertently used as a substitute for scientific expertise and are obscuring rather than identifying needs for further research. Efforts to alleviate this situation are apparent among the scientific community funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the Nordic Liason Committee for Atomic Energy. Attempts are also being made to transfer information about the environmental behavior of radionuclides to other types of trace contaminants in the biosphere, using radionuclides as quantitative tracers of major biospheric transport processes. Of particular importance is the assessment of the transfer of radioactive contaminants from watersheds into surface waters and subsequent bioaccumulation into aquatic food chains as well as the long-term remobilization of contaminants initially immobilized in sediment.

  18. [Quality assurance and quality improvement in medical practice. Part 1. Definition and importance of quality in medical practice].

    PubMed

    Godény, Sándor

    2012-01-22

    In Hungary, financing of healthcare has decreased relative to the GDP, while the health status of the population is still ranks among the worst in the European Union. Since healthcare financing is not expected to increase, the number of practicing doctors per capita is continuously decreasing. In the coming years, it is an important question that in this situation what methods can be used to prevent further deterioration of the health status of the Hungarian population, and within this is the role of the quality approach, and different methods of quality management. In the present and the forthcoming two articles those standpoints will be summarized which support the need for the integration of quality assurance in the everyday medical practice. In the first part the importance of quality thinking, quality management, quality assurance, necessity of quality measurement and improvement, furthermore, advantages of the quality systems will be discussed.

  19. Medically important micro-organisms recovered from Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crew members.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R; Zaloguev, S N

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of significant alterations in the microbial populations inhabiting the integument and upper respiratory tract of space flight crew members has been proposed by various authors. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), a unique space flight in which two teams of crew members from different geographical areas joined in space, presented an unusual opportunity to evaluate in-flight cross-contamination and other anomalous behavior of the microbial populations. Accordingly, the medically important microbes recovered from the five (3 USA and 2 USSR) ASTP crew members before and after flight were evaluated in relation to specific theoretical alterations. The phenomenon of "simplification", in which the number of different types of species is reduced during spaceflight, did not occur within the population of medically important micro-organisms. Spontaneous post-flight illness due to infectious agents ("Microbial Shock") was also absent. Intracrew transfer of pathogens was established, but intercrew transfer was absent. Dysbacteriosis, in which sampled areas are flooded with unusually large numbers of a single type of micro-organism, was not demonstrated although there was a significant increase in the incidence of gram-negative rods in the oral cavities of the two cosmonauts. The importance of all of these and other observations of the medically important micro-organisms recovered from ASTP crew members are explored with respect to past and future space flights.

  20. Isolation and characterization of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil of iran (2006 - 2007).

    PubMed

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspensions of superficial soil samples were prepared by adding of normal saline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and the supernatants were cultured on brain-heart infusion agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar contain cycloheximide. The isolated microorganisms were examined by Gram and acid-fast stains and were identified biochemically and morphologically. Of 96 aerobic actinomycetes isolates identified, Actinomadura madurae and Streptomyces somaliensis were the most frequently isolated species each representing 19.8% of isolates, followed by Nocardia asteroides (15.6%), N. otitidiscaviarum (9.4%), N. brasiliensis (7.3%), A. peletieri, S. griseus, and Nocardia spp. (each 5.2%), and N. transvalensis, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura spp. and Streptomyces spp. (each 3.1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epidemiological investigation of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil samples from Iran. In recent years, mycetoma and nocardiosis have been increasingly reported in Iran. The results showed that medically important actinomycetes occur in the environment of Iran and soil could be potential source of actinomycotic infections.

  1. Teaching Medical Students the Important Connection between Communication and Clinical Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Windish, Donna M; Price, Eboni G; Clever, Sarah L; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Thomas, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Background Medical students are rarely taught how to integrate communication and clinical reasoning. Not understanding the relation between these skills may lead students to undervalue the connection between psychosocial and biomedical aspects of patient care. Objective To improve medical students' communication and clinical reasoning and their appreciation of how these skills interrelate in medical practice. Design In 2003, we conducted a randomized trial of a curricular intervention at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In a 6-week course, participants learned communication and clinical reasoning skills in an integrative fashion using small group exercises with role-play, reflection and feedback through a structured iterative reflective process. Participants Second-year medical students. Measurements All students interviewed standardized patients who evaluated their communication skills in establishing rapport, data gathering and patient education/counseling on a 5-point scale (1=poor; 5=excellent). We assessed clinical reasoning through the number of correct problems listed and differential diagnoses generated and the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory. Students rated the importance of learning these skills in an integrated fashion. Results Standardized patients rated curricular students more favorably in establishing rapport (4.1 vs 3.9; P=.05). Curricular participants listed more psychosocial history items on their problem lists (65% of curricular students listing ≥1 item vs 44% of controls; P=.008). Groups did not differ significantly in other communication or clinical reasoning measures. Ninety-five percent of participants rated the integration of these skills as important. Conclusions Intervention students performed better in certain communication and clinical reasoning skills. These students recognized the importance of biomedical and psychosocial issues in patient care. Educators may wish to teach the integration of these skills early in medical

  2. Medically important fungi found in hallux nails of university students from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Inés; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2007-06-01

    The presence of medically important fungi was studied in hallux nails scrapings obtained from 504 students (204 males, 300 females) of three universities in Cali. Specimens were examined by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. Medically important fungi were found in 49 (9.7%) students, 24 (4.8%) had onychomycosis while the rest did not have nail lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated fungi in students with lesions, where as T. mentagrophytes predominated in healthy nails. Most of the students with fungi were males. The prevalence of fungi was higher in individuals between 26 and 35 years. No association was observed between fungi and practicing sports or undergoing pedicures. These results suggest that dermatophytes can be found in healthy hallux nails, which can be reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.

  3. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. antunesi, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. complexa, L. cruzi, L. flaviscutellata, L. intermedia, L. longipalpis, L. migonei, L. paraensis, L. ubiquitalis, L. whitmani and L. yuilli yuilli. Most sandflies of medical importance occurred in the Amazon forest and savannah. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi had high densities in the savannah region. L. flaviscutellata is predominating in both the Amazon forest and the savannah region. L. whitmani and L. antunesi were sampled in the Amazon forest, savannah and marsh land.

  4. Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

    2005-04-01

    In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis.

  5. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  14. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide...

  17. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  20. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  3. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  4. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  12. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  13. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity and show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.

  14. Radionuclide removal by apatite

    DOE PAGES

    Rigali, Mark J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Moore, Robert C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a growing body of research supports widespread future reliance on apatite for radioactive waste cleanup. Apatite is a multi-functional radionuclide sorbent that lowers dissolved radionuclide concentrations by surface sorption, ion exchange, surface precipitation, and by providing phosphate to precipitate low-solubility radionuclide-containing minerals. Natural apatites are rich in trace elements, and apatite’s stability in the geologic record suggest that radionuclides incorporated into apatite, whether in a permeable reactive barrier or a waste form, are likely to remain isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time. Here we outline the mineralogic and surface origins of apatite-radionuclide reactivity andmore » show how apatites might be used to environmental advantage in the future.« less

  15. The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

  16. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Bleuel, Darren; Johnson, Micah; Rusnak, Brian; Soltz, Ron; Tonchev, Anton

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  17. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada. PMID:27004077

  18. Clinical Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea: The Importance of Medical History over Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Berk; Westover, M. Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. Methods: We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. Results: For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. Conclusion: To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. Citation: Ustun B, Westover MB, Rudin C, Bianchi MT. Clinical prediction models for sleep apnea: the importance of medical history over symptoms

  19. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  1. Changing the culture of medical training: An important step toward the implementation of competency-based medical education.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Peter C; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Nousiainen, Markku T; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The current medical education system is steeped in tradition and has been shaped by many long-held beliefs and convictions about the essential components of training. The objective of this article is to propose initiatives to overcome biases against competency-based medical education (CBME) in the culture of medical education. At a retreat of the International Competency Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators group, an intensive brainstorming session was held to determine potential barriers to adoption of CBME in the culture of medical education. This was supplemented with a review of the literature on the topic. There continues to exist significant key barriers to the widespread adoption of CBME. Change in educational culture must be embraced by all components of the medical education hierarchy. Research is essential to provide convincing evidence of the benefit of CBME. The widespread adoption of CBME will require a change in the professional, institutional, and organizational culture surrounding the training of medical professionals.

  2. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Austin, E.H.; Peter, C.A.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography provides a noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and blood flow through the heart and lungs. During the past three years, this procedure has been used at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of 343 patients with congenital heart disorders. A review of this experience shows tat the resulting data were frequently useful in the surgical management of these patients. In patients with abnormal blood flow patterns, noninvasive imaging of blood flow was useful before and after operative correction. Radionuclide measurements of left-to-right intracardiac shunts were sufficiently accurate for use in the initial evaluation of patients with murmurs and to document the absence of shunt after operative closure of intracardiac septal defects. Moreover, measurements of right-to-left cardiac shunts were of benefit in the management of children with cyanotic heart disease. Measurements of left ventricular function obtained during rest and exercise were most useful in patients with origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and in patients with congenital valvular insufficiency. This experience demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides important measurements of central hemodynamics and cardiac function which are useful in the management of patients with congenital heart disorders.

  3. Olfactory responses of medically and economically important mites (Acari: Epidermoptidae and Acaridae) to volatile chemicals.

    PubMed

    Skelton, A C; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2007-03-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Epidermoptidae), the American house dust mite, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the mold mite, are medically and economically important but controlling them has proved difficult, and recolonization is commonplace. Their behavioral responses to different sources of volatile chemicals are still not fully elucidated. For the first time, the Y-tube olfactometer, which is an enclosed bioassay to resolve responses to test and control volatiles, has been successfully used with these mites. Mites were tested individually, and both T. putrescentiae and D. farinae responded to food volatiles. Y-tube olfactometers may be used to test for potential semiochemicals, thereby increasing knowledge of our behavior of astigmatic mites.

  4. [Ecology of river mollusks of medical and veterinary importance in 3 sites in La Habana province].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; Gutiérrez Amador, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    An ecological research study was carried out in freshwater mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance, in order to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that affect their dynamics. It was observed that the principal abiotic factors influencing abundance of mollusks were total hardness, salinity, acidity, alkalinity and CO2 concentration. Both aquatic plants and specific relations among mollusk groups were the principal biotic factors that affected the molluskan fauna. Species like Fossaria cubensis and Tarebia granifera appeared affected when the site diversity increased whereas the tiarid Melanoides tuberculata prevailed in almost all the ecosystems.

  5. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  6. Contamination of Medical Charts: An Important Source of Potential Infection in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Wang, Ying-Kuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This prospective study aims to identify and compare the incidence of bacterial contamination of hospital charts and the distribution of species responsible for chart contamination in different units of a tertiary hospital. Methods All beds in medical, surgical, pediatric, and obstetric-gynecologic general wards (556) and those in corresponding special units (125) including medical, surgical, pediatric intensive care units (ICUs), the obstetric tocolytic unit and delivery room were surveyed for possible chart contamination. The outer surfaces of included charts were sampled by one experienced investigator with sterile cotton swabs rinsed with normal saline. Results For general wards and special units, the overall sampling rates were 81.8% (455/556) and 85.6% (107/125) (p = 0.316); the incidence of chart contamination was 63.5% and 83.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Except for obstetric-gynecologic charts, the incidence was significantly higher in each and in all ICUs than in corresponding wards. Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common contaminant in general wards (40.0%) and special units (34.6%) (p>0.05). Special units had a significantly higher incidence of bacterial contamination due to Staphylococcus aureus (17.8%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9.3%), Streptococcus viridans (9.4%), Escherichia coli (11.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.5%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (7.5%). Logistic regression analysis revealed the incidence of chart contamination was 2- to 4-fold higher in special units than in general wards [odds ratios: 1.97–4.00]. Conclusions Noting that most hospital charts are contaminated, our study confirms that a hospital chart is not only a medical record but also an important source of potential infection. The plastic cover of the medical chart can harbor potential pathogens, thus acting as a vector of bacteria. Additionally, chart contamination is more common in ICUs. These findings highlight the importance of

  7. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  8. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  9. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  10. Application of a Computerized General Purpose Information Management System (SELGEM) (SELf-GEnerating Master) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY 0 IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) oAnnual Report Terry L. Erwin July...APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE Annual Report INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO July 1981 to June 1982 MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS

  11. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rivas, Nicholas G; Prager, Sean M; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2015-08-01

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    PubMed

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Language issues: an important professional practice dimension for Australian International Medical Graduates.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Henderson, David; Holewa, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Issues associated with speech and language have been noted in the international literature as an important aspect of the process of integration for Australian International Medical Graduates (IMGs). This paper makes a contribution through the presentation of a sub-set of findings on the factors associated with speech and language practices for IMGs, taken from a qualitative study which examined the IMGs' experience of integration into the Australian healthcare system. A purposive sample of 30 IMGs were interviewed via telephone. Participants were asked to share their experience with communicating in English with patients and other health professionals in the context of the Australian healthcare system. The taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and then coded and thematically analysed. The findings indicate that the months following the point of entry into a medical position are a critical time for the majority of IMGs in terms of difficulties with communicating in English. A range of suggestions to improve speech and language skills for IMGs is provided. The findings emphasize the importance of speech and language skills and the serious implications of this issue for the clinical practice of IMGs.

  14. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  15. South African Dental Students' Perceptions of Most Important Nonclinical Skills According to Medical Leadership Competency Framework.

    PubMed

    Van der Berg-Cloete, Sophy E; Snyman, Lorraine; Postma, Thomas C; White, John G

    2016-11-01

    Recent developmental frameworks suggest that dental curricula should focus on developing nonclinical skills in dental students. The aim of this study was to qualitatively map students' perceptions of the most important nonclinical skills against the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF). A representative sample of second- to fifth-year students (n=594; overall response rate 69%) from all four dental schools in South Africa participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2014-15 enquiring about nonclinical skills and dental practice management. One of the questions required students to list the four most important nonclinical skills required for a dentist. Students (n=541) most frequently noted competencies related to working with others (97.9%), personal qualities (72.3%), and managing services (42.9%) as the most important nonclinical skills. Very few students mentioned competencies related to the improvement of services (14.1%) and the provision of strategic direction (10.9%). The students' attention appeared to be on nonclinical skills generally required for clinical care with some realization of the importance of managing services, indicating a need for a stronger focus on leadership and management training in dental schools in South Africa. The results also helped to unravel some of the conceptual ambiguity of the MLCF and highlight opportunities for leadership research using the MLCF as a conceptual framework.

  16. Structure, importance and recording of therapeutic information in the medical record: a multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Tichelaar, Jelle; van Unen, Robert J; Brinkman, David J; Fluitman, Pieter H M; van Agtmael, Michiel A; de Vries, Theo P G M; Richir, Milan C

    2015-12-01

    Structuring the diagnostic section of the medical record (MR) improves diagnosis and communication between doctors. However, little is known about the therapeutic section of the MR. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the extent to which MRs are structured for therapeutic information, to determine which therapeutic data registrars and clinical consultants consider should be recorded in the MR and to what extent registrars record this information themselves. A multicentre observational study was carried out in the internal medicine outpatient clinics of five teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Preformatted structure, importance and actual recording of therapeutic information was compared with a reference list of 35 therapeutic items based on the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing (e.g. drug name, indication for drug). The preformatted structure of four paper MRs and one electronic MR was assessed. Eight of the 35 therapeutic items were listed in the paper MRs and 18 items in the electronic MR. Registrars and consultants agreed on the importance of recording most of the therapeutic items in the MR, 25 and 27 out of the 35 items, respectively; however, registrars recorded only 11 of the 35 items in the paper MR and 20 of the 35 items in the electronic MR. The structure and content of paper and electronic MRs are not adequate. While both registrars and consultants agree on the importance of recording therapeutic items in the MR, registrars fail to record most of this information in practice. The results of this study can be used as starting point for the discussion regarding the necessity of structured recording of therapeutic information in the MR and its possible benefits with regard to medication safety and training of the new generation of prescribers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Importance of Organ Geometry and Boundary Constraints for Planning of Medical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Macura, K. J.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic modeling of medical interventions involving tool-tissue interactions has been considered to be a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity simulators and planners. Organ geometry, the soft-tissue constitutive laws, and boundary conditions imposed by the connective tissues surrounding the organ are some of the factors that govern the accuracy of medical intervention planning. In this study it is demonstrated that (for needle path planning) the organ geometry and boundary constraints surrounding the organ are the most important factors inuencing the deformation. As an example, the procedure of needle insertion into the prostate (e.g. for biopsy or brachytherapy) is considered. Image segmentation is used to extract the anatomical details from magnetic resonance images, while object-oriented finite element analysis (OOF) software is used to generate finite element (FE) meshes from the segmented images. Two-dimensional FE simulations that account for complex anatomical details along with relative motion between the prostate and its surrounding structure using cohesive zone models are compared with traditional simulation models having simple organ geometry and boundary constraints. Nodal displacements for these simpler models were observed to be up to 14 times larger than those obtained from the anatomically accurate models. PMID:18815068

  18. Statistics in brief: the importance of sample size in the planning and interpretation of medical research.

    PubMed

    Biau, David Jean; Kernéis, Solen; Porcher, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    The increasing volume of research by the medical community often leads to increasing numbers of contradictory findings and conclusions. Although the differences observed may represent true differences, the results also may differ because of sampling variability as all studies are performed on a limited number of specimens or patients. When planning a study reporting differences among groups of patients or describing some variable in a single group, sample size should be considered because it allows the researcher to control for the risk of reporting a false-negative finding (Type II error) or to estimate the precision his or her experiment will yield. Equally important, readers of medical journals should understand sample size because such understanding is essential to interpret the relevance of a finding with regard to their own patients. At the time of planning, the investigator must establish (1) a justifiable level of statistical significance, (2) the chances of detecting a difference of given magnitude between the groups compared, ie, the power, (3) this targeted difference (ie, effect size), and (4) the variability of the data (for quantitative data). We believe correct planning of experiments is an ethical issue of concern to the entire community.

  19. A string of mistakes: the importance of cascade analysis in describing, counting, and preventing medical errors.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steven H; Kuzel, Anton J; Dovey, Susan M; Phillips, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    Notions about the most common errors in medicine currently rest on conjecture and weak epidemiologic evidence. We sought to determine whether cascade analysis is of value in clarifying the epidemiology and causes of errors and whether physician reports are sensitive to the impact of errors on patients. Eighteen US family physicians participating in a 6-country international study filed 75 anonymous error reports. The narratives were examined to identify the chain of events and the predominant proximal errors. We tabulated the consequences to patients, both reported by physicians and inferred by investigators. A chain of errors was documented in 77% of incidents. Although 83% of the errors that ultimately occurred were mistakes in treatment or diagnosis, 2 of 3 were set in motion by errors in communication. Fully 80% of the errors that initiated cascades involved informational or personal miscommunication. Examples of informational miscommunication included communication breakdowns among colleagues and with patients (44%), misinformation in the medical record (21%), mishandling of patients' requests and messages (18%), inaccessible medical records (12%), and inadequate reminder systems (5%). When asked whether the patient was harmed, physicians answered affirmatively in 43% of cases in which their narratives described harms. Psychological and emotional effects accounted for 17% of physician-reported consequences but 69% of investigator-inferred consequences. Cascade analysis of physicians' error reports is helpful in understanding the precipitant chain of events, but physicians provide incomplete information about how patients are affected. Miscommunication appears to play an important role in propagating diagnostic and treatment mistakes.

  20. Protocetraric acid: an excellent broad spectrum compound from the lichen Usnea albopunctata against medically important microbes.

    PubMed

    Nishanth, Kumar S; Sreerag, R S; Deepa, I; Mohandas, C; Nambisan, Bala

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial property of the compounds present in the lichen Usnea albopunctata. Ethyl acetate extract of the lichen was purified by column chromatography to yield a major compound which was characterised by spectroscopic methods as protocetraric acid. In this study, protocetraric acid recorded significant broad spectrum antimicrobial property against medically important human pathogenic microbes. The prominent antibacterial activity was recorded against Salmonella typhi (0.5 μg/mL). Significant antifungal activity was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum (1 μg/mL), which is significantly better that the standard antifungal agent. Protocetraric acid is reported here for the first time from U. albopunctata. Thus the results of this study suggest that protocetraric acid has significant antimicrobial activities and has a strong potential to be developed as an antimicrobial drug against pathogenic microbes.

  1. Status and prospects of DNA barcoding in medically important parasites and vectors.

    PubMed

    Ondrejicka, Danielle A; Locke, Sean A; Morey, Kevin; Borisenko, Alex V; Hanner, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    For over 10 years, DNA barcoding has been used to identify specimens and discern species. Its potential benefits in parasitology were recognized early, but its utility and uptake remain unclear. Here we review studies using DNA barcoding in parasites and vectors affecting humans and find that the technique is accurate (accords with author identifications based on morphology or other markers) in 94-95% of cases, although aspects of DNA barcoding (vouchering, marker implicated) have often been misunderstood. In a newly compiled checklist of parasites, vectors, and hazards, barcodes are available for 43% of all 1403 species and for more than half of 429 species of greater medical importance. This is encouraging coverage that would improve with an active campaign targeting parasites and vectors.

  2. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  4. Clinical cases of parasitoses and fungal infections important from medical point of view

    PubMed

    Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    Most important infectious diseases which pose a risk to human health and life are associated with parasites transmitted by a variety of arthropod vectors, or from animal to man. Some of these (malaria, toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis, alveococcosis, cystic echinococcosis) still represent a serious public health problem in many regions in the world. This review describes the epidemiological and clinical aspects of important parasitoses and fungal infections from a medical point of view. It should be emphasized that the development of invasive disease depends on both host (susceptibility/resistance) and parasite factors (pathogenicity/virulence); an immunocompromised state can favour opportunistic parasitic infections: toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiosis, cyclosporidiosis, blastocystosis and strongyloidosis. This article highlights the role of free-living amoebae in the pathogenesis and transmission of human diseases, the high pathogenicity of Echinococcus multilocularis, and the growing importance of ticks as a reservoir and vector for numerous dangerous pathogens (e.g., Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti). It also discusses the diagnostic problems of toxoplasmosis including cross-reactions in serological tests and reviews the search for new drugs and vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by the human microbiome in maintaining homeostasis and in the development of fungal infections. This review also presents the most common human superficial fungal infections and the role of Candida albicans infection in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

  5. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically-important Staphyloccocus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    PubMed Central

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically-important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help designing novel anti-adhesion agents. PMID:24057018

  6. Replication of flock house virus in three genera of medically important insects.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Ranjit; Free, Heather M; Zietlow, Suzanne L; Paskewitz, Susan M; Aksoy, Serap; Shi, Lei; Fuchs, Jeremy; Hu, Changyun; Christensen, Bruce M

    2007-01-01

    Flock House Virus (family Nodaviridae, genus Alphanodavirus, FHV) was originally isolated from grass grubs Costelytra zealandica (White) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in New Zealand and belongs to a family of divided genome, plus-sense RNA insect viruses. FHV replicates in insects, a nematode, plants, and yeast. We previously reported replication of FHV in four genera of mosquitoes and expression of green fluorescent protein in Aedes aegypti (L.) produced by an FHV-based vector. We report here that FHV multiplies vigorously in vivo in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae Giles and An. stephensi Liston and in vitro in a cell line derived from An. gambiae. In addition, FHV multiplies extensively in two other medically important insects, the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, and the reduviid bug Rhodnius prolixus Stal, extending its host range to four orders of insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera). The virus disseminates in all the major tissues of the insects studied. Anopheles and Glossina show mortality when FHV is injected at a dose above 10(4) plaque-forming units (pfu) or the virus accumulates to titer above 10(8) pfu. A lower dose (10(3) pfu) promotes more extensive virus multiplication and reduces mortality to < 10%. No adverse effects are observed in Ae. aegypti, Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett), when injected with a dose of up to 10(7) pfu. Mosquitoes orally fed with FHV exhibited slower virus growth rate with lower mortality. Our results indicate that FHV has uniquely broad insect host range and that the virus can be used to study virus host interactions in a variety of medically important insects.

  7. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs.

  8. [Current knowledge among students of the Silesian Medical Academy about the importance and role of medical care funds].

    PubMed

    Tyrpień, Mirosław; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Steplewski, Zygmunt; Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Woźniak, Joanna; Malara, Beata

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was verification and comparison of the present state of knowledge among the students of different departments and years of study. The questions concerned the role of Medical Care Funds in the up-to-now healthcare system and the patient's rights as far as the students' future professions as doctors, dentists, healthcare managers and medical rescuers is concerned. The questionnaire included 15 questions referring to the problem of functioning of the medical care institutions after the reform of healthcare services introduced in 1999. Distinct from most of the published works of this kind, the authors adopted a uniform "assessment" method following the principles of didactic measurement. The researchers calculated: Range, Modal, Mediana, Arithmetic Average, Variance, Standard Deviation, Easiness of the Task, Difficulty of the Task, Skip Fraction, the Task's Differentiating Power, Reliability Coefficient of the Test. The calculation was conducted with the use of the Excel programme modified by the researchers to suit the needs of didactic measurement. The survey included 104 students of the 3rd year of Dental Department, 116 of the students 4th year of Dental Department, 31 students of Bachelor's Medical Rescue Studies by the Medical Department in Zabrze, 18 students of Post-Graduate Management and Administration in Healthcare by the Medical Department in Zabrze and Silesian Technical University, 151 4th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze and 121 6th year students of the Medical Department in Zabrze. It has been proved that between the particular groups there are significant differences as far as the students' knowledge is concerned ("the healthcare managers" demonstrated quite a high knowledge ratio). And that the questions were at different difficulty levels depending on the branch and year of study represented by the respondents.

  9. [The place, role and importance of emergency medical care in the Serbian health care system].

    PubMed

    Nikić-Sovilj, Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Emergency medical assistance is immediate, the current medical support that is provided hurted person to avoid any possible harmful consequences for his life and health. Emergency medical aid is part of the health care system that is rarely thought, but is still expected to be available always and continuously in case of need. Emergency medical assistance should always be available throughout the territory where people live, because there is no adequate replacement. Emergency Medical Services and emergency medical transportation services are health care that is provided in terms of all persons in the state of medical urgency. In urgent or emergency conditions, health care can be provided on the site of injuries and disease or health institution. Cases of medical urgency are ranked by degrees. The first and most difficult level of medical urgency indicate all urgent pathological conditions, diseases, injuries and poisoning, which occur in the workplace and public places. To expect medical team of emergency medical assistance at the scene intervened medical urgency, it is necessary to make call it. Call the phone number refers to the 94. Call sent to this number to receive orderly dispatcher. Dispatchers are employees who perform their work in the dispatching center. They appear in the phone number 94, made the assessment and screening calls, worry about the degree of urgency, and the absorption team, which team is the nearest place of the event. After received calls they send expert medical teams to the place of accident. In the dispatching center work always doctor and medical technician. Emergency medical care cases is a great professional and educational challenge and imposes a constant need in education of doctors and the whole emergency medical teams. Education of all employees in the state of emergency care is required continualy and for students too to receive new knowledge in the field of medical urgency by various professional purposes.

  10. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  11. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-08-19

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  12. [Toxicity of venoms from snakes of medical importance in México].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Estévez-Ramírez, Judith; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F; Litwin, Silvana; Carvajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; Dolab, Jorge A; Robles-Ortiz, Luis E; Alagón, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the toxic activities of snake venoms is necessary to understand the physiopathology of the envenomation and to test the potency of the antivenoms used to treat this pathology. Because of the lack of data on the toxic activities of venoms from Mexican snakes of medical importance, we studied the venoms from Bothrops asper, Athropoides nummifrr, Agkistrodon billineatus, Crotalus durissus durissus, Crotalus basiliscus, Crotalus scutulatus, Crotalus atrox and Micrurus nigrocinctus. The studies performed were: SDS-PAOE, determination of lethal potency, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulation on plasma and fibrinogen, phospholipasic and fibri(noge)nolytic activities. In addition we studied the neutralizing capacity of the toxic activities of an antivenom currently used for the treatment of snakebites in Mexico. The venom from viperids showed important hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulative on plasma, prothrombinic, fibrinogenolytic and phospholipase activities. The venoms with the highest lethal potency were those of Micrurus nigrocinctus and Crotalus scutulatus; however, the viperine venom that globally displayed the most potent toxic activities was from Bothrops asper. All the venoms showed toxic activities of similar range to those described for other American venomous snakes. The activity on plasma or fibrinogen varied widely among the different venoms but all displayed capacity to act on the coagulation system. The antivenom tested not only neutralized the lethality B. asper venom but also its other toxic activities.

  13. AVPdb: a database of experimentally validated antiviral peptides targeting medically important viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral peptides (AVPs) have exhibited huge potential in inhibiting viruses by targeting various stages of their life cycle. Therefore, we have developed AVPdb, available online at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/avpdb, to provide a dedicated resource of experimentally verified AVPs targeting over 60 medically important viruses including Influenza, HCV, HSV, RSV, HBV, DENV, SARS, etc. However, we have separately provided HIV inhibiting peptides in ‘HIPdb’. AVPdb contains detailed information of 2683 peptides, including 624 modified peptides experimentally tested for antiviral activity. In modified peptides a chemical moiety is attached for increasing their efficacy and stability. Detailed information include: peptide sequence, length, source, virus targeted, virus family, cell line used, efficacy (qualitative/quantitative), target step/protein, assay used in determining the efficacy and PubMed reference. The database also furnishes physicochemical properties and predicted structure for each peptide. We have provided user-friendly browsing and search facility along with other analysis tools to help the users. Entering of many synthetic peptide-based drugs in various stages of clinical trials reiterate the importance for the AVP resources. AVPdb is anticipated to cater to the needs of scientific community working for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24285301

  14. Ultrastructure of immature stages of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is known as the secondary screwworm because it causes secondary or facultative myiasis when the larvae feed on necrotic tissues. This fly has a significant medical and veterinary importance since it has been reported to transport eggs of Dermatobia hominis (human botfly), which can cause significant economic losses to livestock. Since this screwworm has been collected colonizing both pig carcasses and human cadavers, it is considered one of the most important species for forensic entomology studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characteristics which can help identify the immature forms of the flies. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the eggs, all the larval instars, and the puparia of Cochliomyia macellaria using SEM. The egg is ellipsoid and the dorsal surface is concave. The islands inside the median area had no anastomosis, but some perforations could be observed. From the second larval instar onwards, besides the intersegmental spines, other bands of spines were observed at the abdominal segments. Two spiracular openings were visible on the first and second larval instars, which were not expected. These characteristics are specific to Cochliomyia genus. The number and the general aspect of the spine tips in the cephalic region, the intersegmental bands on the abdomen, and the number of the spiracular openings could together help identify C. macellaria.

  15. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  16. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  17. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  18. A String of Mistakes: The Importance of Cascade Analysis in Describing, Counting, and Preventing Medical Errors

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Steven H.; Kuzel, Anton J.; Dovey, Susan M.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Notions about the most common errors in medicine currently rest on conjecture and weak epidemiologic evidence. We sought to determine whether cascade analysis is of value in clarifying the epidemiology and causes of errors and whether physician reports are sensitive to the impact of errors on patients. METHODS Eighteen US family physicians participating in a 6-country international study filed 75 anonymous error reports. The narratives were examined to identify the chain of events and the predominant proximal errors. We tabulated the consequences to patients, both reported by physicians and inferred by investigators. RESULTS A chain of errors was documented in 77% of incidents. Although 83% of the errors that ultimately occurred were mistakes in treatment or diagnosis, 2 of 3 were set in motion by errors in communication. Fully 80% of the errors that initiated cascades involved informational or personal miscommunication. Examples of informational miscommunication included communication breakdowns among colleagues and with patients (44%), misinformation in the medical record (21%), mishandling of patients’ requests and messages (18%), inaccessible medical records (12%), and inadequate reminder systems (5%). When asked whether the patient was harmed, physicians answered affirmatively in 43% of cases in which their narratives described harms. Psychological and emotional effects accounted for 17% of physician-reported consequences but 69% of investigator-inferred consequences. CONCLUSIONS Cascade analysis of physicians’ error reports is helpful in understanding the precipitant chain of events, but physicians provide incomplete information about how patients are affected. Miscommunication appears to play an important role in propagating diagnostic and treatment mistakes. PMID:15335130

  19. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Hartenbach, Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende; Martins do Souto, Renata; Maciel da Silva-Boghossian, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The ecological diversity of the periodontal microenvironment may provide suitable conditions for the colonization of species not usually considered members of the oral microbiota. In this investigation, we aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic species of medical relevance in the microbiota of individuals with distinct periodontal clinical status. Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (H, n = 81), gingivitis (G, n = 55), generalized aggressive (AgP, n = 36) or chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 98), and analyzed for 39 microbial taxa using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Microbial differences among groups, as well as associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were sought by non-parametric and univariate correlation tests. Neisseria spp., Peptostreptococus anaerobius, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eubacterium saphenum, Clostridium difficile and Olsenella uli were detected in high mean prevalence and counts in the subgingival microbiota of the study population. Species that were more related to periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction at the patient and site levels included enterobacteria, C. albicans, Neisseria spp., P. aeruginosa, O. uli, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens and Filifactor alocis (p < 0.05). In contrast, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were associated with periodontal health (p < 0.05). Pathogenic species of medical importance may be detected in high prevalence and levels in the periodontal microbiota. Regardless of their role in periodontal health or disease, the periodontal biofilm may be a source for dissemination and development of systemic infections by these pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  1. 77 FR 22328 - Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... thinking on the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in animal agriculture. DATES: Submit either... the Agency's current thinking on the topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any...

  2. The attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin in the development of an anatomical and medical vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2016-09-01

    Students on entering medical school are faced with acquiring new, and voluminous, anatomical and medical terminologies. A reason why acquiring these terminologies may be problematic relates to the fact that many terms are derived from classical Greek and Latin; languages nowadays that are rarely taught at school. It might also be supposed that the often reported reduction in exposure to anatomy, and time spent in the dissection room, impairs the students' knowledge and understanding of anatomical relationships, and thus further complicates the acquisition of the terminologies. To date, there have been no studies that have quantified the attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin during their medical training. In order to assess these attitudes, this study was undertaken for the newly-recruited (First Year) medical students and for the Final Year medical students at Cardiff University. They were provided with a brief questionnaire that was devised in accordance with Thurstone and Chave (1951) principles and with ethical approval. One hundred and eighty First Year students and one hundred and nineteen Final Year students responded. Our initial hypothesis was that students throughout the medical curriculum have an unfavorable attitude toward the importance of classical Greek and Latin. This hypothesis was supported by the attitudes of the Final Year students but not by the First Year medical students. While we would still advocate that First Year medical students should acquire some understanding of and have some formal or informal instruction in, classical Greek and Latin as they pertain to medical terminologies, we acknowledge that Final Year students are likely to have become reasonably well-versed in the origins of medical terminologies without formal instruction. Clin. Anat. 29:696-701, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. New Technology Provides Urgent Medical Information and Protects Privacy: Providing Important Information in Medical Situations for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelig, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fernando Viesca has a 24-year-old son who suffers from Angelman Syndrome, a little known chromosomal disorder that has left him with significant functional deficiencies. When Nando lived at home, his father took care of him full time, thus alleviating any worries about medical care. However, now that Nando lives in a group home, his father is no…

  4. New Technology Provides Urgent Medical Information and Protects Privacy: Providing Important Information in Medical Situations for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelig, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fernando Viesca has a 24-year-old son who suffers from Angelman Syndrome, a little known chromosomal disorder that has left him with significant functional deficiencies. When Nando lived at home, his father took care of him full time, thus alleviating any worries about medical care. However, now that Nando lives in a group home, his father is no…

  5. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  6. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: Practical Applications and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Jadvar, Hossein; Capala, Jacek; Fahey, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation in the development of targeted radionuclide cancer therapy. It is now possible to use baseline clinical and imaging assessments to determine the most effective therapy and to tailor this therapy during the course of treatment based on radiation dosimetry and tumor response. Although this personalized approach to medicine has the advantage of maximizing therapeutic effect while limiting toxicity, it can be challenging to implement and expensive. Further, in order to use targeted radionuclide therapy effectively, there is a need for multidisciplinary awareness, education, and collaboration across the scientific, industrial, and medical communities. Even more important, there is a growing understanding that combining radiopharmaceuticals with conventional treatment such as chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy may limit patient morbidity while improving survival. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals as biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response and targeting disease are playing a central role in medical research. Adoption of a practical approach to manufacturing and delivering radiopharmaceuticals, assessing patient eligibility, optimizing post-therapy follow-up, and addressing reimbursement issues will be essential for their success. PMID:27226737

  8. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) in Iran: Diversity, Host Range, and Medical Importance.

    PubMed

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Laudisoit, Anne; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera) and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance. The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents' burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77) of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43), Ctenophthalminae (n = 20) and Amphipsyllinae (n = 17). Meriones persicus was

  9. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) in Iran: Diversity, Host Range, and Medical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh; Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Laudisoit, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera) and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance. Methodology/Principal Findings The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents’ burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77) of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43), Ctenophthalminae (n = 20) and

  10. Self-regulated learning: why is it important compared to traditional learning in medical education?

    PubMed

    Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Nyandowe, Masimba; Zubair, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning has played an increasingly significant role in medical education over the last one to two decades. Medical educators have endeavored to ensure that the students are equipped to face the challenges of continued growth of medical knowledge. Here we enquire and reflect on various aspects of self-regulated learning including its strengths and weaknesses. We investigate how it could be incorporated with traditional teaching to bring the best out of the students and what students think about it.

  11. Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequencing versus Biochemical Profiling for Identification of Medically Important Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Ciardo, D. E.; Schär, G.; Böttger, E. C.; Altwegg, M.; Bosshard, P. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we established an in-house database of yeast internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. This database includes medically important as well as colonizing yeasts that frequently occur in the diagnostic laboratory. In a prospective study, we compared molecular identification with phenotypic identification by using the ID32C system (bioMérieux) for yeast strains that could not be identified by a combination of CHROMagar Candida and morphology on rice agar. In total, 113 yeast strains were included in the study. By sequence analysis, 98% of all strains were identified correctly to the species level. With the ID32C, 87% of all strains were identified correctly to the species or genus level, 7% of the isolates could not be identified, and 6% of the isolates were misidentified, most of them as Candida rugosa or Candida utilis. For a diagnostic algorithm, we suggest a three-step procedure which integrates morphological criteria, biochemical investigation, and sequence analysis of the ITS region. PMID:16390952

  12. Studies on the inactivation of medically important Candida species on agar surfaces using pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hugh; Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2009-09-01

    Development of a pulsed-light (PL) approach to inanimate surface decontamination is timely, as the incidence of yeast-related infections in healthcare remains unacceptably high. Critical electrical and biological factors governing the efficacy of PL for the in vitro inactivation of medically important yeast were established in this study. Predetermined cell numbers of yeast were inoculated separately on agar plates and were flashed with < or =90 pulses of broad-spectrum light under varying operating conditions, and their inactivation was measured. Significant differences in inactivation among different yeasts occurred depending on the intensity of the applied lamp discharge energy and the amount of pulsing applied. Levels of yeast sensitivity also varied depending on the distance between the light source and the treatment surface used, and the population size, type and age of cultures treated. Yeast strains were shown to be significantly more resistant to PL irradiation compared with similarly treated bacterial control cultures. A clear relationship was observed between the concentration of eluted proteins from treated yeast and the severity of PL conditions, with scanning electron micrographs showing irreversible cellular damage. Therefore, the findings from this study will enable further development and optimization of PL as a method of decontaminating surfaces in healthcare setting.

  13. Studies on Paederus alfierii Koch (Coleoptera:Staphylinidae) with special reference to the medical importance.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Arafa, M A; Younis, T A; Mahmoud, I A

    1996-08-01

    In Egypt, the rove beetle; Paederus alfierii Koch, is an active predator of several insects pests attacking a wide variety of cultivated plants as maize, cotton, clover ... etc. On the other hand, members of genus Paederus contain pederin (potent toxin) which in contact with human skin causes a necrotizing lesion (dermatitis linearis) and with the eye causes conjunctivitis. After the sudden flood of the year 1994, this beetle attacked a factory and about forty factors suffered a form of contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis. The majority of such factors needed hospitalization. To fill the gap in the knowledge of medical importance on such a predator, the present investigation was aimed. The aqueous extract from twenty wild collected adults (0.0101 gm) was tested on different groups of albino mice. No cutaneous reaction was seen macroscopically. On the other hand, another group of mice (3/4) showed mild conjunctival congestion faded on the next day. However, these experimental findings do not indicate the innocence of this rove-beetle from being harmful to man. The discussion was given on the light of work done abroad.

  14. Role Modeling in Medical Education: The Importance of a Reflective Imitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The medical literature almost uniformly addresses the positive aspects of role modeling. Still, some authors have questioned its educational value, a disagreement that is probably due to differing definitions of role modeling. If defined as demonstration of skills, provision of feedback, and emulation of specific professional behaviors, then role modeling is an important component of clinical training. However, if it is defined as a learner’s unselective imitation of role models and uncritical adoption of the messages of the learning environment, then the benefits of role modeling should be weighed against its unintended harm. In this Perspective, the author argues that imitation of role models may initially help students adapt to the clinical environment. However, if sustained, imitation may perpetuate undesirable practices, such as doctor-centered patient interviewing, and unintended institutional norms, such as discrimination between private and public patients. The author suggests that the value of role modeling can be advanced not only by targeting role models and improving faculty performance but also by enhancing students’ reflective assessment of their preceptors’ behaviors, especially so that they can better discern those that are worth imitating. This student-centered approach may be accomplished by first, warning students against uncritically imitating preceptors who are perceived as role models; second, showing students that their preceptors share their doubts and uncertainties; third, gaining an insight into possible undesirable messages of the learning environment; and finally, developing policies for faculty recruitment and promotion that consider whether a clinical preceptor is a role model. PMID:24556777

  15. Assessment of plant lectin antifungal potential against yeasts of major importance in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmitt Garcia; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Pereira, Juliano Lacava; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    2013-02-01

    The search for new compounds with antifungal activity is accelerating due to rising yeast and fungal resistance to commonly prescribed drugs. Among the molecules being investigated, plant lectins can be highlighted. The present work shows the potential of six plant lectins which were tested in vitro against yeasts of medical importance, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed in accordance with standard protocols to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined at 80% yeast growth inhibition, whereas the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was evaluated after making the subcultures of each dilution. Only C. parapsilosis growth was inhibited by the lectins tested. Abelmoschus esculentus lectin showed the highest MIC (0.97 μg ml(-1)). Lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Clitoria fairchildiana presented the highest MFC at (3.90 μg ml(-1)). These results encourage further studies with wider yeast strain selections, and open new perspectives for the development of pharmacological molecules.

  16. Fine structure of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Ngern-klun, Radchadawan; Sukontason, Kom; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-04-01

    The fine structure of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of medical importance, is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to contribute information on the morphology of the adult of this fly species. The surface of the dome-shaped ommatidia exhibits a microscopic granulose appearance. The palpus is equipped with small sensilla basiconica and sensilla chaetica, which provide sensory reception for detecting environmental information. At the apex of the mouthparts, the labellum is endowed with large numbers of sensilla trichodea and basiconic-like sensilla of variable length. The anterior (mesothoracic) spiracle is elliptical in shape and covered with extensively ramified setae except for a small dorsal aperture. The posterior (metathoracic) spiracle is shaped like a rounded isosceles triangle and covered by two valves of unequal size. The larger valve covers the upper approximately 2/3 of the spiracular opening, whereas the smaller valve covers the lower approximately 1/3 of the opening. Extensively ramified setae line and cover the valves over the entire spiracle. SEM analyses of the haltere knob and the prosternal organs, located adjacent to the cervical sclerites, revealed a striking resemblance of the morphological features of their sensilla. Each sensillum emanates from a cuticular ring, is approximately 12-15 mum in length, has a smooth surface, and terminates in a sharp tip. Various types of sensilla were associated with the ovipositor including sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placodea and probably sensilla styloconica. The possible function of sensilla distributed in particular regions of the fly integument is discussed.

  17. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus species of medical or economical importance: why so fastidious?

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Sugui, Janyce A

    2009-11-01

    Heterothallism is dependent upon the obligatory cross-mating between self-sterile homokaryotic individuals and represents a common pattern of sexuality in yeasts and molds. Heterothallic reproductive cycles have recently been discovered in three Aspergillus species of medical and economic importance, namely Aspergillus fumigatus,A. parasiticus and A. flavus. Together with Aspergillus udagawae (Neosartorya udagawae), heterothallism has now been discovered in a total of four aspergilli that affect human health or economy. These fungi appear to express relatively low levels of fertility compared to other heterothallic or homothallic aspergilli and require unusually fastidious environmental parameters to complete the sexual cycle. Because the purpose of sex is to reproduce, we favor the hypothesis that while fertility of these species is on the decline this is compensated by their proficiency to reproduce asexually in a wider range of environmental conditions. Heterothallism in these species could provide an invaluable tool for the recombinational analysis of factors relevant to pathogenicity or toxin production. There is concern, however, whether extensive recombinational analysis can be very practical in light of the fact that formation of ascospores in these species requires a long period of time and the construction of genetically marked strains is likely to decrease fertility even further.

  18. [Distribution and ecological characteristics of freshwater snails of medical importance in Santiago de Cuba province].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; González Coello, Carelia; Sánchez Noda, Jorge; Alba Menéndez, Annia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of freshwater snails to serve as intermediary host of parasites responsible for some tropical diseases is well known. A malacological study was carried out in the Santiago de Cuba province in order to determine the distribution of freshwater snails of medical importance and their relation with the main ecosystems. Nineteen sites were sampled in the province and the abundance of each of the species was compared to the type of habitat by means of the correspondence analysis. Each site was referred from the geographical viewpoint to determine the distribution patterns. A total amount of 12 freshwater snail species was found and the most abundant were Tarebia granifera, Physa acuta and Pyrgophorus parvulus. Rivers are the main types of ecosystems associated to these species followed by springs and ditches. Fossaria cubensis showed high density in flooded grounds whereas Biomphalaria pallida was the only planorbid species that could coexist with thiarid species. Due to the species found in this province, the likelihood of possible outbreaks of fasciolosis as well as the introduction of schistosomiasis is considered as high.

  19. Comparative antigenic studies of species of Basidiobolus and other medically important fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Yangco, B G; Nettlow, A; Okafor, J I; Park, J; Te Strake, D

    1986-01-01

    An immunodiffusion technique was used to evaluate the antigenic relationship of various pathogenic and saprobic Basidiobolus spp., Conidiobolus spp., isolates of the order Mucorales, and several other medically important nonzygomycetous fungi. The antiserum to Basidiobolus haptosporus shared two lines of identity, designated inner (N) and outer (Y), when tested against exoantigens of known strains of B. haptosporus and Basidiobolus ranarum as well as exoantigens of a human Nigerian isolate and several wild isolates tentatively identified in B. ranarum. Both bands were heat stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Exoantigens of strains of Basidiobolus meristosporus, Basidiobolus microsporus, Conidiobolus incongruus, Conidiobolus coronatus, and other wild isolates of Basidiobolus spp. tested formed only the N immunoprecipitin band. Exoantigens of 10 isolates from other taxa did not produce any cross-reactive precipitin line. B. meristosporus antiserum that was tested against exoantigens of Basidiobolus spp. and of Conidiobolus spp. developed only an N band without a Y band. These data suggest that B. haptosporus and B. ranarum are antigenically similar to each other and distinct from B. meristosporus. Basidiobolus spp. and Conidiobolus spp. share a common N immunoprecipitin band, which implies a taxonomic relationship between these two genera. The absence of lines of identity between Basidiobolus spp. and other fungi tested suggests that, antigenically, Basidiobolus is a distinct genus. Images PMID:3084553

  20. The Domains of Human Nutrition: The Importance of Nutrition Education in Academia and Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Lorenzo M.; Leonardi, Francesco; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Banderali, Giuseppe; Battino, Maurizio; Bertoli, Enrico; Bordoni, Alessandra; Brighenti, Furio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cairella, Giulia; Caretto, Antonio; Cena, Hellas; Gambarara, Manuela; Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Giovannini, Marcello; Lucchin, Lucio; Migliaccio, Pietro; Nicastro, Francesco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Piretta, Luca; Radrizzani, Danilo; Roggi, Carla; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Scalfi, Luca; Vettor, Roberto; Vignati, Federico; Battistini, Nino C.; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Human nutrition encompasses an extremely broad range of medical, social, commercial, and ethical domains and thus represents a wide, interdisciplinary scientific and cultural discipline. The high prevalence of both disease-related malnutrition and overweight/obesity represents an important risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. It is the opinion of Federation of the Italian Nutrition Societies (FeSIN) that these two sides of the same coin, with their sociocultural background, are related to a low “nutritional culture” secondary, at least in part, to an insufficient academic training for health-care professionals (HCPs). Therefore, FeSIN created a study group, composed of delegates of all the federated societies and representing the different HCPs involved in human nutrition, with the aim of identifying and defining the domains of human nutrition in the attempt to more clearly define the cultural identity of human nutrition in an academically and professionally oriented perspective and to report the conclusions in a position paper. Three main domains of human nutrition, namely, basic nutrition, applied nutrition, and clinical nutrition, were identified. FeSIN has examined the areas of knowledge pertinent to human nutrition. Thirty-two items were identified, attributed to one or more of the three domains and ranked considering their diverse importance for academic training in the different domains of human nutrition. Finally, the study group proposed the attribution of the different areas of knowledge to the degree courses where training in human nutrition is deemed necessary (e.g., schools of medicine, biology, nursing, etc.). It is conceivable that, in the near future, a better integration of the professionals involved in the field of human nutrition will eventually occur based on the progressive consolidation of knowledge, competence, and skills in the different areas and domains of this discipline. PMID:28275609

  1. The Domains of Human Nutrition: The Importance of Nutrition Education in Academia and Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Leonardi, Francesco; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Banderali, Giuseppe; Battino, Maurizio; Bertoli, Enrico; Bordoni, Alessandra; Brighenti, Furio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cairella, Giulia; Caretto, Antonio; Cena, Hellas; Gambarara, Manuela; Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Giovannini, Marcello; Lucchin, Lucio; Migliaccio, Pietro; Nicastro, Francesco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Piretta, Luca; Radrizzani, Danilo; Roggi, Carla; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Scalfi, Luca; Vettor, Roberto; Vignati, Federico; Battistini, Nino C; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Human nutrition encompasses an extremely broad range of medical, social, commercial, and ethical domains and thus represents a wide, interdisciplinary scientific and cultural discipline. The high prevalence of both disease-related malnutrition and overweight/obesity represents an important risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. It is the opinion of Federation of the Italian Nutrition Societies (FeSIN) that these two sides of the same coin, with their sociocultural background, are related to a low "nutritional culture" secondary, at least in part, to an insufficient academic training for health-care professionals (HCPs). Therefore, FeSIN created a study group, composed of delegates of all the federated societies and representing the different HCPs involved in human nutrition, with the aim of identifying and defining the domains of human nutrition in the attempt to more clearly define the cultural identity of human nutrition in an academically and professionally oriented perspective and to report the conclusions in a position paper. Three main domains of human nutrition, namely, basic nutrition, applied nutrition, and clinical nutrition, were identified. FeSIN has examined the areas of knowledge pertinent to human nutrition. Thirty-two items were identified, attributed to one or more of the three domains and ranked considering their diverse importance for academic training in the different domains of human nutrition. Finally, the study group proposed the attribution of the different areas of knowledge to the degree courses where training in human nutrition is deemed necessary (e.g., schools of medicine, biology, nursing, etc.). It is conceivable that, in the near future, a better integration of the professionals involved in the field of human nutrition will eventually occur based on the progressive consolidation of knowledge, competence, and skills in the different areas and domains of this discipline.

  2. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  3. Release of patients after therapy with unsealed radionuclides.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    After some therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures with unsealed radionuclides, precautions may be needed to limit doses to other people, but this is rarely the case after diagnostic procedures. Iodine-131 results in the largest dose to medical staff, the public caregivers, and relatives. Other radionuclides used in therapy are usually simple beta emitters (e.g. phosphorus-32, strontium-89, and yttrium-90) that pose much less risk. Dose limits apply to exposure of the public and medical staff from patients. Previously, the ICRP has recommended that a source-related dose constraint for optimisation of a few mSv/episode applies to relatives, visitors, and caregivers at home, rather than a dose limit. The present report recommends that young children and infants, as well as visitors not engaged in direct care or comforting, should be treated a s members of the public (i.e. be subject to the public dose limit.) The modes of exposure to other people are: external exposure; internal exposure due to contamination; and environmental pathways. Dose to adults from patients is mainly due to external exposure. Contamination of infants and children with saliva from a patient could result in significant doses to the child's thyroid. It is important to avoid contamination of children and pregnant women. After radioiodine therapy, mothers must cease breastfeeding immediately. Many types of therapy with unsealed radionuclides are contraindicated in pregnant females. Women should not become pregnant for some time after radioisotope therapy. Technetium-99m dominates discharges to the environment from excreta of nuclear medicine patients, but its short half-life limits its importance. The second largest discharges, iodine-131, can be detected in the environment after medical uses but with no measurable environmental impact. Storing patient's urine after therapy appears to have minimal benefit. Radionuclides released into modern sewage systems are likely to result in doses to sewer

  4. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-06-10

    optimising decay/measurement time and product sample activity used for QC quality control. The optimisation ensures a certainty of measurement of the specific impure radionuclide and avoids wasting the useful amount of valuable purified/concentrated daughter nuclide product. This process is important for the spectrometric measurement of very low activity of impure radionuclide contamination in the radioisotope products of much higher activity used in medical imaging and targeted radiotherapy.

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  7. Faculty Promotion and Attrition: The Importance of Coauthor Network Reach at an Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Warner, Erica T; Carapinha, René; Weber, Griffin M; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y

    2016-01-01

    Business literature has demonstrated the importance of networking and connections in career advancement. This is a little-studied area in academic medicine. To examine predictors of intra-organizational connections, as measured by network reach (the number of first- and second-degree coauthors), and their association with probability of promotion and attrition. Prospective cohort study between 2008 and 2012. Academic medical center. A total of 5787 Harvard Medical School (HMS) faculty with a rank of assistant professor or full-time instructor as of January 1, 2008. Using negative binomial models, multivariable-adjusted predictors of continuous network reach were assessed according to rank. Poisson regression was used to compute relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between network reach (in four categories) and two outcomes: promotion or attrition. Models were adjusted for demographic, professional and productivity metrics. Network reach was positively associated with number of first-, last- and middle-author publications and h-index. Among assistant professors, men and whites had greater network reach than women and underrepresented minorities (p < 0.001). Compared to those in the lowest category of network reach in 2008, instructors in the highest category were three times as likely to have been promoted to assistant professor by 2012 (RR: 3.16, 95 % CI: 2.60, 3.86; p-trend <0.001) after adjustment for covariates. Network reach was positively associated with promotion from assistant to associate professor (RR: 1.82, 95 % CI: 1.32, 2.50; p-trend <0.001). Those in the highest category of network reach in 2008 were 17 % less likely to have left HMS by 2012 (RR: 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70, 0.98) compared to those in the lowest category. These results demonstrate that coauthor network metrics can provide useful information for understanding faculty advancement and retention in academic medicine. They can and should be investigated at

  8. The Chilander Medical Codex: its importance for the medieval Serbian pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Dusanka, P; Dragan, S

    2001-07-01

    Early Serbian writings on pharmacotherapy such as those of medieval collections were based on Greek and Roman sources. With the discovery of the Chilandar Medical Codex, relevant information on Serbian medieval pharmacy and medicine were gathered. According to the Chilander Medical Codex, drugs were prepared using the most sophisticated techniques and the latest knowledge of that time.

  9. Insects associated with hospital environment in Egypt with special reference to the medically important species.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M

    2014-12-01

    A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects

  10. DNA barcoding and molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Parajulee, Megha N; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. The standard method of utilisation of morphological characters becomes challenging due to various factors such as phenotypical variations. We explored the complementary approach of CO1 gene-based identification, analysing ten species of mosquito vectors belonging to three genera, Aedes, Culex and Anopheles from India. Analysed nucleotide sequences were found without pseudo genes and indels; they match with high similarity in nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) search. The partial CO1 sequence of Anopheles niligricus was the first time record submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Mean intra- and interspecies divergence was found to be 1.30 and 3.83 %, respectively. The congeneric divergence was three times higher than the conspecifics. Deep intraspecific divergence was noted in three of the species, and the reason could be explained more accurately in the future by improving the sample size across different locations. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. Ts and Tv substitutions in all the 1st, 2nd and 3rd codons were estimated to be (0.44, 99.51), (40.35, 59.66) and (59.16, 40.84), respectively. Saturation of the sequences was resolved, since both the Ts and Tv exhibited a linear relationship suggesting that the sequences were not saturated. NJ and ML tree analysis showed that the individuals of the same species clustered together based on the CO1 sequence similarity, regardless of their collection site and geographic location. Overall, this study adds basic knowledge to molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance and may be useful to improve biotechnological tools employed in Culicidae control programmes.

  11. Identification of Medically Important Yeast Species by Sequence Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Leaw, Shiang Ning; Chang, Hsien Chang; Sun, Hsiao Fang; Barton, Richard; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by yeasts have increased in previous decades due primarily to the increasing population of immunocompromised patients. In addition, infections caused by less common species such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Saccharomyces spp. have been widely reported. This study extensively evaluated the feasibility of sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for the identification of yeasts of clinical relevance. Both the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 373 strains (86 species), including 299 reference strains and 74 clinical isolates, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequences were compared to reference data available at the GenBank database by using BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) to determine if species identification was possible by ITS sequencing. Since the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some yeasts, the ITS sequences of type (or reference) strains of 15 species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate identification of these species. Strains producing discrepant identifications between the conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were further analyzed by sequencing of the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The rates of correct identification by ITS1 and ITS2 sequence analysis were 96.8% (361/373) and 99.7% (372/373), respectively. Of the 373 strains tested, only 1 strain (Rhodotorula glutinis BCRC 20576) could not be identified by ITS2 sequence analysis. In conclusion, identification of medically important yeasts by ITS sequencing, especially using the ITS2 region, is reliable and can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional identification methods. PMID:16517841

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. Self-regulated learning: why is it important compared to traditional learning in medical education?

    PubMed Central

    Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Nyandowe, Masimba; Zubair, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning has played an increasingly significant role in medical education over the last one to two decades. Medical educators have endeavored to ensure that the students are equipped to face the challenges of continued growth of medical knowledge. Here we enquire and reflect on various aspects of self-regulated learning including its strengths and weaknesses. We investigate how it could be incorporated with traditional teaching to bring the best out of the students and what students think about it. PMID:28360542

  14. Barriers to the implementation of medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders: the importance of funding policies and medical infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Oser, Carrie B

    2011-11-01

    Despite growing interest in the use of evidence-based treatment practices, adoption of pharmacotherapies for treating substance use disorders (SUDs) remains modest. Using data from telephone interviews with 250 administrators of publicly funded SUD treatment programs, this study estimated a model of adoption of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for SUDs and examined the relative importance of regulatory, cultural, medical resource, patient-level, and funding barriers to MAT implementation. MAT-adopting programs had significantly greater medical resources, as measured by the employment of physicians and nurses, than non-adopting programs. Administrators of non-adopting programs were asked to rate the importance of 18 barriers to MAT implementation. The most strongly endorsed barriers were regulatory prohibitions due to the program's lack of medical staff, funding barriers to implementing MAT, and lack of access to medical personnel with expertise in delivering MAT. Barriers related to insufficient information about MAT and unsupportive staff attitudes were not widely endorsed. These findings suggest that efforts to promote the implementation of MAT that are inattentive to funding barriers and weaknesses in medical infrastructure may achieve sub-optimal results.

  15. The Importance of Medication Errors Reporting in Improving the Quality of Clinical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Elden, Nesreen Mohamed Kamal; Ismail, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication errors have significant implications on patient safety. Error detection through an active management and effective reporting system discloses medication errors and encourages safe practices. Objectives: To improve patient safety through determining and reducing the major causes of medication errors (MEs), after applying tailored preventive strategies. Methodology: A pre-test, post-test study was conducted on all inpatients at a 177 bed hospital where all medication procedures in each ward were monitored by a clinical pharmacist. The patient files were reviewed, as well. Error reports were submitted to a hospital multidisciplinary committee to identify major causes of errors. Accordingly, corrective interventions that consisted of targeted training programs for nurses and physicians were conducted. Results: Medication errors were higher during ordering/prescription stage (38.1%), followed by administration phase (20.9%). About 45% of errors reached the patients: 43.5% were harmless and 1.4% harmful. 7.7% were potential errors and more than 47% could be prevented. After the intervention, error rates decreased from (6.7%) to (3.6%) (P≤0.001). Conclusion: The role of a ward based clinical pharmacist with a hospital multidisciplinary committee was effective in recognizing, designing and implementing tailored interventions for reduction of medication errors. A systematic approach is urgently needed to decrease organizational susceptibility to errors, through providing required resources to monitor, analyze and implement effective interventions. PMID:27045415

  16. An unusual case of gout in the wrist: the importance of monitoring medication dosage and interaction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Craig L; Stern, Paula J

    2007-10-09

    Gouty arthritis of the wrist is uncommon although gout itself is the most common inflammatory arthritis in older patients. Some known risk factors for the development of gout include trauma, alcohol use, obesity, hyperuricaemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As well, certain medications have been shown to promote the development of gout. These include thiazide diuretics, low dose salicylates and cyclosporine. We present a case of gouty wrist pain possibly precipitated by a medication dosage increase as well as medication interactions. A 77 year old male presented with right wrist pain. Redness and swelling was present at the dorsal aspect of his wrist and range of motion was full with pain at end range upon examination. One week prior, his anti-hypertensive medication dosage had been increased. The patient's situation continued to worsen. Radiographic examination revealed changes consistent with gouty arthritis. It is important for clinicians treating joint conditions to be aware of patients' comorbidities, medication usage and changes in dosages. Education of patients with gout is of prime importance. Clinicians should educate patients that gout may occur at any joint in the body not only the lower limb. Patients should be aware of the signs and symptoms of an acute gouty attack and be made aware that changes in certain medication dosages may precipitate an attack. Awareness of radiographic changes associated with gout is still of importance although these changes are not seen as frequently as they have been in the past due to better control of the disease.

  17. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  19. [Assessment of the sterilization of medical devices--an important challenge to health care in Poland].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of sterilization of medical devices in Polish hospitals. The system that we use to establish which sterilization procedures should be employed to reduce the risk of hospital infections associated with medical devices. Based on inquiries, the conditions for the sterilization of medical devices in 21 Warsaw hospitals were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: preparation of medical supplies for sterilization, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system. In order to evaluate hygienic conditions due to sterilization points system was applied. 10% of the hospitals had Central Sterilization Service Department with 3 zones where automatic washing and disinfection, sorting, packaging, sterilization and storage of medical devices had been performed. The other 20% had CSSD without zones. In more than 65% there were common services for sterilization only. Instruments were delivered already prepared for sterilization. In remaining hospitals all steps, including sterilization were performed in words. According preparation of medical devices for sterilization it was established that mainly chemical disinfection just after use and than manual cleaning was used; the automatic cleaning in washer-disinfectors is used mainly in CSSD. Steam was the preferred method of sterilization, but also low temperature methods were used for heat sensitive devices. The monitoring of sterilization processes was satisfactory. There were first trials of the validation of the sterilization processes. There is still a need for improvement in the sterilization of medical devices, especially including: the organisation of CSSD in all Polish hospitals; replacement of manual cleaning processes by automatic cleaning; organisation of advanced training courses for the heads and staff of the CSSD.

  20. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  1. Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Graham M; Graudins, Andis

    2002-09-01

    1. The spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific region include widow (family Theridiidae) and Australian funnel-web spiders (subfamily Atracinae). In addition, cupboard (family Theridiidae) and Australian mouse spiders (family Actinopodidae) may contain neurotoxins responsible for serious systemic envenomation. Fortunately, there appears to be extensive cross-reactivity of species-specific widow spider antivenom within the family Theridiidae. Moreover, Sydney funnel-web antivenom has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mouse spider envenomation. 2. alpha-Latrotoxin (alpha-LTx) appears to be the main neurotoxin responsible for the envenomation syndrome known as "latrodectism" following bites from widow spiders. This 120 kDa protein binds to distinct receptors (latrophilin 1 and neurexins) to induce neurotransmitter vesicle exocytosis via both Ca2+-dependent and -independent mechanisms, resulting in vesicle depletion. This appears to involve disruption to a process that normally inhibits vesicle fusion in the absence of Ca2+. Precise elucidation of the mechanism of action of alpha-LTx will lead to a major advancement in our understanding of vesicle exocytosis. 3. delta-Atracotoxins (delta-ACTX) are responsible for the primate-specific envenomation syndrome seen following funnel-web spider envenomation. These peptides induce spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials in excitable cells. This results from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation and a slowing of voltage-gated Na+ channel inactivation. This action is due to voltage-dependent binding to neurotoxin receptor site-3 on insect and mammalian voltage-gated Na+ channels in a manner similar, but not identical, to scorpion alpha-toxins and sea anemone toxins. delta-Atracotoxins provide us with highly specific tools to study Na+ channel structure and function 4. omega- and Janus-faced ACTX, from funnel-web spider venom, are novel neurotoxins that

  2. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  3. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  4. The Importance of Medical Readiness Training Exercises: Maintaining Medical Readiness in a Low-Volume Combat Casualty Flow Era.

    PubMed

    Mead, Kelly C; Tennent, David J; Stinner, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    Ringed external fixation has demonstrated promising results in the management of severe combat-related extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare rates of wartime-related surgical cases at times of high and low casualty time periods, and then compare these case numbers with those performed during a 2-week Medical Readiness Training Exercise (MEDRETE) in Honduras. A retrospective review was performed of patients treated at a single Military Treatment Facility with definitive ringed external fixators during a 2-year period of high-volume combat casualty flow (January 2009-December 2010) and a subsequent 2-year period of low-volume combat casualty flow (January 2013-December 2014). These data were then compared with cases performed over a 2-week period during a MEDRETE in 2011 to Honduras. Sixty-one cases were identified as having definitive treatment using ringed external fixation at the Military Treatment Facility during the high- and low-volume eras. During the high-volume era, 47 ringed external fixators were used as a definitive treatment. During the low-volume era, only 14 of the definitive ringed external fixation were identified. Of the 32 total cases performed during the 2-week MEDRETE to Honduras, 11 cases of definitive ringed external fixator placement were performed. This accounted for 34.4% of all cases performed during this 2-week period. Appropriately planned MEDRETEs can provide a concentrated case volume to allow maintenance of complex surgical skills related to the management of severe combat-related extremity injuries. These training exercises will be vital to maintain surgical skills during a low-volume combat casualty flow era. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Importance of basic life support training for first and second year medical students--a personal statement.

    PubMed

    Tipa, Raluca Oana; Bobirnac, George

    2010-01-01

    Current studies show that there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the typical signs and risk factors associated with serious medical conditions among medical students and laypersons. Basic life support consists of a number of medical procedures provided to patients with life threatening conditions of the body that cause pain or dysfunction to the person. In spite of the fact that this programme is not included in the curricula, students might receive this information from various persons, even though these persons are not specialized in the domain of giving first aid. Learning medicine without placing patients at an increased risk of complications is of utmost importance in the medical profession. High-fidelity patient simulators can potentially achieve this, and, therefore they are increasingly used in the training of medical students. Recent studies regarding simulation training show that the simulation-based intervention offers a positively evaluated possibility to enhance students' skills in recognizing and handling emergencies improving the ability to manage medical emergencies. Understanding BLS courses and more than that, practicing these techniques is by far the most challenging task confronting first aid. Taking everything into consideration, we believe that an adequate education in first aid and basic life support should be considered an essential aspect of the medical curriculum.

  6. Radionuclide Evaluation of Brain Death in the Post-McMath Era.

    PubMed

    Zuckier, Lionel S

    2016-10-01

    The pronouncement of death is a determination of paramount social, legal, and ethical import. The novel construct of "brain death" was introduced 50 years ago, yet there persist gaps in understanding regarding this diagnosis on the part of medical caregivers and families. The tragic, much-publicized case of Jahi McMath typifies potential problems that can be encountered with this diagnosis and serves as an effective point of departure for discussion. This article recapitulates the historical development of brain death and the evolution of scintigraphic examinations as ancillary or confirmatory studies, emphasizing updated clinical and imaging practice guidelines and the current role of scintigraphy. The limitations of clinical and radionuclide studies are then reviewed. Finally, the article examines whether radionuclide examinations might be able to play an expanded role in the determination of brain death by improving accuracy and facilitating effective communication with family members. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Commentary: the importance of musculoskeletal medicine and anatomy in medical education.

    PubMed

    Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools in the United States have continued to demonstrate deficiencies in musculoskeletal education. In response to the findings of numerous studies and to the objectives of the U.S. Bone and Joint Decade (an international collaborative movement sanctioned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization for the purpose of promoting awareness of musculoskeletal disease), several institutions, including Harvard Medical School, have reassessed the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at their respective medical schools. A cross-sectional survey at Harvard in 2004 found that students lacked clinical confidence in dealing with the musculoskeletal system. In addition, only one quarter of the graduating class of medical students passed a nationally validated exam in basic musculoskeletal competency. In 2005, 33 total hours of musculoskeletal medicine were added to the musculoskeletal blocks of the preclinical anatomy, pathophysiology, and physical examination courses. Alongside this movement toward more musculoskeletal education, there has been continued debate over the relevance and cost-effectiveness of cadaveric and surface anatomy labs. With the advent of advanced imaging technology, some argue that dissection anatomy is outdated and labor-intensive, whereas three-dimensional images are more accessible and time-effective for today's students. However, knowledge of anatomy is a critical foundation to learning musculoskeletal medicine. Thus, making room for more musculoskeletal curriculum time by cutting out cadaveric anatomy labs may ultimately be counterproductive.

  8. The Importance of "High Valence" Events in a Successful Program for Teaching Geriatrics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Peter A.; Willett, Rita M.; Gentili, Angela; Abbey, Linda J.; Lawson, Sonya R.; Schlesinger, Jeanne B.; Meyers, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University developed an enhanced medical student geriattic curriculum that includes required home visits and nursing home visits for second year students (180 per year), an annual Forum on Aging for all first and second year students, and small group exercises. We added 30 hours of basic science material to pre-clinical…

  9. The Importance of "High Valence" Events in a Successful Program for Teaching Geriatrics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Peter A.; Willett, Rita M.; Gentili, Angela; Abbey, Linda J.; Lawson, Sonya R.; Schlesinger, Jeanne B.; Meyers, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University developed an enhanced medical student geriattic curriculum that includes required home visits and nursing home visits for second year students (180 per year), an annual Forum on Aging for all first and second year students, and small group exercises. We added 30 hours of basic science material to pre-clinical…

  10. Scarification in sub-Saharan Africa: social skin, remedy and medical import.

    PubMed

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Fobil, Julius N; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Various forms of body modification may be observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Hypotheses and theories of scarification and tribal marking in sub-Saharan Africa are described, plus the procedure of scarification, examples from several African countries, assumed effects in prevention and treatment of diseases, and the medical risks resulting from unsterile manipulation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Theoretical cross section calculations of medical 13N and 18F radioisotope using alpha induced reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, F.; Karpuz, N.; ćetin, B.

    2017-02-01

    In medical physics, radionuclides are needed to diagnose functional disorders of organs and to diagnose and treat many diseases. Nuclear reactions are significant for the productions of radionuclides. It is important to analyze the cross sections for much different energy. In this study, reactional cross sections calculations on 13N, 18F radioisotopes are with TALYS 1.6 nuclear reaction simulation code. Cross sections calculated and experimental data taken from EXFOR library were compared

  12. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Meares, Claude F.; Li, Min; DeNardo, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  13. Menopause and the virtuous woman: the importance of the moral order in accounting for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) around the time of menopause is seen as an important decision for many mid-aged women. Recent studies of information provided to women to assist them in making a medical decision about the use of HRT have highlighted the importance of understanding the broader social context of the decision. In this article we examine one important aspect of western mid-aged women's social world: the moral order and the imperative of virtue. Qualitative data from a survey, focus group discussions, and interviews with mid-aged women about HRT use are used to provide examples of the importance of the local moral order in women's talk about menopause and HRT use. The implications of these data will be discussed in terms of the different narrative resources available to construct menopause and HRT, the role of morality, and the demonstration of virtue in daily social life, including medical decision making.

  14. 75 FR 37450 - Draft Guidance: The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Office of Communication, Outreach and Development (OCOD) (HFM-40), Food and Drug Administration, 1401... drugs in animal agriculture and outlines FDA's current thinking on strategies for assuring that... regarding the potential impact of certain uses of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing...

  15. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  16. Impact of larval pathogen infection on conspecific oviposition preference of three medically important mosquito species of Florida.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oviposition responses of three medically important mosquito species were evaluated in two-choice bioassays to determine if larval pathogen infection affected oviposition site choice. Both Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus laid significantly fewer eggs in cups containing infected larvae, however, Cule...

  17. The importance of the patient-clinician relationship in adherence to antiretroviral medication.

    PubMed

    Molassiotis, Alex; Morris, Kate; Trueman, Ian

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess dimensions of the patient-clinician relationship in relation to adherence with antiretroviral medication in a sample of HIV patients. This was a correlational evaluation, using a cross-sectional design. Thirty-eight HIV patients in two UK HIV units provided complete data. Analysis suggested that the elements of the patient-clinician relationship contributing to adherence with medication were the patient perception of being valued and respected by the clinician, the patients' ability to initiate discussions about the treatment, empowerment and level of trust placed in the nurse. The latter, and the time since starting antiretroviral treatment, were the only two variables that could predict adherence in a regression model, explaining 41% of the variance in adherence. Building trusted relationships with the patients and investing in educational and communication techniques to improve the therapeutic relationship could strongly contribute to HIV patients to maintaining high adherence rates.

  18. Relevance of immobility and importance of risk assessment management for medically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hull, Russell D

    2013-06-01

    Recent or continued immobility is a significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. Patients may benefit from thromboprophylaxis; however, its optimal duration remains unclear. The Extended Clinical Prophylaxis in Acutely Ill Medical Patients (EXCLAIM) study was the first trial to systematically investigate how the degree of immobilization relates to the risk of developing VTE. EXCLAIM offers insights into the duration of VTE risk associated with reduced mobility and helps identify which patients would benefit most from extended-duration thromboprophylaxis. Further recent studies suggest that extended-duration thromboprophylaxis may be in order in certain high-risk patients to protect the patients from the risk of VTE events occurring, particularly in the posthospitalization period. Baseline d-dimer data and level of mobility could be included in risk assessment. Physicians are recommended to consider the use of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis based on individual risk assessment management (RAM) and balance of benefit and harm.

  19. The growing importance of materials that prevent microbial adhesion: antimicrobial effect of medical devices containing silver.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Ruvollo-Filho, Adhemar Colla; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2009-08-01

    Research has clarified the properties required for polymers that resist bacterial colonisation for use in medical devices. The increase in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has prompted interest in the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent. Silver-based polymers can protect the inner and outer surfaces of devices against the attachment of microorganisms. Thus, this review focuses on the mechanisms of various silver forms as antimicrobial agents against different microorganisms and biofilms as well as the dissociation of silver ions and the resulting reduction in antimicrobial efficacy for medical devices. This work suggests that the characteristics of released silver ions depend on the nature of the silver antimicrobial used and the polymer matrix. In addition, the elementary silver, silver zeolite and silver nanoparticles, used in polymers or as coatings could be used as antimicrobial biomaterials for a variety of promising applications.

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  1. Taxonomic update on proposed nomenclature and classification changes for bacteria of medical importance, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate and rapid reporting and communications regarding infectious agents of clinical significance. Microbial taxonomy in the age of molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics causes changes in this taxonomy at a rapid rate further complicating this process. This review focuses on the description of new species and classification changes proposed over the past 2 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taxonomic update on proposed nomenclature and classification changes for bacteria of medical importance, 2015.

    PubMed

    Janda, J Michael

    2016-10-01

    A key aspect of medical, public health, and diagnostic microbiology laboratories is the accurate and rapid reporting and communication regarding infectious agents of clinical significance. Microbial taxonomy in the age of molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics creates changes in taxonomy at a rapid rate further complicating this process. This update focuses on the description of new species and classification changes proposed in 2015. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea: The Importance of Medical History over Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Berk; Westover, M Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  4. Medical liability, safety and confidentiality in maritime telemedicine--the MERMAID position on issues of importance.

    PubMed

    Ladas, P; Giatagatzidis, P; Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S

    1997-01-01

    Telemedicine dates to the days of "wireless telegraphy". As an "extraordinary" arrangement for medical services delivered at time of need, telemedicine has thus far escaped the developments that have taken place over the last 50 years in the areas of medical liability, safety and confidentiality. Today, however, telemedicine is also used to increase quality and cost effectiveness of healthcare provision. This trend is set by the U.S. where the U.S. federal government funds telemedicine at an annual rate of more than $100 million i.e., at a rate 30 times or more than what the EU does while state and local agency support and private business investment in telemedicine is 3 to 4 times larger than that of the U.S. federal government. In this respect it must be stressed that technology tends to satisfy the relevant demand for telecommunications. Telemedicine is used in diverse areas such as pathology, surgery, physical therapy, and psychiatry. It is expected to revolutionise health care in the coming decade and, therefore, it will certainly take into account requirements for medical liability, safety and confidentiality in the same way as traditional "establishment" medicine does.

  5. [Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in medical students: importance in nosocomial transmission].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilera, Sara; Goñi-Yeste, María Del Mar; Barrado, Laura; González-Rodríguez-Salinas, M Carmen; Otero, Joaquín R; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Health professionals, including medical students, could be a source of transmission. The aims of the study were to determine the rate of nasal carriage of S.aureus susceptible and resistant to methicillin (MRSA) and evaluate the knowledge and adherence that students had about hand hygiene. The study included medical students attached to the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid, Spain). We collected samples from both nasal vestibules, and the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined on all isolates. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire that included risk factors for colonization, hygiene habits and knowledge of hand hygiene protocols. Of the 140 students included, 55 (39.3%) were colonized by S.aureus, and 3 (2,1%) by MRSA. The exposure to antibiotics in the last 3 months was lower in colonized students (12.3% vs. 25.9%, P=.03). Self-assessment showed that 56.4% of students almost never washed their hands before to attending to the first patient, and only 38.6% always washed after examining patients. More than a third (35.7%) ignored the hand hygiene protocol, and 38.6% had not received specific formation. Medical students should be included in hospital infection control programs. Hand hygiene training should be given to students before they begin their practices in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Medication errors in oral dosage form preparation for neonates: The importance of preparation technique.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Rasekhi, Mehri; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Asadollahi, Malihe; Hamishehkar, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the inability of neonates to swallow oral drugs in the form of solid tablets, the lack of appropriate dosage forms for infants, and the necessity to prepare some pills for neonates, the current study investigated dosage accuracy in drugs for neonates prepared from tablets by analyzing the concentrations of final products. Captopril and spironolactone, oral dosage forms that are not suitable for infants, were chosen as the drug model for this study. Demographic characteristics of nurses providing medications and tablet preparation methods were documented in a random observational method. To determine concentrations of final solutions, 120 drug samples (60 captopril and 60 spironolactone samples) prepared by Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses of the Children Cure and Health Hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry. There was a significant error rate in the concentration of captopril in prepared solutions compared with the ordered dosage. No differences were observed in the demographic characteristics of the nurses and the method of preparation between the two drugs. The only difference related to the preparation technique was that in most cases (70.8%), one whole spironolactone tablet was used, whereas in around 50% of samples in captopril group, half or a quarter of one captopril tablet was utilized for the intended dosage (P = 0.009). This research suggests that the use of a whole tablet instead of a divided tablet in the manual preparation of medication dosage forms for neonates is the most appropriate approach.

  7. Medical leadership: why it's important, what is required, and how we develop it.

    PubMed

    Warren, Oliver J; Carnall, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Good medical leadership is vital in delivering high-quality healthcare, and yet medical career progression has traditionally seen leadership lack credence in comparison with technical and academic ability. Individual standards have varied, leading to variations in the quality of medical leadership between different organisations and, on occasions, catastrophic lapses in the standard of care provided to patients. These high-profile events, plus increasing evidence linking clinical leadership to performance of units, has led recently to more focus on leadership development for all doctors, starting earlier and continuing throughout their careers. There is also an increased drive to see doctors take on more significant leadership roles throughout the healthcare system. The achievement of these aims will require doctors to develop strong personal and professional values, a range of non-technical skills that allow them to lead across professional boundaries, and an understanding of the increasingly complex environment in which 21st century healthcare is delivered. Developing these attributes will require dedicated resources and the sophisticated application of a variety of different learning methodologies such as mentoring, coaching, action learning and networking.

  8. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  9. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

  10. Medical students' perceptions regarding the importance of nutritional knowledge and their confidence in providing competent nutrition practice.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all <40%). However the majority (>80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common

  11. Survey of radionuclides in foods, 1978-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Jelinek, C.F.; Baratta, E.J.

    1985-11-01

    Samples from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's total-diet, market-basket program, samples of imported foods, and samples collected near nuclear power plants were analyzed for radionuclides. Most radionuclides were below the limit of detection for a majority of the samples; however, data are reported for 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in certain samples. Generally a downward trend is observed for 90Sr when data for the 5-yr period were compared. The total dietary intake of either 90Sr or 137Cs is well within Range I of the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) radiation protection guides for these radionuclides.

  12. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling.

  13. Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

    1996-10-01

    The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

  14. Dextrous and shared interaction with medical data: stereoscopic vision is more important than hand-image collocation.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, John A

    2002-01-01

    The current experiment was carried out to extend our knowledge about the relative importance of stereoscopic display and hand-image collocation for dextrous interaction. We devised a new task, the Volumetric Dexterity Test (VDT), which quite accurately duplicates the way professional personnel such as surgeons and radiologists interact with detailed medical data in a VR environment. Our results were surprising. Stereo vision was very important to both accuracy and speed of task completion, as we found previously. But the presence of hand-image collocation did not improve accuracy, despite the fact that this was a truly three-dimensional task. If this finding is borne out it has important implications for the volumetric presentation of medical data to individual practitioners and in group settings.

  15. The polycystic ovary syndrome--a medical condition but also an important psychosocial problem.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Kirchengast, S

    2001-12-01

    PCOS, the leading cause of anovulatory infertility that affects up to one fifth of the female population, is a complex chronic disease of genetic as well as environmental determination, but still unclear etiology. Besides of infertility, PCOS leads to menstrual dysfunctions, hirsutism and obesity--symptoms that are known to cause profound psychosocial distress. The present paper review the problematic of etiology and symptom expression of PCOS, which is not only a disease needing medical treatment but also a psychosocial problem for the affected women. PCOS may not only coinduced by psychosocial factors, the main symptoms of PCOS such as infertility, menstrual dysfunctions, hirsutism and obesity cause by themselves increased psychosocial stress.

  16. [Efficient treatment of breakthrough pain in adults: the importance of timing and medication choice].

    PubMed

    Berna, Chantal; Luthy, Christophe; Samer, Caroline F; Spechbach, Hervé; Pautex, Sophie; Piguet, Valérie

    2013-06-26

    Diagnostic or therapeutic procedures can lead to breakthrough pain. Thanks to a wise choice of analgesic medication started in due time, this type of pain can be avoided or decreased. The therapeutic options of this preventive approach are presented according to the expected breakthrough pain type and intensity. Specific situations are presented through case discussions. The main pharmacokinetic information needed to prescribe the right analgesic at the right time is summarized in a convenient table. When associated to non-pharmacological measures such as empathy, patient positioning and high quality procedures, preventive analgesia provides patients the best possible relief from breakthrough pain.

  17. Medics and Marine Mammals – An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity’s Survival

    PubMed Central

    PONNAMPALAM, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  18. 77 FR 31388 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to ] be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the world... company seeks to import morphine supplied by EDQM to use as reference standards. This is the sole purpose...

  19. 78 FR 15974 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the world. The... import morphine supplied by EDQM to use as reference standards. This is the sole purpose for which the...

  20. 78 FR 30331 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine... containing morphine in the United States. The company exports this product to customers around the world. The... import morphine supplied by EDQM to use as reference standards. This is the sole purpose for which the...

  1. 77 FR 19716 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Morphine (9300), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company manufactures a product containing morphine in the... import morphine supplied by EDQM to use as reference standards. This is the sole purpose for which the...

  2. Experience with importation of electronic images into the medical record from physical media.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Bradley J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a system we developed for importing images on compact discs (CDs) from external imaging departments into our clinical image viewing system, and to report on key metrics regarding veracity of information seen on the CDs. We recommend careful attention to the process of CD importation because of the error rate we have seen. We developed a system and process for importing images on CD into our EMR. The importation system scans the CD for digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images, and collects all patient information seen. That information is presented to the patient for verification. Once validated, the image data is copied into our clinical viewing system. The importation system includes facilities for collecting instances of incorrect data. About 90% of images are now exchanged between our healthcare enterprise and other entities via CD. Data for the wrong patient (e.g., the wrong CD) is seen in about 0.1% of cases, and a similar number of CDs have data for more than one patient on the CD(s) the patient bring to our facility. Most data are now exchanged via DICOM files. DICOM images burned onto CD media are now commonly used for image exchange. However, applications to import DICOM images are not enough. One must implement a process to assure high confidence that the data imported belongs to the patient you are importing.

  3. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  4. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  5. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  6. The probability of death in road traffic accidents. How important is a quick medical response?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mangas, Rocío; García-Ferrrer, Antonio; de Juan, Aranzazu; Arroyo, Antonio Martín

    2010-07-01

    The number of deaths in road traffic accidents in Spain exceeds three thousand people each year. Public authorities have implemented some policies with the aim to reducing this number. Among them, the improvement of road quality standards and some legal changes encouraging careful driving behavior. However, less attention has been focused on one of the issues that may be critical to reducing the number of fatalities caused by traffic accidents: a quick emergency medical care. In this paper, we use a sample of more than 1400 accidents occurred on Spanish roads in May 2004. Our objective is to analyze to which extent a reduction of the time interval between the crash and the arrival of the emergency services to the crash scene is related to a lower probability of death. Our results suggest that a 10 min reduction of the medical response time can be statistically associated with an average decrease of the probability of death by one third, both on motorways and conventional roads. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  8. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  9. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  10. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-01

    To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as "attached offices" and others as "independent offices". More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients' homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  11. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    PubMed

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  12. Bulk processing of radionuclide generator parents at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, M. E.; Nortier, F. M.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Peterson, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk radionuclide processing at Los Alamos includes isotopes with short-lived radioactive daughter nuclides ('generator parents') for medical applications. The generator radionuclide parents {sup 68}Ge, {sup 82}Sr, {sup 88}Zr and {sup 109}Cd are regularly processed at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility. Nuclear chemical aspects related to the production and processing of these generator parents are briefly outlined.

  13. Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhône river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, Frédérique; Charmasson, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhône freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhône river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (60)Co, (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (<450 nm) OC and 25% of dissolved Fe and Al exported towards the sea. Within the dissolved (< 450 nm) phase, these colloidal compounds are shown to account for the transport of 40% for both Co and Ru, 60% for (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu and have no significance on (137)Cs flux.

  14. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study.

    PubMed

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2012-08-31

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the

  15. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  16. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  17. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  18. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  19. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  20. The production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine from a compact, low-energy accelerator system.

    PubMed

    Webster, William D; Parks, Geoffrey T; Titov, Dmitry; Beasley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is reliant on radionuclides for medical imaging procedures and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The recent shut-downs of key radionuclide producers have highlighted the fragility of the current radionuclide supply network, however. To ensure that nuclear medicine can continue to grow, adding new diagnostic and therapy options to healthcare, novel and reliable production methods are required. Siemens are developing a low-energy, high-current - up to 10 MeV and 1 mA respectively - accelerator. The capability of this low-cost, compact system for radionuclide production, for use in nuclear medicine procedures, has been considered. The production of three medically important radionuclides - (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd - has been considered, via the (89)Y(p,n), (64)Ni(p,n) and (103)Rh(p,n) reactions, respectively. Theoretical cross-sections were generated using TALYS and compared to experimental data available from EXFOR. Stopping power values generated by SRIM have been used, with the TALYS-generated excitation functions, to calculate potential yields and isotopic purity in different irradiation regimes. The TALYS excitation functions were found to have a good agreement with the experimental data available from the EXFOR database. It was found that both (89)Zr and (64)Cu could be produced with high isotopic purity (over 99%), with activity yields suitable for medical diagnostics and therapy, at a proton energy of 10MeV. At 10MeV, the irradiation of (103)Rh produced appreciable quantities of (102)Pd, reducing the isotopic purity. A reduction in beam energy to 9.5MeV increased the radioisotopic purity to 99% with only a small reduction in activity yield. This work demonstrates that the low-energy, compact accelerator system under development by Siemens would be capable of providing sufficient quantities of (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd for use in medical diagnostics and therapy. It is suggested that the system could be used to produce many other

  1. Comparative analysis of package inserts of local and imported antihypertensive medications in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Qatmosh, Sandra A; Koni, Amer A; Qeeno, Baraa G; Arandy, Dina A; Abu-Hashia, Maysa W; Al-Hroub, Bahaa M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2017-09-25

    Package inserts (PIs) as a reliable reference for patients and health care providers should provide accurate, complete and up-to-date information. The purpose of the current study is to assess and compare the PIs of antihypertensive agents locally produced in Palestine and their imported counterparts. Thirty-five PIs were assessed for the presence of 31 information statements using a scoring method. Word counting of 20 headings and subheadings was used to evaluate and compare local and imported PIs for information quantity. None of the analysed PIs fulfilled the criteria. All of them included the brand name, active ingredients, indications, directions for use, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, pregnancy and lactation considerations, and storage. Whereas none of them, either local or imported PIs, included the shelf life and instructions to convert tablets or capsules into liquid forms. Additionally, only one (5%) imported and no (0%) local PIs mentioned the duration of therapy. Moreover, 93.4% of local PIs were deficient in areas regarding the inactive ingredients and date of last revision, and 86.7% did not mention the drug dose and possibility of tablet splitting. Furthermore, the maximum dose was not indicated in 90% of imported and 86.7% of local PIs. In general, imported PIs contained more detailed information than their local counterparts, where the range of differences in medians between the local and imported PIs was from 1.5-fold for pregnancy considerations to >42.00-fold for the effect on the ability to drive and use machines. The findings of this study revealed the superiority of imported over local PIs in both quality and quantity of information provided. This emphasises the need for appropriate measures to be taken by the Ministry of Health and local manufacturers to ensure efficiency of local PIs in providing accurate, complete and up-to-date information.

  2. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-12-25

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom.

  3. Developing family medicine in South africa: a new and important step for medical education.

    PubMed

    Hellenberg, Derek; Gibbs, Trevor

    2007-11-01

    The announcement by the National Ministry of Health on the 17th August 2007 (South African Government 2007), officially recognizing family medicine as a speciality in its own right is an indication of just how far 'general practice' has developed in South Africa. From January 2008 there is to be a compulsory, full-time four- year training programme for registrars in Family Medicine which should result in a well trained cohort of Family Physicians suitable to staff Community Health Centres and Primary Care Hospitals in the future. This article seeks to explore some of the milestones reached in the development of the community of family medicine professionals and teachers, the roles taken by the major protagonists in the development and the way that medical education can promote and sustain the discipline.

  4. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  5. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  6. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  7. The Importance of State and Context in Safe Interoperable Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Michael B.; Robkin, Michael; Rausch, Tracy; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes why “device state” and “patient context” information are necessary components of device models for safe interoperability. This paper includes a discussion of the importance of describing the roles of devices with respect to interactions (including human user workflows involving devices, and device to device communication) within a system, particularly those intended for use at the point-of-care, and how this role information is communicated. In addition, it describes the importance of clinical scenarios in creating device models for interoperable devices. PMID:27730013

  8. Use of the BioMerieux ID 32C yeast identification system for identification of aerobic actinomycetes of medical importance.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D B; Pritchard, R C

    1997-01-01

    The BioMerieux ID 32C Yeast Identification System was examined to determine its usefulness as a rapid method for the identification of medically important aerobic actinomycetes. More than 290 strains were tested by this method and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional methods. It was found that aerobic actinomycetes could be differentiated to species level in 7 days by the ID 32C system. PMID:9399526

  9. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  10. The Importance of Mathematics in Health and Human Judgment: Numeracy, Risk Communication, and Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics achievement is important in its own right, and is increasingly recognized as crucial to the nation's economy [National Mathematics Panel, 2006. "National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Strengthening Math Education Through Research." Accessed September 29, 2006 from http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/factsheet.html.; National…

  11. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  12. Impact of various continuing medical education activities on clinical practice - a survey of Malaysian doctors on its perceived importance.

    PubMed

    Loh, Li-Cher; Ong, Hean-Teik; Quah, Soon-Hoe

    2007-04-01

    Medical talks, newsletter circulars, scientific meetings and conferences, and interaction with members of the pharmaceutical industry, have become convenient means of carrying out continuing medical education (CME) for many busy doctors. To study the perceived importance of these various CME activities, a self-completed posted questionnaire survey was conducted among registered practitioners of a densely populated urban state in Malaysia. Of the 172 respondents [male, 77%; hospital-based, 37%; general practitioner (GP), 55%; private practice, 70%; respondent rate of 19.5%], most preferred local conferences and endorsements by local experts to their foreign counterparts. Meetings or conferences sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry were ranked similarly with those without such links, while the reputation of the pharmaceutical firms was of foremost importance. Among GPs (n = 95) and non-GPs (n = 77), medical society newsletters were rated significantly higher by GPs while overseas conferences were rated higher by non-GPs. Our findings provide an important first look at this under-explored area among Malaysian doctors and described a high degree of acceptance for the involvement of the pharmaceutical industry in CME activities.

  13. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  14. Medical student selection: which matriculation scores and personality factors are important?

    PubMed

    Chan-Ob, T; Boonyanaruthee, V

    1999-06-01

    Sixty-five from a total of 160 medical students were administered the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) to identify which of all 18 scales can be used as a predictor for academic performance. The entrance examination scores of six subjects were also combined with the CPI variables for the purpose of the study. Students' performances were determined by Grade Point Average (GPA) collected between 1993-1997 (year 1 to year 5). Data was analyzed by descriptive and stepwise method of multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that mathematics, biology and English language were positively correlated with all year GPAs-r2 value was 10-18 per cent. Scales of "dominance", "flexibility" and "socialization" were positively correlated to the GPA, while "sociability" and "sense of well-being" were negatively correlated. R2 value was increased to 16-59 per cent as prediction of GPA when the CPI variables were combined with scores of entrance examination. A comparison of this finding with other studies was conducted.

  15. [E-Learning--an important contribution to general medical training and continuing education?].

    PubMed

    Ruf, D; Berner, M M; Kriston, L; Härter, M

    2008-09-01

    There is increasing activity in the development of e-learning modules for general medical training and continuing education. One of the central advantages of e-learning is flexibility regarding time and place of its use. The quality of the available e-learning opportunities varies quite considerably. For users it is often not easy to assess the quality of e-learning modules or to find offers of high quality. This could be a reason for the fact that despite the huge number of e-learning modules still only few students and physicians are using them. This is although e-learning has proven to be as effective as and even more efficient than learning in the classroom or with paper-based materials. This article summarizes the different models of e-learning, how and where to find offers of high quality, advantages of using e-learning, and the effectiveness and efficiency of such offers. In addition problems of e-learning and possibilities to overcome these problems are shown.

  16. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Long-Lived Radionuclides in Arctic Plankton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    PROGRESS REPORT Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer oflong-lived radionuclides in Arctic plankton ONR Grant # N0001495U229 Nicholas S. Fisher...Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of long-lived radionuclides in Arctic plankton Principal Investigator: Nicholas S. Fisher Address. Marine Sciences Research...research is to examine the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of important radionuclides in important planktonic components of Arctic waters This project

  17. Sustainable production of orphan radionuclides at Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Nickles, R J; Avila-Rodriguez, M A; Nye, J A; Houser, E N; Selwyn, R G; Schueller, M J; Christian, B T; Jensen, M

    2008-06-01

    Over a hundred proton-induced reactions have been studied at the University of Wisconsin Medical Physics department since the installation of the first CTI RDS 112 in 1985. The focus has been to measure thick target yields at 11 MeV, in an effort to concentrate on the practical production of positron emitting radionuclides that have favorable decay characteristics, high yields and the potential for labeling pivotal biological tracers. This review covers our recent advances to scale-up the production of the heavy halogens and transition metals as feed-stock for non-conventional PET tracers that are currently attracting increased attention in oncology.

  18. Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Snakebites continue to be a major medical concern in India. However, there is very little hard evidence of a numerical nature to enable us to understand which species are responsible for mortality and morbidity. For many decades, the concept of the "Big 4" Snakes of Medical Importance has reflected the view that 4 species are responsible for Indian snakebite mortality--the Indian cobra (Naja naja), the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). However, a recent discovery that another species, the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale), is capable of causing lethal envenomation, and that this problem was being concealed by systematic misidentification of this species as the saw-scaled viper, has necessitated a review of the concept of the "Big 4." The concept of the "Big 4" snakes is reviewed to demonstrate its failure to include all currently known snakes of medical significance in India, and its negative effects related to clinical management of snakebite. The emergence of the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) as a snake of medical significance has rendered the "Big 4" obsolete in terms of completeness. The concept of the "Big 4" is restricting sound epidemiological work and the development of effective snake antivenoms. It should be replaced by the model introduced in the 1980s by the World Health Organization, which has not received adequate circulation and implementation.

  19. Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces.

  20. Radionuclide production calculations: A GUI to determine irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, S.; Riauka, T.; Jans, H.; Gagnon, K.

    2017-05-01

    There is a wide diversity of production methods for radionuclides. With these, intensive calculations are often required to characterize the different radionuclide production strategies and to determine optimal irradiation parameters. These calculations are essential for predicting the yield and radionuclidic purity of the resulting product. In this work, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been built in Matlab® to facilitate these production calculations and compare production methods. The user is able to import cross-sections, define target compositions and outline irradiation conditions for calculating yields. This GUI facilitates the process of varying irradiation parameters and allows the user to determine the yield of radionuclides as a function of energy and time.

  1. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  2. Recent Advances in Molecular Image-Guided Cancer Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Duo; Sun, Xianlei; Gao, Liquan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-targeted radionuclide therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, especially those resistant to conventional therapies. However, to improve the use of targeted radionuclide therapy for the management of cancer patients, the in vivo behaviors, dosimetry, and efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents need to be well characterized and monitored. Molecular imaging, which is a powerful tool for the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes in living subjects at the cellular and molecular levels, plays an important role in the guidance of cancer radionuclide therapy. In this review, we introduce the radiotherapeutics for cancer-targeted therapy and summarize the most recent evidence supporting the use of molecular imaging to guide cancer radionuclide therapy.

  3. The oceanic geochemistry of artificial radionuclides: The SEEP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides have been and continue to be introduced to the marine environment in various ways. The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1960s resulting in global fallout has been the major contributor of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Nuclear power plants have produced a large quantity of radioactive wastes which are presently being stored on land. The United States, amongst other countries (e.g., England, France, Japan), was seriously investigating the possibility of disposing of these radioactive wastes in the ocean. Clearly it is important to study and to understand the oceanographic behavior of radioactive substances. The DOE sponsored SEEP (Shelf Edge Exchange Processes) research; discussed here, is a detailed study into the biogeochemistry of radionuclides in the shelf and slope environment. The questions asked by this research (see below) pertain directly to problems arising from the introduction of radionuclides into the oceans from energy-related industries (e.g. nuclear power plants, waste disposal).

  4. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  5. The summer school students' viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Bazrafcan, Leila; Haghani, Fariba; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2014-04-01

    The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners' needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students' viewpoints on this issue. This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students' views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government's responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on practical skills, and management were considered as the

  6. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; HAGHANI, FARIBA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners' needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students' viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students' views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government's responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on practical skills, and

  7. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote...

  8. The Production of Radionuclides for Radiotracers in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Thomas J.

    Medical applications represent the vast majority of the uses for radiotracers. This review addresses how accelerators are employed for the production of high purity radionuclides that are used in basic biomedical research, as well as for clinical medicine both for diagnosing disease and for treatment.

  9. Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging, Volume 3 update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work presents the latest developments in nuclear medical imaging. An update of the 3rd edition text/reference published last year, it features coverage of labeled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment, labeled cellular elements, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, and single photon emission tomography. Recent technical developments in radionuclide imaging of these specific areas are covered.

  10. Student- and faculty-reported importance of science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school: a survey-based study.

    PubMed

    Binstock, Judith; Junsanto-Bahri, Tipsuda

    2014-04-01

    The relevance of current standard medical school science prerequisites is being reexamined. (1) To identify which science prerequisites are perceived to best prepare osteopathic medical students for their basic science and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) coursework and (2) to determine whether science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school should be modified. Preclinical osteopathic medical students and their basic science and OMM faculty from 3 colleges of osteopathic medicine were surveyed about the importance of specific science concepts, laboratories, and research techniques to medical school coursework. Participants chose responses on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating "strongly disagree" or "not important" and 5 indicating "strongly agree" or "extremely important." Participants were also surveryed on possible prerequisite modifications. Student responses (N=264) to the general statement regarding prerequisites were "neutral" for basic science coursework and "disagree" for OMM coursework, with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of 3.37 (1.1) and 2.68 (1.2), respectively. Faculty responses (N=49) were similar, with mean (SD) scores of 3.18 (1.1) for basic science coursework and 2.67 (1.2) for OMM coursework. Student mean (SD) scores were highest for general biology for basic science coursework (3.93 [1.1]) and physics for OMM coursework (2.5 [1.1]). Student mean (SD) scores were lowest for physics for basic science coursework (1.79 [1.2]) and organic chemistry for OMM coursework (1.2 [0.7]). Both basic science and OMM faculty rated general biology highest in importance (mean [SD] scores, 3.73 [0.9] and 4.22 [1.0], respectively). Students and faculty rated biochemistry high in importance for basic science coursework (mean [SD] scores of 3.66 [1.2] and 3.32 [1.2], respectively). For basic science coursework, students and faculty rated most laboratories as "important," with the highest mean (SD) ratings for general anatomy (students, 3.66 [1

  11. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  12. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  13. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  14. Advances in radionuclide imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, V; Wells, A U; Sharma, R; Underwood, S R; Wechalekar, K

    2015-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has advanced significantly in recent years. This article is based on published clinical guidelines, literature review and our collective clinical experience. Gallium-67 scintigraphy is among the diagnostic criteria for cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, and it is strongly associated with response to treatment. However, fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is now preferred both for diagnosis and for assessing prognosis. Most data are from small observational studies that are potentially biased. Quantitative imaging to assess changes in disease activity in response to treatment may lead to FDG-PET having an important routine role in managing cardiac sarcoidosis. Larger prospective studies are required, particularly to assess the effectiveness of radionuclide imaging in improving clinical management and outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  16. Insights into the development of Ixodes scapularis: a resource for research on a medically important tick species.

    PubMed

    Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José; Coburn, Lisa A

    2015-11-14

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are arthropod ectoparasites dependent on a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host at each developmental stage for completion of their life cycle. This tick feeding cycle impacts animal health by causing damage to hides, secondary infections, immune reactions and diseases caused by transmission of pathogens. The genus Ixodes includes several medically important species that vector diseases, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged or deer tick, is a medically-important tick species in North America and therefore was the first tick genome to be sequenced, thus serving as an important resource for tick research. This Primer focuses on the normal developmental cycle and laboratory rearing of I. scapularis. Definition of normal morphology, along with a consistent source of laboratory-reared I. scapularis, are fundamental for all aspects of future research, especially the effects of genetic manipulation and the evaluation of tick vaccine efficacy. Recent research important for the advancement of tick research, namely the development of tick cell culture systems for study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, RNA interference for genetic manipulation of ticks and discovery of candidate antigens for development of tick vaccines, are briefly presented along with areas to target for future research.

  17. A Medical Home versus Temporary Housing: The Importance of a Stable Usual Source of Care Among Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Saultz, John W.; Krois, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Recent health care reform policies focus on finding the best medical home for everyone. Less is known about how the stability of a usual source of care (USC) over time impacts on structural access to care. Objectives To examine the prevalence of USC changes among a low-income population of children, and how these changes were associated with unmet need. Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multivariable analyses of mail-return survey data from Oregon's food stamp program in January 2005. Results from 2,681 completed surveys were weighted back to a population of 84,087 families with adjustments for oversampling and non-response. The independent variable: whether a child had ever been required to change USC for insurance reasons. Dependent variables included: parents report of unmet medical need, unmet prescription need, missed medication doses, delayed urgent care, no ambulatory visits; and problems obtaining dental care, specialty care and counseling. Results Nearly 23% of children had changed their USC due to insurance reasons, and 10% had no current USC. Compared to children who had maintained a stable USC, children who had changed their USC due to insurance reasons had higher rates of unmet medical need (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83, 3.29); unmet prescription need (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.31, 2.61); delayed care (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.21, 2.89); and reported more problems obtaining dental care (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.20, 2.31) and counseling (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.53, 6.77). Conclusions This study highlights the importance of ensuring stability with a USC. In our zeal to move people into new medical homes, we need to be wary of harming quality by disturbing existing care relationships, thus merely creating “temporary housing.” PMID:19841117

  18. Towards molecular imaging and treatment of disease with radionuclides: the role of inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blower, Phil

    2006-04-14

    Molecular imaging and radiotherapy using radionuclides is a rapidly expanding field of medicine and medical research. This article highlights the development of the role of inorganic chemistry in designing and producing the radiopharmaceuticals on which this interdisciplinary science depends.

  19. A prospective study of medical students' perspective of teaching-learning media: reiterating the importance of feedback.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2007-11-01

    To enhance successful communication, medical teachers are increasingly using teaching-learning media. To determine medical students' perception of three such media (blackboard, overhead projector, and slides), and to generate recommendations for their optimal use, a prospective questionnaire-based study was carried out among 7th semester medical students of the University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi. Students made a forced choice between: (1) The three media on 8 questions regarding their advantages and disadvantages and (2) four aspects of a lecture (teaching-learning media, topic, teacher and time of day) regarding which made the lecture most engaging. Resulting data was analysed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Chalk and blackboard was rated as best in allowing interaction and helping recall (p<0.001 each). The overhead projector was best in providing information pointwise (p<0.001; 67 students, 89.3%, considered this an advantage). More subject matter could be covered per lecture (p=0.001; 58 students, 77.3%, considered this a disadvantage). Slides were best in imparting clinical details (p=0.004), but were sleep inducing (p<0.001). The teacher's style of instruction was most important in making the lecture engaging (p<0.001). The teacher's role in the learning process is important. Students enjoy the slow pace and interaction allowed by blackboard, pointwise information presented by the overhead projector, and the clinical details a slide can provide. The results suggest that the lecture could best be a combination of two or more teaching-learning media. Students' interaction should be encouraged whatever the media used.

  20. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms.

  1. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Wagstaff, Simon C; Wüster, Wolfgang; Cook, Darren A N; Bolton, Fiona M S; King, Sarah I; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Harrison, Robert A

    2014-06-24

    Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that processes acting on gene transcription and translation may have on the production of the venom proteome. Here, we assess the venom composition of six related viperid snakes and compare interspecific changes in the number of toxin genes, their transcription in the venom gland, and their translation into proteins secreted in venom. Our results reveal that multiple levels of regulation are responsible for generating variation in venom composition between related snake species. We demonstrate that differential levels of toxin transcription, translation, and their posttranslational modification have a substantial impact upon the resulting venom protein mixture. Notably, these processes act to varying extents on different toxin paralogs found in different snakes and are therefore likely to be as important as ancestral gene duplication events for generating compositionally distinct venom proteomes. Our results suggest that these processes may also contribute to altering the toxicity of snake venoms, and we demonstrate how this variability can undermine the treatment of a neglected tropical disease, snakebite.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF A NATIONAL ARTHROPLASTY REGISTER FOR IDENTIFICATION BY MEDICAL EXAMINER

    PubMed Central

    Durão, Carlos Henrique; Pinto, Rui; Ribeiro, Costa; Vieira, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Mass catastrophes are realities that come to pass with lamentable frequency. In such situations, one of the fundamental forensic problems is in relation to identifying the victims. All the elements that might be capable of contributing towards this identification process are essential, and among these are orthopedic prostheses, which frequently remain intact. These prostheses consist basically of polymers, ceramics or metals. Metal components, which are usually composed of titanium, chromium, cobalt or steel alloys, are resistant to violent trauma or high temperatures. Human identification is possible if the identity of the implant is established and if this can be correlated with the individual in whom it was implanted. The logo on the prosthesis establishes who the manufacturer was and the serial number can be compared with the clinical process or with a prosthesis register, as has been implemented in several countries. The information in the database should include the patient's name, the implant model and its serial number, for consultation only in cases of forensic identification, while obviously respecting ethical issues of privacy. This article highlights the importance of creating a national prosthesis register. PMID:27047880

  3. Increasing kidney transplantation in Britain: the importance of donor cards, public opinion and medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A; Snell, M

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Health and Social Security has recently spent over three-quarters of a million pounds advertising the merits of kidney donor cards. The advertising campaign stresses that carrying signed cards requesting the removal of kidneys and other organs after death both increases the number of kidneys available and increases the number of kidney transplants that actually take place. This paper examines the relative success of the kidney donor card campaign in Britain and the nature of the relationship between a more widespread distribution of donor cards and the frequency of kidney transplantation. This is done in two main ways: Through a review of the evidence detailing public support expressed in the media and from social surveys (including original empirical work conducted at Bath University). By an analysis of previously unpublished statistical evidence made available by the Department of Health and Social Security. The paper concludes that the battle for public sympathy towards kidney donation has largely been won and the kidney donor card campaign has been a success. However these success perhaps deflect attention away from more important issues in the transplant equation, as the link between card carrying and increased transplantation is neither direct nor simple.

  4. miRNAs of two medically important mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wanqi; Crisione, Frank; Liang, Shaohui; Tu, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded small RNAs that have important regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we characterize miRNAs in two divergent mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, through deep sequencing of small RNAs spanning all developmental stages. We discovered eight novel miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and 20 novel miRNAs in An. stephensi, which enabled the first systematic analysis of miRNA evolution in mosquitos. We traced the phylogenetic history of all miRNAs in both species and report a rate of 0.055–0.13 miRNA net gain per million years. Most novel miRNAs originate de novo. Duplications that produced miRNA clusters and families are more common in Ae. aegypti than in An. stephensi. We also identified arm-switch as a source of new miRNAs. Expression profile analysis identified mosquito-specific miRNAs that showed strong stage-specific expression in one or both lineages. For example, the aae-miR-2941/2946 family represents the most abundant maternally-deposited and zygotically transcribed miRNAs in Ae. aegypti. miR-2943 is a highly expressed zygotic miRNA in both Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Such information provides the basis to study the function of these miRNAs in biology common to all mosquitos or unique to one particular lineage. PMID:25420875

  5. Barcode identifiers as a practical tool for reliable species assignment of medically important black yeast species.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives.

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  7. PSMA PET and Radionuclide Therapy in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men and a major cause of cancer death. Accurate imaging plays an important role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, detection of biochemical recurrence, and for therapy of patients with PCa. Because no effective treatment is available for advanced PCa, there is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies. To optimize treatment outcome, especially in high-risk patients with PCa, therapy for PCa is moving rapidly toward personalization. Medical imaging, including positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), plays an important role in personalized medicine in oncology. In the recent years, much focus has been on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a promising target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides, as it is upregulated in most PCa. In the prostate, one potential role for PSMA PET imaging is to help guide focal therapy. Several studies have shown great potential of PSMA PET/CT for initial staging, lymph node staging, and detection of recurrence of PCa, even at very low prostate-specific antigen values after primary therapy. Furthermore, studies have shown that PSMA PET/CT has a higher detection rate than choline PET/CT. Radiolabeled PSMA ligands for therapy show promise in several studies with metastatic PCa and is an area of active investigation. The "image and treat" strategy, with radiolabeled PSMA ligands, has the potential to improve the treatment outcome of patients with PCa and is paving the way for precision medicine in PCa. The aim of this review is to give an overview of recent advancement in PSMA PET and radionuclide therapy for PCa.

  8. Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal

  9. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  10. MicroRNAs of two medically important mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Criscione, F; Liang, S; Tu, Z

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded small RNAs that have important regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study, we characterize miRNAs in two divergent mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, through deep sequencing of small RNAs spanning all developmental stages. We discovered eight novel miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and 20 novel miRNAs in An. stephensi, which enabled the first systematic analysis of miRNA evolution in mosquitos. We traced the phylogenetic history of all miRNAs in both species and report a rate of 0.055-0.13 miRNA net gain per million years. Most novel miRNAs originate de novo. Duplications that produced miRNA clusters and families are more common in Ae. aegypti than in An. stephensi. We also identified arm-switch as a source of new miRNAs. Expression profile analysis identified mosquito-specific miRNAs that showed strong stage-specific expression in one or both lineages. For example, the aae-miR-2941/2946 family represents the most abundant maternally deposited and zygotically transcribed miRNAs in Ae. aegypti. miR-2943 is a highly expressed zygotic miRNA in both Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Such information provides the basis from which to study the function of these miRNAs in biology common to all mosquitos or unique to one particular lineage. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  12. Medication adherence may be more important than other behaviours for optimizing glycaemic control among low-income adults

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, C. Y.; Mayberry, L. S.; Kim, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY What is known Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are required to perform multiple self-care behaviours to achieve and maintain optimal glycaemic control (HbA1c), which prevents complications and premature mortality. Patients with T2DM and low socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to have suboptimal HbA1c, often due to being less adherent to recommended self-care activities than their higher-SES counterparts. Objective Although studies support performing certain diabetes self-care behaviours for optimizing glycaemic control, there is limited research on the relative importance of each behaviour for this purpose. Identifying what behaviours are most important for HbA1c among low-SES patients with T2DM would be particularly useful for informing policy and intervention efforts for this high-risk group. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 314 adults with T2DM and low SES, we used the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities to assess self-care behaviours and multivariate models to test which behaviours were associated with lower HbA1c. Results and discussion Only medication adherence was significantly associated with lower HbA1c after adjusting for the other self-care behaviours (β = −0 14, P = 0 028) and further adjusting for demographic and diabetes characteristics (β = −0 16, P = 0 024). What is new Medication adherence may be the most important self-care behaviour for glycaemic control among adults with T2DM and low SES. Conclusion Focused efforts to improve medication adherence among low-SES patient populations may improve glycaemic control. PMID:26939721

  13. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  14. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  15. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  16. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  17. Fungi and ionizing radiation from radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Dighton, John; Tugay, Tatyana; Zhdanova, Nelli

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are one of the major concerns to human health and ecotoxicology. The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant renewed interest in the role played by fungi in mediating radionuclide movement in ecosystems. As a result of these studies, our knowledge of the importance of fungi, especially in their mycorrhizal habit, in long-term accumulation of radionuclides, transfer up the food chain and regulation of accumulation by their host plants was increased. Micro-fungi have been found to be highly resilient to exposure to ionizing radiation, with fungi having been isolated from within and around the Chernobyl plant. Radioresistance of some fungal species has been linked to the presence of melanin, which has been shown to have emerging properties of acting as an energy transporter for metabolism and has been implicated in enhancing hyphal growth and directed growth of sensitized hyphae towards sources of radiation. Using this recently acquired knowledge, we may be in a better position to suggest the use of fungi in bioremediation of radioactively contaminated sites and cleanup of industrial effluent.

  18. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in aquatic environments. Volume 2. Dialysis experiments in marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, T.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Schell, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to obtain new information that can be used to predict the fate of radionuclides that may enter the aquatic environment from nuclear power plants, waste storage facilities or fuel reprocessing plants. Important parameters for determining fate are the distribution of radionuclides between the soluble and particulate phases and the partitioning of radionuclides among various suspended particulates. This report presents the results of dialysis experiments that were used to study the distribution of radionuclides among suspended sediments, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and filtered sea water. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium distribution of (59)Fe, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (207)Bi, (238)Pu, and (241)Am in marine system. Diffusion across the dialysis membranes depends upon the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides, proceeding quite rapidly for ionic species of (137)Cs and (60)Co but much more slowly for radionuclides which occur primarily as colloids and solid precipitates such as (59)Fe, (207)Bi, and (241)Am. All the radionuclides adsorb to suspended particulates although the amount of adsorption depends upon the specific types and concentration of particulates in the system and the selected radionuclide. High affinity of some radionuclides - e.g., (106)Ru and (241)Am - for detritus and phytoplankton suggests that suspended organics may significantly affect the eventual fate of those radionuclides in marine ecosystems.

  19. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  20. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  1. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  2. Relationships between tumor size and curablity for uniformly targeted therapy with beta-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donoghue, J.A.; Bardies, M.; Wheldon, T.E. |

    1995-10-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is a new form of radiotherapy that differs in some important respects from external beam irradiation. One of the most important differences is due to the finite range of ionizing beta particles emitted as a result of radionuclide disintegration. The effects of particle range have important implications for the curability of tumors. We used a mathematical model to examine tumor curability and its relationship to tumor size for 22 beta-emitting radionuclides that may have therapeutic potential. The model assumed a uniform distribution of radionuclide throughout. For targeted radionuclide therapy, the relationship between tumor curability and tumor size is different from that for conventional external beam radiotherapy. With targeted radionuclides, there is an optimal tumor size for cure. Tumors smaller than the optimal size are less vulnerable to irradiation from radionuclides because a substantial proportion of the disintegration energy escapes and is deposited outside the tumor volume. We found an optimal tumor size for radiocurability by each of the 22 radionuclides considered. Optimal cure diameters range from less than 1 mm for short-range emitters such as {sup 199}Au and {sup 33}P to several centimeters for long-range emitters such as {sup 90}Y and {sup 188}Re. The energy emitted per disintegration may be used to predict optimal cure size for uniform distributions of radionuclide. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric air over Switzerland during the last few decades.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, J A Corcho; Steinmann, P; Estier, S; Bochud, F; Haldimann, M; Froidevaux, P

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the burn-up of the SNAP-9A satellite led to large injections of radionuclides into the stratosphere. It is generally accepted that current levels of plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere are negligible. Here we show that those radionuclides are present in the stratosphere at higher levels than in the troposphere. The lower content in the troposphere reveals that dry and wet deposition efficiently removes radionuclides within a period of a few weeks to months. Since the stratosphere is thermally stratified and separated from the troposphere by the tropopause, radioactive aerosols remain longer. We estimate a mean residence time for plutonium and caesium radionuclides in the stratosphere of 2.5-5 years. Our results also reveal that strong volcanic eruptions like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 have an important role in redistributing anthropogenic radionuclides from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  5. Medical imaging techniques: implications for nursing care.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Alison

    The four basic techniques of medical imaging are X-ray, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and radionuclide. This article describes imaging techniques that display anatomical structure and those that are better at showing the physiological function of organs and tissues. Safety and preparation relating to nursing practice are discussed. Understanding the purpose and limitations of the different imaging techniques is important for providing best patient care.

  6. Nuclear data calculation methods for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.; Lunev, V.P.; Masterov, V.S.; Kurenkov, N.V.; Kulikov, E.V.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron deficient radionuclides play an important role in medicine, where they are used for diagnostic with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). Using some reactions connected with the producing most widely used radioisotopes {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99}Tc as example we calculated reaction cross sections and discuss the possibilities of the models and codes and recent progress in the methods to predict nuclear data for medical and other applications in medium energy region.

  7. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R [Rigby, ID; Lister, Tedd E [Idaho Falls, ID; Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  8. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  10. [Scientific medical forum as important source of scientific-information provision for innovation processes in the healthcare sector of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V

    2013-12-01

    The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.

  11. An assessment of the efficiency of fungal DNA extraction methods for maximizing the detection of medically important fungi using PCR.

    PubMed

    Karakousis, A; Tan, L; Ellis, D; Alexiou, H; Wormald, P J

    2006-04-01

    To date, no single reported DNA extraction method is suitable for the efficient extraction of DNA from all fungal species. The efficiency of extraction is of particular importance in PCR-based medical diagnostic applications where the quantity of fungus in a tissue biopsy may be limited. We subjected 16 medically relevant fungi to physical, chemical and enzymatic cell wall disruption methods which constitutes the first step in extracting DNA. Examination by light microscopy showed that grinding with mortar and pestle was the most efficient means of disrupting the rigid fungal cell walls of hyphae and conidia. We then trialled several published DNA isolation protocols to ascertain the most efficient method of extraction. Optimal extraction was achieved by incorporating a lyticase and proteinase K enzymatic digestion step and adapting a DNA extraction procedure from a commercial kit (MO BIO) to generate high yields of high quality DNA from all 16 species. DNA quality was confirmed by the successful PCR amplification of the conserved region of the fungal 18S small-subunit rRNA multicopy gene.

  12. Medical management of frontotemporal dementias: the importance of the caregiver in symptom assessment and guidance of treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Jicha, Gregory A

    2011-11-01

    There are no currently Food and Drug Administration-approved or proven off-label treatments for the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Clinicians, caregivers, and patients struggle regularly to find therapeutic regimens that can alleviate the problematic behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these devastating conditions. Success is "hit or miss" and the lessons learned are largely anecdotal to date. Drug discovery in this area has been largely hampered by the heterogeneous clinical presentations and pathological phenotypes of disease that represent significant obstacles to progress in this area. Biologically, plausible treatment strategies include the use of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antihypertensives, and agents that may ameliorate the symptoms of parkinsonism, pseudobulbar affect, and motor neuron disease that can often coexist with FTD. These medications all carry potential risks as well as possible benefits for the person suffering from FTD, and a clear understanding of these factors is critical in selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen to maximize cognition and daily functions, reduce behavioral symptoms, and alleviate caregiver burden in an individual patient. The role of the caregiver in tracking and reporting of symptoms and the effects of individual therapeutic interventions is pivotal in this process. This manuscript highlights the importance of establishing an effective therapeutic partnership between the physician and caregiver in the medical management of the person suffering from FTD.

  13. Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Cives, Mauro; Strosberg, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared (177)Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of radionuclide therapy for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and considers possible strategies to further enhance its clinical efficacy.

  14. Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

  15. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  16. Bioremediation of radionuclides: emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Sompal; Singh, Om V

    2007-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated as the byproduct of atomic energy and related programs worldwide. There are multiple radioactive waste dumping sites, that, if exposed to the general population, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Currently, no efficient technology is available that can store the radioactive wastes with adequate safety. Therefore, bioremediation of radionuclides/radioactive waste is an unavoidable necessity that has been tried using biotransformation, bioaccumulation, biosorption, biostimulation, and bioaugmentaion, with limited success. Genetic engineering has been implemented to develop an organism that can effectively detoxify radionuclides along with other organic pollutants present as co-contaminants in the radioactive waste sites. However, the lack of system-wide information regarding factors regulating growth and metabolism of microbial communities can be conquered by newly seeded "-omics"-based technologies, viz. transcriptomics and proteomics. Studies combining functional transcriptomics and proteomics would create a system-wide approach studying the microbial metabolism in radionuclides detoxification.

  17. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  18. The second insight: Radionuclide diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentle, Brian C.; Hooper, Richard

    Nuclear medicine has been defined as the use of radionuclides (unsealed sources of radiation) in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is a predominantly diagnostic speciality. Of the two aspects of disease, disordered structure and disordered function, nuclear medicine or radionuclide diagnosis has been unique in consistently providing information about disordered function. The method has applications both in life ( in vivo examinations, often involving imaging radionuclide distributions in the body) and in the test-tube ( in vivo). The tracer principle has allowed insights in respect of both patient care and research across a broad spectrum of diseases. Although nuclear medicine is a specialty which continues to evolve, it already has an established role in health care, predicated on its ability to study function.

  19. Radionuclide Basics: Cesium-137

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The most common radioactive form of cesium (chemical symbol Cs) is Cesium-137. Cesium-137 is produced by nuclear fission for use in medical devices and gauges and is one of the byproducts of nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons testing.

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Technetium-99

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technetium-99 (chemical symbol Tc-99) is a silver-gray, radioactive metal. It occurs naturally in very small amounts in the earth's crust, but is primarily man-made. Technetium-99m is a short-lived form of Tc-99 that is used as a medical diagnostic tool.

  1. Molecular systematics of filarial parasites, with an emphasis on groups of medical and veterinary importance, and its relevance for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro

    2009-09-01

    Filarial parasites are members of the Phylum Nemata that comprise several species of medical and veterinary importance. Among the human diseases caused by members of this group of nematodes are river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, which afflict millions of people in the tropics. These diseases not only have an impact on the health of the people affected but also bear a great socioeconomic burden. Despite their relevance, the systematics of the filarial parasites is not well understood yet, and additional molecular phylogenetic studies are required to comprehend the evolution of these parasites. Identifying the patterns of evolution of these parasites will be of relevance in preventing emerging zoonoses. The present review examines the information about the molecular systematics of filarial parasites available in the literature and evaluates the relevance of the different directions of future research. Furthermore, it is also intended to highlight the relevance of molecular systematic studies in the molecular epidemiology research area.

  2. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.

  3. Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important fungal genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ronald P; Riley, Robert; Wiebenga, Ad; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Amillis, Sotiris; Uchima, Cristiane Akemi; Anderluh, Gregor; Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Askin, Marion; Barry, Kerrie; Battaglia, Evy; Bayram, Özgür; Benocci, Tiziano; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Caldana, Camila; Cánovas, David; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Chen, Fusheng; Chen, Wanping; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Diallinas, George; Emri, Tamás; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Freyberg, Susanne; Gallo, Antonia; Gournas, Christos; Habgood, Rob; Hainaut, Matthieu; Harispe, María Laura; Henrissat, Bernard; Hildén, Kristiina S; Hope, Ryan; Hossain, Abeer; Karabika, Eugenia; Karaffa, Levente; Karányi, Zsolt; Kraševec, Nada; Kuo, Alan; Kusch, Harald; LaButti, Kurt; Lagendijk, Ellen L; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Logrieco, Antonio F; MacCabe, Andrew; Mäkelä, Miia R; Malavazi, Iran; Melin, Petter; Meyer, Vera; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Miskei, Márton; Molnár, Ákos P; Mulé, Giuseppina; Ngan, Chew Yee; Orejas, Margarita; Orosz, Erzsébet; Ouedraogo, Jean Paul; Overkamp, Karin M; Park, Hee-Soo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Piumi, Francois; Punt, Peter J; Ram, Arthur F J; Ramón, Ana; Rauscher, Stefan; Record, Eric; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Robert, Vincent; Röhrig, Julian; Ruller, Roberto; Salamov, Asaf; Salih, Nadhira S; Samson, Rob A; Sándor, Erzsébet; Sanguinetti, Manuel; Schütze, Tabea; Sepčić, Kristina; Shelest, Ekaterina; Sherlock, Gavin; Sophianopoulou, Vicky; Squina, Fabio M; Sun, Hui; Susca, Antonia; Todd, Richard B; Tsang, Adrian; Unkles, Shiela E; van de Wiele, Nathalie; van Rossen-Uffink, Diana; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Vesth, Tammi C; Visser, Jaap; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Zhou, Miaomiao; Andersen, Mikael R; Archer, David B; Baker, Scott E; Benoit, Isabelle; Brakhage, Axel A; Braus, Gerhard H; Fischer, Reinhard; Frisvad, Jens C; Goldman, Gustavo H; Houbraken, Jos; Oakley, Berl; Pócsi, István; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Seiboth, Bernhard; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Wortman, Jennifer; Dyer, Paul S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2017-02-14

    The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus. We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera. Comparative studies of key aspects of fungal biology, including primary and secondary metabolism, stress response, biomass degradation, and signal transduction, revealed both conservation and diversity among the species. Observed genomic differences were validated with experimental studies. This revealed several highlights, such as the potential for sex in asexual species, organic acid production genes being a key feature of black aspergilli, alternative approaches for degrading plant biomass, and indications for the genetic basis of stress response. A genome-wide phylogenetic analysis demonstrated in detail the relationship of the newly genome sequenced species with other aspergilli. Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome sequences. The comparative genomics and experimental study, presented here, allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases linked genome differences to phenotype. Insights gained could be exploited for biotechnological and medical applications of fungi.

  4. The importance of professional values from clinical nurses' perspective in hospitals of a medical university in Iran.

    PubMed

    Poorchangizi, Batool; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Borhani, Fariba

    2017-03-01

    Today, nurses are required to have knowledge and awareness concerning professional values as standards to provide safe and high-quality ethical care. Nurses' perspective on professional values affects decision-making and patient care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the importance of professional values from clinical nurses' perspective. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 in four educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were collected via the Persian version of Nursing Professional Values Scale-Revised (NPVS-R) by Weis and Schank. Sampling was conducted through the use of stratified random sampling method and 250 clinical nurses participated in the study. Results indicated that the total score of the nurses' professional values was high. (102.57 ± 11.94). From nurses' perspective items such as "Maintaining confidentiality of patients" and "Safeguarding patients' right to privacy" had more importance; however, "Recognizing role of professional nursing associations in shaping healthcare policy" and "Participating in nursing research and/or implementing research findings appropriate to practice had less importance. A statistically significant relationship was observed between NPVS-R mean scores and nurses' age, work experience as well as participation in professional ethical training (P < 0.05). Although the total score related to the clinical nurses' perspective on professional values was high, the importance of certain values was at a lower level. Owing to the emerging ethical challenges, it is indispensable to design educational programs in order to improve nurses' awareness and understanding of the comprehensive importance of professional values. Furthermore, it is recommended that mixed methods studies should be conducted in order to design an instrument to evaluate the use of values in nursing practice.

  5. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  6. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  7. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  8. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  9. Inferring Hillslope Hydrology from the Distribution of Fallout Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaste, J. M.; Heimsath, A. M.; Friedland, A. J.

    2001-05-01

    Be-7, excess Pb-210, Cs-137, and Am-241 are short-lived (half-life < 500 yr) particle-reactive radionuclides with well-defined atmospheric source terms. Previous studies show that the redistribution of these radionuclides on agricultural fields is by particle transport, not via the dissolved phase. We use the distribution of short-lived atmospheric fallout on forested hillslopes to infer the hydrological processes governing local sediment transport. Here, we present radionuclide activities from soil samples collected at different depths along hillslope profiles in a forested watershed in New Hampshire. Radionuclide activities in stream sediment, water, and soil samples were determined by gamma spectroscopy. Sites with fallout radionuclide inventories consistent with the theoretical deposition flux can be assumed to be stable and undergoing little or no erosion. However, near-stream portions of the watershed which could be subject to saturated overland flow show a depletion of Be-7 and excess Pb-210 relative to the more stable locations. Sediment collected from the bottom of stream channels showed significant activities of short-lived radionuclides, particularly Be-7. This suggests that saturated overland flow is an important process eroding soil from certain parts of the hillslope and in-channel deposition occurs. By comparing the distribution of Be-7 (half-life ca. 53 days) with Cs-137 (half-life ca. 30 yr) we can identify the timescales of sediment transport processes. A hydrological model is presented to explain the distribution of radionuclides on hillslopes at our study site. The results from this study will help us better predict the fate of atmospherically deposited contaminants in watersheds.

  10. [Recent progress in radionuclide therapy].

    PubMed

    Kasagi, K; Iwata, M; Misaki, T; Konishi, J; Sakahara, H

    2000-11-01

    Therapeutic use of radionuclides includes 131I for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid Graves' disease, 89SrCl3 for metastatic bone tumors, 131I-MIBG for malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, and radioimmunotherapies. 131I is concentrated in 60-70% of metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer following total thyroidectomy. Radioiodine uptake in metastatic lesions is greater in younger patients than in older ones. Hypothyroidism is often mild or even absent in patients with a large amount of tumor tissue, indicating that thyroid hormones produced by highly differentiated tumors compensate partially or even completely for hypothyroidism following total thyroidectomy. Adequate uptake of 131I has been reported to be associated with significant reduction in the size and number of metastases, and with lower recurrence and higher survival rates. Other favorable factors for longer survival are younger age, well-differentiated histological type, small disease extent, and early discovery of metastases. Older patients with extensive metastases and/or bulky tumor masses in the bone have a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to discover metastases as early as possible, when patients are still young. Long-term follow-up with periodic thyroglobulin measurements and imaging studies is strongly recommended. In Japan, 131I treatment for Graves' disease is performed only in selected patients in whom antithyroid drugs cannot be used because of side effects or not effective, considering the high prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism. 89SrCl3 is useful for reducing pain due to bone metastases of malignant tumors. 131I-MIBG therapy is effective for improvement of QOL in some patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma. Radioimmuno-therapy using anti-CD20 has been used successfully in clinical application in patients with malignant B cell lymphoma.

  11. Radionuclide imaging in drug development.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Alan C; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive tracers have made an immense contribution to the understanding of human physiology and pathology. At the start of the 21st century nuclear imaging has emerged as the main metabolic imaging modality which is of growing importance in drug development and clinical pharmacology. Using techniques adapted from those undertaken in clinical radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities drug molecules and carrier systems may be radiolabelled and their release, biodistribution and uptake may be visualized in human subjects. Imaging studies are capable of locating the uptake of specific receptors in the brain, the site of disintegration of a tablet in the GI tract, the penetration of a nebulized solution into the lung and the residence time of an eye drop on the cornea. The technology uses suitable gamma emitting radionuclides such as 99mTc, 111In, 123I and 153Sm, which may be imaged with a gamma camera or positron emitters such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F for positron emission tomography (PET). Positron emitters are more appropriate for the direct labeling of drug molecules rather than metals such a 99mTc or 111In. A particular asset of these techniques is that the in vivo distribution and kinetics of a radiolabelled pharmaceutical formulation may be quantified. In this way correlation between the observed pharmacological effects and the precise site of delivery may be made. A powerful feature of nuclear molecular imaging is the evaluation of drug delivery systems in patient groups for whom the treatment is intended. Such studies not only provide data on the nature and characteristics of a product, such as reliability and reproducibility, but can demonstrate proof of principle for the new generation of targeted therapeutics. Imaging data are increasingly being used in product registration dossiers for submission to Regulatory Authorities.

  12. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  13. Unveiling the complexities of Daboia russelii venom, a medically important snake of India, by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Maitreyee; Das, Diganta; Iyer, Janaki Krishnamoorthy; Kini, R Manjunatha; Doley, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Composition of Indian Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom, a medically important snake and member of "Big Four" snakes of India was done by gel filtration chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The MS/MS analyses of tryptic digested gel filtration peaks divulged the presence of 63 different proteins belonging to 12 families. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), serine proteases, metalloproteases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, l-amino acid oxidase, C-type lectin-like proteins, kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, disintegrin, nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular nerve growth factor families were identified. PLA2 enzymes with isoforms of N-, S- and H-type based on their first N-terminal amino acid residue were observed. The venom is also found to be rich in RVV-X, RVV-V and thrombin-like enzymes. Homologues of disintegrins with RGD and RTS motifs were also observed. The high percentage of PLA2 and proteases in the venom proteome could be responsible for the observed coagulopathy, haemorrhage and edema which can be correlated with the clinical manifestations of Russell's viper envenomation. This is the first proteomic analysis of Indian D. russelii venom which might assist in understanding the pathophysiological effects of viper envenomation. Such study will also be important for developing more effective antivenom for viper bite management.

  14. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    PubMed Central

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  15. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.

  16. Importance of awareness in improving performance of emergency medical services (EMS) systems in enhancing traffic safety: A lesson from India.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Singh, Preeti; Basu, Samyajit

    2016-10-02

    India has been slow in implementing a central emergency medical services (EMS) system across the country. "108 services" is one of the most popular services that is functional under the public-private partnership model. Limited available literature shows that despite access to services, many traffic crash victims are transported using private vehicles. The objective of this study is to understand the effectiveness of 108 services from a traffic safety perspective. A questionnaire survey is conducted to understand the awareness of EMS and their function. Using traffic-related fatalities as the dependent variable, a fixed effect panel data model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of the 108 services in improving the traffic safety. The results from the survey show that, in general, people are not aware of the 108 services. A majority of the population prefers taking victims to the hospital using their personal vehicles or any other vehicles available compared to calling an ambulance. Results from panel data analysis show that despite having an efficient system, these services failed to make significant improvement in the safety of road users in the states in which their services were subscribed. The lack of awareness of an important safety service is alarming. This could be a major reason for lower utilization of 108 services for transporting victims of traffic crashes. This article shows the importance of having efficient awareness campaigns to improve the efficiency of any similar programs that are aimed to enhance the safety of a region.

  17. Rhipicephalus rossicus, a neglected tick at the margin of Europe: a review of its distribution, ecology and medical importance.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, A D; Kalmár, Z; Dumitrache, M O

    2015-09-01

    Rhipicephalus rossicus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host tick with a broad host spectrum that includes wild animals, pets, livestock and humans. Despite its local abundance in certain areas, most of the available information on R. rossicus was published decades ago, mainly by former soviet authors. Its distribution largely overlaps the Eurasian steppe. However, its range may be more extensive than is currently known because this species may have been misidentified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, principally in areas where the latter species is present. Although R. rossicus has been occasionally reported to feed on people, little attention has been given to its medical importance. It has been shown to have a vectorial role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and West Nile virus. However, the vectorial importance of R. rossicus may be significantly greater, mainly as the closely related species R. sanguineus s.l. is known to transmit a very wide spectrum of pathogens. The probably underestimated vectorial role of R. rossicus may represent a hidden public health threat. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  20. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  1. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  2. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Mardekian, Jack; Emir, Birol; Clair, Andrew; Kuhn, Max; Silverman, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Methods This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR) database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296) were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for FM (729.1) ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665) did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs). Results Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001) and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318). Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001), especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition). Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0.0001), confirming resource utilization as an important variable associated with an FM diagnosis. Conclusion Significant differences between the FM and no-FM cohorts were observed for nearly all the demographic

  3. The importance of proximity to death in modelling community medication expenditures for older people: evidence from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Moore, Patrick V; Bennett, Kathleen; Normand, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Concerns about the long-term sustainability of health care expenditures (HCEs), particularly prescribing expenditures, has become an important policy issue in most developed countries. Previous studies suggest that proximity to death (PTD) has a significant effect on total HCEs, with its exclusion leading to an overestimation of likely growth. There are limited studies of pharmaceutical expenditures in which PTD is taken into account. This study presents an empirical analysis of public medication expenditure on older individuals in New Zealand (NZ). The aim of the study was to examine the individual effects of age and PTD using individual-level data. This study uses individual-level dispensing data from 2008/2009 covering the whole population of medication users aged 70 years or older and resident in NZ. A case-control methodology was used to examine individual cost and medication use for a 12-month period for decedents (cases) and survivors (controls). A random effects two-part model, with a Probit and generalized linear model (GLM) was used to explore the effect of age and PTD on expenditures. The impact of PTD on prescription expenditure is not as dramatic as studies reporting on acute and/or long-term care. The 12-month decedent-to-survivor mean expenditure ratio was 1.95; 2.09 for males and 1.82 for females. The additional cost of dying in terms of prescription drugs decreases with age, with those who die at 90 years of age or older consuming fewer drugs on average and having a lower mean expenditure than those who died in their 70s and 80s. The following variables were found to have a decreasing effect on the mean monthly prescription expenditures: a reduction of 2.2 % for each additional year of age, 4.2 % being in the Maori ethnic group, and 7.8 % for Pacific Islanders. Increases in monthly expenditure were associated with being a decedent 32.1-62.6 % (depending on month), being of Asian origin 16.2 %, or being a male 12.6 %. Given the variance reported

  4. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  5. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  6. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  7. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Li, Lianchong; Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui -Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2012-05-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated or plastic clays (Tsang and Hudson, 2010). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. During the lifespan of a clay repository, the repository performance is affected by complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow, formation of damage zones, radionuclide transport, waste dissolution, and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) of the repository. These coupled processes may affect radionuclide transport by changing transport paths (e.g., formation and evolution of excavation damaged zone (EDZ)) and altering flow, mineral, and mechanical properties that are related to radionuclide transport. While radionuclide transport in clay formation has been studied using laboratory tests (e,g, Appelo et al. 2010, Garcia-Gutierrez et al., 2008, Maes et al., 2008), short-term field

  8. Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. Antiplatelets are medications that stop blood particles called platelets ... an angioplasty procedure. Aspirin is one type of antiplatelet medicine. (See "Aspirin: Take With Caution" ) Beta blockers ...

  9. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis) and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis). The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis) and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9%) and tree cover (28.2%) for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8%) and thermal amplitude (12.6%) for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State revealed a higher

  10. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis) and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis). The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the "maximum test sensitivity plus specificity," provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the "ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop" software. The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis) and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9%) and tree cover (28.2%) for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8%) and thermal amplitude (12.6%) for the T. bahiensis. The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State revealed a higher environmental suitability of these species in the

  11. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The article presents common pitfalls encountered in pediatric radionuclide renography, illustrated with clinical cases. It is important to recognize normal variants. A good acquisition technique is essential. Correlation with other imaging techniques, with the clinical background and symptoms, is critical. A clear clinical question is essential: based on the question and knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each test, the test which can best answer the question can be selected. Awareness of the pitfalls of radionuclide renography helps avoid errors of interpretation and allows the selection of the most helpful test for clinical management.

  12. The problem of transfer of radionuclide pollution by sea ice.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V K; Stanovoy, V V

    2001-04-01

    The problem of the radioactive pollution of the ice cover is discussed in this paper. An estimation of the possible transport of the radionuclides by drifting ice from the Kara Sea into the Arctic Ocean is presented. The conclusion about the importance of the contribution of drifting ice to the contamination of the Greenland coastal water is based on the comparison of estimates of the multiyear export of radioactive drifting ice from the Kara Sea with the observed concentrations of the radionuclides in the Greenland coastal water.

  13. Value of radionuclide imaging techniques in assessing cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.R.; Boucher, C.A.

    1980-12-18

    Radionuclide imaging techniques add an important dimension to the diagnosis, classification and management of myocardial disease. The gated blood pool scan provides information allowing determination of the functional type of cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) as well as evaluation of ventricular performance. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 is useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and also in depicting septal abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide techniques also prove useful in following progression of disease and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  14. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like /sup 131/I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986.

  15. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in lacustrine sediments in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2011-07-01

    Establishing accurate historical records of the distribution, inventory and source of artificial radionuclides in the environment is important for environmental monitoring and radiological health protection due to their potential toxicity, and is also useful for identification and risk assessment of possible future environmental inputs of radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests and accidental release from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or nuclear power reactors. A sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to study the recent sedimentation of Pu isotopes in 11 lakes in China. The distribution of (137)Cs was investigated using the conventional radiometric analytical methods. Based on the isotopic compositions of Pu and the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu, the sources of artificial radionuclides were identified. The potential applications of Pu isotopes for sediment dating and for regional and global environmental change studies were discussed.

  16. Nuclear medicine and radionuclide imaging: a survey of recruitment issues in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gray, H W; Prvulovich, E; Nunan, T

    2003-04-01

    This wide ranging survey has highlighted difficulties in recruiting trained and committed individuals into nuclear medicine and radionuclide radiology. Several key factors have been recognised that reduce the attractiveness of the training. Recommendations include the rotation of medical senior house officers through nuclear medicine, reconsideration of dual accreditation in nuclear medicine and medicine, an increase in the number of consultant posts in nuclear medicine, parity of remuneration for nuclear medicine trainees and finally, an appropriate sessional provision for those providing radionuclide radiology services.

  17. Bayesian Inference for Source Term Estimation: Application to the International Monitoring System Radionuclide Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    such as the normal operation of nuclear reactors and the production and use of medical isotopes [1] which can create difficulties in the interpretation...of the radionuclides in the nuclear reactor and the possible behavior of these materials when subjected to the reactor - core meltdown conditions. 20...ternational Monitoring System radionuclide network for the verification of the Com- prehensive Nuclear -Test-Ban Treaty. The complexity of the

  18. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  19. Bacteria of the genera Ehrlichia and Rickettsia in ticks of the family Ixodidae with medical importance in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Tarragona, Evelina L; Bottero, María N Saracho; Mangold, Atilio J; Mackenstedt, Ute; Nava, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get an overview about the occurrence of bacteria from the genus Ehrlichia and Rickettsia in ixodid ticks with medical importance in Argentina. Therefore, in 2013 and 2014, free-living ticks were collected in different provinces of northern Argentina. These ticks were determined as Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma neumanni, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tonelliae and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi. All samples were tested to determine the infection with Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. by PCR assays. Rickettsial DNA was detected in all tested tick species, with the exception of A. tonelliae. 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae', and Rickettsia parkeri were found in A. neumanni, A. parvum, and A. triste, respectively. Another rickettsial species, Rickettsia bellii, was found in A. sculptum, A. ovale and H. juxtakochi. None of the tested ticks showed infection with Ehrlichia. The results of the study demonstrate that Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever group are associated with various species of Amblyomma throughout a wide area of northern Argentina, where cases of Amblyomma ticks biting humans are common.

  20. Comparative morphology of eggs of the Haplorchiinae (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) and some other medically important heterophyid and opisthorchiid flukes.

    PubMed

    Ditrich, O; Giboda, M; Scholz, T; Beer, S A

    1992-01-01

    The egg morphology of the following medically important small flukes from Southeast Asia and Far East were studied: Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae), Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Stellantchasmus falcatus and Metagonimus sp. (Heterophydiae). This study revealed a great intraspecific variability and interspecific similarity in size and shape of eggs. The eggs shape does not seem to be suitable for species identification. On the other hand, biometrical analysis of egg size enabled us to divide eggs from the species studied into four distinct groups according to the Faust-Meleney index (FMI) characterizing egg size rather than the length and width of eggs. The surface structures of eggs, delineated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), appeared to be a suitable morphological feature for distinguishing some groups of small flukes. Eggs from the Haplorchiinae were typified by the characteristic filamentous mesh structure. The problems of identification of eggs in human stool samples and suitability of using morphological criteria such as shape and size of eggs are discussed herein.

  1. Wolbachia supergroups A and B in natural populations of medically important filth flies (diptera: muscidae, calliphoridae, and sarcophagidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mingchay, Pichanon; Sai-Ngam, Arkhom; Phumee, Atchara; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Lorlertthum, Kittitouch; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Choochote, Wej; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2014-03-01

    Filth flies, belonging to suborder Brachycera (Family; Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae), are a major cause of nuisance and able to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. These insects are distributed worldwide and their populations are increasing especially in sub-tropical and tropical areas. One strategy for controlling insects employs Wolbachia, which is a group of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria, found in many insect species. The bacteria can cause reproductive abnormalities in their hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminization, parthenogenesis, and male lethality. In this study we determined Wolbachia endosymbionts in natural population of medically important flies (42 females and 9 males) from several geographic regions of Thailand. Wolbachia supergroups A or B were detected in 7 of female flies using PCR specific for wsp. Sequence analysis of wsp showed variations between and within the Wolbachia supergroup. Phylogenetics demonstrated that wsp is able to diverge between Wolbachia supergroups A and B. These data should be useful in future Wolbachia-based programs of fly control.

  2. The importance of social and collaborative learning for online continuing medical education (OCME): directions for future development and research.

    PubMed

    Sandars, John; Kokotailo, Patricia; Singh, Gurmit

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing use of online continuing medical education (OCME), but the potential use of social and collaborative learning to change professional performance and improve patient care has yet to be fully realised. The integration of the main themes from the presentations and comments from participants at a symposium at AMEE 2011. Sociological perspectives on change in professional performance highlight the need for social and collaborative learning in OCME so that learners can share information (explicit knowledge) and opinion (tacit knowledge). The educational topic should be relevant to the complexity of professional practice and use iterative cycles of implementation and critical reflection in social networks so that proposed solutions can be tested in actual practice. The challenge of developing effective online discussions for collaborative learning is recognised. The provision of OCME requires a shift in both policy and practice to emphasise the importance of social and collaborative learning. Further research is recommended, especially to evaluate the implementation and impact of social and collaborative learning for OCME on patient care and the use of newer Web 2.0 approaches.

  3. Identification and antifungal activity of novel organic compounds found in cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Novel organic compounds found in the cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies were identified. Uracil, 9-tricosene, 1-oleoyl glycerol, dimethyl suberate and butyl stearate were tested for their potential antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against reference strains of fungi were determined. Uracil and dimethyl suberate slightly inhibited the growth of entomopathogenic fungi. The cuticular and internal lipids of Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Sarcophaga carnaria and Musca domestica were studied by gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A comparison of the lipid extracts between the preimaginal and mature stages showed adults flies contained a higher total content of the identified components. Furthermore, their amounts distinctly predominated in the internal lipids of all the species. The amount of 9-tricosene was the highest in adults of C. vicina, while the larvae and pupae had a definitively lower amount of this compound. Uracil was found to be the most abundant component in extracts obtained from C. vomitoria especially in the internal lipids of adults. 1-oleoyl glycerol was detected in all of the examined species of flies. It was most abundant in the internal extracts isolated from the larvae of C. vicina and the pupae of C. vomitoria. Suberic acid dimethyl ester was found in the larval and pupal internal lipids of C. vicina and S. carnaria in low amounts. Butyl stearate was identified only in the internal lipids of the larvae and adults of houseflies.

  4. Arachnids of medical importance in Brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Francielle A; Amorim, Fernanda G; Anjolette, Fernando A P; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). Many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. These animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. Several protein and non-protein compounds present in the venom and saliva of these animals are responsible for symptoms observed in envenoming, exhibiting neurotoxic, dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities. The phylogenomic analysis from the complementary DNA of single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes shows that these animals share some common protein families known as neurotoxins, defensins, hyaluronidase, antimicrobial peptides, phospholipases and proteinases. This indicates that the venoms from these animals may present components with functional and structural similarities. Therefore, we described in this review the main components present in spider and scorpion venom as well as in tick saliva, since they have similar components. These three arachnids are responsible for many accidents of medical relevance in Brazil. Additionally, this study shows potential biotechnological applications of some components with important biological activities, which may motivate the conducting of further research studies on their action mechanisms.

  5. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  6. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M I

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented.

  7. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Meck, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  8. Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport: a regulatory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, W. L.; Pickett, D. A.; Codell, R. B.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2001-12-01

    What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport and their importance to performance. The current focus of NRC staff reviews and technical interactions dealing with colloid-facilitated transport relates to the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. NRC staff performed bounding calculations to quantify radionuclide releases available for ground-water transport to potential receptors from a Yucca Mountain repository. Preliminary analyses suggest insignificant doses of plutonium and americium colloids could be derived from spent nuclear fuel. Using surface complexation models, NRC staff found that colloids can potentially lower actinide retardation factors by up to several orders of magnitude. Performance assessment calculations, in which colloidal transport of plutonium and americium was simulated by assuming no sorption or matrix diffusion, indicated no effect of colloids on human dose within the 10,000 year compliance period due largely to long waste-package lifetimes. NRC staff have identified information gaps and developed technical agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure sufficient information will be presented in any potential future Yucca Mountain license application. DOE has agreed to identify which radionuclides could be transported via colloids, incorporate uncertainties in colloid formation, release and transport parameters, and conceptual models, and address the applicability of field data using synthetic microspheres as colloid analogs. NRC is currently

  9. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  11. The Change of a Medically Important Genus: Worldwide Occurrence of Genetically Diverse Novel Brucella Species in Exotic Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Holger C.; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Shilton, Cathy; Benedict, Suresh; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Blom, Jochen; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The genus Brucella comprises various species of both veterinary and human medical importance. All species are genetically highly related to each other, sharing intra-species average nucleotide identities (ANI) of > 99%. Infections occur among various warm-blooded animal species, marine mammals, and humans. Until recently, amphibians had not been recognized as a host for Brucella. In this study, however, we show that novel Brucella species are distributed among exotic frogs worldwide. Comparative recA gene analysis of 36 frog isolates from various continents and different frog species revealed an unexpected high genetic diversity, not observed among classical Brucella species. In phylogenetic reconstructions the isolates consequently formed various clusters and grouped together with atypical more distantly related brucellae, like B. inopinata, strain BO2, and Australian isolates from rodents, some of which were isolated as human pathogens. Of one frog isolate (10RB9215) the genome sequence was determined. Comparative genome analysis of this isolate and the classical Brucella species revealed additional genetic material, absent from classical Brucella species but present in Ochrobactrum, the closest genetic neighbor of Brucella, and in other soil associated genera of the Alphaproteobacteria. The presence of gene clusters encoding for additional metabolic functions, flanked by tRNAs and mobile genetic elements, as well as by bacteriophages is suggestive for a different ecology compared to classical Brucella species. Furthermore it suggests that amphibian isolates may represent a link between free living soil saprophytes and the pathogenic Brucella with a preferred intracellular habitat. We therefore assume that brucellae from frogs have a reservoir in soil and, in contrast to classical brucellae, undergo extensive horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28036367

  12. The Change of a Medically Important Genus: Worldwide Occurrence of Genetically Diverse Novel Brucella Species in Exotic Frogs.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Holger C; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Shilton, Cathy; Benedict, Suresh; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The genus Brucella comprises various species of both veterinary and human medical importance. All species are genetically highly related to each other, sharing intra-species average nucleotide identities (ANI) of > 99%. Infections occur among various warm-blooded animal species, marine mammals, and humans. Until recently, amphibians had not been recognized as a host for Brucella. In this study, however, we show that novel Brucella species are distributed among exotic frogs worldwide. Comparative recA gene analysis of 36 frog isolates from various continents and different frog species revealed an unexpected high genetic diversity, not observed among classical Brucella species. In phylogenetic reconstructions the isolates consequently formed various clusters and grouped together with atypical more distantly related brucellae, like B. inopinata, strain BO2, and Australian isolates from rodents, some of which were isolated as human pathogens. Of one frog isolate (10RB9215) the genome sequence was determined. Comparative genome analysis of this isolate and the classical Brucella species revealed additional genetic material, absent from classical Brucella species but present in Ochrobactrum, the closest genetic neighbor of Brucella, and in other soil associated genera of the Alphaproteobacteria. The presence of gene clusters encoding for additional metabolic functions, flanked by tRNAs and mobile genetic elements, as well as by bacteriophages is suggestive for a different ecology compared to classical Brucella species. Furthermore it suggests that amphibian isolates may represent a link between free living soil saprophytes and the pathogenic Brucella with a preferred intracellular habitat. We therefore assume that brucellae from frogs have a reservoir in soil and, in contrast to classical brucellae, undergo extensive horizontal gene transfer.

  13. Composition and distribution of medically important phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipalities of Tierralta and Valencia (Córdoba, Colombia).

    PubMed

    Vivero, Rafael José; Quintero, Lina Salazar; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Alvar-Beltrán, Jorge; Tovar, Catalina; Atencia, Claudia M; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2017-01-01

    Ecoepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis and regular monitoring of Lutzomyia species have generated a knowledge base that can be used for control and prevention strategies targeted at the disease transmission dynamics in focal areas of Colombia. In this study, the presence and spatial distribution of phlebotomines of medical importance in the municipalities of Tierralta (El Loro and Tuis Tuis villages) and Valencia (Guadua and Mieles villages) were determined. Entomological surveys were performed in 2015 (months of June, September and November) and samples were collected via CDC-traps located in intradomicilary and peridomiciliary areas in the municipalities of Tierralta and Valencia (Department of Córdoba, Colombia). Active searches were also carried out with a mouth aspirator to collect adult phlebotomines from resting sites. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to assess if the differences between the communities of phlebotomines. Spatial distribution maps of the Lutzomyia species were generated. A high species diversity of Lutzomyia was observed with a total of 1677 Lutzomyia individuals belonging to 12 species. Among these species, Lu. panamensis was the most abundant (80.18%). The composition of the intradomicilary and peridomiciliary phlebotomines varied significantly (F = 0.9962; df = 1; p = 0.02895). Species like Lu. carpenteri, Lu. camposi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. atroclavata and Lu. yuilli yuilli were recorded for the first time in the Department of Córdoba, Colombia. The spatial distribution shows that Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are predominant and present in areas with high concentration of houses. This study provides basic information on new records of phlebotomines in the Department of Córdoba. The results suggest that greater vector-human contact occurs in the peridomiciliary environment and that a high number of Lutzomyia species associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis are present in Colombia.

  14. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted.

  15. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  17. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F

    2015-06-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.

  18. Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae): redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation, and medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Keirans, J E; Hutcheson, H J; Durden, L A; Klompen, J S

    1996-05-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis Say, 1821, is redescribed, based on laboratory reared specimens originating in Bulloch County, Georgia. Information on distribution, host associations, morphological variation, and medical/veterinary importance is also presented. A great deal of recent work has focused on this species because it is the principal vector of the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwaldt & Brenner) in eastern North America. Its distribution appears to be expanding, and includes the state of Florida in the southeastern United States north to the provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada, west to North and South Dakota, United States, and south to the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Although I. scapularis feeds on at least 125 species of North American vertebrates (54 mammalian, 57 avian, and 14 lizard species), analysis of the U.S. National Tick Collection holdings show that white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), cattle, Bos taurus L., dogs, Canis lupus L., and other medium-to-large sized mammals are important hosts for adults as are native mice and other small mammals, certain ground-frequenting birds, skinks, and glass lizards for nymphs and larvae. This tick is a polytypic species exhibiting north-south and east-west morphological clines. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons revealed significant interpopulational variation that is expressed most significantly in the nymphal stage. Nymphs from northern (Minnesota, Massachusetts, Maryland) populations had relatively larger basis capituli with shorter cornua (except Maryland) than southern (North Carolina, Georgia) populations. Midwestern populations (Minnesota, Missouri) differed from eastern populations (Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia) in idiosomal characters (broader scuta, larger coxae III, and IV). In addition to Lyme disease, this tick is also a primary vector of the

  19. Radionuclide transfer to reptiles.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael D; Beresford, Nicholas A; Semenov, Dmitry V; Yankovich, Tamara L; Copplestone, David

    2010-11-01

    Reptiles are an important, and often protected, component of many ecosystems but have rarely been fully considered within ecological risk assessments (ERA) due to a paucity of data on contaminant uptake and effects. This paper presents a meta-analysis of literature-derived environmental media (soil and water) to whole-body concentration ratios (CRs) for predicting the transfer of 35 elements (Am, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Po, Pu, Ra, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) to reptiles in freshwater ecosystems and 15 elements (Am, C, Cs, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, Po, Pu, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zn) to reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems. These reptile CRs are compared with CRs for other vertebrate groups. Tissue distribution data are also presented along with data on the fractional mass of bone, kidney, liver and muscle in reptiles. Although the data were originally collected for use in radiation dose assessments, many of the CR data presented in this paper will also be useful for chemical ERA and for the assessments of dietary transfer in humans for whom reptiles constitute an important component of the diet, such as in Australian aboriginal communities.

  20. Blood transfusion in World War I: the roles of Lawrence Bruce Robertson and Oswald Hope Robertson in the "most important medical advance of the war".

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Lynn G; Hess, John R

    2009-07-01

    The demonstration and acceptance of the life-saving potential of blood transfusion in the resuscitation of combat casualties came in two parts. First, Canadian surgeon Major Lawrence Bruce Robertson showed that direct transfusion of uncrossmatched blood from the veins of a donor to a patient could save the lives of many moribund casualties, even if a few died of acute hemolytic reactions. Second, US Army Captain Oswald Hope Robertson showed that stored, syphilis-tested, universal donor whole blood could be given quickly and safely in forward medical units. With these demonstrations, the Royal Army Medical Corps adopted transfusion and declared it the most important medical advance of the war.

  1. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  3. The Epidemiology of Imported Malaria in Taiwan between 2002–2013: The Importance of Sensitive Surveillance and Implications for Pre-Travel Medical Advice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2013. We analyzed the national data recorded by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malarial transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 229 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were imported. One hundred and ninety-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within 13 days of the start of symptoms/signs; 43% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 44% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (56%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.36 per 1,000,000 travelers (range 1.20–5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that a vigilant surveillance system, vector-control efforts, case management, and an educational approach focused on travelers and immigrants who visit malaria endemic countries are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the elimination of malaria in Taiwan. PMID:24871257

  4. The epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002-2013: the importance of sensitive surveillance and implications for pre-travel medical advice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-05-27

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2013. We analyzed the national data recorded by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malarial transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 229 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were imported. One hundred and ninety-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within 13 days of the start of symptoms/signs; 43% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 44% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (56%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.36 per 1,000,000 travelers (range 1.20-5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that a vigilant surveillance system, vector-control efforts, case management, and an educational approach focused on travelers and immigrants who visit malaria endemic countries are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the elimination of malaria in Taiwan.

  5. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  6. Cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 152Gd, 155Gd and 159Tb with emphasis on the production of selected Tb radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.; Szelecsényi, F.; Kovács, Z.; Hohn, A.; van der Meulen, N. P.; Schibli, R.; van der Walt, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections are presented for various Dy, Tb and Gd radionuclides produced in the proton bombardment of 159Tb as well as for the reactions 152Gd(p,4n)149Tb and 155Gd(p,4n)152Tb up to 66 MeV. The experimental excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the geometry-dependent hybrid (GDH) model as implemented in the code ALICE/ASH, as well as with values from the TENDL-2012 library and previous literature experimental data, where available. Physical yields have been derived for the production of some of the medically important radioterbiums, namely 149Tb (radionuclide therapy), 152Tb (PET) and 155Tb (SPECT). The indirect production of high-purity 155Tb via the decay of its precursor 155Dy is reported. The possibility of a large-scale production facility based on a commercial 70 MeV cyclotron is also discussed.

  7. The Role of Non-Standard PET Radionuclides in the Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; McQuarrie, S. A.

    2008-08-11

    This paper discusses the production methods of the most commonly used non-standard PET radionuclides, their decay characteristics and importance in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals for PET-based molecular imaging and potential applications in therapy.

  8. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  9. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  10. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  11. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  12. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  13. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  14. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-07-14

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

  15. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  16. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  17. Young Adult Ecstasy Users Who Forego Necessary Medical Care: A Fairly Common Occurrence with Important Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the practice of foregoing necessary medical care in a population of young adult Ecstasy users. The objectives of the paper are to (1) investigate how the failure to receive needed medical care is related to drug-related outcomes, and (2) identify factors that are associated with receiving versus foregoing needed medical care. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 283 active young adult Ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and October 2007. Study participants were recruited using a targeted sampling approach. Results indicated that almost one-third of the young adult Ecstasy users interviewed did not receive the medical care that they needed during the preceding year. Foregoing such care was associated with a variety of adverse drug-related outcomes, including experiencing a greater number of negative effects from using Ecstasy, experiencing a larger number of drug dependency symptoms, a greater likelihood of ever having binged on Ecstasy, and a greater likelihood of being classified as a “high end” polydrug abuser. Several factors were found to be associated with a greater tendency not to receive the medical care they needed, including race (not being African American), educational attainment (having completed at least high school), self-identification as belonging to the lowest socioeconomic status grouping, low self-esteem, and having experienced sexual abuse during one’s formative years. PMID:20464807

  18. Radionuclide speciation in effluent from La Hague reprocessing plant in France.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Skipperud, L; Germain, P; Guéguéniat, P; Strand, P; Lind, O C; Christensen, G

    2003-09-01

    Effluent from the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant was mixed with seawater in order to investigate the fate of the various radionuclides. Thus, a major objective of the present work is to characterize the effluent from La Hague reprocessing plant and to study how the radionuclide speciation changes with time when discharged into the marine environment. Discharges from the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant represent an important source of artificially produced radionuclides to the North Sea. The transport, distribution, and biological uptake of radionuclides in the marine environment depends, however, on the physicochemical forms of radionuclides in the discharged effluents and on transformation processes that occur after entering the coastal waters. Information of these processes is needed to understand the transport and long-term distribution of the radionuclides. In the present work, a weekly discharged effluent from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Cap La Hague in France was mixed with coastal water and fractionated with respect to particle size and charged species using ultra centrifugation and hollow fiber ultrafiltration with on line ion exchange. The size distribution pattern of gamma-emitting radionuclides was followed during a 62-h period after mixing the effluent with seawater. 54Mn was present as particulate material in the effluent, while other investigated radionuclides were discharged in a more mobile form or were mobilized after mixing with sea water (e.g., 60Co) and can be transported long distances in the sea. Sediments can act as a sink for less mobile discharged radionuclides (Skipperud et al. 2000). A kinetic model experiment was performed to provide information of the time-dependent distribution coefficients, Kd (t). The retention of the effluent radionuclides in sediments was surprisingly low (Kd 20-50), and the sediments acted as a poor sink for the released radionuclides. Due to the presence of non-reacting radionuclide

  19. Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-05-01

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: {sup 27}Al (n, 2n){sup 26}Al, {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni, {sup 94}Mo(n,p) {sup 94}Nb, {sup 109}Ag(n,2n){sup 108m}Ag, {sup 179}Hf(n,2n) {sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 182}W(n,n{sup `}a){sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 151}Eu(n,2n) {sup 150}gEu, {sup 153}Eu(n,2n){sup 152+m2}Eu, {sup 159}Tb(n, 2n){sup 158}Tb, {sup 158}Dy(n,p){sup 158}Tb, {sup 193}Ir(n,2n) {sup 192m2}Ir, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186m}Re, {sup 62}Ni(n{gamma}) {sup 63}Ni, {sup 98}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 99}Mo({beta}-){sup 99}Tc, {sup 165}Ho(n,{gamma}) {sup 166m}Ho and {sup 191}Ir(n,{gamma}){sup 192m2}Ir. this paper documents progress achieved from the start of the program through mid- 1993.

  20. An approach towards minimization of sample analysis costs for mixed radionuclides using MARSSIM for a final status survey.

    PubMed

    Nardi, A Joseph; Vogel, Wayne D

    2003-06-01

    Radiological characterization of a site provides extensive information beyond that associated with the extent of contamination. A detailed analysis of characterization sample results will identify the mix of radionuclides present and possible interrelationships between the radionuclides. Once a set of Derived Concentration Guidelines Levels are established, it is possible to optimize a sample analysis protocol based on the relative importance of each radionuclide to the anticipated final dose calculation. In some cases the radionuclides identified during characterization will include a complex mixture of easy and hard-to-detect radionuclides including alpha emitters. The approach developed in this paper considers the percentage contribution of each radionuclide to the dose estimate. This discussion is limited to cases where analytical laboratory analysis of soil samples has been determined to be the appropriate method to demonstrate compliance with the regulatory criteria stated in the form of Derived Concentration Guideline Levels.

  1. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  2. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  3. Groundwater velocity magnitude in radionuclide transport calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical solutions have been developed for many conceptual models of solute transport in groundwater (Bear 1979). Although these models usually rely on assumptions too restrictive for accurate description of actual field situations, they are useful in understanding groundwater transport and in evaluating the relative importance of the subsurface processes affecting transport. In addition, these simple models are often used for generic and screening-type analyses of groundwater contamination problems (Kent et al. 1985). For example, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission assesses potential doses resulting from the disposal of very slightly contaminated material in the ground using analytical solutions for one- and two-dimensional groundwater transport (Codell and Schreiber 1979; Codell et al. 1982; Goode et al. 1986). This note presents a method for determining a "worst-case" groundwater velocity value for two conceptual models of decaying radionuclide transport, resulting in maximum calculated point concentration.

  4. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  5. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  6. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution, migration, and environmental and agricultural impacts.

    PubMed

    Alexakhin, R M; Sanzharova, N I; Fesenko, S V; Spiridonov, S I; Panov, A V

    2007-11-01

    The distribution and migration of radionuclides released into the environment following the Chernobyl accident in 1986 are described. The Chernobyl disaster resulted in the consumption of farm products containing radionuclides as a source of irradiation of the population due to the prevalence of a rural type of human nutrition in the affected region. Economic and radiologic importance of countermeasures for reducing the impacts of the accident are described. The basic radioecological problem is described in which the area where direct radiation contamination of biota was observed is considerably smaller than the zone where concentrations of radionuclides through the food chain exceeded the permissible standards. The radiation-induced effects in biota in the affected area are described. In the long-term post-accident period, the radionuclide distribution between components of ecosystems (including humans) and doses are considered in comparison to a technologically normal situation of nuclear power plant operation. This analysis demonstrates that if radiation standards protect humans, then biota are also adequately protected against ionizing radiation.

  7. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Jann; Oturai, Peter; Højgaard, Liselotte; Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes; Martiný, Lars; Rasmussen, Palle; Kjaer, Andreas

    2010-10-25

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using somatostatin analogues labelled with beta-emitting isotopes can be given to patients with metastasized or inoperable neuroendocrine tumours provided these have increased uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. This is a brief review of the treatment principle, indications and contraindications and practices with (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment used at Rigshospitalet. Side effects are generally mild and reversible. Severe long-term side effects are rare. The majority of patients will experience increased quality of life and partial tumour reduction or stabilization for a period of time. However, up to 20% will experience no treatment effect.

  9. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  10. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-05-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities.

  11. Recent Iowa trends in sudden unexpected infant deaths: the importance of public health collaboration with medical examiners' offices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Meghan L; Massaquoi, David; Soyemi, Kenneth; Brend, Sarah M; Klein, Dennis; Pentella, Michael; Kraemer, John; Nashelsky, Marcus; Schmunk, Gregory; Smith, Tara; Pleva, Ariel

    2012-06-01

    During the winter in 2008, Iowa experienced an increase in sudden unexplained infant deaths (SUIDs). SUIDs and infectious causes of infant deaths generally average 3 monthly (SD = 1.0) in Iowa. However, in January 2008, 9 infant deaths were reported to the Iowa Department of Public Health and the Iowa Office of the State Medical Examiner. Between January and March of 2008, joint investigation of 22 SUIDs was conducted. The investigations required the involvement of multiple medical examiners from various jurisdictions, testing for pathogens at the University Hygienic Laboratory, epidemiologic support from the Iowa Department of Public Health, and consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The preliminary hypotheses for the increase in the infant mortality included viral respiratory disease and/or possible novel respiratory viral infections being the cause. Collaboration between public health and the medical examiner offices resulted in timely assessment of the cases. While no single causative agent was responsible for the increase seen in the number of infant deaths, respiratory pathogens played a role in the deaths of 15 of 22 children.

  12. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  13. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  14. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine.

  15. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  16. Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, B.

    2001-09-24

    This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

  17. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  18. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  19. [Two woman medical doctors of the Meiji era who came from the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group", Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    There is a historical group of samurai buildings called the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group" in Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture. Two woman medical doctors (Misaho Aizawa and Mie Shiga, came from this district at the end of the Meiji Era (1910-1911). Misaho Aizawa was born in a minister's family in 1885 and studied at the Women's School of Dohshisha. After graduation she studied abroad at the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia and graduated from the college in 1910. Immediately after graduation she came back to Japan and got a medical license in Japan. She married a minister and was employed by the Red Cross Clinic in Fukuoka Prefecture. Mie Shiga was born in a samurai-family in 1880 and worked her way through various medical schools in Tokyo. After three failures to pass the national medical examination she received a medical license in 1911. In 1913 she opened her clinic of internal medicine & pediatrics in Utsunomiya. She made an effort to diagnose correctly and won patients' confidence. These two women had neither communication nor common points due to the differences of their family environment and their age. However, they were brought up by fathers who were enthusiastic for education and they made an effort to become woman doctors. Although women's social situation and the female compulsory education rate were low, and women's medical education was poor in the Meiji Era, Misaho Aizawa was able to enter the medical route under the influence of Christianity, and Mie Shiga through the assistance of her family and her samurai spirit.

  20. EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACCUMULATION IN SOIL DUE TO LONG-TERM IRRIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    De Wesley Wu

    2006-04-16

    Radionuclide accumulation in soil due to long-term irrigation is an important part of the model for predicting radiation dose in a long period of time. The model usually assumes an equilibrium condition in soil with a constant irrigation rate, so that radionuclide concentration in soil does not change with time and can be analytically solved. This method is currently being used for the dose assessment in the Yucca Mountain project, which requires evaluating radiation dose for a period of 10,000 years. There are several issues associated with the method: (1) time required for the equilibrium condition, (2) validity of constant irrigation rate, (3) agricultural land use for a long period of time, and (4) variation of a radionuclide concentration in water. These issues are evaluated using a numerical method with a simple model built in the GoldSim software. Some key radionuclides, Tc-99, Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 are selected as representative radionuclides. The results indicate that the equilibrium model is acceptable except for a radionuclide that requires long time to accumulate in soil and that its concentration in water changes dramatically with time (i.e. a sharp peak). Then the calculated dose for that radionuclide could be overestimated using the current equilibrium method.