Science.gov

Sample records for medicina nuclear plantas

  1. The potential of nuclear magnetic resonance to track lipids in planta.

    PubMed

    Munz, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter M; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a highly flexible platform for non invasive analysis and imaging biological samples, since the manipulation of nuclear spin allows the tailoring of experiments to maximize the informativeness of the data. MRI is capable of visualizing a holistic picture of the lipid storage in living plant/seed. This review has sought to explain how the technology can be used to acquire functional and physiological data from plant samples, and how to exploit it to characterize lipid deposition in vivo. At the same time, we have referred to the current limitations of NMR technology as applied to plants, and in particular of the difficulty of transferring methodologies optimized for animal/medical subjects to plant ones. A forward look into likely developments in the field is included, anticipating its key future role in the study of living plant.

  2. The Medicina Station Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  3. Synthetic promoters in planta.

    PubMed

    Dey, Nrisingha; Sarkar, Shayan; Acharya, Sefali; Maiti, Indu B

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the importance, prospective and development of synthetic promoters reported in planta. A review of the synthetic promoters developed in planta would help researchers utilize the available resources and design new promoters to benefit fundamental research and agricultural applications. The demand for promoters for the improvement and application of transgenic techniques in research and agricultural production is increasing. Native/naturally occurring promoters have some limitations in terms of their induction conditions, transcription efficiency and size. The strength and specificity of native promoter can be tailored by manipulating its 'cis-architecture' by the use of several recombinant DNA technologies. Newly derived chimeric promoters with specific attributes are emerging as an efficient tool for plant molecular biology. In the last three decades, synthetic promoters have been used to regulate plant gene expression. To better understand synthetic promoters, in this article, we reviewed promoter structure, the scope of cis-engineering, strategies for their development, their importance in plant biology and the total number of such promoters (188) developed in planta to date; we then categorized them under different functional regimes as biotic stress-inducible, abiotic stress-inducible, light-responsive, chemical-inducible, hormone-inducible, constitutive and tissue-specific. Furthermore, we identified a set of 36 synthetic promoters that control multiple types of expression in planta. Additionally, we illustrated the differences between native and synthetic promoters and among different synthetic promoter in each group, especially in terms of efficiency and induction conditions. As a prospective of this review, the use of ideal synthetic promoters is one of the prime requirements for generating transgenic plants suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and plant molecular farming.

  4. [The seventieth anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires)].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N; Kotsias, Basilio A

    2010-01-01

    The historical trajectory of Medicina (Buenos Aires) and the current challenges accompanying its seventieth birthday are briefly described. The initial objectives at its foundation were to contribute to the advance of medicine, and support both clinical and experimental research in Argentina. These objectives continue to be valid. The editorial presence of the journal continues to be necessary. It is published following the international quality standards, the peer review system, and it is indexed in the main international data bases for scientific journals.

  5. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  6. [Surgery in De Medicina of Celsus].

    PubMed

    Piperno, D

    1998-01-01

    Rediscovered during the Renaissance, Celsus' work (1st Century AD) is the first latin encyclopaedia. We only have his medical works, and we are indebted to him for his classification of diseases according to treatment: by diet, by drugs and manually, that is by surgery. Although surgery was described in Hippocrate's works, Celsus gave the first latin presentation, outlining, general and localised operations, in the VIIth book of De Medicina. The VIIIth book is devoted to orthopaedic operations which are sometimes quite different from Hippocrate's descriptions. For the first time, he describes many surgical instruments, most of which have been found by archaeologists. Finally, ethical considerations widen the epistemological field of surgery and separate it as autonomous specialty.

  7. [Past and present of Medicina (Buenos Aires)].

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, C D; Kotsias, B A

    2000-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires) an International Symposium was held at the National Academy of Medicine of Buenos Aires on the 6-7th of October 1999, under the title of Clinical investigation in the next millennium. This meeting was a success as evidenced by the 376 registered attendants. Sixty years of uninterrupted publication is an uncommon feat in our midst and this could be achieved on the basis of a number of factors which include, the initiative of those who founded the journal, the unfailing motivation and dedication of the Editorial Board and primarily the authors who have trusted us with their manuscripts. Of the many important papers published, we have selected a few which proved to be milestones in the development of Argentine biomedicine. It is to be hoped that the future will bring an increase in our impact index through more and even better papers eventually reflecting the authentic scientific value of our country.

  8. FPGA applications for single dish activity at Medicina radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolin, M.; Nald, G.; Mattan, A.; Maccaferr, A.; De Biagg, M.

    FPGA technologies are gaining major attention in the recent years in the field of radio astronomy. At Medicina radio telescopes, FPGAs have been used in the last ten years for a number of purposes and in this article we will take into exam the applications developed and installed for the Medicina Single Dish 32m Antenna: these range from high performance digital signal processing to instrument control developed on top of smaller FPGAs.

  9. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  10. Genomic homologous recombination in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, S; Pisan, B; Hohn, T; Grimsley, N; Hohn, B

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants is described. A multimer of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) sequences, arranged such that CaMV could only be produced by recombination, was integrated into Brassica napus nuclear DNA. This set-up allowed scoring of recombination events by the appearance of viral symptoms. The repeated homologous regions were derived from two different strains of CaMV so that different recombinant viruses (i.e. different recombination events) could be distinguished. In most of the transgenic plants, a single major virus species was detected. About half of the transgenic plants contained viruses of the same type, suggesting a hotspot for recombination. The remainder of the plants contained viruses with cross-over sites distributed throughout the rest of the homologous sequence. Sequence analysis of two recombinant molecules suggest that mismatch repair is linked to the recombination process. Images PMID:2026150

  11. John Brown's Elementa Medicinae: An Introductory Bibliographical Essay *

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    This Gottlieb essay reports the initial findings of an in-progress bibliographic study of the Elementa Medicinae of the eighteenth century Scottish physician, John Brown (1735-1788). The bibliographic history of each of the three pivotal London editions of 1788, 1795, and 1804 is described in detail; Mexican, German, and American editions are also described. Images PMID:7052167

  12. Operations of the Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME).

    PubMed

    Neghme, A

    1975-04-01

    The operations and accomplishments of the Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME), the regional medical library of the Pan American Health Organization, are summarized. Aspects of BIREME's program which are described include: strengthening biomedical collections in Latin America, network organization, international cooperation, document and information delivery, bibliographic services, and educational efforts.

  13. Operations of the Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME).

    PubMed Central

    Neghme, A

    1975-01-01

    The operations and accomplishments of the Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME), the regional medical library of the Pan American Health Organization, are summarized. Aspects of BIREME's program which are described include: strengthening biomedical collections in Latin America, network organization, international cooperation, document and information delivery, bibliographic services, and educational efforts. Images PMID:1139061

  14. Space Debris Radar Experiments at the Medicina VLBI Dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Montebugnoli, S.; Di Martino, M.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Pluchino, S.; Schilliro, F.; Anselmo, L.; Portelli, C.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.

    2009-03-01

    In 2007 three space debris detection tests were performed in the framework of a monitoring program carried out by the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - INAF - in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency - ASI. The observations were made by using the bistatic radar technique. The INAF 32 m radiotelescope located at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) was used as receiver whereas the Ukrainian 70 m parabolic antenna located at Evpatoria was utilized as transmitter. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of the Medicina-Evpatoria radar system in space debris detection, and to validate and optimize the hardware setup. Measurements were mainly carried out on inactive satellites and catalogued space debris. However the search for new fragments in LEO was also performed during the campaign. This paper reports on results of these observations.

  15. [The Istituto di Storia della Medicina archive and video collection].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; De Angelis, Elio

    2006-01-01

    The Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University was to a certain extent a one-man achievement. Founded by Adalberto Pazzini in 1937, its collections comprehended books, objects, as well as photographs, movies, and other didactic video. The Istituto was also a center for publications, conferences and meetings. The archival sources that document its activity have been re-evaluated and restored in recent years, together with the collections housed in the Library and in the Museum.

  16. [Ethics, knowledge and psychiatry: in Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De Medicina].

    PubMed

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno

    2007-01-01

    Modern medicine has many roots on greco-roman practice of the medical art. The authors analyse the work De Medicina by Aulus Cornelius Celsus. They look upon the nature of the medical knowledge, the principles of ethics, causality and describe the mental disorders (phrenitis, depression, third insanity, seizure disorder and womb disease), with special detail to signs and symptoms, treatment and prognosis. An association with current medical knowledge is established.

  17. A Potential Integrated Multiwavelength Radar System at the Medicina Radiotelescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Salerno, E.; Pupillo, G.; Pluchino, S.

    2009-03-01

    Ground-based radars provide a powerful tool for detection, tracking and identification of the space debris fragments orbiting around Earth at different altitudes. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is an Italian radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a bistatic radar system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits).

  18. Medicina-Noto VLBI observation of SN2013ej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, K.; Giroletti, M.; Stagni, M.; Nanni, M.; Mahabal, A.

    2013-08-01

    We used the 32m radio telescopes of Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF-IRA) in Medicina and Noto as a two-element very long baseline interferometer to search for a possible radio counterpart of SN2013ej, a type IIP supernova (CBET #3606, ATel #5228, #5229, #5230, #5237, #5243) in M74. The observations were conducted at 6.7 GHz on 2013 July 31.3 UT, 6 days after the first optical detection reported in CBET #3609.

  19. [The Canon medicinae by Avicenna, a work and its times].

    PubMed

    Lindroth, C

    1999-01-01

    The written words of ancient times are still here for us to read and try to understand. Through the study of these words, we are able to see and hear the people hiding behind them. The pre-requisite for this to happen is to have knowledge of the time in which the words that we study were written down. With this assumption I went into studying "Canon Medicinae" by Avicenna. Written in the eleventh century A.D. It is one of the grandest and most known works on medicine produced in the medieval sphere of islamic culture. In this essay I would like to give an insight into some of my observations and thoughts regarding the Canon and the context in which it is written. The basis of this study has been partly, until now, untranslated parts of one of the many versions in latin of the work which emerged in Europe well beyond the sixteenth century. The study is concentrated on those parts of Canon Medicinae dealing with uroscopy, urology and nephrology. This essay tries to give a picture of the cultural and scientific milieu which surrounded Avicenna and to come closer to the major ideas about disease; their cause, diagnostics, impact on man and cure, as represented in Canon Medicinae. The influence of Galen and the humoral pathology is obvious in Avicenna's work but there is also an interesting interaction between that influence and the traditional arabic medicine and islamic thinking, which I would like to introduce the readers to. Canon Medicinae also gives some answers about the relationship between the physician and the patient and a picture of the "avicennian" doctor which one can relate to present time.

  20. [Analysis of utilization of information in the journal Medicina Clinica].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, R; Giménez Sánchez, J V; Terrada, M L; López Piñero, J M

    1994-09-10

    Scientific communication knowledge is specifically based in the analysis of the bibliographic references inside the publications. Pattern and laws determining the information consumption in the items of the journal Medicina Clinica are investigated in the present study as its own aim. An analysis was performed on the 13,286 references downloaded from 618 papers published by the journal in 1990. With dBASE IV was generated a database for the management of the information; data was distributed in several tables through criteria of age, documentary types, countries, journals and Bradford zones. The analysed references belong to 1,241 different journals, 110 from Spain. Being two thirds of the total sum, the publications from United States and United Kingdom have received more citations than those from Spain. The publications from european countries, like France, Germany and Italy, are scarcely present. Bradford core is constituted by the journals Medicina Clinica and The Lancet. The analysis of the bibliographic references available from the articles in this journal is able to produce knowledge on the information consumption by the practitioners; its usefulness as a complementary utility to the Indice de Citas e Indicadores Bibliométricos de Revistas Españolas de Medicina Interna y sus especialidades 1990 must be considered.

  1. Chlamydiae has contributed at least 55 genes to Plantae with predominantly plastid functions.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2008-05-21

    The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) originated via primary endosymbiosis in which a phagotrophic protist captured and harnessed a cyanobacterium. The plastid was inherited by the common ancestor of the red, green (including land plants), and glaucophyte algae (together, the Plantae). Despite the critical importance of primary plastid endosymbiosis, its ancient derivation has left behind very few "footprints" of early key events in organelle genesis. To gain insights into this process, we conducted an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of genomic data (nuclear proteins) from 17 Plantae species to identify genes of a surprising provenance in these taxa, Chlamydiae bacteria. Previous studies show that Chlamydiae contributed many genes (at least 21 in one study) to Plantae that primarily have plastid functions and were postulated to have played a fundamental role in organelle evolution. Using our comprehensive approach, we identify at least 55 Chlamydiae-derived genes in algae and plants, of which 67% (37/55) are putatively plastid targeted and at least 3 have mitochondrial functions. The remainder of the proteins does not contain a bioinformatically predicted organelle import signal although one has an N-terminal extension in comparison to the Chlamydiae homolog. Our data suggest that environmental Chlamydiae were significant contributors to early Plantae genomes that extend beyond plastid metabolism. The chlamydial gene distribution and protein tree topologies provide evidence for both endosymbiotic gene transfer and a horizontal gene transfer ratchet driven by recurrent endoparasitism as explanations for gene origin. Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source. These data significantly extend the genomic impact of Chlamydiae on Plantae and show that about one-half (30/55) of the transferred genes are most closely related to sequences emanating from the genome

  2. [Ophthalmic aspects in Celsus' work De medicina libri octo].

    PubMed

    Bieganowski, Lech

    2004-01-01

    The article presents Aulus Cornelius Celsus (living in Roman Empire 15 BC - 50 AD) and his famous work "De medicina libri octo", one of the main sources of knowledge on the ancient medicine. It briefly goes through the content of the medical treaties. A wider discussion of the following ophthalmic aspects, included in Book VI and Book VII, is provided: the anatomy of the eye, the description of ophthalmic diseases, methods of its preventive treatment and surgery. It is also mentioned that the work contains the first description of cataract surgery (couching method) in the medical literature. The article underlines the popularity enjoyed by Celsus' work in medieval Europe.

  3. Precise Doppler tracking from the Medicina VLBI station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, R.; Comoretto, G.; Iess, L.; Messeri, A.

    1992-06-01

    The first opposition test of Doppler tracking the Ulysses spacecraft from the Medicina VLBI (Very Long Base Interferometry) station (Italy) proved its capability to perform a systematic search for gravitational waves. In house and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) data analysis showed that the target Allan variance of 3 x 10(exp -14) at 1000 s, planned for the DSN antennas was also achieved from the station. The main observation campaign during the second opposition phase will last for thirty continuous nights--from mid Feb. to mid Mar. 1992. The main hardware and software features developed for this application, together with some results of the first opposition test, are described.

  4. Fibroma of tendon sheath in planta.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Wu, Shou-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Fibroma of tendon sheath in planta is comparatively rare, and its differentiate diagnose, tumour features, treatment and complications were lack of retrospective study in clinics. This was a retrospective study of 13 patients (seven women, six men) operated between July 2001 and May 2013 for FTS in planta. The average age at the time of the procedure was 49.8 ± 8.3 years old (range 31-64). The female-to-male ratio was 9:4. Before the surgery, anteroposterior, lateral and oblique position of foot X-rays were performed in all patients. Ultrasonography (n = 11) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 11) were performed selectively. The tumor located on the metatarsal par (n = 6), the central part of plantar (n = 4), the lateral part (n = 2) and the medial part (n = 1). Eight patients presented with painless mass (62 % of cases), while five patients presented with pain mass (38 % of cases). No patient had bony erosion. This paper studies the different features of FTS and classifies them into two types-superficial type that tumour grows at planter fascia; deep type that breaks through the planter fascia growing around tendon and joint capsule. Eight and five patients were diagnosed as superficial type and deep type respectively. In all cases, the tumor was excised, pathological results was FTS. The mean follow-up period was 3.2 ± 1.1 years (range 2-7) years. Five patients had neurovascular bundle involvement (38 % of cases). Two patients had a recurrence (15 % of cases), they undergone another operation. Four patients had a pain (31 % of cases), two patients had numbness (15 % of cases), and one patient had pain and numbness (8 % of cases). They recovered after conservative treatment. For the FTS that grows in the plantar, we should select differential diagnosis and the corresponding therapy according to the features of two types, also the prognosis is different. IV.

  5. [Ethical questions in the Spanish journal "Medicina Paliativa": 1994 - 2013].

    PubMed

    Sanz Rubiales, Alvaro; Del Valle Rivero, María Luisa; Flores Pérez, Luis Alberto; Hernansanz de la Calle, Silvia; Gutiérrez Alonso, Celia; García Recio, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    "Medicina Paliativa" is the official journal of the Spanish Society of Palliative Care ("Sociedad Española de Cuidados Paliativos"; SECPAL) and it reflects the interests, also on bioethics, of the professionals caring terminal people. We want to know what the bioethical questions they discuss and their approaches are. From all the published articles in "Medicina Paliativa" from 1994 to 2013 we selected those referred to bioethics topics. We analysed: number of publications, author, subtype of article, year of publication, topic, philosophic approach, and the presence of answers and discussion. Qualitative topics were reviewed and agreed by at least two authors. There were 60 (9%) publications with bioethics profile from a total of 672 analyzed articles. A majority were signed by only one author. 31 (51%) were published as letter. The most relevant topics were: euthanasia, dignity, proportionality of treatment and care, sedation, principles of bioethics, and information. The orientation of these papers was, in a majority, according to principles of palliative care. Most bioethics topics have been answered and even answered back. Bioethics is an interesting topic in palliative care. The arguments usually fit the principles of palliative care.

  6. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354) isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications. PMID:22928996

  7. [Physical activity centre VSTJ MEDICINA Prague--rehabilitation for diabetics].

    PubMed

    Fábin, P; Matoulek, M

    2007-05-01

    Physical activity is the basic non-pharmacological instrument in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, only a small number of diabetics take regular physical exercise. One of the reasons why diabetics "do not exercise" is that they have little opportunity to try physical stress under expert supervision and to get to know its effects on, for example, sugar levels. It is a very complex matter to define the optimal intensity of physical activity of, for example, a diabetic who suffers from obesity. In 2001 VSTJ MEDICINA Prague opened its first physical activity centre at the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, in cooperation with the Third Internal Clinic and the Institute of Sports Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It now has over 2000 members, of whom around 60% are patients with metabolic syndrome. Over 150 patients exercise every day under the supervision of expert instructors. The main objective of the Physical Activity Centre is to teach patients the correct principles of physical exercise to enable them to continue carrying out their trainers' instructions at home. A correct understanding of the importance of physical exercise and practical experience under the supervision of experienced instructors improves compliance and has a strong effect on the compensation of diabetes, thereby improving the prognoses of these patients.

  8. Thermal behavior of the Medicina 32-meter radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanu, Tonino; Buffa, Franco; Morsiani, Marco; Pernechele, Claudio; Poppi, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    We studied the thermal effects on the 32 m diameter radio-telescope managed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), Medicina, Bologna, Italy. The preliminary results show that thermal gradients deteriorate the pointing performance of the antenna. Data has been collected by using: a) two inclinometers mounted near the elevation bearing and on the central part of the alidade structure; b) a non contact laser alignment optical system capable of measuring the secondary mirror position; c) twenty thermal sensors mounted on the alidade trusses. Two series of measurements were made, the first series was performed by placing the antenna in stow position, the second series was performed while tracking a circumpolar astronomical source. When the antenna was in stow position we observed a strong correlation between the inclinometer measurements and the differential temperature. The latter was measured with the sensors located on the South and North sides of the alidade, thus indicating that the inclinometers track well the thermal deformation of the alidade. When the antenna pointed at the source we measured: pointing errors, the inclination of the alidade, the temperature of the alidade components and the subreflector position. The pointing errors measured on-source were 15-20 arcsec greater than those measured with the inclinometer.

  9. Multibeam Gpu Transient Pipeline for the Medicina BEST-2 Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magro, A.; Hickish, J.; Adami, K. Z.

    2013-09-01

    Radio transient discovery using next generation radio telescopes will pose several digital signal processing and data transfer challenges, requiring specialized high-performance backends. Several accelerator technologies are being considered as prototyping platforms, including Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). In this paper we present a real-time pipeline prototype capable of processing multiple beams concurrently, performing Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) rejection through thresholding, correcting for the delay in signal arrival times across the frequency band using brute-force dedispersion, event detection and clustering, and finally candidate filtering, with the capability of persisting data buffers containing interesting signals to disk. This setup was deployed at the BEST-2 SKA pathfinder in Medicina, Italy, where several benchmarks and test observations of astrophysical transients were conducted. These tests show that on the deployed hardware eight 20 MHz beams can be processed simultaneously for 640 Dispersion Measure (DM) values. Furthermore, the clustering and candidate filtering algorithms employed prove to be good candidates for online event detection techniques. The number of beams which can be processed increases proportionally to the number of servers deployed and number of GPUs, making it a viable architecture for current and future radio telescopes.

  10. Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids. PMID:23233874

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated in planta genetic transformation of sugarcane setts.

    PubMed

    Mayavan, Subramanian; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Jaganath, Balusamy; Sathish, Dorairaj; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, reproducible, and genotype-independent in planta transformation has been developed for sugarcane using setts as explant. Traditional Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and in vitro regeneration of sugarcane is a complex and time-consuming process. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol, which can produce a large number of transgenic plants in short duration is advantageous. Hence, in the present investigation, we developed a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation system for sugarcane using setts collected from 6-month-old sugarcane plants. The sugarcane setts (nodal cuttings) were infected with three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA(®). Several parameters influencing the in planta transformation such as A. tumefaciens strains, acetosyringone, sonication and exposure to vacuum pressure, have been evaluated. The putatively transformed sugarcane plants were screened by GUS histochemical assay. Sugarcane setts were pricked and sonicated for 6 min and vacuum infiltered for 2 min at 500 mmHg in A. tumefaciens C58C1 suspension containing 100 µM acetosyringone, 0.1 % Silwett L-77 showed the highest transformation efficiency of 29.6 % (with var. Co 62175). The three-stage selection process completely eliminated the chimeric transgenic sugarcane plants. Among the five sugarcane varieties evaluated using the standardized protocol, var. Co 6907 showed the maximum transformation efficiency (32.6 %). The in planta transformation protocol described here is applicable to transfer the economically important genes into different varieties of sugarcane in relatively short time.

  12. The Arcetri 40-50 GHz receiver for the Medicina Radiotelescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofani, G.; Catarzi, M.; Natale, V.

    Numerous spectral lines of relevant astronomical importance are available in the wavelength range between 20 and 70 GHz. In this band transitions of several molecules like SiO, CS, HNCO, CH3OH, H2CO plays a central role in the different phases of the interstellar medium. In order to extend the observations with the Medicina Radiotelescope of Galactic masers, a cooled receiver operating in the range 40-50 GHz has been built for continuum and line observations. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the Medicina Radiotelescope on continuum and SiO maser sources.

  13. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The polarimetric observation facility at the Medicina 32 m parabolic antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Roma, Mauro

    2002-03-01

    We describe the wideband analog polarimeter made at the Medicina radio observatory usable with the receivers of our 32 m parabolic antenna. The principle under which the electronics was designed as well as the circuit realization will be showed, together with the description of the software made to manage the observations and the off-line processing of the data acquired. .

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  16. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  17. Comparative proteomics of extracellular proteins in vitro and in planta from the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Paper, Janet M; Scott-Craig, John S; Adhikari, Neil D; Cuomo, Christina A; Walton, Jonathan D

    2007-09-01

    High-throughput MS/MS was used to identify proteins secreted by Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) during growth on 13 media in vitro and in planta during infection of wheat heads. In vitro secreted proteins were collected from the culture filtrates, and in planta proteins were collected by vacuum infiltration. A total of 289 proteins (229 in vitro and 120 in planta) were identified with high statistical confidence. Forty-nine of the in planta proteins were not found in any of the in vitro conditions. The majority (91-100%) of the in vitro proteins had predicted signal peptides, but only 56% of the in planta proteins. At least 13 of the nonsecreted proteins found only in planta were single-copy housekeeping enzymes, including enolase, triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, calmodulin, aconitase, and malate dehydrogenase. The presence of these proteins in the in planta but not in vitro secretome might indicate that significant fungal lysis occurs during pathogenesis. On the other hand, several of the proteins lacking signal peptides that were found in planta have been reported to be potent immunogens secreted by animal pathogenic fungi, and therefore could be important in the interaction between F. graminearum and its host plants.

  18. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    PubMed

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  19. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  20. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Il Fasciculo di Medicina of 1493: medical culture through the eyes of the artist.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Salvatore; Discepola, Federico; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2006-01-01

    THE FASCICULUS MEDICINA, printed in 1491, is considered the first illustrated medical book. The Latin essays and illustrations in this volume provide insight into the medical knowledge of Western Europe and, in the Italian edition published in 1493, glimpses into the medical culture of the late 15th century. We outline the scientific and social environments into which the Fasciculus Medicinae of 1491 was introduced and the transition that occurred with the publication of the 1493 Italian edition. The artist of the 1493 Fasciculo witnessed a paradigm shift occurring. In four woodcuts, the artist captured four themes: the relevance of knowledge-based medicine, the emergence of laboratory medicine, the Hippocratic lessons of patient observation, and the emerging revolution in anatomy.

  3. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2010-03-01

    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  4. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  5. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  6. [Is cancer a new disease? Apropos of diagnosis of tumor diseases in De Medicina by Celsus].

    PubMed

    Luthi, F

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is a particularly common disease in modern societies. Moreover, epidemiology considers it typical of contemporary pathology. Nevertheless, the abundant ancient literature-in the De Medicina by Celsus, among others-leads us to believe that numerous benign and malignant tumours were observed if not identified as such. Hence, it is possible that both the change in medical conceptualization and the real increase in the prevalence are responsible for the actual importance of cancer.

  7. [Adalberto Pazzini and the origins of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with the Italian tradition of medical history in the 1930s, when Adalberto Pazzini became the most successful medical historian in Italy. Its second part deals with the founding and renovation (1938 and 1954 respectively) of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University, with a description of the innovative--and largely utopian--planning of the Library and of the Museum and didactic collections by Pazzini.

  8. CRISPR/Cas-Mediated In Planta Gene Targeting.

    PubMed

    Schiml, Simon; Fauser, Friedrich; Puchta, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The recent emergence of the CRISPR/Cas system has boosted the possibilities for precise genome engineering approaches throughout all kingdoms of life. The most common application for plants is targeted mutagenesis, whereby a Cas9-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) is repaired by mutagenic nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). However, the site-specific alteration of a genomic sequence or integration of a transgene relies on the precise repair by homologous recombination (HR) using a suitable donor sequence: this poses a particular challenge in plants, as NHEJ is the preferred repair mechanism for DSBs in somatic tissue. Here, we describe our recently developed in planta gene targeting (ipGT) system, which works via the induction of DSBs by Cas9 to activate the target and the targeting vector at the same time, making it independent of high transformation efficiencies.

  9. The effector AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta.

    PubMed

    Shidore, Teja; Broeckling, Corey D; Kirkwood, Jay S; Long, John J; Miao, Jiamin; Zhao, Bingyu; Leach, Jan E; Triplett, Lindsay R

    2017-06-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways. In this study, we determine that AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta, and that its kinase catalytic sites are necessary for its toxic and resistance-triggering phenotypes. A global metabolomics approach was used to independently identify 3'-NADP as the sole detectable product of AvrRxo1 expression in yeast and bacteria, and NAD kinase activity was confirmed in vitro. 3'-NADP accumulated upon transient expression of AvrRxo1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and in rice leaves infected with avrRxo1-expressing strains of X. oryzae. Mutation of the catalytic aspartic acid residue D193 abolished AvrRxo1 kinase activity and several phenotypes of AvrRxo1, including toxicity in yeast, bacteria, and plants, suppression of the flg22-triggered ROS burst, and ability to trigger an R gene-mediated hypersensitive response. A mutation in the Walker A ATP-binding motif abolished the toxicity of AvrRxo1, but did not abolish the 3'-NADP production, virulence enhancement, ROS suppression, or HR-triggering phenotypes of AvrRxo1. These results demonstrate that a type III effector targets the central metabolite and redox carrier NAD in planta, and that this catalytic activity is required for toxicity and suppression of the ROS burst.

  10. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Kuroda, Katsushi; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The effector AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta

    PubMed Central

    Long, John J.; Zhao, Bingyu; Leach, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways. In this study, we determine that AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta, and that its kinase catalytic sites are necessary for its toxic and resistance-triggering phenotypes. A global metabolomics approach was used to independently identify 3’-NADP as the sole detectable product of AvrRxo1 expression in yeast and bacteria, and NAD kinase activity was confirmed in vitro. 3’-NADP accumulated upon transient expression of AvrRxo1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and in rice leaves infected with avrRxo1-expressing strains of X. oryzae. Mutation of the catalytic aspartic acid residue D193 abolished AvrRxo1 kinase activity and several phenotypes of AvrRxo1, including toxicity in yeast, bacteria, and plants, suppression of the flg22-triggered ROS burst, and ability to trigger an R gene-mediated hypersensitive response. A mutation in the Walker A ATP-binding motif abolished the toxicity of AvrRxo1, but did not abolish the 3’-NADP production, virulence enhancement, ROS suppression, or HR-triggering phenotypes of AvrRxo1. These results demonstrate that a type III effector targets the central metabolite and redox carrier NAD in planta, and that this catalytic activity is required for toxicity and suppression of the ROS burst. PMID:28628666

  12. Physiology of Ex Planta Nitrogenase Activity in Rhizobium japonicum†

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Arun K.; Keister, Donald L.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-derepressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. PMID:16346295

  13. Pentahydroxyscirpene—Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Fruhmann, Philipp; Malachová, Alexandra; Svoboda, Thomas; Lemmens, Marc; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. PMID:27754401

  14. Physiology of ex planta nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Keister, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-nine wild-type strains of Rhizobium japonicum have been studied for their ability to synthesize nitrogenase ex planta in defined liquid media under microaerobic conditions. Twenty-one produced more than trace amounts of acetylene reduction activity, but only a few of these yielded high activity. The oxygen response curves were similar for most of the nitrogenase-positive strains. The strains derepressible for activity had several phenotypic characteristics different from non-derepressible strains. These included slower growth and lower oxygen consumption under microaerobic conditions and lower extracellular polysaccharide production. Extracellular polysaccharide production during growth on gluconate in every nitrogenase-positive strain assayed was lower under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions than the non-depressible strains. These phenotypic characteristics may be representative of a genotype of a subspecies of R. japonicum. These studies were done in part to enlarge the base number of strains available for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of nitrogen fixation. (35 Refs.)

  15. Smallpox subunit vaccine produced in planta confers protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Golovkin, Maxim; Spitsin, Sergei; Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Yuriy; Xiao, Yuhong; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Markley, Karen; Brodzik, Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Koprowski, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    We report here the in planta production of the recombinant vaccinia virus B5 antigenic domain (pB5), an attractive component of a subunit vaccine against smallpox. The antigenic domain was expressed by using efficient transient and constitutive plant expression systems and tested by various immunization routes in two animal models. Whereas oral administration in mice or the minipig with collard-derived insoluble pB5 did not generate an anti-B5 immune response, intranasal administration of soluble pB5 led to a rise of B5-specific immunoglobulins, and parenteral immunization led to a strong anti-B5 immune response in both mice and the minipig. Mice immunized i.m. with pB5 generated an antibody response that reduced virus spread in vitro and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal dose of vaccinia virus. These results indicate the feasibility of producing safe and inexpensive subunit vaccines by using plant production systems. PMID:17428917

  16. Pentahydroxyscirpene-Producing Strains, Formation In Planta, and Natural Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Fruhmann, Philipp; Malachová, Alexandra; Svoboda, Thomas; Lemmens, Marc; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2016-10-14

    Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol. Furthermore, we report the formation of 4-acetyl-PHS by F. kyushuense on inoculated rice. Wheat ears of the variety Remus were infected with IFA189 and the in planta production of PHS was confirmed. Natural occurrence of PHS was verified in barley samples from the Czech Republic using a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method validated for this purpose. Toxicity of PHS to wheat ribosomes was evaluated with a coupled in vitro transcription and translation assay, which showed that PHS inhibits protein biosynthesis slightly less than nivalenol and deoxynivalenol.

  17. An in planta biolistic method for stable wheat transformation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Haruyasu; Linghu, Qianyan; Nagira, Yozo; Miki, Ryuji; Taoka, Naoaki; Imai, Ryozo

    2017-09-13

    The currently favoured method for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation is inapplicable to many elite cultivars because it requires callus culture and regeneration. Here, we developed a simple, reproducible, in planta wheat transformation method using biolistic DNA delivery without callus culture or regeneration. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) grown from dry imbibed seeds were exposed under a microscope and subjected to bombardment with different-sized gold particles coated with the GFP gene construct, introducing DNA into the L2 cell layer. Bombarded embryos were grown to mature, stably transformed T0 plants and integration of the GFP gene into the genome was determined at the fifth leaf. Use of 0.6-µm particles and 1350-psi pressure resulted in dramatically increased maximum ratios of transient GFP expression in SAMs and transgene integration in the fifth leaf. The transgene was integrated into the germ cells of 62% of transformants, and was therefore inherited in the next generation. We successfully transformed the model wheat cultivar 'Fielder', as well as the recalcitrant Japanese elite cultivar 'Haruyokoi'. Our method could potentially be used to generate stable transgenic lines for a wide range of commercial wheat cultivars.

  18. Pro-insecticidal approach towards increasing in planta activity.

    PubMed

    Creemer, Lawrence C; Giampietro, Natalie C; Lambert, William; Yap, Maurice C; deBoer, Gerrit J; Adelfinskaya, Yelena; Castetter, Scott; Wessels, Frank J

    2017-04-01

    The adrenergic mode of action was investigated for the development of potential new insecticides. Clonidine-related analogs were tested against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Clonidine analogs lack translation owing to a possible vacuole-trapping mechanism. Physical property modulation via a prodrug approach was attempted to overcome this mechanism. Clonidine showed insecticidal activity against M. persicae and B. tabaci. A prodrug of a known open-chain analog of clonidine was developed. While the prodrug had decreased pKa and increased lipophilicity and displayed good activity against M. persicae B. tabaci, the activity did not translate to cotton. Metabolic studies showed that the prodrug was quickly metabolized to the parent compound, and was further metabolized to a known vacuole-trapped oxazoline analog. Adrenergic active compounds, such as clonidine analogs, show potential as insecticides; however, a designed prodrug approach did not overcome the lack of translation in this case. Studies confirmed that the synthesized prodrug analog metabolized in planta to the proposed vacuole-trapped compound. One possible explanation for the failure of this approach is that the rate of metabolism and vacuole trapping is faster than translaminar flow, and therefore the released pesticide is not biologically available to the target organism. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. 'For the benefit of the people': the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae, Antwerp 1512.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae based on the Latin edition, Venice 1495, with the famous woodcuts created in 1494 for the Italian translation of the original Latin edition of 1491. The woodcuts are compared with the Venetian model. New features in the Antwerp edition include the Skeleton and the Zodiac Man, bot originally based on German models. The text also deals with other woodcuts in the Low Countries based on these Venetian illustrations. The Appendices provide a short title catalog of all the editions and translations based on the Venetian edition and a stemma.

  20. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  1. Space debris observational test with the Medicina-Evpatoria bistatic radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Bartolini, M.; Cevolani, G.; Di Martino, M.; Falkovich, I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Malevinskij, S.; Montebugnoli, S.; Nabatov, A.; Pluchino, S.; Salerno, E.; Schillirò, F.; Zoni, L.

    In the framework of the space debris monitoring program of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Italian Institute of Radioastronomy (IRA), the Turin Astronomical Observatory (OATO) and the Ukrainian Institute of Radioastronomy performed a space debris observational test by using the Medicina-Evpatoria bistatic radar. Several kinds of objects orbiting in LEO, MEO, GEO and HEO were selected as target in order to validate the hardware setup and new observational techniques. Echoes coming from small space debris were detected with an extremely high signal to noise ratio as well as still unknown orbiting objects were presumably discovered during the observations.

  2. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  3. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  4. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  5. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  6. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  7. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  8. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  9. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta.

  10. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  11. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  12. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  13. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  14. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  15. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  17. The Simultaneous Medicina-Planck Experiment: data acquisition, reduction and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, P.; Massardi, M.; Righini, S.; Zanichelli, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Libardi, P.; Burigana, C.; Cuttaia, F.; Mack, K.-H.; Terenzi, L.; Villa, F.; Bonavera, L.; Morgante, G.; Trigilio, C.; Trombetti, T.; Umana, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Simultaneous Medicina-Planck Experiment (SiMPlE) is aimed at observing a selected sample of 263 extragalactic and Galactic sources with the Medicina 32-m single-dish radio telescope in the same epoch as the Planck satellite observations. The data, acquired with a frequency coverage down to 5 GHz and combined with Planck at frequencies above 30 GHz, will constitute a useful reference catalogue of bright sources over the whole Northern hemisphere. Furthermore, source observations performed in different epochs and comparisons with other catalogues will allow the investigation of source variabilities on different time-scales. In this work, we describe the sample selection, the ongoing data acquisition campaign, the data reduction procedures, the developed tools and the comparison with other data sets. We present 5 and 8.3 GHz data for the SiMPlE Northern sample, consisting of 79 sources with δ≥ 45° selected from our catalogue and observed during the first 6 months of the project. A first analysis of their spectral behaviour and long-term variability is also presented.

  18. Antifreeze Proteins Modify the Freezing Process In Planta12

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Marilyn; Lumb, Chelsey; Wiseman, Steven B.; Wisniewski, Michael; Johnson, Robert W.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2005-01-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) plants accumulate antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in the apoplast of leaves and crowns. The goal of this study was to determine whether these AFPs influence survival at subzero temperatures by modifying the freezing process or by acting as cryoprotectants. In order to inhibit the growth of ice, AFPs must be mobile so that they can bind to specific sites on the ice crystal lattice. Guttate obtained from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves exhibited antifreeze activity, indicating that the AFPs are free in solution. Infrared video thermography was used to observe freezing in winter rye leaves. In the absence of an ice nucleator, AFPs had no effect on the supercooling temperature of the leaves. However, in the presence of an ice nucleator, AFPs lowered the temperature at which the leaves froze by 0.3°C to 1.2°C. In vitro studies showed that apoplastic proteins extracted from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves inhibited the recrystallization of ice and also slowed the rate of migration of ice through solution-saturated filter paper. When we examined the possible role of winter rye AFPs in cryoprotection, we found that lactate dehydrogenase activity was higher after freezing in the presence of AFPs compared with buffer, but the same effect was obtained by adding bovine serum albumin. AFPs had no effect on unstacked thylakoid volume after freezing, but did inhibit stacking of the thylakoids, thus indicating a loss of thylakoid function. We conclude that rye AFPs have no specific cryoprotective activity; rather, they interact directly with ice in planta and reduce freezing injury by slowing the growth and recrystallization of ice. PMID:15805474

  19. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  2. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  3. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  4. [Profile of patients with anophthalmic cavity: study at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP].

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Silvia; Natsuaki, Kryscia Leiko; Fruet, Juliana; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Schellini, Silvana Artioli

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the profile of anophthalmic cavity carriers and patients' evolution with the employed treatments. Retrospective study carried out at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, to evaluate the profile and the evolution of patients with anophthalmic cavity treated in our service. Data were evaluated according to the frequency of occurrence and analysis of association. Anophthalmic cavity was more frequently observed in young males, workers in activities carried on with their hands. Trauma and phthisis bulbi were the most frequent causes, with differences according to age and gender. The complications were high (57.1% of cases), the majority occurred belatedly. Trauma is still an important cause of loss of the eye. The complications during the follow-up of the patient are frequent, occurring in general, very late, which reinforces the need for periodic and prolonged monitoring of patients with anophthalmic cavity.

  5. [Positivism and medical science in Rio Grande do Sul: the Faculdade de Medicina de Porto Alegre].

    PubMed

    Weber, B T

    1998-01-01

    The article analyzes conflicts and interests at one of Rio Grande de Sul's main centers for medical science, the Faculdade de Medicina de Porto Alegre. It explores the meaning and impact of the emergence of this specific, exclusive field of knowledge in a state where positivist principles of professional freedom were adopted by successive administrations during the early period of the Republic. Physicians there launched an entrenched war to uphold the principles of science over faith and politics, challenging the positivism of the party which held power in Rio Grande do Sul throughout the years. This perspective grew and developed in a climate of conflict and doubts among physicians, within a political context that differed from the rest of Brazil.

  6. [Teachings of "calor innatus" in the Latin Canon medicinae of Avicenna].

    PubMed

    Stolberg, M

    1993-01-01

    This contribution examines the natural philosophy behind Avicenna's treatment of the basic physiological concepts of "innate heat", "innate spirit" and "natural moisture" in his famous "Canon medicinae" and in the short tractate "De medicinis cordialibus" usually appended to it in its Latin editions. Contrary to current belief, these concepts, far from being concisely systematized, fulfill a range of differing explicatory functions within the "Canon", which can only with great difficulty be assembled to form a homogeneous, non-contradictory theory. Furthermore, Avicenna differs in essential points from orthodox aristotelian-galenist teaching, particularly regarding the celestial origin of the unrenewable, life-preserving faculties of the "innate heat". It is suggested that the "Canon's" unparalleled popularity may have been due not so much to its systematic form, but to the need of scholarly (re)interpretation, as witnessed by many contemporary commentaries, which offered ample opportunity to academic physicians to show their learning and wit.

  7. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  8. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space geodetic techniques at Medicina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Lago, L.; Romagnoli, C.; Simon, D.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of an international collaboration, during 1996, at Medicina, Italy, a continuous GPS (CGPS) and a superconducting gravimeter (SG) were installed by the University of Bologna and the Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Frankfurt, respectively. The main purpose of the research was the establishment and the demonstration of an observational procedure leading to a reliable estimate of height variations and to interpret gravity variations/changes in conjunction with mass variations/changes within and above the Earth's crust. To fulfill the stated objectives, additional information is needed. In particular, continuous registrations of meteoclimatic parameters such as sacrificial water table level, electrical conductivity and temperature, deep well levels, rainfall, air pressure and temperature and balloon radio sonde data. A comparison, performed over a period of more than six years of data, between the CGPS and SG series has shed light on the existence of relevant seasonal fluctuations in both data sets, quite similar in amplitude and phase. They were interpreted and modeled as the sum of various environmental loadings for the height and gravity series and the Newtonian attraction components for gravity alone. The removal of the observed oscillations is most important in order to estimate properly the long-term trends, which characterize the CGPS and SG series. Moreover, the combination of SG and repeated absolute gravity measurements shows the capability of both techniques to determine the long-term trend in gravity. Just the combined view allows a significant trend analysis. In addition, the CGPS measurements are compared with other geodetic space techniques available at the Medicina station. In total, a strategy has been developed demonstrating how the present day available techniques should be combined to monitor crustal deformations and achieve relevant information for possible causes.

  9. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  10. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  11. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  12. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  13. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  14. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  16. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  17. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  18. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  19. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  20. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  1. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  2. Secretome analysis of the rice bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae (Xoo) using in vitro and in planta systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Kim, Sang Gon; Wu, Jingni; Huh, Hyun-Hye; Lee, Su-Ji; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Park, Zee-Yong; Young Kang, Kyu; Kim, Sun Tae

    2013-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight disease in rice, and that severely affects yield loss (upto 50%) of total rice production. Here, we report a proteomics investigation of Xoo (compatible race K3)-secreted proteins, isolated from its in vitro culture and in planta infected rice leaves. 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS and/or nLC-ESI-MS/MS approaches identified 139 protein spots (out of 153 differential spots), encoding 109 unique proteins. Identified proteins belonged to multiple biological and molecular functions. Metabolic and nutrient uptake proteins were common up to both in vitro and in planta secretomes. However, pathogenicity, protease/peptidase, and host defense-related proteins were highly or specifically expressed during in planta infection. A good correlation was observed between protein and transcript abundances for nine proteins secreted in planta as per semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Transgenic rice leaf sheath (carrying PBZ1 promoter::GFP cell death reporter), when used to express a few of the identified secretory proteins, showed a direct activation of cell death signaling, suggesting their involvement in pathogenicity related with secretion effectors. This work furthers our understanding of rice bacterial blight disease, and serves as a resource for possible translation in generating disease resistant rice plants for improved seed yield. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Dialogues between Clio and Asclepius: Ivolino de Vasconcellos and the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina].

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian Institute for the History of Medicine was founded on 1945 by the physician Ivolino de Vasconcellos. Because the movement intended to be of national scope, the Federação Nacional de História da Medicina e Ciências Afins was also created (National Federation for the History of Medicine and Related Sciences). The latter group had a humanistic understanding of medicine, wherein the history of medicine played a central role; since this subject honored great names and achievements in medicine, members of the federation felt it was a prime tool in the ethical and humanistic training of healthcare professionals. Thus was born the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which fostered scientific and academic production and events in the field of history of medicine and also registered the Federation's activities and scientific output.

  4. 2001 GPS and Classical Survey at Medicina Observatory: Local Tie and VLBI Antenna's Reference Point Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittuari, Luca; Sarti, Pierguido; Tomasi, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    During a 6 days campaign in June 2001, we have performed a local survey at Medicina Observatory using classical geodesy and GPS techniques in order to determine the effects of an undergone track repair. We have determined the position of the reference point P within a local and ITRF2000 (epoch 1997.0) reference frames using trilateration and triangulation: Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{ITRF2000}^{1997.0}=(4461369.982pm0.001,919596.818pm0.001,4449559.207pm0.001) Kinematic GPS has also given interesting results:Medicina in ITRF2000 the agreement is striking especially for the classical technique. A complete tie between the 3-D forced centered local ground control network (materialised in May 2000) and the widely used older network (which is now experiencing some problems due to the disgregation of the concrete where bolts are situated) has also been realised. This will allow inter-comparison of results obtained by the different campaigns that have been carried out in the last decade. Finally, the position of the ASI-GPS permanent station has been estimated within the local ground control network. Thus, using classical methodology, a precise determination of the VLBI-GPS ex-centre vector has been possible.

  5. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  6. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  7. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-15

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  9. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  10. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fossion, Ruben

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  12. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  13. "De medicina et morbis" from De rerum naturis by Rabano Mauro.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Luigi; Mantella, Daniela; Iorio, Brunella

    2009-01-01

    De rerum naturis from the Monastery of Montecassino (MS codex 132) by Rabano Mauro, is a medieval encyclopedia issued around the year 1025, in the Abbey of Montecassino, during the period of Abbot Teobaldo. It is a copy of a more ancient text, written almost certainly in the Abbey of Fulda 2 centuries before, when Rabano Mauro was the abbot - that is, in the Carolingian age. In the Book 18 there is a chapter entitled "De medicina et morbis," in which we find related the fundamental principles on which studies of the human body, illness and the principal medicinal herbs were based. The text is not intended for teaching the medical art, but has the precise objective of helping to form the cultured Christian, trying to combine the old Greek-Roman tradition with a mystical vision, giving a moral application according to the dictates of Jewish-Christian religion. This text is indicative of the fusion of the scientific and religious worlds in the West during the Middle Ages. This interpretation of the universe will last for about a millennium, and only the Renaissance will be able to separate the 2 worlds again.

  14. Separating Mass and Height Contributions in Gravity Variations at Medicina, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, S.; Bruni, S.; Errico, M.; Santi, E.; Wziontek, H.

    2016-12-01

    During 1996, at the Medicina station, a GPS and a superconducting gravimeter (SG) were installed in the framework of an experiment focused on the comparison between height and gravity variations. Absolute gravity observations are also performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are recorded continuously. The station is also equipped with a second GPS system, the two antennas are very close to each other, and both are located in close proximity to the VLBI dish. Two decades of continuous height and gravity observations are now available which allow investigating both long and short period signals and the relevant correlations between the two measured quantities. Long period signatures are observed, a principal component is due to subsidence which is well known to occur in the area; however, also non-linear long-period behaviors are observed. Seasonal effects are also clearly recognizable in the time series and are mainly associated with the water table seasonal behavior. The station is characterized by clayey soil which is subject to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during the summer period. This effect is particularly recognizable in the SG data since the instrument is installed on a shallow foundation pillar which may suffer for height decreases in the order of 2,5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m.

  15. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  16. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  17. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  18. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  19. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  20. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  1. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  2. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  4. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  6. Assessment of fluorescein-based fluorescent dyes for tracing Neotyphodium endophytes in planta.

    PubMed

    Card, Stuart D; Tapper, Brian A; Lloyd-West, Catherine; Wright, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes were assessed for their ability to stain viable hyphae of the fungi Neotyphodium lolii and N. coenophialum, symbiotic endophytes of the Pooideae grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea, respectively. The fluorescein-based fluorophores; fluorescein diacetate (FDA), 5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CFDA), 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and the chitin-binding stain, Calcofluor while M2R, were assessed for staining of endophyte hyphae in vitro from axenic fungal cultures and in planta, including epidermal leaf sheath peels, nodes, ovaries, embryos and meristems. CMFDA produced the greatest intensity of staining of fungal hyphae and gave excellent contrast in planta compared to the plant cells. Compared to the other dyes, CMFDA was also the least affected by photo bleaching and continued to fluoresce up to 2 h after initial excitation. None of the fluorescent dyes stained fungal hyphae in seed.

  7. In planta mutagenesis determines the functional regions of the wheat puroindoline proteins.

    PubMed

    Feiz, L; Beecher, B S; Martin, J M; Giroux, M J

    2009-11-01

    In planta analysis of protein function in a crop plant could lead to improvements in understanding protein structure/function relationships as well as selective agronomic or end product quality improvements. The requirements for successful in planta analysis are a high mutation rate, an efficient screening method, and a trait with high heritability. Two ideal targets for functional analysis are the Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b (Pina and Pinb, respectively) genes, which together compose the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Ha locus that controls grain texture and many wheat end-use properties. Puroindolines (PINs) together impart soft texture, and mutations in either PIN result in hard seed texture. Studies of the PINs' mode of action are limited by low allelic variation. To create new Pin alleles and identify critical function-determining regions, Pin point mutations were created in planta via EMS treatment of a soft wheat. Grain hardness of 46 unique PIN missense alleles was then measured using segregating F(2):F(3) populations. The impact of individual missense alleles upon PIN function, as measured by grain hardness, ranged from neutral (74%) to intermediate to function abolishing. The percentage of function-abolishing mutations among mutations occurring in both PINA and PINB was higher for PINB, indicating that PINB is more critical to overall Ha function. This is contrary to expectations in that PINB is not as well conserved as PINA. All function-abolishing mutations resulted from structure-disrupting mutations or from missense mutations occurring near the Tryptophan-rich region. This study demonstrates the feasibility of in planta functional analysis of wheat proteins and that the Tryptophan-rich region is the most important region of both PINA and PINB.

  8. Barcoding the kingdom Plantae: new PCR primers for ITS regions of plants with improved universality and specificity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Xu, Chao; Lei, Li; Li, Changhao; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA is one of the most commonly used DNA markers in plant phylogenetic and DNA barcoding analyses, and it has been recommended as a core plant DNA barcode. Despite this popularity, the universality and specificity of PCR primers for the ITS region are not satisfactory, resulting in amplification and sequencing difficulties. By thoroughly surveying and analysing the 18S, 5.8S and 26S sequences of Plantae and Fungi from GenBank, we designed new universal and plant-specific PCR primers for amplifying the whole ITS region and a part of it (ITS1 or ITS2) of plants. In silico analyses of the new and the existing ITS primers based on these highly representative data sets indicated that (i) the newly designed universal primers are suitable for over 95% of plants in most groups; and (ii) the plant-specific primers are suitable for over 85% of plants in most groups without amplification of fungi. A total of 335 samples from 219 angiosperm families, 11 gymnosperm families, 24 fern and lycophyte families, 16 moss families and 17 fungus families were used to test the performances of these primers. In vitro PCR produced similar results to those from the in silico analyses. Our new primer pairs gave PCR improvements up to 30% compared with common-used ones. The new universal ITS primers will find wide application in both plant and fungal biology, and the new plant-specific ITS primers will, by eliminating PCR amplification of nonplant templates, significantly improve the quality of ITS sequence information collections in plant molecular systematics and DNA barcoding.

  9. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed. PMID:22789293

  10. Discovery of Phytophthora infestans Genes Expressed in Planta through Mining of cDNA Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Diego; Pinzón, Andrés; Grajales, Alejandro; Rojas, Alejandro; Mutis, Gabriel; Cárdenas, Martha; Burbano, Daniel; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causes late blight of potato and tomato, and has a broad host range within the Solanaceae family. Most studies of the Phytophthora – Solanum pathosystem have focused on gene expression in the host and have not analyzed pathogen gene expression in planta. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe in detail an in silico approach to mine ESTs from inoculated host plants deposited in a database in order to identify particular pathogen sequences associated with disease. We identified candidate effector genes through mining of 22,795 ESTs corresponding to P. infestans cDNA libraries in compatible and incompatible interactions with hosts from the Solanaceae family. Conclusions/Significance We annotated genes of P. infestans expressed in planta associated with late blight using different approaches and assigned putative functions to 373 out of the 501 sequences found in the P. infestans genome draft, including putative secreted proteins, domains associated with pathogenicity and poorly characterized proteins ideal for further experimental studies. Our study provides a methodology for analyzing cDNA libraries and provides an understanding of the plant – oomycete pathosystems that is independent of the host, condition, or type of sample by identifying genes of the pathogen expressed in planta. PMID:20352100

  11. Time-weighted average SPME analysis for in planta determination of cVOCs.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Emily M; Limmer, Matt A; Mayer, Philipp; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Burken, Joel G

    2012-03-20

    The potential of phytoscreening for plume delineation at contaminated sites has promoted interest in innovative, sensitive contaminant sampling techniques. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods have been developed, offering quick, undemanding, noninvasive sampling without the use of solvents. In this study, time-weighted average SPME (TWA-SPME) sampling was evaluated for in planta quantification of chlorinated solvents. TWA-SPME was found to have increased sensitivity over headspace and equilibrium SPME sampling. Using a variety of chlorinated solvents and a polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen (PDMS/CAR) SPME fiber, most compounds exhibited near linear or linear uptake over the sampling period. Smaller, less hydrophobic compounds exhibited more nonlinearity than larger, more hydrophobic molecules. Using a specifically designed in planta sampler, field sampling was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Sampling with TWA-SPME produced instrument responses ranging from 5 to over 200 times higher than headspace tree core sampling. This work demonstrates that TWA-SPME can be used for in planta detection of a broad range of chlorinated solvents and methods can likely be applied to other volatile and semivolatile organic compounds.

  12. In planta anthocyanin degradation by a vacuolar class III peroxidase in Brunfelsia calycina flowers.

    PubMed

    Zipor, Gadi; Duarte, Patrícia; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Shahar, Liat; Ovadia, Rinat; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Eshel, Dani; Levin, Yishai; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Sottomayor, Mariana; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to detailed knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, the largest group of plant pigments, little is known about their in planta degradation. It has been suggested that anthocyanin degradation is enzymatically controlled and induced when beneficial to the plant. Here we investigated the enzymatic process in Brunfelsia calycina flowers, as they changed color from purple to white. We characterized the enzymatic process by which B. calycina protein extracts degrade anthocyanins. A candidate peroxidase was partially purified and characterized and its intracellular localization was determined. The transcript sequence of this peroxidase was fully identified. A basic peroxidase, BcPrx01, is responsible for the in planta degradation of anthocyanins in B. calycina flowers. BcPrx01 has the ability to degrade complex anthocyanins, it co-localizes with these pigments in the vacuoles of petals, and both the mRNA and protein levels of BcPrx01 are greatly induced parallel to the degradation of anthocyanins. Both isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel analysis and 3D structure prediction indicated that BcPrx01 is cationic. Identification of BcPrx01 is a significant breakthrough both in the understanding of anthocyanin catabolism in plants and in the field of peroxidases, where such a consistent relationship between expression levels, in planta subcellular localization and activity has seldom been demonstrated. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth Wayne; Böhmer, Maik; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Peter, Sébastien; Vesić, Marko; Zhou, Ying; Tiesler, Franziska Katharina Elisabeth; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Harter, Klaus

    2012-07-12

    Understanding protein and gene function requires identifying interaction partners using biochemical, molecular or genetic tools. In plants, searching for novel protein-protein interactions is limited to protein purification assays, heterologous in vivo systems such as the yeast-two-hybrid or mutant screens. Ideally one would be able to search for novel protein partners in living plant cells. We demonstrate that it is possible to screen for novel protein-protein interactions from a random library in protoplasted Arabidopsis plant cells and recover some of the interacting partners. Our screen is based on capturing the bi-molecular complementation of mYFP between an YN-bait fusion partner and a completely random prey YC-cDNA library with FACS. The candidate interactions were confirmed using in planta BiFC assays and in planta FRET-FLIM assays. From this work, we show that the well characterized protein Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 3 (CPK3) interacts with APX3, HMGB5, ORP2A and a ricin B-related lectin domain containing protein At2g39050. This is one of the first randomin planta screens to be successfully employed.

  14. Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Streek, Penny Vande; Carretta, Robert; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in nuclear medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Nuclear Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Lyons and the panel. PMID:7529452

  15. Gravity and Height Variations by Continuous Gravity and GPS Measurements at Medicina, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B. D.; Zerbini, S.; Domenichini, F.; Lago, L.; Romagnoli, C.; Simon, D.

    2001-12-01

    Since mid 1996 a superconducting gravimeter and a GPS receiver are operational in the southern Po plain at Medicina, Italy. They were installed in order to monitor ground deformation, temporal gravity variations and signals related to global, regional and local environmental processes. The analysis of both time series has revealed the presence of a marked annual signal becoming quite recognizable towards the end of 1997. For the gravity series, the amplitude of the seasonal oscillation is in the order of 1.5 mGal during 1998 and even exceeds 2 mGal during 1999 and the phase has maxima towards the end of December. In the case of the GPS height series, the amplitude of the seasonal oscillation ranges between 4 mm during 1998 and increases up to almost 6 mm during 1999. The maxima of the observed oscillation occur in mid August. Seasonal loading effects induced by air pressure, the ocean and the climatic hydrological balance were estimated and modeled for both data sets. In addition, for the gravity series twelve hour data of balloon radio sonde launches have been used to estimate the Newtonian attraction of the seasonal vertical density redistribution of the air column above the station. Mass effects due to the hydrological balance and the ocean were also estimated and accounted for. The comparison between the observed and modeled series, both in the case of gravity and GPS heights, shows a remarkable agreement and provides a convincing explanation for the observed seasonal fluctuations. The difference of the two series reflects mass contributions (surficial water, ocean and vertical air mass attraction) which affect only gravity with a seasonal pattern. The amplitude of the observed oscillation is in the order of 1.5 †Gal while the difference between the models has smaller amplitude.

  16. [The anti-philosophical anthropology in the Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine)].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine) has been the focus of attention among classical scholars and historians of medicine. The author attacks in ch. 20 doctors and sophists who base their own medical theories and methods on philosophical anthropology taken from the contemporary natural philosophers. Many attempts have been made to elucidate, as opposed to their philosophical inquiry into human nature, the author's way of understanding it, which still remains unclear. I draw attention to the following points to make it clear that the conceptual framework of the author's medical anthropology is different from theirs. Their philosophical inquiry into human nature has its starting point in fundamental element(s), from which human beings were originally formed. The author focuses on human beings as existent in their present states, whose conditions and functions must be investigated through interrelations between them and their external factors, such as foods and drinks. A medical investigation into the interrelations will give us a scientific idea about human body, whose constituents are taken to be a large number of humors, reacting against some external factors and accordingly making us feel pain. This may presuppose that, in the author's medical anthropology, human body is conceptually demarcated as the physical or material aspect of human being, within which all physiological events depending on external factors and the humors take place. In their philosophical anthropology, however, human body doesn't seem to have been clearly conceptualized as such, because our experience of feeling pain should be judged to take place within the actions of the fundamental element(s), which must be supposed to constitute our cognitive self.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  18. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  20. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  3. [Johann Misch Astrophilus' book "Medicina Pauperum" in Hungarian. Copy of a lost or hidden book from 1660].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Tavaszy, Mariann; Kiss, Gergely

    2011-07-03

    Doctors and pharmacies in the 15th Century only used handwritten copies of the prescription collections available in their time. At the beginning of book printing the publishing of prescription collections immediately became popular. They could be found on the pages of medical and pharmaceutical books of many various editions with different structure and origin, as the forerunner of the official pharmacopoeias. From the 16th Century onwards books with the title "Medicina Pauperum" were published which helped the educated people to tend to themselves, the household, the servants and their immediate surroundings case of an illness. The first work specifically on the topic or of genre of the "Medicina Pauperum" according to our knowledge appeared in Hungarian in the year 1660 and currently seems to survived only in fragments under the title of "Medicina Pauperum", from an unknown author. A rare incident occurred in the present days as a "book" believed to be lost for us turned up from thin air. It is a "copied" manuscript in the size of 97×139 mm attached to the ribs with hemp cord, cropped around and in an unbound state. The book known before only in fractions is now available entirety handwritten on 318 pages, distributed to seven distinct parts. The research of its origin suggests that the author lived and worked in Nagyszombat and was called Johann Misch Astrophilus. The identification of the printing office was possible thanks to the examination of the initials and the gaudily, as well as the fonts and the watermark. By these results the printing very likely occurred in the Brewer Printing Press in Lőcse. For the possibility of more extensive research and value preservation the manuscript was bounded. The facsimile edition contains the magnified and digitalized pages of the original one and is published in numbered issues.

  4. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  5. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  6. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  7. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  8. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  9. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  10. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  11. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  13. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  14. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  15. Mechanisms of nuclear suppression of host immunity by effectors from the Arabidopsis downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa).

    PubMed

    Caillaud, M-C; Wirthmueller, L; Fabro, G; Piquerez, S J M; Asai, S; Ishaque, N; Jones, J D G

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous phytopathogens form sophisticated intracellular feeding structures called haustoria in plant cells. Pathogen effectors are likely to play a role in the establishment and maintenance of haustoria additional to their more characterized role of suppressing plant defense. Recent studies suggest that effectors may manipulate host transcription or other nuclear regulatory components for the benefit of pathogen development. However, the specific mechanisms by which these effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. Of two recent screenings, we identified 15 nuclear-localized Hpa effectors (HaRxLs) that interact directly or indirectly with host nuclear components. When stably expressed in planta, nuclear HaRxLs cause diverse developmental phenotypes highlighting that nuclear effectors might interfere with fundamental plant regulatory mechanisms. Here, we report recent advances in understanding how a pathogen can manipulate nuclear processes in order to cause disease.

  16. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space techniques at Medicina, Italy and Wettzell, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Matonti, F.; Simon, D.

    2004-10-01

    Series of gravity recordings at the stations Medicina (Italy) and Wettzell (Germany) are investigated to separate seasonal gravity variations from long-term trends in gravity. The findings are compared to height variations monitored by continuous GPS observations. To study the origin of these variations in height and gravity the environmental parameters at the stations are included in the fact finding. In Medicina, a clear seasonal signal is visible in the gravity and height data series, caused by seasonal fluctuations in the atmosphere including mass redistribution, the ocean, groundwater but also by geo-mechanical effects such as soil consolidation and thermal expansion of the structure supporting the GPS antenna. In Wettzell, no seasonal effect could be clearly identified, and the long-term trend in gravity is mainly caused by ground water variations. The successful combination of height and gravity series with the derived ratio of gravity to height changes indicates that the long-term trends in height and gravity are most likely due to mass changes rather than to tectonic movements.

  17. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. Nuclear exoticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  3. Nuclear exoticism

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-15

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  4. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  5. Studying Protein-Protein Interactions In Planta Using Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Somssich, Marc; Simon, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    The formation of protein complexes through direct protein-protein interaction is essential for virtually every biological process, and accordingly the ability to determine the interaction properties of specific proteins is important to understand these processes. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements are state-of-the-art confocal fluorescence microscopy- and imaging-based techniques that allow the analysis of protein interactions in vivo and in planta, in specific compartments of single cells or tissues. Here we provide a step-by-step guide to perform FRET measurements by acceptor photobleaching (APB) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in the plant expression system Nicotiana benthamiana.

  6. In planta cloning of geminiviral DNA: the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Holger; Gotthardt, Diether; Kober, Sigrid

    2010-02-01

    The circular single-stranded DNAs of geminiviruses are multiplied efficiently and preferentially by rolling circle amplification (RCA), and can be diagnosed readily by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the RCA product. Two strategies are described for cloning geminiviruses from plants harboring mixed infections by using RCA and RFLP with plant-derived nucleic acids without the need for bacterial amplification. By combining both these approaches, the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus was identified. The advantages of maintaining the quasispecies nature of a virus during in planta cloning is discussed with respect to reliable virus identification and resistance breeding.

  7. The alternative sigma factor AlgT, but not alginate synthesis, promotes in planta multiplication of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Alexander; Weingart, Helge; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2008-02-01

    The phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea produces the exopolysaccharide (EPS) alginate, which is thought to function in epiphytic fitness and virulence. A key regulator for alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. syringae is the alternative sigma factor AlgT (sigma(22)). In this study, the contribution of alginate synthesis and AlgT to in planta epiphytic fitness and virulence of P. syringae was examined. Alginate biosynthesis mutants were generated for the P. syringae pv. glycinea strains PG4180 and PG4180.muc, representing a comprehensive set of alginate- and AlgT-positive or -negative derivatives. Analysis of in vitro and in planta phenotypes revealed that AlgT strongly promoted in planta growth, survival and symptom development, but decreased the ability to grow in vitro. In contrast, alginate biosynthesis had only marginal impact. Quantitative in vitro and in planta gene expression analyses for alginate biosynthesis and algT were carried out at two temperatures in AlgT-negative and -positive backgrounds. algT as well as algD gene expression was AlgT-dependent, plant-inducible and temperature-dependent, with higher expression at 18 compared to 28 degrees C; however, no temperature dependence was observed in vitro. Our data suggest that AlgT may act as a global regulator for virulence and in planta fitness traits of P. syringae independent of its role in EPS biosynthesis.

  8. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  9. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  10. i Planta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This application was designed for farmers, agriculture researchers, and gardeners. The application includes a calculator, a data logger, and a GPS mapping function. It was designed for vegetable farming but can be used for open field applications. The calculator solves for the amount of pesticide,...

  11. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  12. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  13. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  14. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  15. A method for obtaining RNA from Hemileia vastatrix appressoria produced in planta, suitable for transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Andreia; Gil Azinheira, Helena; do Céu Silva, Maria; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Appressoria are the first infection structures developed by rust fungi and require specific topographic signals from the host for their differentiation. The ease in obtaining appressoria in vitro for these biotrophic fungi led to studies concerning gene expression and gene discovery at appressorial level, avoiding the need to distinguish plant and fungal transcripts. However, in some pathosystems, it was observed that gene expression in appressoria seems to be influenced by host-derived signals, suggesting that transcriptomic analyses performed from in planta differentiated appressoria would be potentially more informative than those from in vitro differentiated appressoria. Nevertheless analysing appressorial RNA obtained from in planta samples is often hampered by an excessive dilution of fungal RNA within plant RNA, besides uncertainty regarding the fungal or plant origin of RNA from highly conserved genes. To circumvent these difficulties, we have recovered Hemileia vastatrix appressoria from Arabica coffee leaf surface using a film of nitrocellulose dissolved in butyl and ethyl acetates (nail polish), and extracted fungal RNA from the polish peel. RNA thus obtained is of good quality and usable for cDNA synthesis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR) studies. This method could provide the means to investigate specific host-induced appressoria-related fungal pathogenicity factors.

  16. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    PubMed

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  17. Ethylene Production by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, H.; Volksch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Significant amounts of ethylene were produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, pv. phaseolicola (which had been isolated from viny weed Pueraria lobata [Willd.] Ohwi [common name, kudzu]), and pv. pisi in synthetic medium. On the other hand, the bean strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola and strains of 17 other pathovars did not produce ethylene. P. syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola produced nearly identical levels of ethylene (about 5 x 10(sup-7) nl h(sup-1) cell(sup-1)), which were about 10 times higher than the ethylene level of P. syringae pv. pisi. Two 22-bp oligonucleotide primers derived from the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 were investigated for their ability to detect ethylene-producing P. syringae strains by PCR analysis. PCR amplification with this primer set resulted in a specific 0.99-kb fragment in all ethylene-producing strains with the exception of the P. syringae pv. pisi strains. Therefore, P. syringae pv. pisi may use a different biosynthetic pathway for ethylene production or the sequence of the efe gene is less conserved in this bacterium. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from kudzu and P. syringae pv. glycinea also produced ethylene in planta. It could be shown that the enhanced ethylene production in diseased tissue was due to the production of ethylene by the inoculated bacteria. Ethylene production in vitro and in planta was strictly growth associated. PMID:16535480

  18. Inhibition of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in vitro and in planta with ultrashort cationic lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Makovitzki, Arik; Viterbo, Ada; Brotman, Yariv; Chet, Ilan; Shai, Yechiel

    2007-10-01

    Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens develop resistance to them. Recently, we have reported on a new family of ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptides which are composed of only four amino acids linked to fatty acids (A. Makovitzki, D. Avrahami, and Y. Shai, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:15997-16002, 2006). Here, we investigated the activities in vitro and in planta and the modes of action of these short lipopeptides against plant-pathogenic bacteria and fungi. They act rapidly, at low micromolar concentrations, on the membranes of the microorganisms via a lytic mechanism. In vitro microscopic analysis revealed wide-scale damage to the microorganism's membrane, in addition to inhibition of pathogen growth. In planta potent antifungal activity was demonstrated on cucumber fruits and leaves infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea as well as on corn leaves infected with Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Similarly, treatment with the lipopeptides of Arabidopsis leaves infected with the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae efficiently and rapidly reduced the number of bacteria. Importantly, in contrast to what occurred with many native lipopeptides, no toxicity was observed on the plant tissues. These data suggest that the ultrashort lipopeptides could serve as native-like antimicrobial agents economically feasible for use in plant protection.

  19. Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleone and its in planta mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J'Lynn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    The oily droplets exuded from the root hairs of sorghum are composed of a 1:1 ratio of sorgoleone and its lipid resorcinol analogue. The production of these droplets appears to be suppressed when c. 20 μg of exudate mg−1 root dry weight accumulates at the tip of the root hairs. However, more exudate is produced following gentle washing of the roots with water, suggesting that the biosynthesis of lipid benzoquinones and resorcinols is a dynamic process. Sorgoleone interferes with several molecular target sites, including photosynthetic electron transport, in in vitro assays. However, the in planta mechanism of action of sorgoleone remains controversial because it is not clear whether this lipid benzoquinone exuding from the roots of sorghum is taken up by roots of the receiving plants and translocated to their foliage where it must enter the chloroplast and inhibit PSII in the thylakoid membrane. Experiments designed to test the in planta mode of action of sorgoleone demonstrated that it has no effect on the photosynthesis of older plants, but inhibits photosynthesis in germinating seedlings. Sorgoleone is not translocated acropetally in older plants, but can be absorbed through the hypocotyl and cotyledonary tissues. Therefore, the mode of action of sorgoleone may be the result of inhibition of photosynthesis in young seedlings in concert with inhibition of its other molecular target sites in older plants. PMID:19357432

  20. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea Gene Transiently Expressed in planta, Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Pescador, David; Santander, Daniela; Arranz, M.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Benito, Ernesto P.

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of reactive oxygen species, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor. PMID:26952144

  1. Inhibition of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens In Vitro and In Planta with Ultrashort Cationic Lipopeptides▿

    PubMed Central

    Makovitzki, Arik; Viterbo, Ada; Brotman, Yariv; Chet, Ilan; Shai, Yechiel

    2007-01-01

    Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens develop resistance to them. Recently, we have reported on a new family of ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptides which are composed of only four amino acids linked to fatty acids (A. Makovitzki, D. Avrahami, and Y. Shai, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:15997-16002, 2006). Here, we investigated the activities in vitro and in planta and the modes of action of these short lipopeptides against plant-pathogenic bacteria and fungi. They act rapidly, at low micromolar concentrations, on the membranes of the microorganisms via a lytic mechanism. In vitro microscopic analysis revealed wide-scale damage to the microorganism's membrane, in addition to inhibition of pathogen growth. In planta potent antifungal activity was demonstrated on cucumber fruits and leaves infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea as well as on corn leaves infected with Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Similarly, treatment with the lipopeptides of Arabidopsis leaves infected with the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae efficiently and rapidly reduced the number of bacteria. Importantly, in contrast to what occurred with many native lipopeptides, no toxicity was observed on the plant tissues. These data suggest that the ultrashort lipopeptides could serve as native-like antimicrobial agents economically feasible for use in plant protection. PMID:17720828

  2. In planta expression of hyperthermophilic enzymes as a strategy for accelerated lignocellulosic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Myburg, Alexander A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Cowan, Don A

    2017-09-13

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biomaterials suffers from high production costs associated with biomass pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In-planta expression of lignocellulose-digesting enzymes is a promising approach to reduce these cost elements. However, this approach faces a number of challenges, including auto-hydrolysis of developing cell walls, plant growth and yield penalties, low expression levels and the limited stability of expressed enzymes at the high temperatures generally used for biomass processing to release fermentable sugars. To overcome these challenges we expressed codon-optimized recombinant hyperthermophilic endoglucanase (EG) and xylanase (Xyn) genes in A. thaliana. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing EG and Xyn enzymes at high levels without any obvious plant growth or yield penalties were selected for further analysis. The highest enzyme activities were observed in the dry stems of transgenic lines, indicating that the enzymes were not degraded during stem senescence and storage. Biomass from transgenic lines exhibited improved saccharification efficiency relative to WT control plants. We conclude that the expression of hyperthermophilic enzymes in plants is a promising approach for combining pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes in lignocellulosic digestion. This study provides a valid foundation for further studies involving in planta co-expression of core and accessory lignocellulose-digesting enzymes.

  3. Prediction of the in planta P. pachyrhizi secretome and potential effector families.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Mayra C da C G; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Darben, Luana M; Polizel-Podanosqui, Adriana M; Lopes-Caitar, Valéria S; Qi, Mingsheng; Rocha, Carolina S; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Kuwahara, Márcia K; Pereira, Goncalo A G; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Whitham, Steven A; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C

    2016-03-24

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi can cause losses greater than 80%. Despite its economic importance, there is no soybean cultivar with durable ASR resistance (Goellner et al., 2010). In addition, the P. pachyrhizi genome is not yet available. However, the availability of other rust genomes as well as the development of sample enrichment strategies and bioinformatics tools has improved our knowledge of the ASR secretome and its potential effectors. In this context, we used a combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM), RNAseq and a bioinformatics pipeline to identify a total of 36,350 P. pachyrhizi contigs expressed in planta and a predicted secretome of 851 proteins. Some of the predicted secreted proteins had characteristics of candidate effectors, including small size, cysteine rich, do not contain PFAM domains (except those associated with pathogenicity), and were strongly expressed in planta. A comparative analysis of the predicted secreted proteins present in Pucciniales species identified new members of soybean rust and new Pucciniales- or P. pachyrhizi-specific families (tribes). Members of some families were strongly upregulated during early infection, starting with initial infection through haustorium formation. Effector candidates selected from two of these families were able to suppress immunity in transient assays, and were localized in the plant cytoplasm and nuclei. These experiments support our bioinformatics predictions and show that these families contain members that have functions consistent with P. pachyrhizi effectors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea Gene Transiently Expressed in planta, Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein.

    PubMed

    Benito-Pescador, David; Santander, Daniela; Arranz, M; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Eslava, Arturo P; van Kan, Jan A L; Benito, Ernesto P

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of reactive oxygen species, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor.

  5. Biosynthesis, structural, and functional attributes of tocopherols in planta; past, present, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nazim; Irshad, Faiza; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Li, Zhilan; Jiang, Lixi

    2013-07-03

    Tocopherols are lipophilic molecules, ubiquitously synthesized in all photosynthetic organisms. Being a group of vitamin E compounds, they play an essential role in human nutrition and health. Despite their structural and functional attributes as important antioxidants in plants, it would be misleading to ignore the potential roles of tocopherols beyond their antioxidant properties in planta. Detailed characterization of mutants and transgenic plants, including Arabidopsis (vte1, vte2, vte4, and so on), maize (sxd1) mutants, and transgenic potato and tobacco lines altered in tocopherol biosynthesis and contents, has led to surprising outcomes regarding the additional functions of these molecules. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the past and present research findings on tocopherols' structural, biosynthesis, and functional properties in plants. Special emphasis is given to their suggested functions in planta, such as cell signaling, hormonal interactions, and coordinated response of tocopherols to other antioxidants under abiotic stresses. Moreover, some important questions about possible new functions of tocopherols will be discussed as future prospects to stimulate further research.

  6. Simultaneous specific in planta visualization of root-colonizing fungi using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Vági, Pál; Knapp, Dániel G; Kósa, Annamária; Seress, Diána; Horváth, Áron N; Kovács, Gábor M

    2014-05-01

    In planta detection of mutualistic, endophytic, and pathogenic fungi commonly colonizing roots and other plant organs is not a routine task. We aimed to use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for simultaneous specific detection of different fungi colonizing the same tissue. We have adapted ribosomal RNA (rRNA) FISH for visualization of common mycorrhizal (arbuscular- and ectomycorrhiza) and endophytic fungi within roots of different plant species. Beside general probes, we designed and used specific ones hybridizing to the large subunit of rRNA with fluorescent dyes chosen to avoid or reduce the interference with the autofluorescence of plant tissues. We report here an optimized efficient protocol of rRNA FISH and the use of both epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for simultaneous specific differential detection of those fungi colonizing the same root. The method could be applied for the characterization of other plant-fungal interactions, too. In planta FISH with specific probes labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes could be used not only in basic research but to detect plant colonizing pathogenic fungi in their latent life-period.

  7. Comparative analysis of the in vitro and in planta secretomes from Mycosphaerella fijiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio; Sandoval-Fernández, Jorge A; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of bananas and plantains worldwide, is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Several banana cultivars such as 'Yangambi Km 5' and Calcutta IV, have been known to be resistant to the fungus, but the resistance has been broken in 'Yangambi Km 5' in Costa Rica. Since the resistance of this variety still persists in Mexico, the aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in planta secretomes from two avirulent and virulent M. fijiensis isolates using proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in fungal isolates that differ in pathogenicity and that might be responsible for breaking the resistance in 'Yangambi Km 5'. We were able to identify 90 protein spots in the secretomes of fungal isolates encoding 42 unique proteins and 35 differential spots between them. Proteins involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism were more prevalent. Several proteases, pathogenicity-related, ROS detoxification and unknown proteins were also highly or specifically expressed by the virulent isolate in vitro or during in planta infection. An unknown protein representing a virulence factor candidate was also identified. These results demonstrated that the secretome reflects major differences between both M. fijiensis isolates. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C.; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P.; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp− strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp− phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp−/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp− strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp− strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp− strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp− strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp− strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp− strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains. PMID:26726131

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  10. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  11. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  12. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  13. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  14. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  15. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Biopsies - Overview Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Alzheimer's Disease X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  16. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  17. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  18. The predominant circular form of avocado sunblotch viroid accumulates in planta as a free RNA adopting a rod-shaped secondary structure unprotected by tightly bound host proteins.

    PubMed

    López-Carrasco, Amparo; Flores, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), the type member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates and accumulates in chloroplasts. Whether this minimal non-protein-coding circular RNA of 246-250 nt exists in vivo as a free nucleic acid or closely associated with host proteins remains unknown. To tackle this issue, the secondary structures of the monomeric circular (mc) (+) and (-) strands of ASBVd have been examined in silico by searching those of minimal free energy, and in vitro at single-nucleotide resolution by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (SHAPE). Both approaches resulted in predominant rod-like secondary structures without tertiary interactions, with the mc (+) RNA being more compact than its (-) counterpart as revealed by non-denaturing polyacryamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, in vivo SHAPE showed that the mc ASBVd (+) form accumulates in avocado leaves as a free RNA adopting a similar rod-shaped conformation unprotected by tightly bound host proteins. Hence, the mc ASBVd (+) RNA behaves in planta like the previously studied mc (+) RNA of potato spindle tuber viroid, the type member of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae), indicating that two different viroids replicating and accumulating in distinct subcellular compartments, have converged into a common structural solution. Circularity and compact secondary structures confer to these RNAs, and probably to all viroids, the intrinsic stability needed to survive in their natural habitats. However, in vivo SHAPE has not revealed the (possibly transient or loose) interactions of the mc ASBVd (+) RNA with two host proteins observed previously by UV irradiation of infected avocado leaves.

  19. [Theses on hepatitis at the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 1837-2000].

    PubMed

    Gaze, Rosangela; Carvalho, Diana Maul de; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Martins, Carolina Passos Telles Taveira; Lobato, Vanessa Maria Tavares

    2012-06-01

    An inventory of the theses on hepatitis of the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro between 1837 and 2000 is presented. The analysis indicates the potential and limits for discussion of the evolutionary framework of scientific knowledge on these health problems in Brazil. The theories are also discussed in light of their scientific reference points and the technological and social changes that influenced them. The landmarks in medical education and knowledge about hepatitis are identified and categorized, considering that the theses reveal at the very least the state of the art on the subject. The study makes it possible to explore the foundations upon which the scientific knowledge on hepatitis were built and indicate possibilities for research in the reconstruction of scientific knowledge of other health problems.

  20. Neurology at Escola Paulista de Medicina (1933-1995). From Fausto Guerner to José Geraldo Camargo Lima.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Neves, Afonso Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi's death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980's and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.

  1. Medicina ToO of the non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Elise; Pilia, Maura; Righini, Simona; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Loru, Sara; Giroletti, Marcello

    2017-09-01

    Following the AGILE detection of a non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522 on 5-7 August 2017 (ATel #10623), we performed radio observations with the 32-m Medicina radio telescope at 8.5 GHz (with 680 MHz bandwidth) on 9 August 2017 from 12:40 to 19:00 UTC and on 10 August 2017 from 14:00 to 17:50 UTC. We carried out squared on-the-fly maps of 45.5'x45.5' centered on the gamma-ray position (ra=14:12:06.0, dec=-05:22:14.9) to take into account the 0.4 deg position error from AGILE results.

  2. Developments of FPGA-based digital back-ends for low frequency antenna arrays at Medicina radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldi, G.; Bartolini, M.; Mattana, A.; Pupillo, G.; Hickish, J.; Foster, G.; Bianchi, G.; Lingua, A.; Monari, J.; Montebugnoli, S.; Perini, F.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Virone, G.; Zarb Adami, K.

    In radio astronomy Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is largely used for the implementation of digital signal processing techniques applied to antenna arrays. This is mainly due to the good trade-off among computing resources, power consumption and cost offered by FPGA chip compared to other technologies like ASIC, GPU and CPU. In the last years several digital backend systems based on such devices have been developed at the Medicina radio astronomical station (INAF-IRA, Bologna, Italy). Instruments like FX correlator, direct imager, beamformer, multi-beam system have been successfully designed and realized on CASPER (Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research, https://casper.berkeley.edu) processing boards. In this paper we present the gained experience in this kind of applications.

  3. [Productivity, visibility and citation analysis of the Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública, 2002-2009].

    PubMed

    Huamaní, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Biomedical journals are the most used and important venue to disseminate and interchange scientific information, and evaluation is an important component. A bibliometric study was conducted on the productivity, visibility and citation analysis of the Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública (RPMESP), from 2002 to 2009. During this period, the RPMESP published about 62 documents per year, 55.3% were research articles. The visibility of RPMESP, determined among three databases (SISBIB-UNMSM, SciELO-Peru, and REDALYC), was irregular, increasing on July 2006, with the highest access on October 2009 (117,618 hits). 43.0% of publications were cited. The calculated impact factor in ISI journals was 0.04 in 2009. In conclusion, the citation of RPMESP shows a slowly growing during the period 2002-2009. It is hoped that the RPMESP increase its visibility and impact after its inclusion in MEDLINE.

  4. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  6. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  7. In planta production and characterization of a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yoon; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D; Gallo, Maria; Preston, James F; Altpeter, Fredy

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is one of the most efficient and sustainable feedstocks for commercial production of fuel ethanol. Recent efforts focus on the integration of first and second generation bioethanol conversion technologies for sugarcane to increase biofuel yields. This integrated process will utilize both the cell wall bound sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic sugarcane residues in addition to the sucrose from stem internodes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into its component sugars requires significant amounts of cell wall degrading enzymes. In planta production of xylanases has the potential to reduce costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis but has been reported to compromise plant growth and development. To address this problem, we expressed a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase, xyl10B in transgenic sugarcane which displays optimal catalytic activity at 105 °C and only residual catalytic activity at temperatures below 70 °C. Transgene integration and expression in sugarcane were confirmed by Southern blot, RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot following biolistic co-transfer of minimal expression cassettes of xyl10B and the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase II. Xylanase activity was detected in 17 transgenic lines with a fluorogenic xylanase activity assay. Up to 1.2% of the total soluble protein fraction of vegetative progenies with integration of chloroplast targeted expression represented the recombinant Xyl10B protein. Xyl10B activity was stable in vegetative progenies. Tissues retained 75% of the xylanase activity after drying of leaves at 35 °C and a 2 month storage period. Transgenic sugarcane plants producing Xyl10B did not differ from non-transgenic sugarcane in growth and development under greenhouse conditions. Sugarcane xylan and bagasse were used as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis with the in planta produced Xyl10B. TLC and HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products confirmed the superior catalytic activity

  8. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  9. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  10. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  11. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  12. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  13. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  15. Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Pozzi, Sara A.; Hamel, Michael C.; Polack, J. Kyle; ...

    2016-11-13

    The detection and characterization of special nuclear materials is a high priority area for applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We are developing new instruments based on organic scintillators to detect and characterize the emissions from special nuclear materials. This paper describes some of the gaps and challenges in nuclear safeguards and proposed approaches.

  16. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  17. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  18. Mexican papita viroid and tomato planta macho viroid belong to a single species in the genus Pospiviroid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Mexican papita viroid (MPVd) are two closely-related (>90% sequence identity) members of the genus Pospiviroid. Their current status as separate species is based upon the reported ability of TPMVd to replicate in Gomphrena globosa and the inability of this viro...

  19. Single, Ancient Origin of a Plastid Metabolite Translocator Family in Plantae from an Endomembrane-Derived Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Andreas P. M.; Linka, Marc; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses show the single origin of a plastid metabolite translocator family in the Plantae from a gene encoding an existing endomembrane-derived protein. Red algal secondary endosymbiosis has spread a translocator gene into the ancestor of the “chromalveolate” protists, where it has diversified into a novel clade of proteins. PMID:16524915

  20. The Ustilago maydis b mating type locus controls hyphal proliferation and expression of secreted virulence factors in planta.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Ramon; Zahiri, Alexander; Kämper, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Sexual development in fungi is controlled by mating type loci that prevent self-fertilization. In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, the b mating type locus encodes two homeodomain proteins, termed bE and bW. After cell fusion, a heterodimeric bE/bW complex is formed if the proteins are derived from different alleles. The bE/bW complex is required and sufficient to initiate pathogenic development and sexual reproduction; for the stages of pathogenic development succeeding plant penetration, however, its role was unclear. To analyse b function during in planta development, we generated a temperature-sensitive bE(ts) protein by exchange of a single amino acid. bE(ts) strains are stalled in pathogenic development at restrictive temperature in planta, and hyphae develop enlarged, bulbous cells at their tips that contain multiple nuclei, indicating a severe defect in the control and synchronization of cell cycle and cytokinesis. DNA array analysis of bE(ts) mutant strains in planta revealed a b-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted proteins that were shown to influence fungal virulence. Our data demonstrate that in U. maydis the b heterodimer is not only essential to establish the heterodikaryon after mating of two compatible sporidia and to initiate fungal pathogenicity, but also to sustain in planta proliferation and ensure sexual reproduction.

  1. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  2. Microbial secondary metabolites ameliorate growth, in planta contents and lignification in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Srivastava, Madhumita; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-04-01

    In the present investigation, metabolites of Streptomyces sp. MTN14 and Trichoderma harzianum ThU significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. The secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide A, a plant secondary metabolite. Lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in W. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having T. harzianum metabolites. Also, Trichoderma and Streptomyces metabolites were found much better in invoking in planta contents and antioxidants compared with their live culture treatments. Therefore, identification of new molecular effectors from metabolites of efficient microbes may be used as biopesticide and biofertilizer for commercial production of W. somnifera globally.

  3. In Planta Response of Arabidopsis to Photothermal Impact Mediated by Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeonjong; Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y; Pan, Joann; Thompson, Sean M; Lapotko, Dmitri O; Braam, Janet

    2016-02-03

    Biological responses to photothermal effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated and employed for various applications in diverse systems except for one important class - plants. Here, the uptake of GNPs through Arabidopsis thaliana roots and translocation to leaves are reported. Successful plasmonic nanobubble generation and acoustic signal detection in planta is demonstrated. Furthermore, Arabidopsis leaves harboring GNPs and exposed to continuous laser or noncoherent light show elevated temperatures across the leaf surface and induced expression of heat-shock regulated genes. Overall, these results demonstrate that Arabidopsis can readily take up GNPs through the roots and translocate the particles to leaf tissues. Once within leaves, GNPs can act as photothermal agents for on-demand remote activation of localized biological processes in plants. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. In Planta Microsphere-Based Lateral Flow Leaf Biosensor in Maize.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jessica T; Castro, Carlos; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    Low-cost and quick detection of biotic stresses is critically important for protection of staple food crops such as maize in smallholder farms in developing countries, where access to improved seed varieties, fertilizers, and pesticides is limited due to financial and geographical reasons. Here, we report a new lateral flow detection technology directly integrated in a maize leaf, in which microspheres conjugated with analyte-specific capture antibodies are non-invasively injected. The antibody-conjugated microspheres capture and detect an analyte in a concentration-specific manner. In this study, we optimized microsphere size for effective infiltration and immobilization in the leaf, and further demonstrated detection of a fluorescent mock biomarker, fluorescein, in a live maize plant. This in planta lateral flow biosensor is the first of its kind and is expected to provide a low-cost and user-friendly detection method for biotic stresses in the field. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  6. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  7. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., ``Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

  8. Large-scale gene discovery in the septoria tritici blotch fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola with a focus on in planta expression.

    PubMed

    Kema, Gert H J; van der Lee, Theo A J; Mendes, Odette; Verstappen, Els C P; Lankhorst, René Klein; Sandbrink, Hans; van der Burgt, Ate; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Csukai, Michael; Waalwijk, Cees

    2008-09-01

    The foliar disease septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is currently the most important wheat disease in Europe. Gene expression was examined under highly different conditions, using 10 expressed sequence tag libraries generated from M. graminicola isolate IPO323 using seven in vitro and three in planta growth conditions. To identify fungal clones in the interaction libraries, we developed a selection method based on hybridization with the entire genomic DNA of M. graminicola, to selectively enrich these libraries for fungal genes. Assembly of the 27,007 expressed sequence tags resulted in 9,190 unigenes, representing 5.2 Mb of the estimated 39-Mb genome size of M. graminicola. All libraries contributed significantly to the number of unigenes, especially the in planta libraries representing different stages of pathogenesis, which covered 15% of the library-specific unigenes. Even under presymptomatic conditions (5 days postinoculation), when fungal biomass is less than 5%, this method enabled us to efficiently capture fungal genes expressed during pathogenesis. Many of these genes were uniquely expressed in planta, indicating that in planta gene expression significantly differed from in vitro expression. Examples of gene discovery included a number of cell wall-degrading enzymes, a broad set of genes involved in signal transduction (n=11) and a range of ATP-binding cassette (n=20) and major facilitator superfamily transporter genes (n=12) potentially involved in protection against antifungal compounds or the secretion of pathogenicity factors. In addition, evidence is provided for a mycovirus in M. graminicola that is highly expressed under various stress conditions, in particular, under nitrogen starvation. Our analyses provide a unique window on in vitro and in planta gene expression of M. graminicola.

  9. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  10. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNF is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNFmore » is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).« less

  13. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  14. [Evaluation of the quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría versus Medicina Clínica].

    PubMed

    Bonillo Perales, A

    2002-08-01

    To compare the scientific methodology and quality of articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica. A stratified and randomized selection of 40 original articles published in 2001 in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica was made. Methodological errors in the critical analysis of original articles (21 items), epidemiological design, sample size, statistical complexity and levels of scientific evidence in both journals were compared using the chi-squared and/or Student's t-test. No differences were found between Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica in the critical evaluation of original articles (p > 0.2). In original articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría, the designs were of lower scientific evidence (a lower proportion of clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies) (17.5 vs 42.5 %, p 0.05), sample sizes were smaller (p 0.003) and there was less statistical complexity in the results section (p 0.03). To improve the scientific quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría, improved study designs, larger sample sizes and greater statistical complexity are required in its articles.

  15. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  16. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  17. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  18. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  19. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  20. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  1. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  2. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  3. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  4. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    release; Distribution Unlimited | -—fb 40 Nuclear Developments JPRS-TND-88-016 CONTENTS 2 SEPTEMBER 1988 CHINA Nuclear Power Chief Seeks...Foreign Cooperation [Yuan Zhou; CHINA DAILY (BUSINESS WEEKLY) 1 Aug 88] 1 Nuclear Fusion Study Reaches Advanced Level [Xiao Longlian; Beijing...Government ’Welcomes’ Group [Beijing XINHUA 12 Aug 88] 4 No Decision on Disposal of Daya Nuclear Waste [Andy Ho; Hong Kong SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST

  5. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  6. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  8. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  9. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  10. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  11. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  12. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  13. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  14. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    TURKEY Joint Argentine Firm To Sell Nuclear Reactors [ANATOLIA] ....................................................... 34 Civil Defense Against Iraqi... Reactor and Nuclear Materials Control Law, the Radiation Hazard Prevention Law and the Law on THAILAND the Promotion of Development and Peaceful Applica...and carried without nuclear fuel in the reactor and only with generating unit 5 in particular are obviously passing the help of expensive equipment

  15. Nuclear systems 1

    SciTech Connect

    Todreas, N.E.; Kazami, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The book covers thermal hydraulic design fundamentals and analysis of the core of a nuclear reactor. Other components of the nuclear power plant, such as the pressurizer, the containment and the entire primary coolant system are addressed. The book reflects the importance of such considerations in thermal engineering of a modern nuclear power plant.

  16. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  17. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  18. Homeopathy and acupuncture teaching at Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo: the undergraduates' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian; Lin, Chin An; Martins, Milton de Arruda

    2005-03-02

    Homeopathy and acupuncture, although recognized as medical specializations in Brazil, are not taught in most medical schools. The objective was to evaluate undergraduate attitudes towards them following their inclusion as optional disciplines at Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP) in 2002. Questionnaire, at FMUSP. 484 students answered a self-administered questionnaire on these therapies, regarding their interest in learning, the teaching methods, their knowledge/experience (or that of someone close to them) and how it was acquired, the main indicators and general effectiveness of these therapies, and the possibilities for offering and integrating them within public healthcare units. Over 85% of the students considered that homeopathy and acupuncture should be included in curricula, as options (72%) or compulsorily (19%); 56% showed great interest in learning about them. Although 76% had little or no knowledge, 67% believed that these therapies had some effectiveness, and that chronic diseases (37%) or even chronic and acute diseases (29%) would be the main indicators for their use. Around 35% were receptive towards offering public primary care using both therapies, while 34% thought these treatments should also be available in hospitals and 60% believed they could be integrated with conventional medical practices. The medical students were interested in learning the principles of homeopathy and acupuncture, were able to observe and report on the effectiveness of these treatments and defended the use of these medical specializations within public healthcare.

  19. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  20. [Cardiac transplantation and neoplasms: experiences at Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Federal University of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Mello Junior, Walter Teixeira de; Branco, João Nelson R; Catani, Roberto; Aguiar, Luciano de Figueiredo; Paez, Rodrigo Pereira; Buffolo, Enio

    2006-02-01

    To study the occurrence and types of neoplasms developed by patients who underwent an orthotopic cardiac transplantation under the Program of Cardiac Transplantation of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo. This is an observational study of 106 patients who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation from November 1986 to September 2002 and survived at least thirty days following the procedure. The triple immunosuppressive regimen given included cyclosporin A, azathioprine and a corticosteroid agent. Only two patients received OKT3 in addition to the regimen established. Mean follow-up was 61.4 months (ranging from two months to 192 months). Twenty-three patients (21.3%) developed neoplasms--56.5% of these were skin neoplasm, 30.1%, solid tumors, and 13.4% of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Mean interval between transplantation and diagnosis of neoplasm was: 54.9 months for skin neoplasm; 24.8 months for solid tumors and 70.3 months for PTLD. Malignant neoplasms are relatively common in the population studied. Skin cancer was the most common type compared to the other types of neoplasms. Solid tumors were more frequently diagnosed than the lymphoproliferative diseases in the population examined.

  1. Living with Nuclear Weapons - Avoiding Nuclear War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    00 LIVING ’V1I4. NUCL EAR WEAPONS -AVOIDING NUCLEAR W~AR C. Pr~ston Niblack ..une -8 P-75-7 The RAND ",rporation Papers are issued by The RAND...necessarily shared by RAND or its research sponsors. The RAND Corporation. 1700 Main Street, P ) Bix 213t8, Santa Monica, CA 90406- � LIVING WITH NUCLEAR...is p"etty impressive. Still, nuclear weapons exist . and that alone is very womsome to many people. including to all of us here, because as long as they

  2. Towards an Understanding of Enhanced Biomass Digestibility by In Planta Expression of a Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Bryon S; Wei, Hui; Mittal, Ashutosh; Shollenberger, Todd; Lunin, Vladimir V; Himmel, Michael E; Brunecky, Roman

    2017-06-29

    In planta expression of a thermophilic endoglucanase (AcCel5A) reduces recalcitrance by creating voids and other irregularities in cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana that increase enzyme accessibility without negative impacts on plant growth or cell wall composition. Our results suggest that cellulose β-1-4 linkages can be cut sparingly in the assembling wall and that these minimal changes, made at the proper time, have an impact on plant cell wall recalcitrance without negative effects on overall plant development.

  3. Root internalization, transport and in-planta survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in sweet basil.

    PubMed

    Gorbatsevich, Elena; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Pinto, Riky; Bernstein, Nirit

    2013-02-01

    It is now acknowledged that food-borne pathogens present in the irrigation water or soil can become associated with crop plants in the field, penetrate internal plant tissues via the root, translocate and survive inside plants. Only little information is available concerning interaction between enteric pathogens and plants. The present study evaluated the potential for contamination of the aromatic plant, sweet basil during cultivation, by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport. Root internalization was plant-age-dependent, with the highest susceptibility occurring at the beginning of the rapid growth phase of the root. Higher incidence of internalization was detected in vegetative than reproductive plant organs, pointing at bacterial transport in the transpiration stream. Internalized Salmonella survived only < 30 h in the phyllosphere. In contrast, survival of Salmonella on the leaf surface was much pronounced (at least 8 days), and the initial decay rate was lower at the abaxial (lower) compared with the adaxial (upper) side of the leaf. Although the experiments were conducted with high concentration of Salmonella unlikely to happen in the field, internalization occurred at a low frequency and in-planta survival was limited to less than 30 h. These findings imply that leaf surface contamination, rather than root internalization, may pose higher risk for human infection following consumption of contaminated basil. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. In planta production of flock house virus transencapsidated RNA and its potential use as a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiyang; Maharaj, Payal D; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; McCormick, Alison A; Kearney, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a transencapsidated vaccine delivery system based on the insect virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is attractive due to its small genome size, simple organization, and nonpathogenic characteristics. With the insertion of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) origin of assembly (Oa), the independently replicating FHV RNA1 can be transencapsidated by TMV coat protein. In this study, we demonstrated that the Oa-adapted FHV RNA1 transencapsidation process can take place in planta, by using a bipartite plant expression vector system, where TMV coat protein is expressed by another plant virus vector, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV). Dual infection in the same cell by both FHV and FoMV was observed. Though an apparent classical coat protein-mediated resistance repressed FHV expression, this was overcome by delaying inoculation of the TMV coat protein vector by 3 days after FHV vector inoculation. Expression of the transgene marker in animals by these in vivo-generated transencapsidated nanoparticles was confirmed by mouse vaccination, which also showed an improved vaccine response compared to similar in vitro-produced vaccines.

  5. Native-sized spider silk proteins synthesized in planta via intein-based multimerization.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Valeska; Weichert, Nicola; Menzel, Matthias; Knoch, Dominic; Paege, Norman; Scheller, Jürgen; Spohn, Uwe; Conrad, Udo; Gils, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of native-sized proteins is a pre-requisite for exploiting the potential of spider silk as a bio-based material. The unique properties of spider silk, such as extraordinary tensile strength and elasticity, result from the highly repetitive nature of spider silk protein motifs. The present report describes the combination of spider silk flagelliform protein (FLAG) production in the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco plant leaf cells with an intein-based posttranslational protein fusion technology. The repeated ligation of FLAG monomers resulted in the formation of large multimers. This method avoids the need for highly repetitive transgenes, which may result in a higher genetic and transcriptional stability. Here we show, for the first time, the production of synthetic, high molecular weight spider silk proteins larger than 250 kDa based on the assembly of protein monomers via intein-mediated trans-splicing in planta. The resulting multimeric structures form microfibers, thereby demonstrating their great potential as a biomaterial.

  6. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hak, Hagit; Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard; Loyter, Abraham; Lapidot, Moshe; Gafni, Yedidya

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  7. In Planta Determination of the mRNA-Binding Proteome of Arabidopsis Etiolated Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Marlene; Liao, Yalin; Rettel, Mandy; Ragan, Chikako; Evers, Maurits; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Horos, Rastislav; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas; Millar, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate and expression of a transcriptome. Despite this fundamental importance, our understanding of plant RBPs is rudimentary, being mainly derived via bioinformatic extrapolation from other kingdoms. Here, we adapted the mRNA-protein interactome capture method to investigate the RNA binding proteome in planta. From Arabidopsis thaliana etiolated seedlings, we captured more than 700 proteins, including 300 with high confidence that we have defined as the At-RBP set. Approximately 75% of these At-RBPs are bioinformatically linked with RNA biology, containing a diversity of canonical RNA binding domains (RBDs). As no prior experimental RNA binding evidence exists for the majority of these proteins, their capture now authenticates them as RBPs. Moreover, we identified protein families harboring emerging and potentially novel RBDs, including WHIRLY, LIM, ALBA, DUF1296, and YTH domain-containing proteins, the latter being homologous to animal RNA methylation readers. Other At-RBP set proteins include major signaling proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, membrane transporters, and enzymes, suggesting the scope and function of RNA-protein interactions within a plant cell is much broader than previously appreciated. Therefore, our foundation data set has provided an unbiased insight into the RNA binding proteome of plants, on which future investigations into plant RBPs can be based.

  8. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    PubMed Central

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  9. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzik, R.; Bandurska, K.; Deka, D.; Golovkin, M.; Koprowski, H. . E-mail: h_koprowski@jefferson.edu

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  10. Development of 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins which are extremely stable in planta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Yamasaki, Soma; Zhao, Yunde; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-15

    Phytohormone auxin is a master regulator in plant growth and development. Regulation of cellular auxin level plays a central role in plant development. Auxin polar transport system modulates an auxin gradient that determines plant developmental process in response to environmental conditions and developmental programs. Photolabile caged auxins allow optical control of artificial auxin gradients at cellular resolution. Especially, two-photon uncaging system achieves high spatiotemporal control of photolysis reaction at two-photon cross-section. However, the development of caged versions of auxin has been limited by the instability of the caged auxins to higher plant metabolic activities. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of highly stable caged auxins, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-caged auxins. Natural auxin, indole 3-acetic acid, and two synthetic auxins, 1-NAA and 2,4-D were caged by MNI caging group. MNI-caged auxins showed a high stability in planta and a rapid release the original auxin when photolyzed. We demonstrated that optical control of auxin-responsive gene expression and auxin-related physiological responses by using MNI-caged auxins. We anticipate that MNI-caged auxins will be an effective tool for high-resolution control of endogenous auxin level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytorhabdovirus P protein suppresses RISC-mediated cleavage and RNA silencing amplification in planta.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Johnson, Karyn N; Carroll, Bernard J; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-03-01

    Plant viruses have evolved to undermine the RNA silencing pathway by expressing suppressor protein(s) that interfere with one or more key components of this antiviral defense. Here we show that the recently identified RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) of lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV), phosphoprotein P, binds to RNA silencing machinery proteins AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, RDR6 and SGS3 in protein-protein interaction assays when transiently expressed. In planta, we demonstrate that LNYV P inhibits miRNA-guided AGO1 cleavage and translational repression, and RDR6/SGS3-dependent amplification of silencing. Analysis of LNYV P deletion mutants identified a C-terminal protein domain essential for both local RNA silencing suppression and interaction with AGO1, AGO2, AGO4, RDR6 and SGS3. In contrast to other viral RSS known to disrupt AGO activity, LNYV P sequence does not contain any recognizable GW/WG or F-box motifs. This suggests that LNYV P may represent a new class of AGO binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of Tomato planta macho viroid in germinating pollen and transmitting tract.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yosuke; Yanagisawa, Hironobu

    2017-09-23

    Vertical and horizontal pollen transmission is important for efficient infection by viroids. Vertical pollen transmission of viroids is attributed to the infection by viroid in the embryo sac through infected pollen. To identify the viroid infection in pollen and pollen tubes elongating through the transmitting tract, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) in pollen grains, the stigma, and style of petunia plants. TPMVd was present in the generative nucleus and vegetative nucleus of mature infected pollen grains and germinating pollen grains. During pollen tube growth, TPMVd was present in the vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei, which were generated by division of the generative nucleus in the style transmitting tract. These findings indicated that viroid infection in sperm nuclei is responsible for vertical pollen transmission of viroids. TPMVd infection from TPMVd-infected pollen tubes to the transmitting tract was not observed. In addition, TPMVd signals were not confirmed in the stigma and transmitting tract of TPMVd-infected petunia plants, suggesting that viroids may not replicate in these tissues at the stage of mature style. Therefore, TPMVd may leak from the pollen tube somewhere in the ovary, except in the transmitting tract, during the horizontal transmission of TPMVd.

  13. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, R; Bandurska, K; Deka, D; Golovkin, M; Koprowski, H

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP.

  14. The signal transduction pathways controlling in planta tuberization in potato: an emerging synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    Tuberization is one of the multiple outputs of a single-input phytochrome B sensory system, involving several regulatory genes. Phytochrome B- and GA-mediated photoperiodic perception occurs in the leaf, and then the RNA acts as a systemic signal in the long-distance signaling pathway to initiate tuberization in the subapical region of an underground stolon. There is good evidence that flowering and tuberizing signals might be similar. Is there a cross-talk with an oxidative burst-mediated redox signaling pathway during tuberization? Is the lipoxygenase cascade involved in the formation of the perimedullary tissue in a growing tuber? Do aquaporins regulate cell division, expansion and elongation during stolon growth and tuber induction in potato? Is the adaptive diversity for tuberization under varying photoperiods a micro-evolutionary indicator of differential transduction of cell-to-cell signal molecules under spatial and temporal expression of regulatory genes encoding transcriptional activators? Taking these views into consideration, the review presents an interim synthesis of a signaling network regulating in planta tuberization in potato.

  15. The nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  16. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  17. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  19. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  20. Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms: The relevance of in planta studies.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, A Nicholas E; Kiss, Jozsef; van Loon, Joop J A; Messéan, Antoine; Nuti, Marco; Perry, Joe N; Sweet, Jeremy B; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-04-01

    In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols. The importance of in planta studies as a strategy to address impacts of GMPs on non-target organisms is demonstrated, to evaluate both effects due to the intended modification in plant phenotype (e.g. expression of Cry proteins) and effects due to unintended modifications in plant phenotype resulting from the transformation process (e.g. due to somaclonal variations or pleiotropic effects). In planta tests are also necessary for GMPs in which newly expressed metabolites cannot easily be studied in vitro. This paper reviews the scientific literature supporting the choice of in planta studies as a fundamental tool in ERA of GMPs in cultivation dossiers; the evidence indicates they can realistically mimic the ecological relationships occurring in their receiving environments and provide important insights into the biology and sustainable management of GMPs.

  1. Assessment of factors influencing the Agrobacterium-mediated in planta seed transformation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Kondeti; Rajesh, Manoharan; Jaganath, Balusamy; Vasuki, Amirthalingam; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Karthik, Sivabalan; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-09-01

    An efficient and reproducible in planta transformation method was developed for brinjal using seed as an explant. The brinjal seeds were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1301-bar plasmid, and the transformants were selected against BASTA®. Several parameters influencing the in planta seed transformation such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, surfactants, duration of sonication, vacuum pressure and vacuum duration have been evaluated. The putatively transformed (T 0) brinjal plants were screened by GUS histochemical analysis. Among the different combinations and concentrations tested, when the 18-h pre-cultured brinjal seeds were sonicated for 20 min and vacuum infiltered for 3 min at 500 mm of Hg in Agrobacterium suspension containing 100 μM acetosyringone, 0.2 % Silwett L-77 favoured the Agrobacterium infection and showed maximum transformation efficiency. Among the five brinjal varieties evaluated, Arka Samhitha showed maximum transformation efficiency at 45.66 %. The transgene was successfully transmitted to progeny plants (T 1) which was evidenced by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridisation. The in planta protocol developed in the present study would be beneficial to transfer the economically and nutritionally important genes into different varieties of brinjal, and the transgenic brinjal plants can be produced in less time (approximately 27 days).

  2. An efficient in planta transformation of Jatropha curcas (L.) and multiplication of transformed plants through in vivo grafting.

    PubMed

    Jaganath, Balusamy; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Mayavan, Subramanian; Karthik, Sivabalan; Elayaraja, Dhandapani; Udayakumar, Rajangam; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-05-01

    An efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation was developed in Jatropha curcas. The various factors affecting J. curcas in planta transformation were optimized, including decapitation, Agrobacterium strain, pin-pricking, vacuum infiltration duration and vacuum pressure. Simple vegetative in vivo cleft grafting method was adopted in the multiplication of transformants without the aid of tissue culture. Among the various parameters evaluated, decapitated plants on pin-pricking and vacuum infiltrated at 250 mmHg for 3 min with the Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 harbouring the binary vector pGA 492 was proved to be efficient in all terms with a transformation efficiency of 62.66%. Transgene integration was evinced by the GUS histochemical analysis, and the GUS positive plants were subjected to grafting. Putatively transformed J. curcas served as "Scion" and the wild type J. curcas plant severed as "Stock". There was no occurrence of graft rejection and the plants were then confirmed by GUS histochemical analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Genetic stability of the grafted plants was evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), marker which showed 100% genetic stability between mother and grafted plants. Thus, an efficient in planta transformation and grafting based multiplication of J. curcas was established.

  3. Understanding colonization and proliferation potential of endophytes and pathogen in planta via plating, polymerase chain reaction and ergosterol assay.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yiing Yng; Rahman, Sadequr; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the colonization behavior and proliferation potential of three endophytes and one pathogen Ganoderma boninense (Gb) introduced into oil palm ramets (host model). The endophytes selected were Diaporthe phaseolorum (WAA02), Trichoderma asperellum (T2), and Penicillium citrinum (BTF08). Ramets were first inoculated with 100 mL of fungal cells (10(6) cfu mL(-)(1)) via soil drenching. For the next 7 days, ramets were sampled and subjected to three different assays to detect and identify fungal colonization, and establish their proliferation potential in planta. Plate assay revealed the presence of endophytes in root, stem and leaf tissues within 7 days after inoculation. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected and identified the isolates from the plant tissues. The ergosterol assay (via high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) confirmed the presence of endophytes and Gb in planta. The increase in ergosterol levels throughout 49 days was however insignificant, suggesting that proliferation may be absent or may occur very slowly in planta. This study strongly suggests that the selected endophytes could colonize the host upon inoculation, but proliferation occurs at a slower rate, which may subsequently influence the biocontrol expression of endophytes against the pathogen.

  4. Analysis of the in planta transcriptome expressed by the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii via RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Packard, Holly; Kernell Burke, Alison; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M

    2017-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a bacterial phytopathogen that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn. It uses quorum sensing to regulate expression of some genes involved in virulence in a cell density-dependent manner as the bacterial population grows from small numbers at the initial infection site in the leaf apoplast to high cell numbers in the xylem where it forms a biofilm. There are also other genes important for pathogenesis not under quorum-sensing control such as a Type III secretion system. The purpose of this study was to compare gene expression during an in planta infection versus either a pre-inoculum in vitro liquid culture or an in vitro agar plate culture to identify genes specifically expressed in planta that may also be important for colonization and/or virulence. RNA was purified from each sample type to determine the transcriptome via RNA-Seq using Illumina sequencing of cDNA. Fold gene expression changes in the in planta data set in comparison to the two in vitro grown samples were determined and a list of the most differentially expressed genes was generated to elucidate genes important for plant association. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate expression patterns for a select subset of genes. Analysis of the transcriptome data via gene ontology revealed that bacterial transporters and systems important for oxidation reduction processes appear to play a critical role for P. stewartii as it colonizes and causes wilt disease in corn plants.

  5. 75 FR 30078 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). By letter dated May 20, 2010, the Director denied the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee...

  6. A transient expression assay for the in planta efficacy screening of an antimicrobial peptide against grapevine bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Stephan, D; Jaynes, J M; Burger, J T

    2012-06-01

    Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of increasing interest as potential resistance conferring elements in plants against pathogen infection. The efficacy of AMPs against pathogens is prescreened by in vitro assays, and promising AMP candidates are introduced as transgenes into plants. As in vitro and in planta environments differ, a prescreening procedure of the AMP efficacy in the plant environment is desired. Here, we report the efficacy of the purified synthetic peptide D4E1 against the grapevine-infecting bacterial pathogens Agrobacterium vitis and Xylophilus ampelinus in vitro and describe for the first time an in planta prescreening procedure based on transiently expressed D4E1. The antimicrobial effect of D4E1 against Ag. vitis and X. ampelinus was shown by a reduction in colony-forming units in vitro in a traditional plate-based assay and by a reduction in bacterial titres in planta as measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in grapevine leaves transiently expressing D4E1. A statistically significant reduction in titre was shown for X. ampelinus, but for Ag. vitis, a significant reduction in titre was only observed in a subset of plants. The titres of both grapevine-infecting bacterial pathogens were reduced in an in vitro assay and for X. ampelinus in an in planta assay by D4E1 application. This widens the applicability of D4E1 as a potential resistance-enhancing element to additional pathogens and in a novel plant species. D4E1 is a promising candidate to confer enhanced resistance against the two tested grapevine bacterial pathogens, and the applied transient expression system proved to be a valuable tool for prescreening of D4E1 efficacy in an in planta environment. The described prescreening procedure can be used for other AMPs and might be adapted to other plant species and pathogens before the expensive and tedious development of stably transgenic lines is started. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012

  7. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  8. Fifty years since the nuclear accident in Palomares (Almeria). Medical repercussions.

    PubMed

    Laynez-Bretones, F; Lozano-Padilla, C

    In January 1966, 2 US military aircraft collided over the skies of Palomares (Almeria). One of them carried thermonuclear bombs, which released plutonium and other radioactive materials upon striking the ground. The most contaminated earth and plants were immediately removed. The Indalo Project was launched to study the effects of nuclear material on the inhabitants and environment of Palomares. A total of 1,077 inhabitants have been monitored since then, and the official version is that the ionising radiation has not been related to any type of disease. However, secrecy has surrounded much of the investigations, and no trustworthy epidemiological study has been conducted in the area. Approximately 500g of plutonium and americium remains in Palomares. Although the risk for the population appears to be low, this radioactive material should be removed as soon as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous infusion of amphotericin B: preliminary experience at Faculdade de Medicina da Fundação ABC.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Roberto Palermo; Sá, Victor Hugo Lara de; Koshimura, Erika Tae; Prudente, Fernanda Vilas Boas; Tucunduva, Luciana Tomanik Cardozo de Mello; Gonçalves, Marina Sahade; Samano, Eliana Sueco Tibana; del Giglio, Auro

    2005-09-01

    Intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-D) infusions, usually given over 4 hours, frequently induce nephrotoxicity and undesirable infusion-related side effects such as rigors and chills. There is evidence in the literature that the use of AmB-D in the form of continuous 24-hour infusion is less toxic than the usual four-hour infusion of this drug. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous infusion of AmB-D for the treatment of persistent fever in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy. Observational retrospective analysis of our experience with continuous infusion of AmB-D, at Faculdade de Medicina da Fundação ABC and Hospital Estadual Mário Covas in Santo André. From October 2003 to May 2004, 12 patients with hematological malignancies and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia received 13 cycles of continuous infusion of AmB-D. The median dose of AmB-D was 0.84 mg/kg/day (0.33 to 2.30 mg/kg/day). Concomitant use of nephrotoxic medications occurred in 92% of the cycles. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 30.76% of the cycles, hypokalemia in 16.67%, hepatotoxicity in 30% and adverse infusion-related events in 23%. All patients survived for at least seven days after starting continuous infusion of AmB-D, and clinical resolution occurred in 76% of the cycles. Continuous infusion of AmB-D can be used in our Institution as an alternative to the more toxic four-hour infusion of AmB-D and possibly also as an alternative to the more expensive liposomal formulations of the drug.

  10. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  11. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  15. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  16. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  17. Nuclear Terms: a glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, David A.

    1981-05-31

    This booklet is a revision of Nuclear Terms: A Glossary, published in 1967 by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. New fields, such as laser fusion and laser isotope separation, are included and nuclear weapons terms are deleted. Thus, it is a glossary for nuclear fission and fusion science and for commercial applications. David A. Freiwald, Frank C. DiLuzio, and Leslie M. Redman prepared this revised glossary. Contributions were made by other members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory staff.

  18. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  19. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  20. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  1. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by June 30, 2008. The opening of the repository is now scheduled for 2017 . This report will be updated as events...repository licensing process, according to DOE, nuclear waste shipments to Yucca Mountain could begin by 2017 . NRC issued the first nuclear reactor Early Site...contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine , which concentrates in the thyroid. Although the Chernobyl Forum found only 15 deaths from those

  2. Abscisic acid metabolizing rhizobacteria decrease ABA concentrations in planta and alter plant growth.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Dumova, Valentina A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Ladatko, Alexander G; Davies, William J

    2014-01-01

    Although endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) regulate root growth, and many rhizobacteria can modulate root phytohormone status, hitherto there have been no reports of rhizobacteria mediating root ABA concentrations and growth by metabolising ABA. Using a selective ABA-supplemented medium, two bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in sod-podzolic soil and assigned to Rhodococcus sp. P1Y and Novosphingobium sp. P6W using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic patterns by the GEN III MicroPlate test. Although strain P6W had more rapid growth in ABA-supplemented media than strain P1Y, both could utilize ABA as a sole carbon source in batch culture. When rice seeds were germinated on filter paper in association with bacteria, root ABA concentration was not affected, but shoot ABA concentration of inoculated plants decreased by 14% (strain P6W) and 22% (strain P1Y). When tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genotypes differing in ABA biosynthesis (ABA deficient mutants flacca - flc, and notabilis - not and the wild-type cv. Ailsa Craig, WT) were grown in gnotobiotic cultures on nutrient solution agar, rhizobacterial inoculation decreased root and/or leaf ABA concentrations, depending on plant and bacteria genotypes. Strain P6W inhibited primary root elongation of all genotypes, but increased leaf biomass of WT plants. In WT plants treated with silver ions that inhibit ethylene perception, both ABA-metabolising strains significantly decreased root ABA concentration, and strain P6W decreased leaf ABA concentration. Since these changes in ABA status also occurred in plants that were not treated with silver, it suggests that ethylene was probably not involved in regulating bacteria-mediated changes in ABA concentration. Correlations between plant growth and ABA concentrations in planta suggest that ABA-metabolising rhizobacteria may stimulate growth via an ABA-dependent mechanism.

  3. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures

    PubMed Central

    Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a ‘lost-wax’ technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the ‘ray cell’ structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure. PMID:19955122

  4. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M.; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes. PMID:26788428

  5. Cytokine changes in gastric and colonic epithelial cell in response to Planta ovata extract.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Abbas, Zaigham; Tariq, Kanwal

    2017-03-22

    Background Psyllium (Planta ovata, Ispaghul) seed and husk are used for treatment of altered bowel habit, i. e. constipation and diarrhea. We studied the effect of Ispaghul extract on secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) by AGS (ATCC CRL 1739) and SW480 (ATCC CCL-227) epithelial cell lines and determined whether Ispaghul extract has an effect on IL-1β secretion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-stimulated AGS cell and Escherichia coli K-12 (E. coli K-12)-stimulated SW480 cells in vitro. Methods The AGS cells and SW480 cells were pretreated with Ispaghul extract in concentrations, i. e. 3.5 and 7 μg/mL prior to infection with H. pylori and E. coli K-12. Results DNA fragmentation in AGS and SW480 cells treated with Ispaghul extract was not significant (2.3±0.8 %) compared with untreated cells (2.2±0.6 %). Ispaghul extract decreased the H. pylori-stimulated secretion of IL-1β by AGS cell (p<0.0001). This effect did not increase as the concentration of extract was increased. Ispaghul extract also decreased E. coli K-12-stimulated IL-1β secretion by SW480 cell (p<0.0001). This effect increased as the concentration of extracts was increased. Conclusions Ispaghul extract had an effect on stimulated secretion of IL-1β by the AGS and SW480 cell. It decreased pro-inflammatory reaction from both cell lines stimulated by bacteria.

  6. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany M; Robène, Isabelle; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem. Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes.

  7. A real-time fluorogenic assay for the visualization of glycoside hydrolase activity in planta.

    PubMed

    Ibatullin, Farid M; Banasiak, Alicja; Baumann, Martin J; Greffe, Lionel; Takahashi, Junko; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Brumer, Harry

    2009-12-01

    There currently exists a diverse array of molecular probes for the in situ localization of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins in plant cells, including reporter enzyme strategies (e.g. protein-glucuronidase fusions). In contrast, however, there is a paucity of methods for the direct analysis of endogenous glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases responsible for cell wall remodeling. To exemplify the potential of fluorogenic resorufin glycosides to address this issue, a resorufin beta-glycoside of a xylogluco-oligosaccharide (XXXG-beta-Res) was synthesized as a specific substrate for in planta analysis of XEH activity. The resorufin aglycone is particularly distinguished for high sensitivity in muro assays due to a low pK(a) (5.8) and large extinction coefficient (epsilon 62,000 M(-1) cm(-1)), long-wavelength fluorescence (excitation 571 nm/emission 585 nm), and high quantum yield (0.74) of the corresponding anion. In vitro analyses demonstrated that XXXG-beta-Res is hydrolyzed by the archetypal plant XEH, nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) NXG1, with classical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation kinetics and a linear dependence on both enzyme concentration and incubation time. Further, XEH activity could be visualized in real time by observing the localized increase in fluorescence in germinating nasturtium seeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescent stems by confocal microscopy. Importantly, this new in situ XEH assay provides an essential complement to the in situ xyloglucan endotransglycosylase assay, thus allowing delineation of the disparate activities encoded by xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes directly in plant tissues. The observation that XXXG-beta-Res is also hydrolyzed by diverse microbial XEHs indicates that this substrate, and resorufin glycosides in general, may find broad applicability for the analysis of wall restructuring by polysaccharide hydrolases during morphogenesis and plant-microbe interactions.

  8. Bioinspired engineering study of Plantae vascules for self-healing composite structures.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-06-06

    This paper presents the first conceptual study into creating a Plantae-inspired vascular network within a fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminate, which provides an ongoing self-healing functionality without incurring a mass penalty. Through the application of a 'lost-wax' technique, orthogonal hollow vascules, inspired by the 'ray cell' structures found in ring porous hardwoods, were successfully introduced within a carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite laminate. The influence on fibre architecture and mechanical behaviour of single vascules (located on the laminate centreline) when aligned parallel and transverse to the local host ply was characterized experimentally using a compression-after-impact test methodology. Ultrasonic C-scanning and high-resolution micro-CT X-ray was undertaken to identify the influence of and interaction between the internal vasculature and impact damage. The results clearly show that damage morphology is influenced by vascule orientation and that a 10 J low-velocity impact damage event is sufficient to breach the vasculature; a prerequisite for any subsequent self-healing function. The residual compressive strength after a 10 J impact was found to be dependent upon vascule orientation. In general, residual compressive strength decreased to 70 per cent of undamaged strength when vasculature was aligned parallel to the local host ply and a value of 63 per cent when aligned transverse. This bioinspired engineering study has illustrated the potential that a vasculature concept has to offer in terms of providing a self-healing function with minimum mass penalty, without initiating premature failure within a composite structure.

  9. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation in planta via synthetic dCas9-based transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Agnieszka; Ali, Zahir; Baazim, Hatoon; Li, Lixin; Abulfaraj, Aala; Al-Shareef, Sahar; Aouida, Mustapha; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2015-05-01

    Targeted genomic regulation is a powerful approach to accelerate trait discovery and development in agricultural biotechnology. Bacteria and archaea use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) regulatory systems for adaptive molecular immunity against foreign nucleic acids introduced by invading phages and conjugative plasmids. The type II CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted for genome editing in many cell types and organisms. A recent study used the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) protein combined with guide-RNAs (gRNAs) as a DNA-targeting platform to modulate gene expression in bacterial, yeast, and human cells. Here, we modified this DNA-targeting platform for targeted transcriptional regulation in planta by developing chimeric dCas9-based transcriptional activators and repressors. To generate transcriptional activators, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the activation domains of EDLL and TAL effectors. To generate a transcriptional repressor, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the SRDX repression domain. Our data demonstrate that dCas9 fusion with the EDLL activation domain (dCas9:EDLL) and the TAL activation domain (dCas9:TAD), guided by gRNAs complementary to selected promoter elements, induce strong transcriptional activation on Bs3::uidA targets in plant cells. Further, the dCas9:SRDX-mediated transcriptional repression of an endogenous gene. Thus, our results suggest that the synthetic transcriptional repressor (dCas9:SRDX) and activators (dCas9:EDLL and dCas9:TAD) can be used as endogenous transcription factors to repress or activate transcription of an endogenous genomic target. Our data indicate that the CRISPR/dCas9 DNA-targeting platform can be used in plants as a functional genomics tool and for biotechnological applications. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Ross, Jeannine; Negre, Florence; Fraser, Chris M.; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT’s three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in planta depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  11. A rapid assay to quantify the cleavage efficiency of custom-designed nucleases in planta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ross A; Gurevich, Vyacheslav; Levy, Avraham A

    2013-06-01

    Custom-designed nucleases are a promising technology for genome editing through the catalysis of double-strand DNA breaks within target loci and subsequent repair by the host cell, which can result in targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement. Implementing this new technology requires a rapid means to determine the cleavage efficiency of these custom-designed proteins in planta. Here we present such an assay that is based on cleavage-dependent luciferase gene correction as part of a transient dual-luciferase(®) reporter (Promega) expression system. This assay consists of co-infiltrating Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains: one contains the target sequence embedded within a luciferase reporter gene and the second strain contains the custom-designed nuclease gene(s). We compared repair following site-specific nuclease digestion through non-homologous DNA end-joining, as opposed to single strand DNA annealing, as a means to restore an out-of-frame luciferase gene cleavage-reporter construct. We show, using luminometer measurements and bioluminescence imaging, that the assay for non-homologous end-joining is sensitive, quantitative, reproducible and rapid in estimating custom-designed nucleases' cleavage efficiency. We detected cleavage by two out of three transcription activator-like effector nucleases that we custom-designed for targets in the Arabidopsis CRUCIFERIN3 gene, and we compared with the well-established 'QQR' zinc-finger nuclease. The assay we report requires only standard equipment and basic plant molecular biology techniques, and it can be carried out within a few days. Different types of custom-designed nucleases can be preliminarily tested in our assay system before their downstream application in plant genome editing.

  12. Label-free chemically specific imaging in planta with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Jessica C; Littlejohn, George R; Seymour, Mark P; Lind, Rob J; Perfect, Sarah; Moger, Julian

    2013-05-21

    The growing world population puts ever-increasing demands on the agricultural and agrochemical industries to increase agricultural yields. This can only be achieved by investing in fundamental plant and agrochemical research and in the development of improved analytical tools to support research in these areas. There is currently a lack of analytical tools that provide noninvasive structural and chemical analysis of plant tissues at the cellular scale. Imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy provide label-free chemically specific image contrast based on vibrational spectroscopy. Over the past decade, these techniques have been shown to offer clear advantages for a vast range of biomedical research applications. The intrinsic vibrational contrast provides label-free quantitative functional analysis, it does not suffer from photobleaching, and it allows near real-time imaging in 3D with submicrometer spatial resolution. However, due to the susceptibility of current detection schemes to optical absorption and fluorescence from pigments (such as chlorophyll), the plant science and agrochemical research communities have not been able to benefit from these techniques and their application in plant research has remained virtually unexplored. In this paper, we explore the effect of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorption in CARS and SRS microscopy. We show that with the latter it is possible to use phase-sensitive detection to separate the vibrational signal from the (electronic) absorption processes. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of SRS for a range of in planta applications by presenting in situ chemical analysis of plant cell wall components, epicuticular waxes, and the deposition of agrochemical formulations onto the leaf surface.

  13. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  14. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  15. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  16. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  18. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  19. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  20. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  2. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  3. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  4. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  5. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  6. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  7. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  8. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  9. Nuclear Weapon A Necessity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    the weapon systems available. The nuclear changing strategies, from "massive retaliation, flexible response, counter force, counter value , mutual...technological advancement, communication, transportation and manpower resources. Last but not the least, the maintenance of national morale and motivation...crisis. This meant continuos control of nuclear weapons. The organizations designed to control such weapons have no doubt checks and balances and many 12

  10. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  11. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  13. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  14. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  15. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  16. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  17. The nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Stephen A

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes, the conduits for information exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm, appear broadly similar in eukaryotes from yeast to human. Precisely how nuclear pore complexes regulate macromolecular and ionic traffic remains unknown, but recent advances in the identification and characterization of components of the complex by proteomics and genomics have provided new insights. PMID:11574060

  18. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  19. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  20. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  2. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  3. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  4. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  5. Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-20

    nuclear weapon, or the materials to craft one. For many, this nuclear nightmare was tempered by disbelief that terrorist organizations would be...three European countries, Britain, France, and Germany, led to an agreement by Iran in November 2004 to “continue and extend its suspension of all

  6. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  8. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  9. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  10. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  11. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  13. Nuclear transfer in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0–4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat. PMID:14678485

  14. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  15. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  16. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  17. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  18. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  19. The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. PMID:22807564

  20. Significant reduction of BiFC non-specific assembly facilitates in planta assessment of heterotrimeric G-protein interactors.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Timothy E; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-11-01

    Protein networks and signaling cascades are key mechanisms for intra- and intercellular signal transduction. Identifying the interacting partners of a protein can provide vital clues regarding its physiological role. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has become a routine tool for in vivo analysis of protein-protein interactions and their subcellular location. Although the BiFC system has improved since its inception, the available options for in planta analysis are still subject to very low signal-to-noise ratios, and a systematic comparison of BiFC confounding background signals has been lacking. Background signals can obscure weak interactions, provide false positives, and decrease confidence in true positives. To overcome these problems, we performed an extensive in planta analysis of published BiFC fragments used in metazoa and plants, and then developed an optimized single vector BiFC system which utilizes monomeric Venus (mVenus) split at residue 210, and contains an integrated mTurquoise2 marker to precisely identify transformed cells in order to distinguish true negatives. Here we provide our streamlined double ORF expression (pDOE) BiFC system, and show that our advance in BiFC methodology functions even with an internally fused mVenus210 fragment. We illustrate the efficacy of the system by providing direct visualization of Arabidopsis MLO1 interacting with a calmodulin-like (CML) protein, and by showing that heterotrimeric G-protein subunits Gα (GPA1) and Gβ (AGB1) interact in plant cells. We further demonstrate that GPA1 and AGB1 each physically interact with PLDα1 in planta, and that mutation of the so-called PLDα1 'DRY' motif abolishes both of these interactions. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysis of the in planta transcriptome expressed by the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii via RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Holly; Kernell Burke, Alison; Jensen, Roderick V.

    2017-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a bacterial phytopathogen that causes Stewart’s wilt disease in corn. It uses quorum sensing to regulate expression of some genes involved in virulence in a cell density-dependent manner as the bacterial population grows from small numbers at the initial infection site in the leaf apoplast to high cell numbers in the xylem where it forms a biofilm. There are also other genes important for pathogenesis not under quorum-sensing control such as a Type III secretion system. The purpose of this study was to compare gene expression during an in planta infection versus either a pre-inoculum in vitro liquid culture or an in vitro agar plate culture to identify genes specifically expressed in planta that may also be important for colonization and/or virulence. RNA was purified from each sample type to determine the transcriptome via RNA-Seq using Illumina sequencing of cDNA. Fold gene expression changes in the in planta data set in comparison to the two in vitro grown samples were determined and a list of the most differentially expressed genes was generated to elucidate genes important for plant association. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate expression patterns for a select subset of genes. Analysis of the transcriptome data via gene ontology revealed that bacterial transporters and systems important for oxidation reduction processes appear to play a critical role for P. stewartii as it colonizes and causes wilt disease in corn plants. PMID:28462040

  2. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  3. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  4. Towards an Understanding of Enhanced Biomass Digestibility by In Planta Expression of a Family 5 Glycoside Hydrolase

    DOE PAGES

    Donohoe, Bryon S.; Wei, Hui; Mittal, Ashutosh; ...

    2017-06-29

    In planta expression of a thermophilic endoglucanase (AcCel5A) reduces recalcitrance by creating voids and other irregularities in cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana that increase enzyme accessibility without negative impacts on plant growth or cell wall composition. Furthermore, our results suggest that cellulose β-1–4 linkages can be cut sparingly in the assembling wall and that these minimal changes, made at the proper time, have an impact on plant cell wall recalcitrance without negative effects on overall plant development.

  5. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed Central

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4 ng μg−1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4 ng μg−1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. ‘Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har2] nodularin, which contains ℒ-homoarginine instead of ℒ-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74 ng ml−1 (approximately 3 pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har2] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har2] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta. PMID:22456448

  6. Nodularin, a cyanobacterial toxin, is synthesized in planta by symbiotic Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Gehringer, Michelle M; Adler, Lewis; Roberts, Alexandra A; Moffitt, Michelle C; Mihali, Troco K; Mills, Toby J T; Fieker, Claus; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Nostoc, is a commonly occurring cyanobacterium often found in symbiotic associations. We investigated the potential of cycad cyanobacterial endosymbionts to synthesize microcystin/nodularin. Endosymbiont DNA was screened for the aminotransferase domain of the toxin biosynthesis gene clusters. Five endosymbionts carrying the gene were screened for bioactivity. Extracts of two isolates inhibited protein phosphatase 2A and were further analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' both contained nodularin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) HESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of nodularin at 9.55±2.4 ng μg-1 chlorophyll a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia riedlei 65.1' and 12.5±8.4 ng μg-1 Chl a in Nostoc sp. 'Macrozamia serpentina 73.1' extracts. Further scans indicated the presence of the rare isoform [L-Har(2)] nodularin, which contains L-homoarginine instead of L-arginine. Nodularin was also present at 1.34±0.74 ng ml(-1) (approximately 3 pmol per g plant ww) in the methanol root extracts of M. riedlei MZ65, while the presence of [L-Har(2)] nodularin in the roots of M. serpentina MZ73 was suggested by HPLC HESI-MS/MS analysis. The ndaA-B and ndaF genomic regions were sequenced to confirm the presence of the hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal gene cluster. A seven amino-acid insertion into the NdaA-C1 domain of N. spumigena NSOR10 protein was observed in all endosymbiont-derived sequences, suggesting the transfer of the nda cluster from N. spumigena to terrestrial Nostoc species. This study demonstrates the synthesis of nodularin and [L-Har(2)] nodularin in a non-Nodularia species and the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by a symbiont in planta.

  7. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and

  8. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  9. 76 FR 15001 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc,. Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... Regulations (10 CFR) 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  10. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action... that the NRC take action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2. The petitioner's...

  11. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). Mr. Saporito... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  12. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Commission (NRC) take action with regard to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station. Mr. Mulligan requested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  13. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  14. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  15. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  16. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  17. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  20. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  1. Multi-technique approach for deriving a VLBI signal extra-path variation model induced by gravity: the example of Medicina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, P.; Abbondanza, C.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2009-09-01

    During the measurement sessions gravity might induce significant deformations in large VLBI telescopes. If neglected or mismodelled, these deformations might bias the phase of the incoming signal thus corrupting the estimate of some crucial geodetic parameters (e.g. the height component of VLBI Reference Point). This paper describes a multi-technique approach implemented for measuring and quantifying the gravity-dependent deformations experienced by the 32-m diameter VLBI antenna of Medicina (Northern Italy). Such an approach integrates three different methods: Terrestrial Triangulations and Trilaterations (TTT), Laser Scanning (LS) and a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the antenna. The combination of the observations performed with these methods allows to accurately define an elevation-dependent model of the signal path variation which appears to be, for the Medicina telescope, non negligible. In the range [0,90] deg the signal path increases monotonically by almost 2 cm. The effect of such a variation has not been introduced in actual VLBI analysis yet; nevertheless this is the task we are going to pursue in the very next future.

  2. [The German addendum to Hildegard von Bingen's 'Liber simplicis medicinae' in Codex 6952 of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (fol. 232v-238v)].

    PubMed

    Adamson, M W

    1995-01-01

    The article contains an analysis and edition of the German appendix to Hildegard of Bingen's 'Liber simplicis medicinae' ('LSM', also known as 'Physica') in Codex 6952 of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. Surprisingly, the German text is not based on the preceding Latin treatise, but on another unknown version of the 'LSM' which is closer to the archetype. The appendix thus has to be regarded as a new manuscript find, which also contains material found only in Hildegard's 'Liber compositae medicinae' ('LCM', also known as 'Causae et Curae'). This suggests that the translator had access to both texts, or that both once circulated as one treatise. In the reception of Hildegard's work, the 13-page German appendix is unique in that Hildegard's description of nature is transformed into three different types of medical writing: 1) a herbal, 2) a catalogue of diseases from head to toe and their remedies, and 3) a dietetic list of foodstuffs. To illustrate the technique applied by the compiler/translator, the edition of the Paris-appendix identifies all the quotes from the 'LSM' and 'LCM' which have so far been uncovered.

  3. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  4. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  5. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  6. The new nuclear nations

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it.

  7. Sorting the nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Denis C.; Willadsen, Kai; Buske, Fabian A.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Bailey, Timothy L.; Dellaire, Graham; Bodén, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Quantitative experimental analyses of the nuclear interior reveal a morphologically structured yet dynamic mix of membraneless compartments. Major nuclear events depend on the functional integrity and timely assembly of these intra-nuclear compartments. Yet, unknown drivers of protein mobility ensure that they are in the right place at the time when they are needed. Results: This study investigates determinants of associations between eight intra-nuclear compartments and their proteins in heterogeneous genome-wide data. We develop a model based on a range of candidate determinants, capable of mapping the intra-nuclear organization of proteins. The model integrates protein interactions, protein domains, post-translational modification sites and protein sequence data. The predictions of our model are accurate with a mean AUC (over all compartments) of 0.71. We present a complete map of the association of 3567 mouse nuclear proteins with intra-nuclear compartments. Each decision is explained in terms of essential interactions and domains, and qualified with a false discovery assessment. Using this resource, we uncover the collective role of transcription factors in each of the compartments. We create diagrams illustrating the outcomes of a Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Associated with an extensive range of transcription factors, the analysis suggests that PML bodies coordinate regulatory immune responses. Contact: m.boden@uq.edu.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21685104

  8. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  9. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  10. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is the March 1996 listing of NRC issuances. Included are: (1) NRC orders granting Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company`s petition for review of the ASLB order LBP-95-17, (2) NRC orders relating to the potential disqualification of two commissioners in the matter of the decommissioning of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (3) ASLB orders pertaining to the Oncology Services Corporation, (4) ASLB orders pertaining to the Radiation Oncology Center, (5) ASLB orders pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and (6) Director`s decision pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  12. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Questions Remain Open In Mol Nuclear Scandal [ Michel Balthasart; Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS, 25-31 Mar 88] 35 FRANCE Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industry...at End of 1987 [M. Barron ; Paris REVUE GENERALE NUCLEAIRE, Jan-Feb 88] 36 TURKEY Argentina To Help Acquire ’Nuclear Technology’ [Atilla Atakan...51002447 Brussels LE VIF/L’EXPRESS in French 25-31 Mar 88 pp 24-26 [Article by Michel Balthasart] [Text] What does the boycott of the European

  13. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  14. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  15. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  16. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  17. Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Chen, Wen-Ming; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Wang, Hui-Chun; Sheu, Shih-Yi; Perin, Liamara; Reis, Veronica M; Moulin, Lionel; Simon, Marcelo F; Bontemps, Cyril; Sutherland, Joan M; Bessi, Rosana; de Faria, Sergio M; Trinick, Michael J; Prescott, Alan R; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2007-01-01

    * The ability of Burkholderia phymatum STM815 to effectively nodulate Mimosa spp., and to fix nitrogen ex planta, was compared with that of the known Mimosa symbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424. * Both strains were equally effective symbionts of M. pudica, but nodules formed by STM815 had greater nitrogenase activity. STM815 was shown to have a broader host range across the genus Mimosa than LMG19424, nodulating 30 out of 31 species, 21 of these effectively. LMG19424 effectively nodulated only nine species. GFP-marked variants were used to visualise symbiont presence within nodules. * STM815 gave significant acetylene reduction assay (ARA) activity in semisolid JMV medium ex planta, but no ARA activity was detected with LMG19424. 16S rDNA sequences of two isolates originally from Mimosa nodules in Papua New Guinea (NGR114 and NGR195A) identified them as Burkholderia phymatum also, with nodA, nodC and nifH genes of NGR195A identical to those of STM815. * B. phymatum is therefore an effective Mimosa symbiont with a broad host range, and is the first reported beta-rhizobial strain to fix nitrogen in free-living culture.

  18. In planta expression of a mature Der p 1 allergen isolated from an Italian strain of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Gianpiero; Albertini, Emidio; Mari, Adriano; Palazzo, Paola; Porceddu, Andrea; Raggi, Lorenzo; Bolis, Luigi; Lancioni, Hovirag; Palomba, Antonella; Lucentini, Livia; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Marcucci, Francesco; Falcinelli, Mario; Panara, Fausto

    2012-06-01

    European (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and American (Dermatophagoides farinae) house dust mite species are considered the most common causes of asthma and allergic symptoms worldwide. Der p 1 protein, one of the main allergens of D. pteronyssinus, is found in high concentration in mites faecal pellets, which can became easily airborne and, when inhaled, can cause perennial rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Here we report the isolation of the Der p 1 gene from an Italian strain of D. pteronyssinus and the PVX-mediated expression of its mature form (I-rDer p 1) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Human sera from characterized allergic patients were used for IgE binding inhibition assays to test the immunological reactivity of I-rDer p 1 produced in N. benthamiana plants. The binding properties of in planta produced I-rDer p 1 versus the IgE of patients sera were comparable to those obtained on Der p 1 preparation immobilized on a microarray. In this paper we provide a proof of concept for the production of an immunologically active form of Der p 1 using a plant viral vector. These results pave the way for the development of diagnostic allergy tests based on in planta produced allergens.

  19. Characterization of in planta-induced rust genes isolated from a haustorium-specific cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Mendgen, K

    1997-05-01

    Rust fungi are plant parasites that depend on living host tissue for growth. For invasion of leaves, dikaryotic urediospores differentiate germ tubes and infection structures that penetrate through stomata. Biotrophic growth occurs by intercellular mycelia that form haustoria within host cells. A cDNA library was constructed from haustoria isolated from broad bean leaves infected by Uromyces fabae. Differential screening revealed that a high proportion (19%) of the haustorial cDNAs are specifically expressed in planta but are not expressed, or are much weaker, in germlings or infection structures produced in vitro. A total of 31 different in planta-induced genes (PIGs) were identified. Some of the PIGs are highly expressed in haustoria. The PIGs are single or low copy number genes in the rust genome. A variety of developmentally regulated expression patterns of PIG mRNAs were observed. Sequence analysis of PIG cDNAs revealed similarities to genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid transport, thiamine biosynthesis, short-chain dehydrogenases, metallothioneins, cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, and peptidyl-prolyl isomerases.

  20. In-planta sporulation phenotype: a major life history trait to understand the evolution of Alnus-infective Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Adrien C; Bautista-Guerrero, Hector H; Nouioui, Imen; Cotin-Galvan, Laëtitia; Pepin, Régis; Fournier, Pascale; Menu, Frédéric; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Two major types of Frankia strains are usually recognized, based on the ability to sporulate in-planta: spore-positive (Sp+) and spore-negative (Sp-). We carried out a study of Sp+ and Sp- Frankia strains based on nodules collected on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana and Alnus viridis. The nodules were phenotyped using improved histology methods, and endophytic Frankia strain genotype was determined using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. An additional sampling was done to assess the relation between Sp+ phenotype frequency and genetic diversity of Frankia strains at the alder stand scale. Our results revealed that (i) Sp+ and Sp- Alnus-infective Frankia strains are genetically different even when sampled from the same alder stand and the same host-plant species; (ii) there are at least two distinct phylogenetic lineages of Sp+ Frankia that cluster according to the host-plant species and without regard of geographic distance and (iii) genetic diversity of Sp+ strains is very low at the alder stand scale compared with Sp- strains. Difference in evolutionary history and genetic diversity between Sp+ and Sp- Frankia allows us to discuss the possible ecological role of in-planta sporulation. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification and characterization of in planta-expressed secreted effector proteins from Magnaporthe oryzae that induce cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Venu, R C; Gowda, Malali; Bellizzi, Maria; Hu, Jinnan; Liu, Wende; Ebbole, Daniel; Meyers, Blake; Mitchell, Thomas; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between rice and Magnaporthe oryzae involve the recognition of cellular components and the exchange of complex molecular signals from both partners. How these interactions occur in rice cells is still elusive. We employed robust-long serial analysis of gene expression, massively parallel signature sequencing, and sequencing by synthesis to examine transcriptome profiles of infected rice leaves. A total of 6,413 in planta-expressed fungal genes, including 851 genes encoding predicted effector proteins, were identified. We used a protoplast transient expression system to assess 42 of the predicted effector proteins for the ability to induce plant cell death. Ectopic expression assays identified five novel effectors that induced host cell death only when they contained the signal peptide for secretion to the extracellular space. Four of them induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Although the five effectors are highly diverse in their sequences, the physiological basis of cell death induced by each was similar. This study demonstrates that our integrative genomic approach is effective for the identification of in planta-expressed cell death-inducing effectors from M. oryzae that may play an important role facilitating colonization and fungal growth during infection.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer in your child’s body will lose its radioactivity over time. In many cases, the radioactivity will ...

  3. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  4. Nuclear Clusters in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-03-01

    The role of nuclear clustering is discussed for nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution with Cluster Nucleosynthesis Diagram (CND) proposed before. Special emphasis is placed on α-induced stellar reactions together with molecular states for O and C burning.

  5. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  6. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  7. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  8. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  9. Nuclear energy: moving ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Electricity is assuming a larger role despite conservation efforts because it can be generated from a variety of fuels, it is essential for many industrial processes, and it is easier to control the environmental impacts from centralized power plants. The growth in electricity use over the next 10 years is expected to match that of productivity and the gross national product. After examining available energy sources and concluding that nuclear energy is necessary for an adequate and reliable supply, this booklet goes on to examine the risks, accidents and accident control, safety research, nuclear waste management, and the economics of nuclear energy. It concludes that nuclear energy is needed for both the transition period as fossil fuels are used up and in the long term when demand may increase as much as 50%. 24 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  11. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... and answer any questions you might have. A nuclear medicine technologist is a skilled medical professional who has received specialized education in the areas of anatomy, radiation protection, patient ...

  12. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  13. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  14. Technocrats and nuclear politics

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book arrives in an age of growing unease and dissatisfaction with the reassurances, by the nuclear power industry, of the safety of its power stations. The book's central purpose is to examine the motivations and varied perceptions which have laid the foundation for Britain's contemporary civil nuclear industry. The author pays particular attention to the role and influence of technical experts in the shaping of decisions within their own industry and the implementation of those decisions at the government level. The author shows how, in the British model, ministers and civil servants tend to serve as policy arbiters who set the parameters within which the dynamics of special interest groups provide policy options. This book combines several current themes; the politics of nuclear energy; the role of professional experts; and the impact of and drive for privitization. It examines the process of modern British policy-making and nuclear power politics, and holds implications that reach far beyond Britain.

  15. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  16. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  17. The nuclear weapons world

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents insight into the technical world of weapons production. It discusses accountability in nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Nuclear decisions and the weapons and strategy they concern are too mammoth, too complex and too intimidating a subject for most of us to grapple with. The more so because informed debate is rare, and because information is difficult to obtain. In Britain, Parliamentary questions receive evasive answers or no answers at all, and the rationale of official secrecy is used as a reason to reveal less and less about decisions on national defense: between 1981 and 1987, for example, the number of open government documents published on defence fell from fifty-seven to two. In the case of NATO, decisions on nuclear strategy into the next century are taken in secret by defence ministers meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group.

  18. Concise nuclear isobar charts

    SciTech Connect

    Bucka, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Concise Nuclear Isobar Charts, data on binding energies of protons and neutrons in the ground state and excitation energies for low-lying nuclear energy levels are displayed, both of which are of great interest for transition processes as well as for questions of nuclear structure. Also, quantum numbers for angular momentum and parity are shown for these energy levels. For the stable nuclei, data for the relative abundances, and for unstable nucleon configurations, the transition probabilities are included in the data displayed. Due to the representation chosen for the atomic nuclei, in many cases a very clear first survey of systematic properties of nuclear energy states as well as spontaneous decay processes is achieved.

  19. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  20. Nuclear Fiction for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brians, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that books with realistic views of both war and peace are still rare. Claims children cannot escape the subject of nuclear war so they deserve books that will confront their fears honestly and present reasonable solutions. (RT)

  1. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  2. Nuclear Mechanics in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, Monika; Ho, Chin Yee; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the biomechanical properties of cells have emerged as key players in a broad range of cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although much of the attention has focused on the cytoskeletal networks and the cell’s microenvironment, relatively little is known about the contribution of the cell nucleus. Here, we present an overview of the structural elements that determine the physical properties of the nucleus and discuss how changes in the expression of nuclear components or mutations in nuclear proteins can affect not only nuclear mechanics but also modulate cytoskeletal organization and diverse cellular functions. These findings illustrate that the nucleus is tightly integrated into the surrounding cellular structure. Consequently, changes in nuclear structure and composition are highly relevant to normal development and physiology and can contribute to many human diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, (premature) aging, and cancer. PMID:21756143

  3. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. British Nuclear Policymaking,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    14A.,J.R. Groorn, British Thinking About Nuclear Weapons, Pinter , London, 1974, p. 555. likely, particularly if its conventional forces were deployed...In an atmosphere of crisis, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan met with President Kennedy in late 1962 and quickly hammered out an agreement whereby the...power in 1964, Prime Minister Harold Wilson noted how dependent, in fact, Britain was on the United States for important components of the nuclear force

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  12. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    development of nuclear power stations. stand that thermal power generation (by coal) and hydropower generation can no longer meet the increas- ing...as quently, no firm decision was made on the construction building thermal power stations. In the first place, the of nuclear power stations, and...year, many thermal He pointed out that China is 20 years behind advanced power and hydropower experts pointed out that the way countries in developing

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    encourage civil nuclear programmes while dis- the environment from nuclear pollutants and the issue of couraging governments from pursuing military...like money taken from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Their thermal and coal make hardly any contribution, policy then was to build an Arab ally and Saddam...In this case, what can we expect? The calculations and the observations now show Entombment of Chernobyl Reactor Viewed that the thermal physical

  14. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    Command and Control Support System, which “enables robust Command and Control capability of all strategic assets with round the clock situational ...although then-President Musharraf claimed to be in firm control of the nuclear arsenal, she feared this control could weaken due to instability in the...strengthened export control laws, improved personnel security, and international nuclear security cooperation programs, have improved Pakistan’s

  15. Keeping Nuclear Materials Secure

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-19

    For 50 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been helping to keep nuclear materials secure. We do this by developing instruments and training inspectors that are deployed to other countries to make sure materials such as uranium are being used for peaceful purposes and not diverted for use in weapons. These measures are called “nuclear safeguards,” and they help make the world a safer place.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  17. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  18. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  19. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  1. Nuclear transport and transcription.

    PubMed

    Komeili, A; O'Shea, E K

    2000-06-01

    The compartmentalization of DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells establishes a connection between the nuclear transport machinery and the transcriptional apparatus. General transcription factors, as well as specific transcriptional activators and repressors, such as p53 and NF-AT, need to be imported into the nucleus following their translation. In addition, nuclear transport plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of many transcription factors.

  2. Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-15

    Systems and Concepts Office Contract No: DTRA01-00- D -0003, Delivery Order 0018 Prepared by: Team Lead – Gregory Giles Christine Cleary...projects on chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons issues. This work was performed for DTRA under contract DTRA01-00- D -0003, Task 18...highly provocative. The same reasoning would seem to apply not only to U.S. operational nuclear forces but also the “responsive force” of reserve

  3. Nuclear Warfare Water Contamination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Products x Applied Health Physics, Inc x Applied Physical Technology, Inc x Aptec Nuclear Inc x The Aston Company x Baird Corp x Berthold-Beta...15, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C., June 1966. 61 26. Private Communication, D. C. Lindsten (USAMERADCOM) to John C.Phillips (SA[-Chicago...Detection and Measurement," John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1919. 29. Lichholz, G. G., "Environmental Aspects of Nuclear Power," Ann Arbor, Science, Ann Arbor

  4. The nuclear matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. A.; Cowell, S.; Morales, J.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    2002-01-01

    We review the present statiis of the many-body theory of nuclear and pure neutron matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces, The current models of two- and three-nucleon interactions are discussed along with recent results obtained with the Brueckner and variatioual methods. New initiatives in the variational method and quantuni Monte Carlo nicthods to study pure neutron matter are described, and finally, the analytic behavior of the energy of piire neutron matter at low densities is cliscussed.

  5. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  6. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  7. Stellar Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Champagne, A.E.

    2005-04-05

    It is possible to measure some stellar cross sections without worrying too much about why the nuclei are built the way that they are. At the same time, many cross sections are impossible to measure because they are either too small or involve short-lived nuclei. Also, at high temperatures and densities, nucleosynthesis is governed by masses, shell structure, etc., not by individual reaction rates. Thus, at the limits, nuclear astrophysics can be thought of as nuclear structure applied to large objects. One area where there is a clear convergence between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics is the r-process. Here, advances in observation, experiment and theory point towards real progress on what has been a long-standing problem in astrophysics. Although the r-process is perhaps the most recognized astrophysical venue for nuclear structure, it is by no means the only one. This talk will highlight some of the areas where nuclear structure plays a leading role in addressing questions in astrophysics.

  8. Analysis of nuclear reconstitution, nuclear envelope assembly, and nuclear pore assembly using Xenopus in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of "wild-type" and "biochemically mutant" nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates.

  9. Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear Envelope Assembly, and Nuclear Pore Assembly Using Xenopus In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2015-01-01

    The large and complex eukaryotic nucleus is the arbiter of DNA replication, RNA transcription, splicing, and ribosome assembly. With the advent of in vitro nuclear reconstitution extracts derived from Xenopus eggs in the 1980s, it became possible to assemble multiple nuclei in vitro around added DNA or chromatin substrates. Such reconstituted nuclei contain a nuclear lamina, double nuclear membranes, nuclear pores, and are competent for DNA replication and nuclear import. In vitro nuclear reconstitution has allowed the assembly of “wild-type” and “biochemically mutant” nuclei in which the impact of individual components can be assessed. Here, we describe protocols for preparation of the nuclear reconstitution extract, nuclear reconstitution in vitro, assessment of nuclear membrane integrity, and a more specialized assay for nuclear pore assembly into preformed pore-free nuclear intermediates. PMID:24857730

  10. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  11. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  12. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  13. Uncertainties in nuclear fission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We review the current status of our knowledge of nuclear fission data, and quantify uncertainties related to each fission observable whenever possible. We also discuss the roles that theory and experiment play in reducing those uncertainties, contributing to the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process as well as of evaluated nuclear data libraries used in nuclear applications.

  14. Britain`s nuclear quandary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    This article is review of energy policy in the United Kingdom, in particular, the British government`s review of the nuclear industry. Major topics of this review include: (1) The economic viability of new nuclear stations, (2) The privitization of the nuclear industry, (3) Nuclear waste disposal, and (4) Liabilities associated with decommissioning.

  15. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  16. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  17. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  18. Nuclear weapons and international law

    SciTech Connect

    Pogany, I.

    1987-01-01

    Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  19. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  20. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  1. Origin and distribution of Calvin cycle fructose and sedoheptulose bisphosphatases in plantae and complex algae: a single secondary origin of complex red plastids and subsequent propagation via tertiary endosymbioses.

    PubMed

    Teich, René; Zauner, Stefan; Baurain, Denis; Brinkmann, Henner; Petersen, Jörn

    2007-07-01

    Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) are essential nuclear-encoded enzymes involved in land plant Calvin cycle and gluconeogenesis. In this study, we cloned seven SBP and seven FBP cDNAs/genes and established sequences from all lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, in order to investigate their origin and evolution. Our data are best explained by a single recruitment of plastid-targeted SBP in Plantae after primary endosymbiosis and a further distribution to algae with complex plastids. While SBP is universally found in photosynthetic lineages, its presence in apicomplexa, ciliates, trypanosomes, and ascomycetes is surprising given that no metabolic function beyond the one in the plastid Calvin cycle is described so far. Sequences of haptophytes, cryptophytes, diatoms, and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (complex red lineage) strongly group together in the SBP tree and the same assemblage is recovered for plastid-targeted FBP sequences, although this is less supported. Both SBP and plastid-targeted FBP are most likely of red algal origin. Including phosphoribulokinase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a total of five independent plastid-related nuclear-encoded markers support a common origin of all complex rhodoplasts via a single secondary endosymbiosis event. However, plastid phylogenies are incongruent with those of the host cell, as illustrated by the cytosolic FBP isoenzyme. These results are discussed in the context of Cavalier-Smith's far-reaching chromalveolate hypothesis. In our opinion, a more plausible evolutionary scenario would be the establishment of a unique secondary rhodoplast and its subsequent spread via tertiary endosymbioses.

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  3. Nuclear import and dimerization of tomato ASR1, a water stress-inducible protein exclusive to plants.

    PubMed

    Ricardi, Martiniano M; Guaimas, Francisco F; González, Rodrigo M; Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A; Estévez, José M; Iusem, Norberto D

    2012-01-01

    The ASR (for ABA/water stress/ripening) protein family, first described in tomato as nuclear and involved in adaptation to dry climates, is widespread in the plant kingdom, including crops of high agronomic relevance. We show both nuclear and cytosolic localization for ASR1 (the most studied member of the family) in histological plant samples by immunodetection, typically found in small proteins readily diffusing through nuclear pores. Indeed, a nuclear localization was expected based on sorting prediction software, which also highlight a monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the primary sequence. However, here we prove that such an "NLS" of ASR1 from tomato is dispensable and non-functional, being the transport of the protein to the nucleus due to simple diffusion across nuclear pores. We attribute such a targeting deficiency to the misplacing in that cryptic NLS of two conserved contiguous lysine residues. Based on previous in vitro experiments regarding quaternary structure, we also carried out live cell imaging assays through confocal microscopy to explore dimer formation in planta. We found homodimers in both the cytosol and the nucleus and demonstrated that assembly of both subunits together can occur in the cytosol, giving rise to translocation of preformed dimers. The presence of dimers was further corroborated by means of in vivo crosslinking of nuclei followed by SDS-PAGE.

  4. Nuclear Import and Dimerization of Tomato ASR1, a Water Stress-Inducible Protein Exclusive to Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ricardi, Martiniano M.; Guaimas, Francisco F.; González, Rodrigo M.; Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Estévez, José M.; Iusem, Norberto D.

    2012-01-01

    The ASR (for ABA/water stress/ripening) protein family, first described in tomato as nuclear and involved in adaptation to dry climates, is widespread in the plant kingdom, including crops of high agronomic relevance. We show both nuclear and cytosolic localization for ASR1 (the most studied member of the family) in histological plant samples by immunodetection, typically found in small proteins readily diffusing through nuclear pores. Indeed, a nuclear localization was expected based on sorting prediction software, which also highlight a monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the primary sequence. However, here we prove that such an “NLS” of ASR1 from tomato is dispensable and non-functional, being the transport of the protein to the nucleus due to simple diffusion across nuclear pores. We attribute such a targeting deficiency to the misplacing in that cryptic NLS of two conserved contiguous lysine residues. Based on previous in vitro experiments regarding quaternary structure, we also carried out live cell imaging assays through confocal microscopy to explore dimer formation in planta. We found homodimers in both the cytosol and the nucleus and demonstrated that assembly of both subunits together can occur in the cytosol, giving rise to translocation of preformed dimers. The presence of dimers was further corroborated by means of in vivo crosslinking of nuclei followed by SDS-PAGE. PMID:22899993

  5. Nuclear Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    The centers of galaxies host two distinct, compact components: massive black holes and nuclear star clusters. Nuclear star clusters are the densest stellar systems in the universe, with masses of ~ 107M⊙ and sizes of ~ 5pc. They are almost ubiquitous at the centres of nearby galaxies with masses similar to, or lower than the Milky Way. Their occurrence both in spirals and dwarf elliptical galaxies appears to be a strong function of total galaxy light or mass. Nucleation fractions are up to 100% for total galaxy magnitudes of M B = -19mag or total galaxy luminosities of about L B = 1010 L ⊙ and falling nucleation fractions for both smaller and higher galaxy masses. Although nuclear star clusters are so common, their formation mechanisms are still under debate. The two main formation scenarios proposed are the infall and subsequent merging of star clusters and the in-situ formation of stars at the center of a galaxy. Here, I review the state-of-the-art of nuclear star cluster observations concerning their structure, stellar populations and kinematics. These observations are used to constrain the proposed formation scenarios for nuclear star clusters. Constraints from observations show, that likely both cluster infall and in-situ star formation are at work. The relative importance of these two mechanisms is still subject of investigation.

  6. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  7. Nuclear Lunar Logistics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This document has been prepared to incorporate all presentation aid material, together with some explanatory text, used during an oral briefing on the Nuclear Lunar Logistics System given at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, on 18 July 1963. The briefing and this document are intended to present the general status of the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) nuclear rocket development, the characteristics of certain operational NERVA-class engines, and appropriate technical and schedule information. Some of the information presented herein is preliminary in nature and will be subject to further verification, checking and analysis during the remainder of the study program. In addition, more detailed information will be prepared in many areas for inclusion in a final summary report. This work has been performed by REON, a division of Aerojet-General Corporation under Subcontract 74-10039 from the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The presentation and this document have been prepared in partial fulfillment of the provisions of the subcontract. From the inception of the NERVA program in July 1961, the stated emphasis has centered around the demonstration of the ability of a nuclear rocket to perform safely and reliably in the space environment, with the understanding that the assignment of a mission (or missions) would place undue emphasis on performance and operational flexibility. However, all were aware that the ultimate justification for the development program must lie in the application of the nuclear propulsion system to the national space objectives.

  8. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  9. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, R.

    1987-04-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come.

  10. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  11. Nuclear pumped laser II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Pinkston, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The first direct nuclear pumped laser using the He-2-(n,p) H-3 reaction is reported. Lasing took place on the 1.79 microns Ar I transition in a mixture of He-3-Ar at approximately 600 Torr total pressure. It was found that the electrically pulsed afterglow He-Ar laser had the same concentration profile as the nuclear pumped laser. As a result, nuclear lasing was also achieved in He-3-Xe (2.027 micron) and He-3-Kr (2.52 micron). Scaling of laser output with both thermal flux and total pressure as well as minority concentration has been completed. A peak output (He-3-Ar) of 3.7 watts has been achieved at a total pressure of 4 atm. Direct nuclear pumping of He-3-Ne has also been achieved. Nuclear pumping of a He-3-NF3 mixture was attempted, lasing in FI at approximately 7000 A, without success, although the potential lasing transitions appeared in spontaneous emission. Both NF3 and 238UF6 appear to quench spontaneous emission when they constitute more than 1% of the gas mixture.

  12. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  13. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  14. [Researchers training in the context of the collaborative projects: experiences of Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humbolt", Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia].

    PubMed

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; González, Elsa; Verdonck, Kristien

    2010-09-01

    Research is a main element for human and social development. Under this point of view, it involves particular challenges and opportunities for the so-called "developing countries". An approach for those challenges and opportunities comes from the analysis of two interrelated activities; the training of new researchers and the research development with institutions or researchers which are external to the institution ("collaborative research"). Both activities are essential for the consolidation, widening and updating of the institutional capabilities for scientific production. We present here the experiences of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, in relation to the training of new researchers, we discuss the four elements we consider key for this process; the promotion of stimulating environments for research, the proactive identification of fellows, the complementary advice and networks consolidation; and we analyze three successful models of international collaboration for the training of new researchers under different institutional approaches.

  15. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  16. [The chapter De Puero virgine (or de homine) of Liber medicinae ex animalibus by Sextus Placidus. Historical study, new critical edition and translation].

    PubMed

    Ferraces Rodríguez, Arsenio

    2012-01-01

    The article offers an historical study, a new critical edition and the translation of the chapter De Puero virgine of Liber medicinae ex animalibus by Sextus Placitus, firstly edited by Sigerist and Howald in 1927. The book, dating to Late Antiquity, is part of a phyto -zootherapeutical corpus, trasmitted by the manuscript tradition in a single block of text whose central axis is represented by the Herbarium by Pseudo-Apuleius, the tractatus De herba vettonica attributed to Antonius Musa and the De taxone. Chapter 17 is devoted to pharmacological recipes whose ingredients are organic or human body parts; here is provided a critical edition based on the collation of three texts in the manuscript tradition, well testifying the particular vitality of medical prescription texts in Late Antiquity.

  17. A single base pair in the right terminal domain of Tomato planta macho viroid is a virulence determinant factor on tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd), including isolates previously designated as Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), causes serious disease on tomatoes in North America. Two predominant variants, sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited distinct severe (MPVd-S) or mild (MPVd-M) symptoms on tomato. To ide...

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  20. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  1. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Exotic Nuclear Shapes:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, J.; Schunck, N.; Dubray, N.; Góźdź, A.

    After recalling some in principle known but seldom mentioned facts about variety of concepts/notions of the nuclear shapes, we briefly summarize the results of the recent microscopic calculations predicting the existence of the large-elongation (hyper-deformed) nuclear configurations — as well as another series of calculations predicting that some nuclei should exhibit high-rank symmetries: the tetrahedral and the octahedral ones. The latter are associated with 48- and 96- symmetry elements, respectively, of the nuclear mean-field Hamiltonian. Obviously the physics motivations behind the hyper-deformation and the high-rank symmetry studies are not the observations of the new geometrical forms as such; in our opinion these motivations are much deeper and are given in the text.

  3. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    DOEpatents

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  4. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schienbein, I.; Yu, J.-Y.; Keppel, Cynthia; Morfin, Jorge; Olness, F.; Owens, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a chi^2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x_Bj-dependent and Q^2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x_Bj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  5. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens

    2009-06-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  6. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  7. Behavior of RNAi suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus in planta in presence and absence of virus.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Shelly; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Anil K

    2008-08-01

    The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the RNAi pathway. The 2b gene from CMV-banana, New Delhi isolate (CMV-NDLS) was amplified from CMV infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. Constitutive expression of 2b gene in healthy Nicotiana tabacum caused phenotypic aberrations during somatic embryogenesis, which were not observed when expressed in CMV infected N. tabacum. Further, the established virus population in CMV infected N. tabacum was not affected by constitutive expression and repression of 2b gene. Thus, indicating its role in initiation of gene silencing, at the early stage of viral infection. This is the first demonstration of differential behavior of 2b suppressor protein in host development in the absence and presence of virus.

  8. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P E

    2005-03-15

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process.

  9. Unfolding of in planta activity of anti-rep ribozyme in presence of a RNA silencing suppressor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sumona Karjee; Chilakamarthi, Ushasri; Deb, J K; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2014-05-21

    Antisense RNA ribozymes have intrinsic endonucleolytic activity to effect cleavage of the target RNA. However, this activity in vivo is often controlled by the dominance of antisense or other double-stranded RNA mechanism. In this work, we demonstrate the in planta activity of a hammerhead ribozyme designed to target rep-mRNA of a phytopathogen Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India virus (MYMIV) as an antiviral agent. We also found RNA-silencing is induced on introduction of catalytically active as well as inactive ribozymes. Using RNA-silencing suppressors (RSS), we demonstrate that the endonucleolytic activity of ribozymes is a true phenomenon, even while a mutated version may demonstrate a similar down-regulation of the target RNA. This helps to ease the confusion over the action mechanism of ribozymes in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Homoserine and asparagine are host signals that trigger in planta expression of a pathogenesis gene in Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhennai; Rogers, Linda M.; Song, Yuanda; Guo, Wenjin; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    Some pathogenesis-related genes are expressed in fungi only when the pathogen is in the host, but the host signals that trigger these gene expressions have not been identified. Virulent Nectria haematococca infects pea plants and requires either pelA, which is induced by pectin, or pelD, which is induced only in planta. However, the host signal(s) that trigger pelD expression was unknown. Here we report the isolation of the host signals and identify homoserine and asparagine, two free amino acids found in uniquely high levels in pea seedlings, as the pelD-inducing signals. N. haematococca has evolved a mechanism to sense the host tissue environment by using the high levels of two free amino acids in this plant, thereby triggering the expression of pelD to assist the pathogenic process. PMID:15753300

  11. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  12. Development of fiber optic spectroscopy for in-vitro and in-planta detection of fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chen, Jun-Wei; Asundi, Anand K.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to apply photonics technology to bio-safety management of genetically modified (GM) plants. The conventional method for screening GM plants is through selection using antibiotic resistance markers. There is public concern with such approaches and these are associated with food safety issues, escape of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic microorganisms and interference with antibiotic therapy. Thus, the strategy taken in this project is to replace antibiotic resistance markers with fluorescent protein markers that allow for rapid and non-invasive optical screening of genetically modified plants. In this paper, fibre optic spectroscopy was developed to detect and quantify recombinant green (EGFP) and red (DsRED) fluorescent proteins in vitro and in planta. In vitro detection was first carried out to optimize the sensitivity of the optical system. The bacterial expression vectors carrying the coding regions of EGFP and DsRED were introduced into Escherichia coli host cells and fluorescent proteins were produced following induction with IPTG. Soluble EGFP and DsRED proteins were isolated from lysed bacterial cells and serially diluted for quantitative analysis by fibre optic spectroscopy using different light sources, namely, blue LED (475 nm), tungsten halogen (350 - 1000 nm) and double frequency Nd:YAG green laser (532 nm). Fluorescence near the expected emission wavelengths could be detected up to 320X dilution for EGFP and DsRED with blue LED and 532 nm green laser, respectively, as the excitation source. Tungsten halogen was found to be unsuitable for excitation of both EGFP and DsRED. EGFP was successfully purified by size separation under non-denaturing electrophoretic conditions and quantified. The minimum concentration of EGFP detectable with blue LED excitation was 5 mg/ml. To determine the capability of spectroscopy detection in planta, transgenic potato hairy roots and whole modified plant lines expressing the

  13. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  14. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Triplett, Barbara A; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Stelly, David M; Yeater, Kathleen M; Moon, Hong S; Gilbert, Matthew K; Thyssen, Gregory N; Turley, Rickie B; Fang, David D

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  15. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas. PMID:27411057

  16. The application of laser microdissection to in planta gene expression profiling of the maize anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Coughlan, Sean; Crane, Edmund; Beatty, Mary; Duvick, Jon

    2006-11-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a potential means for deep sampling of a fungal plant-pathogen transcriptome during the infection process using whole-genome DNA microarrays. The use of a fluorescent protein-expressing fungus can greatly facilitate the identification of fungal structures for LM sampling. However, fixation methods that preserve both tissue histology and protein fluorescence, and that also yield RNA of suitable quality for microarray applications, have not been reported. We developed a microwave-accelerated acetone fixation, paraffin-embedding method that fulfills these requirements and used it to prepare mature maize stalk tissues infected with an Anemonia majano cyan fluorescent protein-expressing isolate of the anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We successfully used LM to isolate individual maize cells associated with C. graminicola hyphae at an early stage of infection. The LM-derived RNA, after two-round linear amplification, was of sufficient quality and quantity for global expression profiling using a fungal microarray. Comparing replicated LM samples representing an early stage of stalk cell infection with samples from in vitro-germinated conidia, we identified 437 and 370 C. graminicola genes showing significant up- or downregulation, respectively. We confirmed the differential expression of several representative transcripts by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and documented extensive overlap of this dataset with a PCR-subtraction library enriched for C. graminicola transcripts in planta. Our results demonstrate that LM is feasible for in planta pathogen expression profiling and can reveal clues about fungal genes involved in pathogenesis. The method in this report may be advantageous for visualizing a variety of cellular features that depend on a high degree of histochemical preservation and RNA integrity prior to LM.

  17. Phytohormonal Networks Promote Differentiation of Fiber Initials on Pre-Anthesis Cotton Ovules Grown In Vitro and In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Hinchliffe, Doug J.; Triplett, Barbara A.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Stelly, David M.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Moon, Hong S.; Gilbert, Matthew K.; Thyssen, Gregory N.; Turley, Rickie B.; Fang, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta. PMID:25927364

  18. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  19. Introduction to nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Patton, J A

    1998-01-01

    Photons for counting or imaging applications in nuclear medicine result from several processes. Gamma rays are produced from excited state transitions after beta decay and electron capture. Annihilation photons result from positron decay. The de-excitation of the atom after electron capture results in the production of characteristic x rays or Auger electrons. Metastable state transitions result in gamma ray emission or internal conversion electrons. All radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine applications are tagged with radionuclides that emit photons as a result of one of these processes.

  20. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.