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Sample records for medicine heart imaging

  1. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  2. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  3. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  4. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  5. Clinical imaging in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Anna V; Modo, Michel; Moore, Anna; Murry, Charles E; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, clinical imaging is indispensable for characterizing damaged tissue and for measuring the safety and efficacy of therapy. However, the ability to track the fate and function of transplanted cells with current technologies is limited. Exogenous contrast labels such as nanoparticles give a strong signal in the short term but are unreliable long term. Genetically encoded labels are good both short- and long-term in animals, but in the human setting they raise regulatory issues related to the safety of genomic integration and potential immunogenicity of reporter proteins. Imaging studies in brain, heart and islets share a common set of challenges, including developing novel labeling approaches to improve detection thresholds and early delineation of toxicity and function. Key areas for future research include addressing safety concerns associated with genetic labels and developing methods to follow cell survival, differentiation and integration with host tissue. Imaging may bridge the gap between cell therapies and health outcomes by elucidating mechanisms of action through longitudinal monitoring. PMID:25093889

  6. Imaging in hypertensive heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Rajesh; Kramer, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive heart disease is the target organ response to arterial hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy represents an important predictor for cardiovascular events. Myocardial fibrosis, a common end point in hypertensive heart disease, has been linked to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Echocardiography is clinically useful in the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy and the assessment of diastolic function. Although echocardiography is more widely available, cardiac magnetic resonance has been demonstrated to be more reproducible for the estimation of left ventricular mass. Future developments in cardiac magnetic resonance techniques may facilitate the quantification of diffuse fibrosis that occurs in hypertensive heart disease. Thus, advances in cardiac imaging provide comprehensive, noninvasive tools for imaging left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis and ischemia observed in hypertensive heart disease. The objective of this article is to summarize the state-of-the-art and the future of multimodality imaging of hypertensive heart disease. PMID:21453216

  7. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in General Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Yi; Malik, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system plays an integral role in homeostasis. Autonomic modulation can frequently be altered in patients with cardiac disorders as well as in patients with other critical illnesses or injuries. Assessment of heart rate variability is based on analysis of consecutive normal R-R intervals and may provide quantitative information on the modulation of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nerve input. The hypothesis that depressed heart rate variability may occur over a broad range of illness and injury, and may inversely correlated with disease severity and outcome has been tested in various clinical settings over the last decade. This article reviews recent literature concerning the potential clinical implications and limitations of heart rate variability assessment in general medicine. PMID:16943988

  8. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a < culturalist > vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  9. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  11. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  12. Infrared thermal imaging in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ring, E F J; Ammer, K

    2012-03-01

    This review describes the features of modern infrared imaging technology and the standardization protocols for thermal imaging in medicine. The technique essentially uses naturally emitted infrared radiation from the skin surface. Recent studies have investigated the influence of equipment and the methods of image recording. The credibility and acceptance of thermal imaging in medicine is subject to critical use of the technology and proper understanding of thermal physiology. Finally, we review established and evolving medical applications for thermal imaging, including inflammatory diseases, complex regional pain syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Recent interest in the potential applications for fever screening is described, and some other areas of medicine where some research papers have included thermal imaging as an assessment modality. In certain applications thermal imaging is shown to provide objective measurement of temperature changes that are clinically significant.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... and answer any questions you might have. A nuclear medicine technologist is a skilled medical professional who has received specialized education in the areas of anatomy, radiation protection, patient ...

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Tsang, B.W.

    1994-06-28

    Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography. 6 figures.

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging the heart

    DOEpatents

    Green, Mark A.; Tsang, Brenda W.

    1994-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging myocardial tissues are prepared by forming lipophilic, cationic complexes of radioactive metal ions with metal chelating ligands comprising the Schiff base adducts of triamines and tetraamines with optionally substituted salicylaldehydes. The lipophilic, cationic, radioactive complexes of the invention exhibit high uptake and retention in myocardial tissues. Preferred gallium-68(III) complexes in accordance with this invention can be used to image the heart using positron emission tomography.

  16. Heart Sonar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Stanford University cardiologists, with the help of Ames engineers, have validated the operation of the echo-cardioscope to monitor cardiac functions of astronauts in flight. This device forms images of internal structures using high-frequency sound. The instrument is compact, lightweight, portable, and DC powered for safety. The battery powered ultrasonic device, being isolated from its electrical environment, has an inherent safety advantage especially with infants.

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  18. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart condition that occurs during the development of the heart in the ... womb. During the heart's development, parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle ...

  19. Congenital heart defects and medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Gehin, Connie; Ragsdale, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Radiologic technologists perform imaging studies that are useful in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects in infants and adults. These studies also help to monitor congenital heart defect repairs in adults. This article describes the development and functional anatomy of the heart, along with the epidemiology and anatomy of congenital heart defects. It also discusses the increasing population of adults who have congenital heart defects and the most effective modalities for diagnosing, evaluating, and monitoring congenital heart defects.

  20. 3D Whole Heart Imaging for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Greil, Gerald; Tandon, Animesh (Aashoo); Silva Vieira, Miguel; Hussain, Tarique

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) whole heart techniques form a cornerstone in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease (CHD). It offers significant advantages over other CHD imaging modalities and techniques: no ionizing radiation; ability to be run free-breathing; ECG-gated dual-phase imaging for accurate measurements and tissue properties estimation; and higher signal-to-noise ratio and isotropic voxel resolution for multiplanar reformatting assessment. However, there are limitations, such as potentially long acquisition times with image quality degradation. Recent advances in and current applications of 3D whole heart imaging in CHD are detailed, as well as future directions. PMID:28289674

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2001-11-01

    Over the past twenty years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities available to clinical medicine. It offers great technical flexibility, and is free of the hazards associated with ionizing radiation. In addition to its role as a routine imaging technique with a growing range of clinical applications, the pace of development in MRI methodology remains high, and new ideas with significant potential emerge on a regular basis. MRI is a prime example of the spin-off benefits of basic science, and is an area of medicine in which physical science continues to play a major role, both in supporting clinical applications and in developing new techniques. This article presents a brief history of MRI and an overview of the underlying physics, followed by a short survey of current and emerging clinical applications.

  2. Heart valve surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four valves in the heart: aortic valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, and pulmonary valve. The valves are designed to control the direction of blood flow through the heart. The opening and closing of the heart valves produce the heart-beat sounds.

  3. Functional imaging for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Martin; Thompson, Kerry; Zafar, Haroon; Alexandrov, Sergey; Foley, Mark; O'Flatharta, Cathal; Dockery, Peter

    2016-04-19

    In vivo imaging is a platform technology with the power to put function in its natural structural context. With the drive to translate stem cell therapies into pre-clinical and clinical trials, early selection of the right imaging techniques is paramount to success. There are many instances in regenerative medicine where the biological, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms behind the proposed function of stem cell therapies can be elucidated by appropriate imaging. Imaging techniques can be divided according to whether labels are used and as to whether the imaging can be done in vivo. In vivo human imaging places additional restrictions on the imaging tools that can be used. Microscopies and nanoscopies, especially those requiring fluorescent markers, have made an extraordinary impact on discovery at the molecular and cellular level, but due to their very limited ability to focus in the scattering tissues encountered for in vivo applications they are largely confined to superficial imaging applications in research laboratories. Nanoscopy, which has tremendous benefits in resolution, is limited to the near-field (e.g. near-field scanning optical microscope (NSNOM)) or to very high light intensity (e.g. stimulated emission depletion (STED)) or to slow stochastic events (photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)). In all cases, nanoscopy is limited to very superficial applications. Imaging depth may be increased using multiphoton or coherence gating tricks. Scattering dominates the limitation on imaging depth in most tissues and this can be mitigated by the application of optical clearing techniques that can impose mild (e.g. topical application of glycerol) or severe (e.g. CLARITY) changes to the tissue to be imaged. Progression of therapies through to clinical trials requires some thought as to the imaging and sensing modalities that should be used. Smoother progression is facilitated by the use of

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, B.D.; Jacobstein, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing primarily on MR imaging of the heart, this book covers other diagnostic imaging modalities as well. The authors review new technologies and diagnostic procedures pertinent to congenital heat disease and present each congenital heat abnormality as a separate entity.

  5. [Heart failure: role of cardiovascular imaging].

    PubMed

    Díaz Navarro, Rienzi

    2016-10-11

    The usefulness of echocardiography and the new noninvasive cardiac techniques in assessing heart failure is analyzed. The usefulness of non-invasive CT coronary angiography, as well as the growing applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is considered. For this puspose, some clinical cases are used. The combined use of these techniques, especially in patients in whom the etiology of heart failure is ischemic heart disease or cardiomyopathy is emphasized.

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Kainberger, Franz; Falkowski, Anna L; Hirtler, Lena; Riegler, Georg; Schlegl, Thomas; Thaker, Siddharth; Patsch, Janina; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The aim is to review the modalities in musculoskeletal imaging with view on the prognostic impact for the patient's and for social outcome and with view on three major fields of preventive medicine: nutrition and metabolism, sports, and patient education. The added value provided by preventive imaging is (1) to monitor bone health and body composition with a broad spectrum of biomarkers, (2) to detect and quantify variants or abnormalities of nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints with a risk of overuse, rupture, or fracture, and (3) to develop radiology reports from the widely used narrative format to structured text and multimedia datasets. The awareness problem is a term for describing the underreporting and the underdiagnosis of fragility fractures in osteoporosis.

  7. Digoxin: A Medicine for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by a heart problem called atrial fibrillation. Digoxin helps by slowing down and controlling the ... any of these symptoms.If you have atrial fibrillation, the following symptoms may mean that you are ...

  8. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  9. Heart palpitation from traditional and modern medicine perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-02-01

    Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation.

  10. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  11. The meanings associated with medicines in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Granger, Bradi B; McBroom, Kathryn; Bosworth, Hayden B; Hernandez, Adrian; Ekman, Inger

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the theoretical linkages between symptom experiences and meaning associated with medication adherence. The specific objectives were to evaluate the key constructs of Meaning-Response theory for understanding medication adherence in patients with chronic heart failure; to assess the influence of symptom persistence on the meaning associated with prescribed medicines; and to explore the extent to which meaningful associations improve medication adherence. Among patients with heart failure, poor medication adherence occurs in over half of the population, resulting in high rates of symptom exacerbation, avoidable hospitalization, and death. Nurses play a key role in facilitating self-management skills, but patients' perceptions of the relationship between symptoms and medicines is not clear. Using a prospective mixed methods design, the study assessed patients' (n=10) perception of chronic heart failure symptoms and medication adherence. Patients completed guided interviews related to six concepts of meaning ascribed to medication use and four standardized measures of medication-related beliefs, behaviours, symptoms, and satisfaction. This study suggests that patients' perception of meaning associated with medication taking was categorized as positive, negative, or absent. Symptom persistence influenced a majority of patient beliefs in the efficacy medicines, and patients with more positive meaningful associations with their medicines were more likely to remain adherent during the course of this study. Development of meaningful associations with medicines may improve long-term adherence with prescribed medication in heart failure.

  12. Cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Choo, W S; Steeds, R P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding. PMID:22723532

  13. Cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Choo, W S; Steeds, R P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding.

  14. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Perspective on precision medicine in paediatric heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Michael D; Mital, Seema

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, President Obama launched the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), which introduced new funding to a method of research with the potential to study rare and complex diseases. Paediatric heart failure, a heterogeneous syndrome affecting approximately 1 in 100000 children, is one such condition in which precision medicine techniques may be applied with great benefit. Current heart failure therapies target downstream effects of heart failure rather than the underlying cause of heart failure. As such, they are often ineffective in paediatric heart failure, which is typically of primary (e.g. genetic) rather than secondary (e.g. acquired) aetiology. It is, therefore, important to develop therapies that can target the causes of heart failure in children with greater specificity thereby decreasing morbidity, mortality and burden of illness on both patients and their families. The benefits of co-ordinated research in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and phenomics along with dietary, lifestyle and social factors have led to novel therapeutic and prognostic applications in other fields such as oncology. Applying such co-ordinated research efforts to heart failure constitutes an important step in advancing care and improving the lives of those affected.

  16. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kathy O.; Tandon, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for regenerative medicine. Our focus is on biologically inspired strategies for heart regeneration, knowledge gained thus far about how to make a “perfect” heart graft, and the challenges that remain to be addressed for tissue-engineered heart regeneration to become a clinical reality. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research and training, as recent progress in the field is largely being made at the interfaces between cardiology, stem cell science, and bioengineering. PMID:21568715

  17. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  18. Heart bypass surgery incision (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the left part of the chest between the ribs. This incision is much less traumatic than the traditional heart bypass surgery incision which separates the breast bone. Minimally invasive heart bypass surgery allows the patient less pain and a faster recovery.

  19. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  20. Artificial heart pumps: bridging the gap between science, technology and personalized medicine by relational medicine.

    PubMed

    Raia, Federica; Deng, Mario C

    2017-01-01

    In the US population of 300 million, 3 million have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and 300,000 have advanced heart failure. Long-term mechanical circulatory support will, within the next decade, be recommended to 30,000 patients annually in the USA, 3000 undergo heart transplantation annually. What do these advances mean for persons suffering from advanced heart failure and their loved ones/caregivers? In this perspective article, we discuss - by exemplifying a case report of a 27-year-old man receiving a Total Artificial Heart - a practice concept of modern medicine that fully incorporates the patient's personhood perspective which we have termed Relational Medicine™. From this case study, it becomes apparent that the successful practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires the person-person encounter as a core practice element.

  1. Optically gated beating-heart imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The constant motion of the beating heart presents an obstacle to clear optical imaging, especially 3D imaging, in small animals where direct optical imaging would otherwise be possible. Gating techniques exploit the periodic motion of the heart to computationally “freeze” this movement and overcome motion artifacts. Optically gated imaging represents a recent development of this, where image analysis is used to synchronize acquisition with the heartbeat in a completely non-invasive manner. This article will explain the concept of optical gating, discuss a range of different implementation strategies and their strengths and weaknesses. Finally we will illustrate the usefulness of the technique by discussing applications where optical gating has facilitated novel biological findings by allowing 3D in vivo imaging of cardiac myocytes in their natural environment of the beating heart. PMID:25566083

  2. Imaging of Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Tina D; Kicska, Gregory A; Jacobs, Jill E; Pampaloni, Miguel H; Litmanovich, Diana E; Reddy, Gautham P

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the number one cause of death of women in the United States, accounting for over a quarter of a million annual female deaths. Evidence within the last several decades supports sex-specific differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and prognosis of ischemic heart disease between men and women. Despite women having a lower burden of obstructive coronary artery disease compared with men, the prevalence of angina and mortality from ischemic heart disease is higher for women than men. In addition to ischemic heart disease, certain nonischemic conditions may also have sex-specific differences in clinical presentation and occurrence. With the rising utilization of noninvasive modalities for the diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the unique considerations for imaging women with heart disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss challenges for detection of heart disease in women, examine performance of noninvasive modalities in the detection of ischemic heart disease, and discuss nonischemic cardiomyopathies unique to or prevalent in women. Considerations for cardiac imaging in pregnancy are also discussed. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  3. Imaging techniques in biology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to some aspects of imaging techniques as utilized in biology and medicine. Techniques presented include image processing, ultrasound, radiotracers, autoradiography, computed tomography, and MRI (all major imaging techniques). The underlying mathematics and physics are kept to a minimum.

  4. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  5. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  6. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses.

  7. Clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Gao, Xiumei; Xia, Ye; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Guerra, Ranieri; Hu, Limin

    2010-01-01

    Background Chinese medicines have been used for chronic heart failure (CHF) for thousands of years; however, the status of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used for CHF has not been reported. This review was carried out in the framework of a joint Sino-Italian Laboratory. Objective To investigate the baseline of clinical practice of TCMs for CHF, and to provide valuable information for research and clinical practice. Methods The authors included articles about the use of TCMs for the treatment of CHF by searching the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to November 2007). Results In all, 1029 papers were included, with 239 herbs retrieved from these. The most commonly used herbs included Huangqi (Radix Astragali), Fuling (Poria), Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae), Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tinglizi (Semen Lepidii). Modern Chinese patent medicines (produced by pharmaceutical companies) and traditional prescriptions (comprising several herbs) are the application forms of these drugs. Shenmai, Shengmai and Astragalus injections were the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines. Some classic prescriptions (including Zhenwu decoction, Shengmai powder and Lingguizhugan decoction) were also frequently used. The effectiveness and safety of the TCMs were both satisfactory, and the traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine therapy could significantly improve the clinical effectiveness and reduce some of the adverse reactions from western medicines used alone. Conclusion The authors have acquired overall information about the clinical application of TCMs for CHF. Modern pharmacology has provided limited evidence for the rationality of this clinical use. Further research is needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27325938

  8. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hansson, E M; Lendahl, U

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of mortality worldwide with a steady increase in prevalence. There is currently no available cure beyond orthotopic heart transplantation, which for a number of reasons is an option only for a small fraction of all patients. Considerable hope has therefore been placed on the possibility of treating a failing heart by replacing lost cardiomyocytes, either through transplantation of various types of stem cells or by boosting endogenous regenerative mechanisms in the heart. Here, we review the current status of stem and progenitor cell-based therapies for heart disease. We discuss the pros and cons of different stem and progenitor cell types that can be considered for transplantation and describe recent advances in the understanding of how cardiomyocytes normally differentiate and how these cells can be generated from more immature cells ex vivo. Finally, we consider the possibility of activation of endogenous stem and progenitor cells to treat heart failure. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Cardiac tissue Doppler imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Anne; Scharhag, Jürgen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Urhausen, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The differentiation of training-induced cardiac adaptations from pathological conditions is a key issue in sports cardiology. As morphological features do not allow for a clear delineation of early stages of relevant pathologies, the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function is the technique of first choice in this regard. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a relatively recent method for the assessment of cardiac function that provides direct, local measurements of myocardial velocities throughout the cardiac cycle. Although it has shown a superior sensitivity in the detection of ventricular dysfunction in clinical and experimental studies, its application in sports medicine is still rare. Besides technical factors, this may be due to a lack in consensus on the characteristics of ventricular function in relevant conditions. For more than two decades there has been an ongoing debate on the existence of a supernormal left ventricular function in athlete's heart. While results from traditional echocardiography are conflicting, TDI studies established an improved diastolic function in endurance-trained athletes with athlete's heart compared with controls.The influence of anabolic steroids on cardiac function also has been investigated by standard echocardiographic techniques with inconsistent results. The only TDI study dealing with this topic demonstrated a significantly impaired diastolic function in bodybuilders with long-term abuse of anabolic steroids compared with strength-trained athletes without abuse of anabolic steroids and controls, respectively.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cause of sudden death in young athletes. However, in its early stages, it is difficult to distinguish from athlete's heart. By means of TDI, ventricular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be disclosed even before the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, a differentiation of left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertrophic

  10. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. [Multimodal imaging of ischemic heart diseases: A 2015 update].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, L; Rosset, M; Zhang-Yin, J; Ohana, M

    2016-05-01

    Current realities and future possibilities of imaging in the ischemic heart diseases are very broad and constantly evolving, with the improvement of existing technologies and the introduction of new features such as dual-energy CT, strain ultrasound, multimodality fusion or perfusion MRI. Regular collaboration between prescribing clinicians, cardiologists, radiologists and nuclear radiologists is therefore essential to tailor the examination to the specific clinical question. The indications for each modality will therefore depend on its diagnostic performance, cost, acquisition and post-processing times and eventual radiation exposure. This review will detail principles and applications of current cardiac imaging examinations: echocardiography, nuclear medicine, MRI, CT and coronary angiography, emphasizing their current strengths and weaknesses in the ischemic heart diseases management.

  12. Echocardiographic image of an active human heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Echocardiographic images provide quick, safe images of the heart as it beats. While a state-of-the art echocardiograph unit is part of the Human Research Facility on International Space Station, quick transmission of images and data to Earth is a challenge. NASA is developing techniques to improve the echocardiography available to diagnose sick astronauts as well as study the long-term effects of space travel on their health. Echocardiography uses ultrasound, generated in a sensor head placed against the patient's chest, to produce images of the structure of the heart walls and valves. However, ultrasonic imaging creates an enormous volume of data, up to 220 million bits per second. This can challenge ISS communications as well as Earth-based providers. Compressing data for rapid transmission back to Earth can degrade the quality of the images. Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation are working with NASA to develop compression techniques that meet imaging standards now used on the Internet and by the medical community, and that ensure that physicians receive quality diagnostic images.

  13. Fluorescent Cell Imaging in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Zhou, Yu; Murphy, Sean V.; Soker, Shay

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent protein imaging, a promising tool in biological research, incorporates numerous applications that can be of specific use in the field of regenerative medicine. To enhance tissue regeneration efforts, scientists have been developing new ways to monitor tissue development and maturation in vitro and in vivo. To that end, new imaging tools and novel fluorescent proteins have been developed for the purpose of performing deep-tissue high-resolution imaging. These new methods, such as intra-vital microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer, are providing new insights into cellular behavior, including cell migration, morphology, and phenotypic changes in a dynamic environment. Such applications, combined with multimodal imaging, significantly expand the utility of fluorescent protein imaging in research and clinical applications of regenerative medicine. PMID:27158228

  14. Heavy-Ion Imaging Applied To Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrikant, J. I.; Tobias, C. A.; Capp, M. P.; Benton, E. V.; Holley, W. R.

    1980-08-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  15. Imaging Techniques in Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Pérez del Villar, Candelas; Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of heart failure. In patients with a clinical picture of acute decompensation, prognosis is largely determined by early implementation of general measures and treatment of the underlying cause. Given its diagnostic yield and portability, ultrasound has become an essential tool in the setting of acute heart failure, and is currently found in all medical departments involved in the care of the critically ill patient. Cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography allow detailed characterization of multiple aspects of cardiac structure and function that were previously unavailable. This helps guide and monitor many of the treatment decisions in the acute heart failure population in an entirely noninvasive way. This article aims to review the usefulness of the imaging techniques that are clinically relevant in the context of an episode of acute heart failure. We discuss the indications and limitations of these techniques in detail and describe the general principles for the appropriate interpretation of results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Riesmeier, Jörg; Jensch, Peter

    Over the past 15 years Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) has established itself as the international standard for medical image communication. Most medical imaging equipment uses DICOM network and media services to export image data, thus making this standard highly relevant for medical image processing. The first section of this chapter provides a basic introduction into DICOM with its more than 3,600 pages of technical documentation, followed by a section covering selected advanced topics of special interest for medical image processing. The introductory text familiarizes the reader with the standard's main concepts such as information objects and DICOM media and network services. The rendering pipeline for image display and the concept of DICOM conformance are also discussed. Specialized DICOM services such as advanced image display services that provide means for storing how an image was viewed ("Softcopy Presentation States") and how multiple images should be aligned on an output device ("Structured Display" and "Hanging Protocols") are described. We further describe DICOM's sophisticated approach ("Structured Reporting") for storing structured documents such as CAD information, which is then covered in more detail. Finally, the last section provides an insight into a newly developed DICOM service called "Application Hosting", which introduces a standardized plug-in architecture for image processing, thus permitting users to utilize cross-vendor image processing plug-ins in DICOM applications.

  17. Cardiac Imaging in Heart Failure with Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chiew; Chen, Sylvia; Iyngkaran, Pupalan

    2017-01-01

    Imaging modalities stand at the frontiers for progress in congestive heart failure (CHF) screening, risk stratification and monitoring. Advancements in echocardiography (ECHO) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have allowed for improved tissue characterizations, cardiac motion analysis, and cardiac performance analysis under stress. Common cardiac comorbidities such as hypertension, metabolic syndromes and chronic renal failure contribute to cardiac remodeling, sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms starting with interstitial changes, structural changes and finally clinical CHF. These imaging techniques can potentially detect changes earlier. Such information could have clinical benefits for screening, planning preventive therapies and risk stratifying patients. Imaging reports have often focused on traditional measures without factoring these novel parameters. This review is aimed at providing a synopsis on how we can use this information to assess and monitor improvements for CHF with comorbidities.

  18. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  19. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  20. Images of the Heart: Archetypal Imagery in Therapeutic Artwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Judith; Wix, Linney

    1996-01-01

    Explores the "heart" image in art, myth, literature, and religion. Examines an archetypal art therapy approach to the use of the heart in the artmaking processes of two child clients seen in individual and group art therapy. Uses the historical exploration of the heart as a background against which to view personal use of the heart image…

  1. General comparison of functional imaging in nuclear medicine with other modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    New (noninvasive) diagnostic procedures in medicine (ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) create a need for a review of the clinical utility of functional imaging in nuclear medicine. A general approach that is valid for all imaging procedures is not possible. For this reason, an individual assessment for each class of functional imaging is necessary, taking into account the complexity and sophistication of the various imaging procedures. This leads to a hierarchical order: first order functional imaging: imaging of organ motion (heart, lungs, blood); second order functional imaging: imaging of excretory function (kidneys, liver); and third and fourth order functional imaging: imaging of metabolism (except excretory function). First order functional imaging is possible fundamentally, although with limitations in detail, by all modalities. Second order functional imaging is not possible with US. Third and fourth order functional imaging is a privilege of nuclear medicine alone. Up to now, NMR has not proven clinically useful to produce metabolic images in its true sense. First and second order functional imaging of nonradioactive procedures face severe disadvantages, including difficulties in performing stress investigations, which are essential for coronary heart disease, limited capability for true quantitative information (eg, kidney clearance in mL/min), side effects of contrast media and paramagnetic substances, and high costs. 58 references.

  2. ``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

    2004-07-01

    The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

  3. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  4. Laboratory medicine for molecular imaging of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Almer, Gunter; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Reininghaus, Eva; Prassl, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are the main cause of life threatening clinical endpoints like myocardial infarction and stroke. To prevent these endpoints, the improved early diagnosis and treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic vascular lesions are essential. Although originally applied for anticancer treatment, recent advances have also showed the considerable potential of nanotechnology for atherosclerosis. Otherwise, one domain of laboratory medicine is the investigation of new biomarkers. Recent research activities have identified the usability of biomarker-targeted nanoparticles for molecular imaging and pharmacologic modification of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions leading to myocardial infarction or stroke. These investigations have established a new research interface between laboratory medicine, nanotechnology, cardiology/neurology, and radiology. In this review, we discuss inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms and biomarkers associated with a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Further, we will emphasize cardiovascular relevant functionalized nanoparticle biomarker constructs which were developed within the cooperation interface between Laboratory Medicine (anti-inflammatory biomarkers), Nano-Medicine (nanoparticle development), and Radiology (molecular imaging). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Quantitative Imaging Network in Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine is a healthcare model that seeks to incorporate a wealth of patient information to identify and classify disease progression and to provide tailored therapeutic solutions for individual patients. Interventions are based on knowledge of molecular and mechanistic causes, pathogenesis and pathology of disease. Individual characteristics of the patients are then used to select appropriate healthcare options. Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in identifying relevant characteristics that help to stratify patients for different interventions. However, lack of standards, limitations in image-processing interoperability, and errors in data collection can limit the applicability of imaging in clinical decision support. Quantitative imaging is the attempt to extract reliable, numerical information from images to eliminate qualitative judgments and errors for providing accurate measures of tumor response to therapy or for predicting future response. This issue of Tomography reports quantitative imaging developments made by several members of the National Cancer Institute Quantitative Imaging Network, a program dedicated to the promotion of quantitative imaging methods for clinical decision support. PMID:28083563

  6. Advanced imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Although echocardiography remains the mainstay imaging technique for the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), innovations in noninvasive imaging in the past few years have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of VHD, early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and advanced prognostic assessment. The severity grading of valve dysfunction has been refined with the use of Doppler echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and CT imaging. LV ejection fraction remains an important criterion when deciding whether patients should be referred for surgery. However, echocardiographic strain imaging can now detect impaired LV systolic function before LV ejection fraction reduces, thus provoking the debate on whether patients with severe VHD should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage (before symptom onset). Impaired LV strain correlates with the amount of myocardial fibrosis detected with CMR techniques. Furthermore, accumulating data show that the extent of fibrosis associated with severe VHD has important prognostic implications. The present Review focuses on using these novel imaging modalities to assess pathophysiology, early LV dysfunction, and prognosis of major VHDs, including aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and aortic regurgitation.

  7. Imaging of Muscle Injuries in Sports Medicine: Sports Imaging Series.

    PubMed

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L; Regatte, Ravindar R; Crema, Michel D

    2017-03-01

    In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to confirm and assess the extent of sports-related muscle injuries and may help to guide management, which directly affects the prognosis. This is especially important when the diagnosis or grade of injury is unclear, when recovery is taking longer than expected, and when interventional or surgical management may be necessary. Several imaging techniques are widely available, with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging currently the most frequently applied in sports medicine. This state of the art review will discuss the main imaging modalities for the assessment of sports-related muscle injuries, including advanced imaging techniques, with the focus on the clinical relevance of imaging features of muscle injuries. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. Imaging the Heart of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    New radio images of the center of the Milky Way are providing an unprecedented view of the structure and processes occurring in the Galactic center.JVLA images of Sgr A at 5.5 GHz. The large-scale, bright ring structure is Sgr A East, a supernova remnant. The mini-spiral structure along the lower-right edge of the ring is Sgr A West, and Sgr A* is located near the center of the mini-spiral structure. Click for a closer look! [Zhao et al. 2016]Improved Radio ViewA recent study led by Jun-Hui Zhao (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) presents new images of the Galactic center using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 5.5 GHz. The images center on the radio-bright zone at the core of our galaxy, with the field of view covering the central 13 of the Milky Way equivalent to a physical size of ~100 light-years.Due to recent hardware and software improvements in the VLA, these images are much deeper than any previously obtained of the Galactic center, reaching an unprecedented 100,000:1 dynamic range. Not only do these observations provide a detailed view of previously known structures within the Sagittarius A radio complex in the Milky Ways heart, but they also reveal new features that can help us understand the processes that formed this bright complex.Features in Sagittarius ASgr A consists of three main components nested within each other: the supernova remnant Sgr A East, the mini-spiral structure Sgr A West (located off-center within the Sgr A East structure), and the compact radio source Sgr A* (located near the center of the mini-spiral). Sgr A* is the supermassive black hole that resides at the very center of the Milky Way.The newest JVLA images reveal numerous filamentary sources that trace out two radio lobes, oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane and ~50 light-years in size. These are smaller radio counterparts to the enormous (on the scale of 30,000 light-years!) gamma-ray Fermi bubbles that have been observed to extend from the

  9. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Habib

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases.

  10. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  11. The Hypertensive Heart: An Integrated Understanding Informed by Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Subha V.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical sequelae of hypertension include heart failure, arrhythmias, and ischemic events, especially myocardial infarction and stroke. Recognizing the hypertensive heart has both diagnostic as well as prognostic implications. Current imaging techniques offer noninvasive approaches to detecting myocardial fibrosis, ischemia, hypertrophy, and disordered metabolism that form the substrate for hypertensive heart disease. In addition, recognition of aortopathy and atrial myopathy as contributors to myocardial disease warrant incorporation of aortic and atrial functional measurements into a comprehensive understanding of the hypertensive heart. PMID:20117376

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging of posttraumatic osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Govaert, G A M; Glaudemans, A W J M

    2016-08-01

    Early recognition of a possible infection and therefore a prompt and accurate diagnostic strategy is essential for a successful treatment of posttraumatic osteomyelitis (PTO). However, at this moment there is no single routine test available that can detect osteomyelitis beyond doubt and the performed diagnostic tests mostly depend on personal experience, available techniques and financial aspects. Nuclear medicine techniques focus on imaging pathophysiological changes which usually precede anatomical changes. Together with recent development in hybrid camera systems, leading to better spatial resolution and quantification possibilities, this provides new opportunities and possibilities for nuclear medicine modalities to play an important role in diagnosing PTO. In this overview paper the techniques and available literature results for PTO are discussed for the three most commonly used nuclear medicine techniques: the three phase bone scan (with SPECT-CT), white blood cell scintigraphy (also called leukocyte scan) with SPECT-CT and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT. Emphasis is on how these techniques are able to answer the diagnostic questions from the clinicians (trauma and orthopaedic surgeons) and which technique should be used to answer a specific question. Furthermore, three illustrative cases from clinical practice are described.

  13. Embryonic Heart Morphogenesis from Confocal Microscopy Imaging and Automatic Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Megan; Pertsov, Arkady M.; Shi, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic heart morphogenesis (EHM) is a complex and dynamic process where the heart transforms from a single tube into a four-chambered pump. This process is of great biological and clinical interest but is still poorly understood for two main reasons. On the one hand, the existing imaging modalities for investigating EHM suffered from either limited penetration depth or limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, current works typically adopted manual segmentation, which was tedious, subjective, and time consuming considering the complexity of developing heart geometry and the large size of images. In this paper, we propose to utilize confocal microscopy imaging with tissue optical immersion clearing technique to image the heart at different stages of development for EHM study. The imaging method is able to produce high spatial resolution images and achieve large penetration depth at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a novel convex active contour model for automatic image segmentation. The model has the ability to deal with intensity fall-off in depth which is characterized by confocal microscopy images. We acquired the images of embryonic quail hearts from day 6 to day 14 of incubation for EHM study. The experimental results were promising and provided us with an insight view of early heart growth pattern and also paved the road for data-driven heart growth modeling. PMID:24454530

  14. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  15. Fetal heart and uterine contraction monitor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fetal heart monitor and uterine contraction monitor provide a continuous record of the baby's heart rate and the mother's contraction rate as labor progresses. This device can provide early warning of fetal distress.

  16. Seismic imaging of the Medicine Lake Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.; Evans, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1987-04-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano, a broad shield volcano about 50 km east of Mount Shasta in northern California, produced rhylotic eruptions as recently as 400 years ago. Because of this recent activity it is of considerable interest to producers of geothermal energy. The USGS and LLNL conducted an active seismic experiment designed to explore the area beneath and around the caldera. This experiment had two purposes: To produce high-quality velocity and attenuation images of the young magma body presumed to be the source for the young volcanic features, and to collect a dataset that can be used to develop and test seismic imaging methods that may be useful for understanding other geothermal systems. Eight large explosions were detonated in a 50 km radius circle around the volcano, a distance chosen to produce strong upward traveling signals through the area of interest. The data were inverted using Aki's method to produce three-dimensional velocity and attenuation images of the sub-surface. Preliminary interpretation shows low velocity and attenuation on the flanks of the volcano, and coincident high attenuation values and low velocities (-20%) from 3 to 5 km beneath the center of the caldera. This zone may be a region of partial melt which fed the youngest eruptions.

  17. Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... ONE. 2013;8:e64255. Garlic. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed Sept. 1, 2014. Hawthorn. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed May 25, 2016. ...

  18. New imaging tools in cardiovascular medicine: computational fluid dynamics and 4D flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Keiichi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Furusawa, Tokoki; Numata, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Sachiko; Morimoto, Kazuki; Makino, Rina; Morichi, Hiroko; Nishino, Teruyasu; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2017-09-19

    Blood flow imaging is a novel technology in cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Today, two types of blood flow imaging tools are available: measurement-based flow visualization including 4D flow MRI (or 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging), or echocardiography flow visualization software, and computer flow simulation modeling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). MRI and echocardiography flow visualization provide measured blood flow but have limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, whereas CFD flow calculates the flow according to assumptions instead of flow measurement, and it has sufficiently fine resolution up to the computer memory limit, and it enables even virtual surgery when combined with computer graphics. Blood flow imaging provides profound insight into the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, because it quantifies and visualizes mechanical stress on the vessel walls or heart ventricle. Wall shear stress (WSS) is a stress on the endothelial wall caused by the near wall blood flow, and it is thought to be a predictor of atherosclerosis progression in coronary or aortic diseases. Flow energy loss (EL) is the loss of blood flow energy caused by viscous friction of turbulent diseased flow, and it is expected to be a predictor of ventricular workload on various heart diseases including heart valve disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. Blood flow imaging can provide useful information for developing predictive medicine in cardiovascular diseases, and may lead to breakthroughs in cardiovascular surgery, especially in the decision-making process.

  19. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Robin O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the American Board of Family Medicine, "The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity." What makes the seemingly daunting task of practicing family medicine possible is that family physicians learn to utilize similar clinical reasoning for all of their patients regardless of…

  20. Robotics and imaging in congenital heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2012-01-01

    The initial success seen in adult cardiac surgery with the application of available robotic systems has not been realized as broadly in pediatric cardiac surgery. The main obstacles include extended set-up time and complexity of the procedures, as well as the large size of the instruments with respect to the size of the child. Moreover, while the main advantage of robotic systems is the ability to minimize incision size, for intracardiac repairs, cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. Catheter-based interventions, on the other hand, have expanded rapidly in both application as well as the complexity of procedures and lesions being treated. However, despite the development of sophisticated devices, robotic systems to aid catheter procedures have not been commonly applied in children. In this article, we describe new catheter-like robotic delivery platforms, which facilitate safe navigation and enable complex repairs, such as tissue approximation and fixation, and tissue removal, inside the beating heart. Additional features including the tracking of rapidly moving tissue targets and novel imaging approaches are described, along with a discussion of future prospects for steerable robotic systems. PMID:22413986

  1. Robotics and imaging in congenital heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E; del Nido, Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    The initial success seen in adult cardiac surgery with the application of available robotic systems has not been realized as broadly in pediatric cardiac surgery. The main obstacles include extended set-up time and complexity of the procedures, as well as the large size of the instruments with respect to the size of the child. Moreover, while the main advantage of robotic systems is the ability to minimize incision size, for intracardiac repairs, cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. Catheter-based interventions, on the other hand, have expanded rapidly in both application as well as the complexity of procedures and lesions being treated. However, despite the development of sophisticated devices, robotic systems to aid catheter procedures have not been commonly applied in children. In this article, we describe new catheter-like robotic delivery platforms, which facilitate safe navigation and enable complex repairs, such as tissue approximation and fixation, and tissue removal, inside the beating heart. Additional features including the tracking of rapidly moving tissue targets and novel imaging approaches are described, along with a discussion of future prospects for steerable robotic systems.

  2. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  3. Anatomic and functional imaging of congenital heart disease with digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore, E.; Pavlicek, W.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.; O'Donovan, P.B.; Grossman, L.B.; Moodie, D.S.; Yiannikas, J.

    1983-06-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the heart was performed in 54 patients for the evaluation of congenital heart diagnostic images and accurate physiologic shunt data that compared favorably with catheter angiography and nuclear medicine studies. Retrospective analysis of this series of patients indicated that DSA studies contributed sufficient informantion to shorten significantly or modify cardiac catheterization in 85% (79/93) of the defects that were identified. Interatrial septal defects were particularly well diagnosed, with identification occurring in 10 of 10 cases, wheseas intraventricular septal defects were identified in only 6 of 9 patients. Evaluation of postsurgical patients was accurate in 19 of 20 cases.

  4. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  5. Basic imaging in congenital heart disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Swischuk, L.E.; Sapire, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The book retains its previous format with chapters on embryology, plain film interpretation, classification of pulmonary vascular patterns, cardiac malpositions and vascular anomalies, and illustrative cases. The book is organized with an abundance of illustrative figures, diagrams, and image reproductions. These include plain chest radiographs, angiograms, echocardiograms, and MR images. The authors present the pathophysiology and imaging of congenital heart lesions.

  6. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the diagnosis and management of heart failure: what can be learned from recent guidelines?

    PubMed

    Vervloet, Delphine M; DE Sutter, Johan

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this review is to provide the clinical cardiologist and nuclear medicine specialist a brief overview of the currently accepted clinical use of cardiac nuclear imaging for the diagnosis and management of patients with heart failure based on recent (2012-2015) European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. We used the most recent ESC guidelines on heart failure, management of stable coronary artery disease, cardiac pacing, myocardial revascularisation, non-cardiac surgery and ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Nowadays cardiac nuclear imaging is useful in almost every step in heart failure from diagnostics to treatment. In first diagnosis of heart failure radionuclide imaging can provide information on ventricular function and volumes and nuclear imaging techniques provide accurate and reproducible left ventricular function assessment. In work out of the aetiology of the heart failure CMR, SPECT and PET imaging can demonstrate presence of inducible ischemia and myocardial viability. For prognostic information MIBG might be promising in the future. In treatment planning cardiac nuclear imaging is important to evaluate new angina and to assess accurate left ventricular ejection fraction before cardiac resynchronization therapy. Imaging stress testing is useful in the preoperative evaluation for non-cardiac surgery of heart failure patients. There is until now no recommended place for cardiac nuclear imaging in the follow-up of heart failure patients or prior to the initiation of cardiac rehabilitation.

  7. Role of Imaging in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Angela; Gupta, Supriya; Olson, Emmi; Sepulveda, Karla; Lenchik, Leon; Ivanidze, Jana; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Patel, Midhir J; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy

    2017-01-25

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach for treating medical disorders, which takes into account individual variability in genetic and environmental factors. Preventive or therapeutic interventions can then be directed to those who will benefit most from targeted interventions, thereby maximizing benefits and minimizing costs and complications. Precision medicine is gaining increasing recognition by clinicians, healthcare systems, pharmaceutical companies, patients, and the government. Imaging plays a critical role in precision medicine including screening, early diagnosis, guiding treatment, evaluating response to therapy, and assessing likelihood of disease recurrence. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Precision Imaging Task Force convened to explore the current and future role of imaging in the era of precision medicine and summarized its finding in this article. We review the increasingly important role of imaging in various oncological and non-oncological disorders. We also highlight the challenges for radiology in the era of precision medicine.

  8. High Contrast Ultrafast Imaging of the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Papadacci, Clement; Pernot, Mathieu; Couade, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive ultrafast imaging for human cardiac applications is a big challenge to image intrinsic waves such as electromechanical waves or remotely induced shear waves in elastography imaging techniques. In this paper we propose to perform ultrafast imaging of the heart with adapted sector size by using diverging waves emitted from a classical transthoracic cardiac phased array probe. As in ultrafast imaging with plane wave coherent compounding, diverging waves can be summed coherently to obtain high-quality images of the entire heart at high frame rate in a full field-of-view. To image shear waves propagation at high SNR, the field-of-view can be adapted by changing the angular aperture of the transmitted wave. Backscattered echoes from successive circular wave acquisitions are coherently summed at every location in the image to improve the image quality while maintaining very high frame rates. The transmitted diverging waves, angular apertures and subapertures size are tested in simulation and ultrafast coherent compounding is implemented on a commercial scanner. The improvement of the imaging quality is quantified in phantom and in vivo on human heart. Imaging shear wave propagation at 2500 frame/s using 5 diverging waves provides a strong increase of the Signal to noise ratio of the tissue velocity estimates while maintaining a high frame rate. Finally, ultrafast imaging with a 1 to 5 diverging waves is used to image the human heart at a frame rate of 900 frames/s over an entire cardiac cycle. Thanks to spatial coherent compounding, a strong improvement of imaging quality is obtained with a small number of transmitted diverging waves and a high frame rate, which allows imaging the propagation of electromechanical and shear waves with good image quality. PMID:24474135

  9. Simultaneous acquisition of physiological data and nuclear medicine images

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Klein, H.A.; Orenstein, S.R.

    1988-11-01

    A technique has been developed that allows the simultaneous acquisition of both image and physiological data into a standard nuclear medicine computer system. The physiological data can be displayed along with the nuclear medicine images allowing temporal correlation between the two. This technique has been used to acquire images of gastroesophageal reflux simultaneously with the intraluminal esophageal pH. The resulting data are displayed either as a standard dynamic sequence with the physiological data appearing in a corner of the image or as condensed dynamic images.

  10. Biomedical engineering in heart-brain medicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Katona, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    New reports have emerged exploring the use of electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves in patients for the treatment of depression, heart failure, and hypertension. Abolishing renal sympathetic nerve activity in resistant hypertension has also been described. Since nerve bundles carry a variety of signals to multiple organs, it is necessary to develop technologies to stimulate or block targeted nerve fibers selectively. Mathematical modeling is a major tool for such development. Purposeful modeling is also needed to quantitatively characterize complex heart-brain interactions, allowing an improved understanding of physiological and clinical measurements. Automated control of therapeutic devices is a possible eventual outcome.

  11. Hearts and Flowers: Learning To Enlarge Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a lesson that teaches kindergarten students how to enlarge a smaller drawing onto a bigger piece of paper. Explains that the students create their heart-shape designs using tempera paint and pastels in the larger picture. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  12. Multimodality Noninvasive Imaging in the Monitoring of Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kindel, Steven J; Hsu, Hao H; Hussain, Tarique; Johnson, Jonathan N; McMahon, Colin J; Kutty, Shelby

    2017-09-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation is a well-established and effective therapeutic option for children with end-stage heart failure. Multiple modalities, including noninvasive cardiac imaging, cardiac catheterization, angiography, and endomyocardial biopsy, are helpful to monitor these patients for graft dysfunction, rejection, and vasculopathy. Because of morbidities associated with invasive monitoring, noninvasive imaging plays a key role in the surveillance and evaluation of symptoms in pediatric transplant recipients. Echocardiography with or without stress augmentation may provide serial data on systolic and diastolic function, ventricular deformation, and tissue characteristics in children after transplantation. Although not perfectly sensitive or specific, advanced two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic detection of functional changes in cardiac grafts may allow early recognition of allograft rejection. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown promise for characterization of edema and scar and myocardial perfusion reserve, as well as potential application for the detection of microvasculopathic changes in the transplanted heart. Cardiac computed tomography is particularly well suited for the demonstration of coronary artery dimensions and anatomic residual lesions. In combination, these noninvasive imaging techniques help the transplantation cardiologist screen for graft dysfunction, detect critical graft events, and identify situations that require invasive testing of the transplanted heart. Advanced multimodality imaging techniques are likely to increasingly shape the monitoring practices for children following heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  14. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  15. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  16. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  17. Confocal Imaging of the Embryonic Heart: How Deep?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christine E.; Thompson, Robert P.; Bigelow, Michael R.; Gittinger, George; Trusk, Thomas C.; Sedmera, David

    2005-06-01

    Confocal microscopy allows for optical sectioning of tissues, thus obviating the need for physical sectioning and subsequent registration to obtain a three-dimensional representation of tissue architecture. However, practicalities such as tissue opacity, light penetration, and detector sensitivity have usually limited the available depth of imaging to 200 [mu]m. With the emergence of newer, more powerful systems, we attempted to push these limits to those dictated by the working distance of the objective. We used whole-mount immunohistochemical staining followed by clearing with benzyl alcohol-benzyl benzoate (BABB) to visualize three-dimensional myocardial architecture. Confocal imaging of entire chick embryonic hearts up to a depth of 1.5 mm with voxel dimensions of 3 [mu]m was achieved with a 10× dry objective. For the purpose of screening for congenital heart defects, we used endocardial painting with fluorescently labeled poly-L-lysine and imaged BABB-cleared hearts with a 5× objective up to a depth of 2 mm. Two-photon imaging of whole-mount specimens stained with Hoechst nuclear dye produced clear images all the way through stage 29 hearts without significant signal attenuation. Thus, currently available systems allow confocal imaging of fixed samples to previously unattainable depths, the current limiting factors being objective working distance, antibody penetration, specimen autofluorescence, and incomplete clearing.

  18. Role of cardiovascular imaging in selection of donor hearts

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To perform a systematic review of literature on use of cardiovascular imaging in assessment of donor hearts. METHODS: A systematic search of current literature from January 1965 to August 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to investigate the different imaging modalities used to assess donor hearts. RESULTS: Recent literature still estimates only a 32% utilization of available donor hearts in the United States. Most common imaging modality used is transthoracic echocardiography. Use of advanced imaging modalities such as 3D echocardiography, cardiac computer tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance to evaluate donor hearts is not reported in literature. This review attempts to highlight the relevant imaging modalities that can be used to assess cardiac function in a time-efficient manner. The algorithm suggested in this review would hopefully pave the way to standardized protocols that can be adopted by organ procuring organizations to increase the donor pool. CONCLUSION: Use of advanced imaging techniques for a thorough assessment of organs will likely increase the donor pool. PMID:26722663

  19. Role of cardiovascular imaging in selection of donor hearts.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2015-12-24

    To perform a systematic review of literature on use of cardiovascular imaging in assessment of donor hearts. A systematic search of current literature from January 1965 to August 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to investigate the different imaging modalities used to assess donor hearts. Recent literature still estimates only a 32% utilization of available donor hearts in the United States. Most common imaging modality used is transthoracic echocardiography. Use of advanced imaging modalities such as 3D echocardiography, cardiac computer tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance to evaluate donor hearts is not reported in literature. This review attempts to highlight the relevant imaging modalities that can be used to assess cardiac function in a time-efficient manner. The algorithm suggested in this review would hopefully pave the way to standardized protocols that can be adopted by organ procuring organizations to increase the donor pool. Use of advanced imaging techniques for a thorough assessment of organs will likely increase the donor pool.

  20. Image stabilisation of the beating heart by local linear interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Martin; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    The stabilisation of motion on the beating heart is investigated in the context of minimally invasive robotic surgery. Although reduced by mechanical stabilisers, residual tissue motion makes safe surgery still difficult and time consuming. Compensation for this movement is therefore highly desirable. Motion can be captured by tracking natural landmarks on the heart surface recorded by a video endoscope. Stabilisation is achieved by transforming the images using a motion field calculated from captured local motion. Since the surface of the beating heart is distorted nonlinearly, compensating the occurring motion with a constant image correction factor is not sufficient. Therefore, heart motion is captured by several landmarks, the motion between which is interpolated such that locally appropriate motion correction values are obtained. To estimate the motion between the landmark positions, a triangulation is built and motion information in each triangle is approximated by linear interpolation. Motion compensation is evaluated by calculating the optical flow remaining in the stabilised images. The proposed linear interpolation model is able to reduce motion significantly and can also be implemented efficiently to stabilise images of the beating heart in realtime.

  1. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease.

  2. [Mechano-bioscience in heart disease and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kurotsu, Shota; Ieda, Masaki

    During cardiac development and maturation, the heart continuously receives hemodynamic stimuli, referred to mechanical stress. Mechanical stress governs both cardiac development and differentiation, and also plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Indeed, cardiac hypertrophic changes emerge as a result of adaptation to mechanical overload. However, it is difficult to measure the mechanical stress precisely. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of hemodynamics-related diseases are minimally understood. The progress in mechanobioscience field has a potential to uncover the mechanisms of cardiac diseases, and is expected to result in drug discovery in the future.

  3. The Sacred Heart Hospice: an Australian centre for palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Harris, R

    1995-09-01

    The Sacred Heart Hospice, Sydney, was founded in 1890 and is the largest inpatient palliative-care facility in Australia. Patients with advanced cancer form the predominant patient group, although patients with HIV/AIDS account for approximately 20% of admissions. A community-outreach service, established in 1983, cares for more patients at home than in the Hospice. Recently the Hospice has participated in a number of clinical trials and intends to become a regional centre for palliative-care research, education and training.

  4. A review of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Qiyan; Li, Chun; Lu, Linghui; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Ruixin; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-25

    Heart failure is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and it is the end stage of several cardiovascular diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used in the management of heart failure for a long time. Only until recently, well-designed clinical trials have been put into practice to study the efficacies of Chinese herbs. Extensive studies have also been carried out to explore the underlying mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of Chinese herbs. In this study, we will summarize the frequently used Chinese herbs, formulae and patent Chinese drugs in treating patients with heart failure and review published clinical evaluations of Chinese herbs in treating cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which Chinese herbs exert cardio-protective effects will also be reviewed. In the end, we will point out the limitations of current studies and challenges facing modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Image quality, compression and segmentation in medicine.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Pam; Frankish, Clive

    2002-12-01

    This review considers image quality in the context of the evolving technology of image compression, and the effects image compression has on perceived quality. The concepts of lossless, perceptually lossless, and diagnostically lossless but lossy compression are described, as well as the possibility of segmented images, combining lossy compression with perceptually lossless regions of interest. The different requirements for diagnostic and training images are also discussed. The lack of established methods for image quality evaluation is highlighted and available methods discussed in the light of the information that may be inferred from them. Confounding variables are also identified. Areas requiring further research are illustrated, including differences in perceptual quality requirements for different image modalities, image regions, diagnostic subtleties, and tasks. It is argued that existing tools for measuring image quality need to be refined and new methods developed. The ultimate aim should be the development of standards for image quality evaluation which take into consideration both the task requirements of the images and the acceptability of the images to the users.

  6. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  7. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart.

  8. Radionuclide imaging of neurohormonal system of the heart.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

  9. Moreton Lecture: Imaging in the Age of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thrall, James H

    2015-10-01

    The term "precision medicine" (also known as "personalized medicine") is broadly defined as the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. This process entails classifying patients into subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility to a particular disease, in the biology and/or prognosis of those diseases they may develop, or in their response to a specific treatment. Subpopulations are defined through systematic analysis and classification of patients' genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Image findings are surrogates for phenotype manifestation of disease, and radiology reports are written descriptions of imaging phenotypes. Imaging phenotypes are often presented as classification, grading, or scoring systems that help assign patients to subpopulations for selecting treatment or assessing prognosis. The "spot sign score" that reflects the severity of bleeding in intracerebral hemorrhage is an example that has been used as an inclusion criterion in clinical trials. The term "radiogenomics" is used to describe the study of linkage between a patient's genotype and imaging phenotype. When a patient's genotype is known, it often suggests a surveillance role for imaging to determine clinical occurrence, location, extent, and severity of the associated disease; for example, use of breast imaging for enhanced surveillance in women known to harbor the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Imaging is poised to play major roles in the age of precision medicine. The imaging community needs to learn new terminology and think in terms of how imaging phenotypes and imaging surveillance of patients with known genetic mutations can contribute to the concept.

  10. Polarized spatial frequency domain imaging of heart valve fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues' elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants.

  11. POLARIZED SPATIAL FREQUENCY DOMAIN IMAGING OF HEART VALVE FIBER STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues’ elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants. PMID:28775394

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

    1988-10-01

    Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references.

  13. Molecular imaging in the era of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Clinical imaging creates visual representations of the body interior for disease assessment. The role of clinical imaging significantly overlaps with that of pathology, and diagnostic workflows largely depend on both fields. The field of clinical imaging is presently undergoing a radical change through the emergence of a new field called molecular imaging. This new technology, which lies at the intersection between imaging and molecular biology, enables noninvasive visualization of biochemical processes at the molecular level within living bodies. Molecular imaging differs from traditional anatomical imaging in that biomarkers known as imaging probes are used to visualize target molecules-of-interest. This ability opens up exciting new possibilities for applications in oncologic, neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Molecular imaging is expected to make major contributions to personalized medicine by allowing earlier diagnosis and predicting treatment response. The technique is also making a huge impact on pharmaceutical development by optimizing preclinical and clinical tests for new drug candidates. This review will describe the basic principles of molecular imaging and will briefly touch on three examples (from an immense list of new techniques) that may contribute to personalized medicine: receptor imaging, angiogenesis imaging, and apoptosis imaging.

  14. The impact of functional imaging on radiation medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Neumann, Donald; Macklis, Roger

    2008-09-15

    Radiation medicine has previously utilized planning methods based primarily on anatomic and volumetric imaging technologies such as CT (Computerized Tomography), ultrasound, and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In recent years, it has become apparent that a new dimension of non-invasive imaging studies may hold great promise for expanding the utility and effectiveness of the treatment planning process. Functional imaging such as PET (Positron Emission Tomography) studies and other nuclear medicine based assays are beginning to occupy a larger place in the oncology imaging world. Unlike the previously mentioned anatomic imaging methodologies, functional imaging allows differentiation between metabolically dead and dying cells and those which are actively metabolizing. The ability of functional imaging to reproducibly select viable and active cell populations in a non-invasive manner is now undergoing validation for many types of tumor cells. Many histologic subtypes appear amenable to this approach, with impressive sensitivity and selectivity reported. For clinical radiation medicine, the ability to differentiate between different levels and types of metabolic activity allows the possibility of risk based focal treatments in which the radiation doses and fields are more tightly connected to the perceived risk of recurrence or progression at each location. This review will summarize many of the basic principles involved in the field of functional PET imaging for radiation oncology planning and describe some of the major relevant published data behind this expanding trend.

  15. [The application of X-ray imaging in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Kučerová, Stěpánka; Safr, Miroslav; Ublová, Michaela; Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2014-07-01

    X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths. The method is also helpful for complex injury evaluation in abused victims or in persons where abuse is suspected. Finally, X-ray imaging still remains the gold standard method for identification of unknown deceased. With time modern imaging methods, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are more and more applied in forensic medicine. Their application extends possibilities of the visualization the bony structures toward a more detailed imaging of soft tissues and internal organs. The application of modern imaging methods in postmortem body investigation is known as digital or virtual autopsy. At present digital postmortem imaging is considered as a bloodless alternative to the conventional autopsy.

  16. Regenerative Medicine for the Heart: Perspectives on Stem-Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Fernandez, Laviel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite decades of progress in cardiovascular biology and medicine, heart disease remains the leading cause of death, and there is no cure for the failing heart. Since heart failure is mostly caused by loss or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes (CMs), replacing dead or damaged CMs with new CMs might be an ideal way to reverse the disease. However, the adult heart is composed mainly of terminally differentiated CMs that have no significant self-regeneration capacity. Recent Advances: Stem cells have tremendous regenerative potential and, thus, current cardiac regenerative research has focused on developing stem cell sources to repair damaged myocardium. Critical Issues: In this review, we examine the potential sources of cells that could be used for heart therapies, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as alternative methods for activating the endogenous regenerative mechanisms of the heart via transdifferentiation and cell reprogramming. We also discuss the current state of knowledge of cell purification, delivery, and retention. Future Directions: Efforts are underway to improve the current stem cell strategies and methodologies, which will accelerate the development of innovative stem-cell therapies for heart regeneration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2018–2031. PMID:25133793

  17. [Western and traditional Chinese medicine disease management programs of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaoming; Sheng, Xiaogang; Pan, Guangming

    2012-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is one of the greatest disease in modem medicine as chronic disease . It cost lots of financial resources to deal with. Western and traditional Chinese medicine Disease management programs (DMP) can notability improve the qualities of life and reduce the expenses for CHF. The disease management programs of CHF have achieved kind of success, but the management programs method witch is of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristic idea carry into testing execution in few TCM hospitals only. This article review the necessary of DMP research, advances in research of DMP research, and relationship between management programs method of Western and traditional Chinese medicine and illness state improvement of CHF patients.

  18. Noninvasive Imaging to Evaluate Women With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Lauren A.; Raman, Subha V.; Min, James K.; Mieres, Jennifer H.; Gulati, Martha; Wenger, Nanette K.; Marwick, Thomas H.; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Ferdinand, Keith C.; Pepine, Carl J.; Walsh, Mary Norine; Narula, Jagat; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2017-01-01

    Declines in cardiovascular deaths have been dramatic for men but occur significantly less in women. Among patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease (IHD), women experience relatively worse outcomes compared with their male counterparts. Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore unique female imaging targets and their correlative signs and symptoms of IHD as major determinants of IHD risk. We highlight sex-specific anatomic and functional differences in contemporary imaging and introduce imaging approaches that leverage refined targets that may improve IHD risk prediction and identify potential therapeutic strategies for symptomatic women. PMID:27056162

  19. NADH fluorescence imaging of isolated biventricular working rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Huda; Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Jaimes, Rafael; Swift, Luther M; Kay, Matthew W

    2012-07-24

    Since its inception by Langendorff(1), the isolated perfused heart remains a prominent tool for studying cardiac physiology(2). However, it is not well-suited for studies of cardiac metabolism, which require the heart to perform work within the context of physiologic preload and afterload pressures. Neely introduced modifications to the Langendorff technique to establish appropriate left ventricular (LV) preload and afterload pressures(3). The model is known as the isolated LV working heart model and has been used extensively to study LV performance and metabolism(4-6). This model, however, does not provide a properly loaded right ventricle (RV). Demmy et al. first reported a biventricular model as a modification of the LV working heart model(7, 8). They found that stroke volume, cardiac output, and pressure development improved in hearts converted from working LV mode to biventricular working mode(8). A properly loaded RV also diminishes abnormal pressure gradients across the septum to improve septal function. Biventricular working hearts have been shown to maintain aortic output, pulmonary flow, mean aortic pressure, heart rate, and myocardial ATP levels for up to 3 hours(8). When studying the metabolic effects of myocardial injury, such as ischemia, it is often necessary to identify the location of the affected tissue. This can be done by imaging the fluorescence of NADH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)(9-11), a coenzyme found in large quantities in the mitochondria. NADH fluorescence (fNADH) displays a near linearly inverse relationship with local oxygen concentration(12) and provides a measure of mitochondrial redox state(13). fNADH imaging during hypoxic and ischemic conditions has been used as a dye-free method to identify hypoxic regions(14, 15) and to monitor the progression of hypoxic conditions over time(10). The objective of the method is to monitor the mitochondrial redox state of biventricular working hearts during protocols

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  1. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging of the heart ex situ: development of technical protocols.

    PubMed

    Bruguier, C; Egger, C; Vallée, J P; Grimm, J; Boulanger, X; Jackowski, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2015-05-01

    Postmortem MRI (PMMR) examinations are seldom performed in legal medicine due to long examination times, unfamiliarity with the technique, and high costs. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain access to an MRI device used for patients in clinical settings to image an entire human body. An alternative is available: ex situ organ examination. To our knowledge, there is no standardized protocol that includes ex situ organ preparation and scanning parameters for postmortem MRI. Thus, our objective was to develop a standard procedure for ex situ heart PMMR examinations. We also tested the oily contrast agent Angiofil® commonly used for PMCT angiography, for its applicability in MRI. We worked with a 3 Tesla MRI device and 32-channel head coils. Twelve porcine hearts were used to test different materials to find the best way to prepare and place organs in the device and to test scanning parameters. For coronary MR angiography, we tested different mixtures of Angiofil® and different injection materials. In a second step, 17 human hearts were examined to test the procedure and its applicability to human organs. We established two standardized protocols: one for preparation of the heart and another for scanning parameters based on experience in clinical practice. The established protocols enabled a standardized technical procedure with comparable radiological images, allowing for easy radiological reading. The performance of coronary MR angiography enabled detailed coronary assessment and revealed the utility of Angiofil® as a contrast agent for PMMR. Our simple, reproducible method for performing heart examinations ex situ yields high quality images and visualization of the coronary arteries.

  2. Heavy-Ion <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Applied To <span class="hlt">Medicine</span>

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J. I.; Tobias, C. A.; Capp, M. P.; Benton, E. V.; Holley, W. R.; Gray, Joel E.; Hendee, William R.; Haus, Andrew G.; Properzio, William S.

    1980-08-18

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  3. Molecular imaging and personalized medicine: an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Adrian D

    2007-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has described their view of the role that imaging will play in the approval, and perhaps postapproval, use of new therapeutic drugs. The therapeutic drug industry and regulatory authorities have turned to imaging to help them achieve better efficiency and efficacy. We must extend this initiative by demonstrating that molecular imaging can also improve the efficiency and efficacy of routine treatment with these same drugs. The role of molecular imaging in personalized medicine, using targeted drugs in oncology, is very attractive because of the regional information that it provides (in many cases, with a functional or dynamic component), which cannot be provided by in vitro methods ("regional proteomics"). There is great potential for molecular imaging to play a major role in selecting appropriate patients and providing early proof of response, which is critical to addressing the conflict between the high price of treatment and limited reimbursement budgets. This is a new venture in both molecular imaging and targeted drugs. However, there are various regulatory, financial, and practical barriers that must be overcome to achieve this aim, in addition to the normal scientific challenges of drug discovery. There is an urgent need to reduce the cost (i.e., time and money) of developing imaging agents for routine clinical use. The mismatch between the current regulations and personalized medicine includes molecular imaging and requires the engagement of the regulatory authorities to correct. Therapeutic companies must be engaged early in the development of new targeted drugs and molecular imaging agents to improve the fit between the two drug types. Clinical trials must be performed to generate data that not only shows the efficacy of imaging plus therapy in a medical sense, but also in a financial sense. Molecular imaging must be accepted as not just good science but also as central to routine patient management in the personalized

  4. Integration of digital imaging into emergency medicine education.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lisa; Reilly, Kevin M

    2002-01-01

    Medical education has adopted the use of digital photography and other computer technology, which has changed the face of the classroom. Today's presentations couple a computer and digital projection system to create powerful teaching tools. Integration of quality medical images enhances presentations in a way never before possible and at a much lower cost. Changes to presentations can occur rapidly, at a fraction of the cost of slides. However, obtaining quality digital images for presentations is problematic. Services are available on the Internet that offer images for sale, but the cost to obtain images is high. Many institutions of higher learning provide images on the Internet for free, but the quality, number of available images, server capacity, and issues of consent limit the availability of these images. The authors describe their experience in collecting more than 20,000 clinical photographs, and provide examples of their use in emergency medicine education.

  5. Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Deserno, Thomas M.; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) technology has been proposed to benefit not only the management of increasingly large image collections, but also to aid clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Based on a literature review, we conclude that there is widespread enthusiasm for CBIR in the engineering research community, but the application of this technology to solve practical medical problems is a goal yet to be realized. Furthermore, we highlight “gaps” between desired CBIR system functionality and what has been achieved to date, present for illustration a comparative analysis of four state-of-the-art CBIR implementations using the gap approach, and suggest that high-priority gaps to be overcome lie in CBIR interfaces and functionality that better serve the clinical and biomedical research communities. PMID:20523757

  6. [Possibilities of use of digital imaging in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Gaval'a, P; Ivicsics, I; Mlynár, J; Novomeský, F

    2005-07-01

    Based on the daily practice with digital photography and documentation, the authors point out the achievements of the computer technologies implementation to the practice of forensic medicine. The modern methods of imaging, especially the digital photography, offer a wide spectrum of use in forensic medicine--the digital documentation and archivation of autopsy findings, the possibility of immediate consultation of findings with another experts via Internet, and many others. Another possibility is a creation of digital photographic atlas of forensic medicine as a useful aid in pre- and postgradual study. Thus the application of the state-of-the-art computer technologies to the forensic medicine discloses the unknown before possibilities for further development of such a discipline of human medical sciences.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging applied to forensic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoff, Donald B.; Oliver, William R.

    2000-03-01

    Remote sensing techniques now include the use of hyperspectral infrared imaging sensors covering the mid-and- long wave regions of the spectrum. They have found use in military surveillance applications due to their capability for detection and classification of a large variety of both naturally occurring and man-made substances. The images they produce reveal the spatial distributions of spectral patterns that reflect differences in material temperature, texture, and composition. A program is proposed for demonstrating proof-of-concept in using a portable sensor of this type for crime scene investigations. It is anticipated to be useful in discovering and documenting the affects of trauma and/or naturally occurring illnesses, as well as detecting blood spills, tire patterns, toxic chemicals, skin injection sites, blunt traumas to the body, fluid accumulations, congenital biochemical defects, and a host of other conditions and diseases. This approach can significantly enhance capabilities for determining the circumstances of death. Potential users include law enforcement organizations (police, FBI, CIA), medical examiners, hospitals/emergency rooms, and medical laboratories. Many of the image analysis algorithms already in place for hyperspectral remote sensing and crime scene investigations can be applied to the interpretation of data obtained in this program.

  8. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  9. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    PubMed

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  10. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  11. Accuracy and precision of radioactivity quantification in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Frey, Eric C; Humm, John L; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise testing and stress imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Henri, Christine; Piérard, Luc A; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2014-09-01

    The role of exercise testing and stress imaging in the management of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) is reviewed in this article. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery have recently put emphasis on the role of exercise testing to clarify symptom status and the use of stress imaging to assess the dynamic component of valvular abnormalities and unmask subclinical myocardial dysfunction that could be missed at rest. Recent studies have demonstrated the incremental prognostic value of exercise echocardiography for asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, moderate-severe mitral stenosis, and severe primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis, dobutamine stress echocardiography is recommended to differentiate true severe from pseudosevere aortic stenosis. Data on the prognostic value of stress echocardiography in aortic regurgitation and functional mitral regurgitation are less robust. Data are sparse on the use of stress imaging in right-sided VHD, however recent studies using stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging offer some prognostic information. Although the strongest recommendations for surgical treatment continue to be based on symptom status and resting left ventricular repercussions, stress imaging can be useful to optimize risk stratification and timing of surgery in VHD. Randomized clinical trials are required to confirm that clinical decision-making based on stress imaging can lead to improved outcomes.

  13. Imaging of congenital heart disease in adults: choice of modalities.

    PubMed

    Orwat, Stefan; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Baumgartner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in noninvasive imaging of adult congenital heart disease have been accomplished. These tools play now a key role in comprehensive diagnostic work-up, decision for intervention, evaluation for the suitability of specific therapeutic options, monitoring of interventions and regular follow-up. Besides echocardiography, magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT) have gained particular importance. The choice of imaging modality has thus become a critical issue. This review summarizes strengths and limitations of the different imaging modalities and how they may be used in a complementary fashion. Echocardiography obviously remains the workhorse of imaging routinely used in all patients. However, in complex disease and after surgery echocardiography alone frequently remains insufficient. CMR is particularly useful in this setting and allows reproducible and accurate quantification of ventricular function and comprehensive assessment of cardiac anatomy, aorta, pulmonary arteries and venous return including complex flow measurements. CT is preferred when CMR is contraindicated, when superior spatial resolution is required or when "metallic" artefacts limit CMR imaging. In conclusion, the use of currently available imaging modalities in adult congenital heart disease needs to be complementary. Echocardiography remains the basis tool, CMR and CT should be added considering specific open questions and the ability to answer them, availability and economic issues.

  14. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  15. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  16. The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Peterzan, Mark A; Rider, Oliver J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging is key for the assessment of patients with heart failure. Today, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an established role in the assessment of patients with suspected and confirmed heart failure syndromes, in particular identifying aetiology. Its role in informing prognosis and guiding decisions around therapy are evolving. Key strengths include its accuracy; reproducibility; unrestricted field of view; lack of radiation; multiple abilities to characterise myocardial tissue, thrombus and scar; as well as unparalleled assessment of left and right ventricular volumes. T2* has an established role in the assessment and follow-up of iron overload cardiomyopathy and a role for T1 in specific therapies for cardiac amyloid and Anderson–Fabry disease is emerging. PMID:28785465

  17. Image-Capture Devices Extend Medicine's Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and Houston-based Wyle Laboratories collaborated on NASA's Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) experiment, which developed revolutionary medical ultrasound diagnostic techniques for long-distance use. Mediphan, a Canadian company with U.S. operations in Springfield, New Jersey drew on NASA expertise to create frame-grabber and data archiving technology that enables ultrasound users with minimal training to send diagnostic-quality ultrasound images and video to medical professionals via the Internet in near real time allowing patients as varied as professional athletes, Olympians, and mountain climbers to receive medical attention as soon as it is needed.

  18. Imaging the mechanics and electromechanics of the heart.

    PubMed

    Konofagou, Elisa E; Fung-Kee-Fung, Simon; Luo, Jianwen; Pernot, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    The heart is a mechanical pump that is electrically driven. We have previously shown that the contractility of the cardiac muscle can reliably be used in order to assess the extent of ischemia using myocardial elastography. Myocardial elastography estimates displacement and strain during the natural contraction of the myocardium using signal processing techniques on echocardiograms in order to assess the change in mechanical properties as a result of disease. In this paper, we showed that elastographic techniques can be used to estimate and image both the mechanics and electromechanics of normal and pathological hearts in vivo. In order to image the mechanics throughout the entire cardiac cycle, the minimum frame rate was determined to be on the order of 150 fps in a long-axis view and 300 fps in a short-axis view. The incremental and cumulative displacement and strains were measured and imaged for the characterization of normal function and differentiation from infracted myocardium. In order to image the electromechanical function, the incremental displacement was imaged inconsecutive cardiac cycles during end-systole in both dogs and humans. The contraction wave velocity in normal dogs was found to be twice higher than in normal humans and twice lower than in ischemic dogs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that elastographic techniques can be used to detect and quantify the mechanics and electromechanics of the myocardium in vivo. Ongoing investigations entail assessment of myocardial elastography in characterizing and quantifying ischemia and infarction in vivo.

  19. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Beating heart mitral valve repair with integrated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John T.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Beating heart valve therapies rely extensively on image guidance to treat patients who would be considered inoperable with conventional surgery. Mitral valve repair techniques including the MitrClip, NeoChord, and emerging transcatheter mitral valve replacement techniques rely on transesophageal echocardiography for guidance. These images are often difficult to interpret as the tool will cause shadowing artifacts that occlude tissue near the target site. Here, we integrate ultrasound imaging directly into the NeoChord device. This provides an unobstructed imaging plane that can visualize the valve lea ets as they are engaged by the device and can aid in achieving both a proper bite and spacing between the neochordae implants. A proof of concept user study in a phantom environment is performed to provide a proof of concept for this device.

  1. Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

    2013-10-01

    The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation.

  2. New medicinal products for chronic heart failure: advances in clinical trial design and efficacy assessment.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Martin R; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Alonso Garcia, Maria de Los Angeles; Anker, Stefan D; Baczynska, Anna; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Borentain, Maria; Bruins Slot, Karsten; Cronin, Maureen; Doevendans, Pieter A; El-Gazayerly, Amany; Gimpelewicz, Claudio; Honarpour, Narimon; Janmohamed, Salim; Janssen, Heidi; Kim, Albert M; Lautsch, Dominik; Laws, Ian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Lyon, Alexander R; Malik, Fady I; McMurray, John J V; Metra, Marco; Figueroa Perez, Santiago; Pfeffer, Marc A; Pocock, Stuart J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Prasad, Krishna; Richard-Lordereau, Isabelle; Roessig, Lothar; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Sherman, Warren; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Swedberg, Karl; Tyl, Benoit; Zannad, Faiez; Boulton, Caroline; De Graeff, Pieter

    2017-03-27

    Despite the availability of a number of different classes of therapeutic agents with proven efficacy in heart failure, the clinical course of heart failure patients is characterized by a reduction in life expectancy, a progressive decline in health-related quality of life and functional status, as well as a high risk of hospitalization. New approaches are needed to address the unmet medical needs of this patient population. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is undertaking a revision of its Guideline on Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure. The draft version of the Guideline was released for public consultation in January 2016. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in partnership with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, convened a dedicated two-day workshop to discuss three main topic areas of major interest in the field and addressed in this draft EMA guideline: (i) assessment of efficacy (i.e. endpoint selection and statistical analysis); (ii) clinical trial design (i.e. issues pertaining to patient population, optimal medical therapy, run-in period); and (iii) research approaches for testing novel therapeutic principles (i.e. cell therapy). This paper summarizes the key outputs from the workshop, reviews areas of expert consensus, and identifies gaps that require further research or discussion. Collaboration between regulators, industry, clinical trialists, cardiologists, health technology assessment bodies, payers, and patient organizations is critical to address the ongoing challenge of heart failure and to ensure the development and market access of new therapeutics in a scientifically robust, practical and safe way.

  3. Advanced Echocardiographic Imaging of the Congenitally Malformed Heart

    PubMed Central

    Black, D; Vettukattil, J

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant advancements in the ability of echocardiography to provide both morphological and functional information in children with congenitally malformed hearts. This progress has come through the development of improved technology such as matrix array probes and software which allows for the off line analysis of images to a high standard. This article focuses on these developments and discusses some newer concepts in advanced echocardiography such is multi-planar reformatting [MPR] and tissue motion annular displacement [TMAD]. Our aim is to discuss important aspects related to the quality and reproducibility of data, to review the most recent published data regarding advanced echocardiography in the malformed heart and to guide the reader to appropriate text for overcoming the technical challenges of using these methods. Many of the technical aspects of image acquisition and post processing have been discussed in recent reviews by the authors and we would urge readers to study these texts to gain a greater understanding [1]. The quality of the two dimensional image is paramount in both strain analysis and three dimensional echocardiography. An awareness of how to improve image quality is vital to acquiring accurate and usable data. Three dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is an attempt to visualise the dynamic morphology of the heart. Although published media is the basis for theoretical knowledge of how to practically acquire images, electronic media [eg.www.3dechocardiography.com] is the only way of visualising the advantages of this technology in real time. It is important to be aware of the limitations of this technology and that much of the data gleaned from using these methods is at a research stage and not yet in regular clinical practice. PMID:23228075

  4. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We continue to use and maintain PCR-I, the single-slice high- resolution high-sensitivity positron emission tomograph, while development proceeds on PCR-II, a three-dimensional PET system. A two-dimensional BGO scintillation detector has been designed and we are nearing completion of the detector, including the light guide, crystals and phototube assembly, and the gantry electronics. We are currently exploring techniques for a very high resolution (sub-mm) PET imaging system. We are using the current PCR-I system to assess changes in presynaptic dopamine receptors and glucose utilization in current biological models of Huntington's disease. Our preliminary studies support the use of the primate (Cynomolgus monkey) model of Huntington's disease to monitor in vivo functional changes. We are planning to extend this study to examine the MPTP model of Parkinson disease, and to assess the therapeutic value of D{sub 1} dopamine receptor agonists for treatment of MPTP-induced neurological defects. 13 refs., 5 figs. (MHB)

  5. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper

    PubMed Central

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. PMID:27699132

  6. 3D imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart tissue: going deeper.

    PubMed

    Nehrhoff, Imke; Bocancea, Diana; Vaquero, Javier; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge; Desco, Manuel; Gómez-Gaviro, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    The ability to acquire high resolution 3D images of the heart enables to study heart diseases more in detail. In this work, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was optimized for thick mouse heart sections to enhance the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. In addition, the optimized CUBIC clearing of the heart enhances antibody penetration into the tissue by a factor of five. The present protocol enables deep 3D high-quality image acquisition in the heart allowing a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases.

  7. Precision Medicine for Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-06-01

    There are few proven therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The lack of therapies, along with increased recognition of the disorder and its underlying pathophysiology, has led to the acknowledgement that HFpEF is heterogeneous and is not likely to respond to a one-size-fits-all approach. Thus, HFpEF is a prime candidate to benefit from a precision medicine approach. For this reason, we have assembled a compendium of papers on the topic of precision medicine in HFpEF in the Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. These papers cover a variety of topics relevant to precision medicine in HFpEF, including automated identification of HFpEF patients; machine learning, novel molecular approaches, genomics, and deep phenotyping of HFpEF; and clinical trial designs that can be used to advance precision medicine in HFpEF. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of precision medicine in HFpEF with the hope that the work described here and in the other papers in this special theme issue will stimulate investigators and clinicians to advance a more targeted approach to HFpEF classification and treatment.

  8. Perception of Nigerian internal medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mbakwem, A C; Ajuluchukwu, J N A

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the perception of internal medicine residents on diagnosis and management of heart failure in Nigeria. A modified version of the Euro-F study questionnaire was administered to internal medicine residents (IMRs) from Nigeria who were attending the pre part I Fellowship examination of the Faculty of Internal Medicine of the National Postgraduate Medical College. Responses were compared with data from the Nigerian primary physicians (PCP) survey and the Euro-HF study. The commonest symptoms used by the IMRs in heart failure diagnosis were exertional dyspnoea 68.85%(42), pedal oedema 63.93%(39) and orthopnoea 50.82%(31), while the signs included elevated jugular venous pressure 50.82%(31), basal crepitations 47.50%(29) and a gallop heart rhythm 39.34%(24). Categorisation using the Framingham criteria for diagnosis showed that 52% of the IMRs knew three or more major signs of heart failure. The IMRs use of investigations in diagnosing heart failure was fair to good and was significantly higher than results from the Euro-F study and the primary care physicians (PCPs) in Lagos study; echocardiogram, (p=0.007and <0.00001); electrocardiogram, (p= 0.0002 and p=0.001); chest x-ray (p=0.05 and 0.5) respectively. However the mean proportion of IMRs that would rely on investigation to make a diagnosis was significantly lower than in the Euro-F study (p=0.0001) and in the PCPs (p = 0.02). Although the mean proportion of the IMRs patients using ACE-inhibitors was significantly higher than in the Euro-F survey (p<0.001) and the PCPs (p <0.00001), majority (93.94%) of the IMRs were using less than half the trial doses for treatment. On the other hand, the knowledge of survival benefits with the use of b-blockers was very poor in the all the groups, p>0.05. A substantial knowledge gap still exists among the IMRs as regards the diagnosis and management of heart failure and this need to be addressed by the trainers.

  9. Segmental approach to imaging of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Chantale; Déry, Julie; Guérin, Ronald; Viremouneix, Loïc; Dubois, Josée; Garel, Laurent

    2010-03-01

    The segmental approach, which is widely used in the imaging work-up of congenital heart disease, consists of a three-step evaluation of the cardiac anatomy. In step 1, the visceroatrial situs is determined. Visceroatrial situs refers to the position of the atria in relation to the nearby anatomy (including the stomach, liver, spleen, and bronchi). Three different anatomic configurations may be observed: situs solitus (normal), situs inversus (inverted), or situs ambiguus (ambiguous). In step 2, the left- or rightward orientation of the ventricular loop is evaluated, and the positions of the ventricles are identified on the basis of their internal morphologic features. In step 3, the position of the great vessels is determined first, and any abnormalities are noted. Abnormalities in the origin of the great vessels, or conotruncal anomalies, are predominantly of three types: D-transposition (dextrotransposition), L-transposition (levotransposition), and D-malposition with double outlet right ventricle. Next, the relationships between the atria and ventricles and the ventricles and great vessels are determined at two levels: atrioventricular (concordant, discordant, ambiguous, double inlet, absence of right or left connection) and ventriculoarterial (concordant, discordant, double outlet). Last, a search is performed for any associated abnormalities of the cardiac chambers, septa, outflow tract, and great vessels. By executing these steps sequentially during image review, the radiologist can achieve a more accurate interpretation. Multiplanar reconstructions of cross-sectional image data obtained with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are particularly useful for evaluating congenital heart disease.

  10. Image denoising algorithm based on contourlet transform for optical coherence tomography heart tube image

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing; Dong, Fangmin; Sun, Shuifa; Lei, Bangjun; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is becoming an increasingly important imaging technology in the Biomedical field. However, the application of OCT is limited by the ubiquitous noise. In this study, the noise of OCT heart tube image is first verified as being multiplicative based on the local statistics (i.e. the linear relationship between the mean and the standard deviation of certain flat area). The variance of the noise is evaluated in log-domain. Based on these, a joint probability density function is constructed to take the inter-direction dependency in the contourlet domain from the logarithmic transformed image into account. Then, a bivariate shrinkage function is derived to denoise the image by the maximum a posteriori estimation. Systemic comparative experiments are made to synthesis images, OCT heart tube images and other OCT tissue images by subjective assessment and objective metrics. The experiment results are analysed based on the denoising results and the predominance degree of the proposed algorithm with respect to the wavelet-based algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm improves the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas preserving the edges and has more advantages on the images containing multi-direction information like OCT heart tube image. PMID:27087835

  11. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional renal imaging: new trends in radiology and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Durand, Emmanuel; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Grenier, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the characteristics of various techniques for functional renal imaging, with a focus on nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging. Even with low spatial resolution and rather poor signal-to-noise ratio, classical nuclear medicine has the advantage of linearity and good sensitivity. It remains the gold standard technique for renal relative functional assessment. Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate remains the reference glomerular tracer. Tubular tracers have been improved: (123)I- or (131)I-hippuran, (99m)Tc-MAG3 and, recently, (99m)Tc-nitrilotriacetic acid. However, advancement in molecular imaging has not produced a groundbreaking tracer. Renal magnetic resonance imaging with classical gadolinated tracers probably has potential in this domain but has a lack of linearity and, therefore, its value still needs evaluation. Moreover, the advent of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has delayed its expansion. Other developments, such as diffusion or blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, may have a role in the future. The other modalities have a limited role in clinical practice for functional renal imaging.

  13. Tissue Doppler Imaging in Coronary Artery Diseases and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Michele; Totaro, Antonio; Ieva, Riccardo; Ferraretti, Armando; Musaico, Francesco; Biase, Matteo Di

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the prognostic role of TDI-derived parameters in major cardiac diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). In these conditions, myocardial mitral annular systolic (S’) and early diastolic (E’) velocities have been shown to predict mortality or cardiovascular events. In heart failure non invasive assessment of LV diastolic pressure by transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/E’) is a strong prognosticator, especially when E/E’ is > or =15. Moreover, other parameters derived by TDI, as cardiac time intervals and Myocardial Performance Index, might play a role in the prognostic stratification in CAD and HF. Recently, a three-dimensional (3-D) TDI imaging modality, triplane TDI, has become available, and this allows calculation of 3-Dvolumes and LV ejection fraction. We present a brief update of TDI. PMID:22845815

  14. Advancing Precision Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Maly, Joseph J; Zhang, Jun; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of (18)F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of Autophagy in Ischemic Heart Diseases and the Modulatory Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Yu, Weiqing; Liu, Yuntao; Zhong, Guofu; Zhao, Zhen; Yan, Xia; Liu, Qing

    2017-09-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation process which eliminates dysfunctional proteins and cytoplasmic components to maintain homeostasis for cell survival. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the modulatory role of autophagy in ischemic heart diseases (IHDs). Traditionally, this process has been recognized as having protective functions, such as inhibiting atherosclerosis progression and reducing cell death during the ischemic phase. However, recent studies have suggested its dual roles in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury. Excessive autophagy may play a deleterious role in cardiac function, due to overwhelming clearance of cellular constituents and proteins. Hence modulation of autophagy to increase cardiomyocyte survival and improve cardiac function is meaningful for the treatment of IHD. Chinese herbal medicine, including extractive compounds and patented drugs, has shown its potential role in treating IHD by addressing autophagy-related mechanisms. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the molecular basis and modulatory role of autophagy in IHD and the recent progress of Chinese herbal medicine in its treatment.

  16. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Dementia and Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Atul K; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) has been defined as "prevention and treatment strategies that take individual variability into account." Molecular imaging (MI) is an ideally suited tool for PM approaches to neurodegenerative dementia and movement disorders (MD). Here we review PM approaches and discuss how they may be applied to other associated neurodegenerative dementia and MD. With ongoing major therapeutic research initiatives that include the use of molecular imaging, we look forward to established interventions targeted to specific molecular pathophysiology and expect the potential benefit of MI PM approaches in neurodegenerative dementia and MD will only increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging techniques for visualizing and phenotyping congenital heart defects in murine models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J B; Lo, Cecilia W

    2013-06-01

    Mouse model is ideal for investigating the genetic and developmental etiology of congenital heart disease. However, cardiovascular phenotyping for the precise diagnosis of structural heart defects in mice remain challenging. With rapid advances in imaging techniques, there are now high throughput phenotyping tools available for the diagnosis of structural heart defects. In this review, we discuss the efficacy of four different imaging modalities for congenital heart disease diagnosis in fetal/neonatal mice, including noninvasive fetal echocardiography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), micro-magnetic resonance imaging (micro-MRI), and episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC) histopathology. The experience we have gained in the use of these imaging modalities in a large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen have validated their efficacy for congenital heart defect diagnosis in the tiny hearts of fetal and newborn mice. These cutting edge phenotyping tools will be invaluable for furthering our understanding of the developmental etiology of congenital heart disease.

  18. The role of radionuclide imaging in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Vinay; Ching, Gilbert; Heller, Gary V

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing and it remains the only area in cardiovascular disease wherein hospitalization rates and mortalities have worsened in the past 25 years. This review is provided to assess the role of radionuclide imaging in HF. The focus is on three aspects: the value of nuclear imaging to distinguish ischemic from non-ischemic etiologies; risk stratification of patients with HF with evaluation of candidates for specific treatment strategies; and the role of cardiac neuronal imaging in patients with HF. Distinguishing ischemic from non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is important because patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy can potentially have dramatic improvement with revascularization. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has excellent reported sensitivity and negative predictive value in the detection of coronary artery disease in HF patients. SPECT imaging is also useful in establishing treatment strategies in patients with HF, including those with new onset CHF. Cardiac neuronal imaging of mIBG is particularly helpful in risk stratification of patients with HF. The modality can be used to monitor the response to therapy as dysfunctional mIBG uptake may show improvement with pharmacological treatment.

  19. [Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart defects in adults].

    PubMed

    Bastarrika Alemañ, G; Gavira Gómez, J J; Zudaire Díaz-Tejeiro, B; Castaño Rodríguez, S; Romero Ibarra, C; Sáenz de Buruaga, J D

    2007-01-01

    The study of congenital cardiopathies (CC) is one of the most clearly established indications of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Different sequences, including anatomic, functional, flow (phase contrast), and 3D angiographic sequences, enable the diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of these conditions. CMRI allows the anatomy, function, and alterations of flow in these cardiopathies to be evaluated in a single examination. Three-dimensional MR angiography enables the study of the great vessels and the anomalies associated to congenital heart defects in adults. This article describes an examination protocol and provides examples of MR images of the most common CC in adults: atrial septal defect, interventricular communication, atrioventricular canal, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, bicuspid aortic valve, subaortic stenosis, aortic coarctation, and Ebstein's anomaly.

  20. Spectral photoplethysmographic imaging sensor fusion for enhanced heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Continuous heart rate monitoring can provide important context for quantitative clinical assessment in scenarios such as long-term health monitoring and disability prevention. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are particularly useful for such monitoring scenarios as contact-based devices pose problems related to comfort and mobility. Each pixel can be regarded as a virtual PPG sensor, thus enabling simultaneous measurements of multiple skin sites. Existing PPGI systems analyze temporal PPGI sensor uctuations related to hemodynamic pulsations across a region of interest to extract the blood pulse signal. However, due to spatially varying optical properties of the skin, the blood pulse signal may not be consistent across all PPGI sensors, leading to inaccurate heart rate monitoring. To increase the hemodynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we propose a novel spectral PPGI sensor fusion method for enhanced estimation of the true blood pulse signal. Motivated by the observation that PPGI sensors with high hemodynamic SNR exhibit a spectral energy peak at the heart rate frequency, an entropy-based fusion model was formulated to combine PPGI sensors based on the sensors' spectral energy distribution. The optical PPGI device comprised a near infrared (NIR) sensitive camera and an 850 nm LED. Spatially uniform irradiance was achieved by placing optical elements along the LED beam, providing consistent illumination across the skin area. Dual-mode temporally coded illumination was used to negate the temporal effect of ambient illumination. Experimental results show that the spectrally weighted PPGI method can accurately and consistently extract heart rate information where traditional region-based averaging fails.

  1. Using Nuclear Medicine Imaging Wisely in Diagnosing Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Censullo, Andrea; Vijayan, Tara

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on efficient and accurate diagnostic testing, exemplified by the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Choosing Wisely" campaign. Nuclear imaging studies can provide early and accurate diagnoses of many infectious disease syndromes, particularly in complex cases where the differential remains broad. This review paper offers clinicians a rational, evidence-based guide to approaching nuclear medicine tests, using an example case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in a patient with multiple potential sources. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with computed tomography (CT) and sulfur colloid imaging with tagged white blood cell (WBC) scanning offer the most promise in facilitating rapid and accurate diagnoses of endovascular graft infections, vertebral osteomyelitis (V-OM), diabetic foot infections, and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). However, radiologists at different institutions may have varying degrees of expertise with these modalities. Regardless, infectious disease consultants would benefit from knowing what nuclear medicine tests to order when considering patients with complex infectious disease syndromes.

  2. Real-time optical gating for three-dimensional beating heart imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Love, Gordon D.; Girkin, John M.; Henderson, Deborah J.; Chaudhry, Bill

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate real-time microscope image gating to an arbitrary position in the cycle of the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo. We show how this can be used for high-precision prospective gating of fluorescence image slices of the moving heart. We also present initial results demonstrating the application of this technique to 3-D structural imaging of the beating embryonic heart.

  3. [Impact of sleep deprivation on coronary heart disease and progress in prevention and treatment with traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rong; Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li

    2015-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been taken as an independent predictor for cardiovascular risks, which was closely related to the increased morbidity and mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). In this article, after reviewing the impact of modern medical method sleep deprivation on CHD and studies on principle method recipe medicines for preventing and treating CHD, the authors observed the autonomic nerve dysfunction, hormonal metabolism dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory responses after sleep deprivation, which can cause or aggravate CHD. On the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine theories of "heart dominating the blood and vessels and the mind", the authors considered that traditional Chinese medicines can tonify heart and soothe the nerves, reducing all of the risk factors through multi-target and multi-pathway, and improve sleep and decrease the risk factors caused by sleep deprivation, which provides a new idea for the prevention and treatment of CHD.

  4. Overall system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottes, Fenno P.; Bakker, Albert R.; VanGennip, Chel; van Poppel, Bas M.; Toussaint, Pieter J.; Weber, Ruud; Weier, Onno

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the global system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images. This NM PACS provides facilities for image capture, storage, display, manipulation and analysis. The NM PACS workstation displays besides images also the patient data from the HIS database. The NM PACS is equipped with well-defined HIS interface, which provides interoperability with HIS systems. The system design of the NM PACS is based on: a twin client-server concept, i.e. each workstation can run a HIS client and a PACS client, each interfaced with their own server. The HIS and the PACS servers are in turn inter-connected. The PACS images can be retrieved and displayed by evoking a command to a HIS menu. The X-protocol, together with GUI tools, such as Builder Xcsessory and the Motif tools in the Xmt library, are used to create the software modules that displays, manipulates and analyzes the images. The image file storage architecture consists of a single layer, namely an array of magnetical disks.

  5. Double chambered right ventricle: depiction at three-dimensional whole heart magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Matsuo, Shinro; Miyamoto, Takashi; Iida, Kiyoshi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Satoshi

    2007-06-25

    Double chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease in which the right ventricle is divided into a high-pressure inlet site and a low-pressure outlet site by anomalous muscle bands. Whole heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which depicts 3-dimensional anatomy of the heart and coronary arteries was useful to diagnose DCRV.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in medicine and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.T.W.; van Zijl, P.C.M.; Frank, J.A.; Bihan, D.L.; Becker, E.D. )

    1990-10-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about macroscopic structure and anatomy. Recent advances in MRI allow the noninvasive spatial evaluation of various biophysical and biochemical processes in living systems. Specifically, the motion of water can be measured in processes such as vascular flow, capillary flow, diffusion, and exchange. In addition, the concentrations of various metabolites can be determined for the assessment of regional regulation of metabolism. Examples are given that demonstrate the use of functional MRI for clinical and research purposes. This development adds a new dimension to the application of magnetic resonance to medicine and physiology.

  7. Radiomics: the bridge between medical imaging and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Lambin, Philippe; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Deist, Timo M; Peerlings, Jurgen; de Jong, Evelyn E C; van Timmeren, Janita; Sanduleanu, Sebastian; Larue, Ruben T H M; Even, Aniek J G; Jochems, Arthur; van Wijk, Yvonka; Woodruff, Henry; van Soest, Johan; Lustberg, Tim; Roelofs, Erik; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre; Mottaghy, Felix M; Wildberger, Joachim E; Walsh, Sean

    2017-10-04

    Radiomics, the high-throughput mining of quantitative image features from standard-of-care medical imaging that enables data to be extracted and applied within clinical-decision support systems to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive accuracy, is gaining importance in cancer research. Radiomic analysis exploits sophisticated image analysis tools and the rapid development and validation of medical imaging data that uses image-based signatures for precision diagnosis and treatment, providing a powerful tool in modern medicine. Herein, we describe the process of radiomics, its pitfalls, challenges, opportunities, and its capacity to improve clinical decision making, emphasizing the utility for patients with cancer. Currently, the field of radiomics lacks standardized evaluation of both the scientific integrity and the clinical relevance of the numerous published radiomics investigations resulting from the rapid growth of this area. Rigorous evaluation criteria and reporting guidelines need to be established in order for radiomics to mature as a discipline. Herein, we provide guidance for investigations to meet this urgent need in the field of radiomics.

  8. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-November 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Developments of improved imaging systems in nuclear medicine are reported with emphasis on development of positron emission tomographs that combine high resolution, with high sensitivity and high count rate capability. A second generation cylindrical analog positron camera design has provided excellent light collection with limited light spread, characteristics needed for high spatial and temporal resolution. Other aspects of the camera development include the design of associated electronics, and provision for data storage and processing. Utilizing the above camera basic studies have been performed to evaluate blood flow in the cat brain stem during auditory stimulation, ventilation in the dog using /sup 13/N and blood flow in the canine heart. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children.

  10. Advances in material design for regenerative medicine, drug delivery and targeting/imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many of the major breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in medicine to date have occurred due to innovations and materials and/or application/implementation of materials in clinical medicine. Artificial heart valves, implantable cardiac devices, limb prosthesis, cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implan...

  11. Molecular Imaging in Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy for Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Haitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2013-01-01

    With the speeding tendency of aging society, human neurological disorders have posed an ever increasing threat to public health care. Human neurological diseases include ischemic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury, which are induced by impairment or specific degeneration of different types of neurons in central nervous system. Currently, there are no more effective treatments against these diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is focused on, which can provide new strategies for the therapy in neurological disorders. TCM, including Chinese herb medicine, acupuncture, and other nonmedication therapies, has its unique therapies in treating neurological diseases. In order to improve the treatment of these disorders by optimizing strategies using TCM and evaluate the therapeutic effects, we have summarized molecular imaging, a new promising technology, to assess noninvasively disease specific in cellular and molecular levels of living models in vivo, that was applied in TCM therapy for neurological diseases. In this review, we mainly focus on applying diverse molecular imaging methodologies in different TCM therapies and monitoring neurological disease, and unveiling the mysteries of TCM. PMID:24222911

  12. Molecular imaging in traditional Chinese medicine therapy for neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zefeng; Wan, Haitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2013-01-01

    With the speeding tendency of aging society, human neurological disorders have posed an ever increasing threat to public health care. Human neurological diseases include ischemic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury, which are induced by impairment or specific degeneration of different types of neurons in central nervous system. Currently, there are no more effective treatments against these diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is focused on, which can provide new strategies for the therapy in neurological disorders. TCM, including Chinese herb medicine, acupuncture, and other nonmedication therapies, has its unique therapies in treating neurological diseases. In order to improve the treatment of these disorders by optimizing strategies using TCM and evaluate the therapeutic effects, we have summarized molecular imaging, a new promising technology, to assess noninvasively disease specific in cellular and molecular levels of living models in vivo, that was applied in TCM therapy for neurological diseases. In this review, we mainly focus on applying diverse molecular imaging methodologies in different TCM therapies and monitoring neurological disease, and unveiling the mysteries of TCM.

  13. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine.

  14. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine. PMID:28078184

  15. Tensor Factorization for Precision Medicine in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Ahmad, Faraz S; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-01-23

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that may benefit from improved subtyping in order to better characterize its pathophysiology and to develop novel targeted therapies. The United States Precision Medicine Initiative comes amid the rapid growth in quantity and modality of clinical data for HFpEF patients ranging from deep phenotypic to trans-omic data. Tensor factorization, a form of machine learning, allows for the integration of multiple data modalities to derive clinically relevant HFpEF subtypes that may have significant differences in underlying pathophysiology and differential response to therapies. Tensor factorization also allows for better interpretability by supporting dimensionality reduction and identifying latent groups of data for meaningful summarization of both features and disease outcomes. In this narrative review, we analyze the modest literature on the application of tensor factorization to related biomedical fields including genotyping and phenotyping. Based on the cited work including work of our own, we suggest multiple tensor factorization formulations capable of integrating the deep phenotypic and trans-omic modalities of data for HFpEF, or accounting for interactions between genetic variants at different omic hierarchies. We encourage extensive experimental studies to tackle challenges in applying tensor factorization for precision medicine in HFpEF, including effectively incorporating existing medical knowledge, properly accounting for uncertainty, and efficiently enforcing sparsity for better interpretability.

  16. Applying Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mary Ellen; Daus, Alan M

    2013-02-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) scan radiation dose has drawn much attention, radiation dose from nuclear medicine procedures should not be overlooked. An estimated 19.7 million nuclear medicine procedures are done annually in the United States, with patient radiation dose comparable to that from CT scans. Nuclear medicine departments should implement Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM recommendations to reduce nuclear medicine patient radiation dose. Pediatric administered radiopharmaceutical doses should be compared with the North American Consensus Guidelines for Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities in Children and Adolescents, and adult doses should be compared with national and international standards. In a 2011 patient quality and safety initiative at Gundersen Lutheran Health System, 24 pediatric protocols and 52 adult protocols were compared with standards. Doses not comparable to the recommended values were adjusted accordingly and the resultant image quality evaluated. Additional steps to reduce patient radiation dose include decision support to reduce inappropriate ordering, technique optimization for the CT portion of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, use of vendor's dose reduction camera and software technology, use of shorter lived radiopharmaceuticals, and "right sizing" patient doses by weight.

  17. Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Deirdre Maria

    Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were

  18. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging: Reproducing typical autopsy heart measurements.

    PubMed

    Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Hatch, Gary M; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of cardiac postmortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) to perform routine measurements of the ventricular wall thicknesses and the heart valves and to assess if imaging measurements are consistent with traditional autopsy measurements. In this retrospective study, 25 cases with cardiac PMMR and subsequent autopsy were included. The thicknesses of the myocardial walls as well as the circumferences of all heart valves were measured on cardiac PMMR and compared to autopsy measurements. Paired samples T-test and the Wilcoxon-Signed rank test, were used to compare autopsy and cardiac PMMR measurements. For exploring correlations, the Pearson's Correlation coefficient and the Spearman's Rho test were used. Cardiac PMMR measurements of the aortic and pulmonary valve circumferences showed no significant differences from autopsy measurements. The mitral and tricuspid valves circumferences differed significantly from autopsy measurements. Left myocardial and right myocardial wall thickness also differed significantly from autopsy measurements. Left and right myocardial wall thickness, and tricuspid valve circumference measurements on cardiac PMMR and autopsy, correlated strongly and significantly. Several PMMR measurements of cardiac parameters differ significantly from corresponding autopsy measurements. However, there is a strong correlation between cardiac PMMR measurements and autopsy measurements in the majority of these parameters. It is important to note that myocardial walls are thicker when measured in situ on cardiac PMMR than when measured at autopsy. Investigators using post-mortem MR should be aware of these differences in order to avoid false diagnoses of cardiac pathology based on cardiac PMMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The image of Byzantine medicine in the satire "Timarion"].

    PubMed

    Leven, K H

    1990-01-01

    Byzantine medicine is usually regarded as a static and non-creative descendant of classical Greek medicine, a point of view confirmed by the Byzantine medical texts. In this essay, the anonymous satire "Timarion" is analyzed in respect to its image of contemporary medical theory. Timarion, the fictive narrator, falls ill with a fever and is brought to Hades by two conductors of souls. They assert that he cannot survive, because he has secreted all his elementary bile. According to a decree by Asclepios and Hippocrates posted in Hades, any person that has lost one of his four elements may not live longer. In Hades Timarion sues to the court of judges of the dead. His lawyer, the sophist Theodore of Smyrna, persuades the judges that the bile excreted by Timarion has not been elementary in the sense of humoral pathology. So Timarion is allowed to return to life. The author of the satire ridicules the fundamental axiom of the four humours. Asclepios, Hippocrates and Erasistratos, who are attached to the infernal court as experts, cannot defend their theory against the convincing arguments of a sophist. The "divine" Galen, who probably would have been able to, is absent in order to complete a book of his. The "Timarion" with its harsh critique of medical theory is very amusing and a rare example of "actuality" in Byzantine literature.

  20. Intact Imaging of Human Heart Structure Using X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukihiro; Shinohara, Gen; Hoshino, Masato; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kiyozo; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Yagi, Naoto; Okita, Yutaka; Tsukube, Takuro

    2017-02-01

    Structural examination of human heart specimens at the microscopic level is a prerequisite for understanding congenital heart diseases. It is desirable not to destroy or alter the properties of such specimens because of their scarcity. However, many of the currently available imaging techniques either destroy the specimen through sectioning or alter the chemical and mechanical properties of the specimen through staining and contrast agent injection. As a result, subsequent studies may not be possible. X-ray phase-contrast tomography is an imaging modality for biological soft tissues that does not destroy or alter the properties of the specimen. The feasibility of X-ray phase-contrast tomography for the structural examination of heart specimens was tested using infantile and fetal heart specimens without congenital diseases. X-ray phase-contrast tomography was carried out at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility using the Talbot grating interferometer at the bending magnet beamline BL20B2 to visualize the structure of five non-pretreated whole heart specimens obtained by autopsy. High-resolution, three-dimensional images were obtained for all specimens. The images clearly showed the myocardial structure, coronary vessels, and conduction bundle. X-ray phase-contrast tomography allows high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of human heart specimens. Intact imaging using X-ray phase-contrast tomography can contribute to further structural investigation of heart specimens with congenital heart diseases.

  1. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  2. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: part II.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernhard L; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-11-01

    The European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging, created in 2012, has become a reference for publishing multimodality cardiovascular imaging scientific and review papers. The impressive 2014 impact factor of 4.105 confirms the important position of our journal. In this part, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year, with specific emphasis on cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, valvular heart diseases, and heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. State of play of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Parry, Helen M; Doney, Alex S F; Palmer, Colin N A; Lang, Chim C

    2013-12-01

    Heart failure is a common disease with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence guiding treatment shows prognostic benefit with beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, while diuretics are commonly prescribed for symptomatic benefit. Wide variation in drug response between clinically similar patients is a significant problem. Evidence suggests this may have a genetic component. Variation in candidate genes including the beta-1, beta-2, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway and genes involved in renal electrolyte handling with diuretics may be important. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially influencing drug response include the Arg 389 Gly variant and the Ser 49 Gly variant in the beta-1 adrenergic receptor, the Arg 16 Gly, Gln 27 Glu, and Thr 164 Ile polymorphisms within the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, an insertion at the 287th base pair in the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the Gly 264 Ala mutation in the sodium chloride co-transporter. However, research addressing the clinical significance of these polymorphisms has yielded conflicting results that have had no influence on clinical practice. Genome-wide association studies may provide an alternative approach to discovering genetic variations influencing drug response, a relatively unchartered area in heart failure management. If future work in this area produces a strong case that variation in drug response has a specific and clinically meaningful genetic component, this could be used to guide drug dosing based on genotype; a step forward in the journey toward personally tailored medicine.

  4. Imaging atrial arrhythmic intracellular calcium in intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Melanie; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ signaling have been proposed to play an essential role in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. However, a direct observation of intracellular Ca2+ in atrial myocytes during atrial arrhythmias is lacking. Here, we have developed an ex vivo model of simultaneous Ca2+ imaging and electrocardiographic recording in cardiac atria. Using this system we were able to record atrial arrhythmic intracellular Ca2+ activities. Our results indicate that atrial arrhythmias can be tightly linked to intracellular Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ alternans. Moreover, we applied this strategy to analyze Ca2+ signals in the hearts of WT and knock-in mice harboring a ‘leaky’ type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2-R2474S). We showed that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak increases the susceptibility to Ca2+ alternans and Ca2+ waves increasing the incidence of atrial arrhythmias. Reduction of SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2 by acute treatment with S107 reduced both Ca2+ alternans and Ca2+ waves, and prevented atrial arrhythmias. PMID:24041536

  5. Imaging atrial arrhythmic intracellular calcium in intact heart.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Melanie; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    Abnormalities in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling have been proposed to play an essential role in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. However, a direct observation of intracellular Ca(2+) in atrial myocytes during atrial arrhythmias is lacking. Here, we have developed an ex vivo model of simultaneous Ca(2+) imaging and electrocardiographic recording in cardiac atria. Using this system we were able to record atrial arrhythmic intracellular Ca(2+) activities. Our results indicate that atrial arrhythmias can be tightly linked to intracellular Ca(2+) waves and Ca(2+) alternans. Moreover, we applied this strategy to analyze Ca(2+) signals in the hearts of WT and knock-in mice harboring a 'leaky' type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2-R2474S). We showed that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak increases the susceptibility to Ca(2+) alternans and Ca(2+) waves increasing the incidence of atrial arrhythmias. Reduction of SR Ca(2+) leak via RyR2 by acute treatment with S107 reduced both Ca(2+) alternans and Ca(2+) waves, and prevented atrial arrhythmias.

  6. Blood stasis syndrome of coronary heart disease: A perspective of modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    The medical community as a whole is attempting to start preventive therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients earlier in life. However, the main limitations of such interventions are drug resistance and adverse reactions. Additionally, traditional biomarker discovery methods for CHD focus on the behavior of individual biomarkers regardless of their relevance. These limitations have led to attempting novel approaches to multi-dimensionally investigate CHD and identify safe and efficacious therapies for preventing CHD. Recently, the benefit of Chinese medicine (CM) in CHD has been proven by increasing clinical evidence. More importantly, linking CM theory with modern biomedicine may lead to new scientific discoveries. According to CM theory, all treatments for patients should be based on patients' syndromes. A recent epidemiological investigation has demonstrated that blood stasis syndrome (BSS) is the major syndrome type of CHD. BSS is a type of complex pathophysiological state characterized by decreased or impeded blood flow. Common clinical features of BSS include a darkish complexion, scaly dry skin, and cyanosis of the lips and nails, a purple or dark tongue with purple spots, a thready and hesitant pulse, and stabbing or pricking pain fixed in location accompanied by tenderness, mass formation and ecchymosis or petechiae. The severity of BSS is significantly correlated with the complexity of coronary lesions and the degree of stenosis, and is an important factor affecting the occurrence of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. The mechanisms of BSS of CHD patients should be investigated from a modern medicine perspective. Although many studies have attempted to explore the biomedical mechanisms of BSS of CHD, from hemorheological disorders to inflammation and immune responses, the global picture of BSS of CHD is still unclear. In this article, the current status of studies investigating the biomedical mechanisms of BSS of CHD and future

  7. [Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo

    2014-06-01

    With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields.

  8. [Using functional brain imaging technique to study central mechanism of acupuncture therapy for chronic stable angina pectoris in view of heart-brain correlation].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Jie; Zeng, Fang; Lan, Lei; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Di; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Heart-brain correlation is an important component of Chinese medicine about the theory of zang-fu organs, which is still valuable for acupuncture clinical practice. Nowadays, increasing evidence supports the close association between the heart-brain axis, central autonomic nerve network and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the extensive regulative effects of acupuncture intervention on the heart-brain axis, functional connectivity of the brain, automatic nerve activities and cardiac functions. Therefore, the authors of the present paper hold that from the viewpoint of the heart-brain relationship, and by combining non-invasive functional brain imaging techniques with the patients' subjective and objective clinical indexes, our researchers will possibly and systematically reveal the underlying central mechanisms of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris. However, the concrete biochemical mechanism should be proved via other advanced biological techniques.

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  11. Time-lapse imaging of human heart motion with switched array UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Paichard, Yoann; Aardal, Øyvind; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2014-10-01

    Radar systems for detection of human heartbeats have mostly been single-channel systems with limited spatial resolution. In this paper, a radar system for ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging of the human heart is presented. To make the radar waves penetrate the human tissue the antenna is placed very close to the body. The antenna is an array with eight elements, and an antenna switch system connects the radar to the individual elements in sequence to form an image. Successive images are used to build up time-lapse movies of the beating heart. Measurements on a human test subject are presented and the heart motion is estimated at different locations inside the body. The movies show rhythmic motion consistent with the beating heart, and the location and shape of the reflections correspond well with the expected response form the heart wall. The spatial dependent heart motion is compared to ECG recordings, and it is confirmed that heartbeat modulations are seen in the radar data. This work shows that radar imaging of the human heart may provide valuable information on the mechanical movement of the heart.

  12. Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

  13. Total artificial heart implantation: clinical indications, expected postoperative imaging findings, and recognition of complications.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mark S; Fahrner, Lester J; Deuell, Brian P F; Olsen, Kathryn M; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Shah, Keyur B; Medina, Angel E; Doolin, Kelly R; de Groot, Patricia M; de Groot, Patti Ann; Goodman, William C

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this article are to review the treatment options for late-stage biventricular heart failure, discuss the clinical indications for total artificial heart (TAH) implantation, illustrate the expected imaging findings after uncomplicated TAH implantation, and highlight the radiologic findings of common and uncommon complications associated with TAH implantation through case examples. TAH implantation is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. The duration of implantation varies depending on a particular patient's medical condition and the eventual availability of a human heart for orthotopic transplantation. TAH recipients often undergo imaging with conventional radiography, CT, or both for the assessment of device-related issues, many of which are life-threatening and require emergency management. As the clinical use of the TAH increases and becomes more commonplace, it is imperative that radiologists interpreting imaging studies recognize both the expected and the unexpected imaging findings that affect patient care.

  14. Incorporating imaging into personalized medicine for the detection of prostate cancer: Pharmacological research-Urogenital pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Mertan, Francesca; Turkbey, Baris

    2016-12-01

    Imaging has played an important role in the administration of personalized medicine. From diagnosing diseases to guiding therapies, imaging has become an all-encompassing modality. With respect to prostate cancer, personalized management of the disease has been transformed by imaging. Specifically, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a vital player in the detection, characterization, and localization of the disease thus making the incorporation of imaging in personalized prostate cancer management integral. In this review, the current role of imaging in personalized medicine for the management of prostate cancer is discussed.

  15. A review of the pharmacological mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of coronary heart disease and stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Gao, Kuo; Liu, Jingwei; Zhao, Huihui; Wang, Juan; Li, Yubo; Murtaza, Ghulam; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei

    2013-10-03

    In recent years, several researches have showed that Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) possesses multiple target points in the intervention of diseases, and has same treatment effects on cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases. But, there was no full report about the mechanistic and material basis in Brain-Heart concurrent treatment. The objective of the present study was to examine the pharmacological mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of coronary heart disease and stroke. We combined the HIT, PubChem, David Database resource and the networked pharmacology method to ultimately find out BHD's thirty-five potential brain-heart concurrent treatment target points, and preliminarily reveal BHD's material basis for treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the study provided new information with the guidance meanings.

  16. Has beta-blocker use increased in patients with heart failure in internal medicine settings? Prognostic implications: RICA registry.

    PubMed

    González-García, Andrés; Montero Pérez-Barquero, Manuel; Formiga, Francesc; González-Juanatey, José R; Quesada, M Angustias; Epelde, Francisco; Oropesa, Roberto; Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Cerqueiro, José M; Manzano, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Underuse of beta-blockers has been reported in elderly patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current prescription of beta-blockers in the internal medicine setting, and its association with morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients. The information analyzed was obtained from a prospective cohort of patients hospitalized for heart failure (RICA registry] database, patients included from March 2008 to September 2011) with at least one year of follow-up. We investigated the percentage of patients prescribed beta-blockers at hospital discharge, and at 3 and 12 months, and the relationship of beta-blocker use with mortality and readmissions for heart failure. Patients with significant valve disease were excluded. A total of 515 patients were analyzed (53.5% women), with a mean age of 77.1 (8.7) years. Beta-blockers were prescribed in 62.1% of patients at discharge. A similar percentage was found at 3 months (65.6%) and 12 months (67.9%) after discharge. All-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality and readmission for heart failure were significantly lower in patients treated with beta-blockers (hazard ratio=0.59, 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.84 vs hazard ratio=0.64, 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.83). This decrease in mortality was maintained after adjusting by age, sex, ejection fraction, functional class, comorbidities, and concomitant treatment. The findings of this study indicate that beta-blocker use is increasing in heart failure patients (mainly elderly) treated in the internal medicine setting, and suggest that the use of these drugs is associated with a reduction in clinical events. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical delineation of congenital heart disease using 3D magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams Bornemeier, Renee; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.

    1994-05-01

    Anatomic delineation of the heart and great vessels is a necessity when managing children with congenital heart disease. Spatial orientation of the vessels and chambers in the heart and the heart itself may be quite abnormal. Though magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means for determining the anatomy, the intricate interrelationships between many structures are difficult to conceptualize from a 2-D format. Taking the 2-D images and using a volumetric analysis package allows for a 3-D replica of the heart to be created. This model can then be used to view the anatomy and spatial arrangement of the cardiac structures. This information may be utilized by the physicians to assist in the clinical management of these children.

  18. Huangqi Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shufei; Zhang, Junhua; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Gao, Xiumei; Galeotti, Francesca; Massari, Marco; Hu, Limin; Zhang, Boli; Ferrelli, Rita; Fauci, Alice; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Shang, Hongcai; Guerra, Ranieri; Raschetti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a global public health problem. Therefore, novel and effective drugs that show few side-effects are needed. Early literature studies indicated that Huangqi injection is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicines for CHF in China. As a large number of clinical studies has been carried out and published, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Huangqi injection. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review under the support of the framework of the Joint Sino-Italian Laboratory (JoSIL). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection for CHF according to the available scientific knowledge. Methods An extensive search including PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, the Cochrane Library and Chinese literature databases was performed up to July 2008. Clinical trials regarding Huangqi injection for the treatment of CHF were searched for, irrespective of languages. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.0, and RevMan 5.0 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and STATA 9.2 were used for data analysis. Results After selection of 1,205 articles, 62 RCTs and quasi-RCTs conducted in China and published in Chinese journals were included in the review. The methodological quality of the trials was low. In most trials inclusion and exclusion criteria were not specified. Furthermore, only one study evaluated the outcomes for drug efficacy after an adequate period of time. For these reasons and because of the different baseline characteristics we did not conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusions Although available studies are not adequate to draw a conclusion on the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine), we hope that our work could provide useful experience on further studies on Huangqi injections. The overall level of TCM clinical research needs to be improved so that the efficacy of TCM can be evaluated

  19. Sequential en-face optical coherence tomography imaging and monitoring of Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, A.; Ma, Lisha; Bloor, J.; Podoleanu, A. GH.

    2009-02-01

    This article demonstrates two modalities to acquire information on cardiac function in larval Drosophila Melanogaster: in-vivo imaging and heartbeat monitoring. To achieve these goals a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous en-face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images has been developed. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. The system can easily be switched to a stethoscopic regime, simply by interrupting the scanning of the light beam across the sample, after selecting the point of interest in the imaging regime. Here we have used targeted gene expression to knockdown the myospheroid (mys) gene in the larval heart using a specific RNAi construct. By knocking down a β integrin subunit encoded by mys we have recorded an enlarged heart chamber in both diastolic and systolic states. Also, the fraction of reduction of the chamber diameter was smaller in the knockdown heart. These phenotypic differences indicate that impaired cardiac contractility occurs in the heart where the integrin gene express level is reduced. As far as we are aware, this is for the first time when it is shown in Drosophila that integrins have a direct relationship to a dilated heart defect, and conseqThis article demonstrates two modalities to acquire information on cardiac function in larval Drosophila Melanogaster: in-vivo imaging and heartbeat monitoring. To achieve these goals a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous en-face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images has been developed. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. The system can easily be switched to a stethoscopic regime, simply by interrupting the

  20. Optical imaging of irradiated and non-irradiated hearts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Stephanie; Chen, Guanchu; Medhora, Meetha M.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Objective: In this study, the metabolic state of the heart tissue is studied in a rodent model of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in rats exposed to irradiation injury using a cryofluorescence imaging technique. Mitochondrial metabolic state is evaluated by autofluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD. The redox ratio (NADH/FAD) is used as a biochemical/metabolic marker of oxidative stress, before, during and after IR. Materials and methods: Hearts were extracted from non-irradiated (control) and irradiated rats (Irr) given 15 Gy whole thorax irradiation rats (WTI). After 35 days, before the onset of radiation pneumonitis, these two groups of hearts were subjected to one of three treatments; Time control (TC; hearts perfused for the duration of the protocol without ischemia or IR), 25 minutes ischemia with no reperfusion and 25 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion (IR). Hearts were removed from the Langendorff perfusion system and immediately snap frozen in liquid N2 to preserve the metabolic state after injury; 3-dimensional (3D) cryo-fluorescent imager was used to obtain in fixed time NADH and FAD fluorescence images and their distribution across the entire ventricles. In this study, a 30-μm axial resolution was used resulting in 550 cross-section images per heart. The 3D images of the redox ratio and their respective histograms were calculated in the six groups of hearts. Results: We compared the mean values of the redox ratio in each group, which demonstrate a reduced mitochondrial redox state in both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemic hearts and an oxidized mitochondrial redox state for both irradiated and non-irradiated ischemia-reperfusion hearts compared to control hearts. For non-irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 61% increase and 54% decrease in redox ratio when compared with TC. For irradiated hearts, ischemia and IR injuries resulted respectively in 90% increase and 50% decrease

  1. Mind-Body Medicine in the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav

    2015-11-06

    In mind-body medicine (MBM), conventional lifestyle modification measures such as dietary counseling and exercise are supplemented with relaxation techniques and psychological motivational elements. This review studied the effect of MBM on cardiac events and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review is based on publications up to and including January 2015 that were retrieved by a systematic search in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials of the effect of MBM programs (versus standard treatment) on cardiac events, overall mortality, and/or cardiac mortality were analyzed. Atherosclerosis, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and the body mass index (BMI) were chosen as secondary outcomes. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool. Twelve trials, performed on a total of 1085 patients, were included in the analysis. Significant differences between groups were found with respect to cardiac events (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.61; p<0.01; heterogeneity [I2]: 0%), but not overall mortality (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.46-1.45; p = 0.49; I2: 0%) or cardiac mortality (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.43-2.25; p = 0.97; I2: 0%). Significant differences between groups were also found with respect to atherosclerosis (mean difference [MD] = -7.86% diameter stenosis; 95% CI: -15.06-[-0.65]; p = 0.03; I2: 0%) and systolic blood pressure (MD = -3.33 mm Hg; 95% CI: -5.76-[-0.91]; p<0.01; I2: 0%), but not with respect to diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or BMI. In patients with CHD, MBM programs can lessen the occurrence of cardiac events, reduce atherosclerosis, and lower systolic blood pressure, but they do not reduce mortality. They can be used as a complement to conventional rehabilitation programs.

  2. Changing the trajectory of ischemic heart disease in women: Role of imaging.

    PubMed

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Shaw, Leslee J

    2016-10-01

    Mortality from coronary artery disease in women declined from nearly 500,000 deaths in 2000 to 398,096 deaths in 2013. Despite these significant gains, cardiovascular disease mortality in women remains unacceptably high. Much additional progress in awareness, evaluation, and management of cardiovascular diseases is needed. Progress in cardiovascular imaging, over the past four decades, has substantially improved the evaluation and management of ischemic heart disease. Ischemic heart disease is now diagnosed early and with greater accuracy, leading to improved risk assessment and timely therapies. The next gains in ischemic heart disease mortality in women will probably be due to application of these imaging advances in a personalized fashion. Thoughtful leaders provide their viewpoints on the use of imaging in the evaluation and management of ischemic heart disease in women.

  3. 4D optical coherence tomography of the embryonic heart using gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rothenberg, Florence; Roy, Debashish; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Wilson, David L.; Efimov, Igor R.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2005-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to image and diagnose diseases of the human heart. By gating the acquisition of the images to the heart cycle (gated imaging), these modalities enable one to produce 3D images of the heart without significant motion artifact and to more accurately calculate various parameters such as ejection fractions [1-3]. Unfortunately, these imaging modalities give inadequate resolution when investigating embryonic development in animal models. Defects in developmental mechanisms during embryogenesis have long been thought to result in congenital cardiac anomalies. Our understanding of normal mechanisms of heart development and how abnormalities can lead to defects has been hampered by our inability to detect anatomic and physiologic changes in these small (<2mm) organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made it possible to visualize internal structures of the living embryonic heart with high-resolution in two- and threedimensions. OCT offers higher resolution than ultrasound (30 um axial, 90 um lateral) and magnetic resonance microscopy (25 um axial, 31 um lateral) [4, 5], with greater depth penetration over confocal microscopy (200 um). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses back reflected light from a sample to create an image with axial resolutions ranging from 2-15 um, while penetrating 1-2 mm in depth [6]. In the past, OCT groups estimated ejection fractions using 2D images in a Xenopus laevis [7], created 3D renderings of chick embryo hearts [8], and used a gated reconstruction technique to produce 2D Doppler OCT image of an in vivo Xenopus laevis heart [9]. In this paper we present a gated imaging system that allowed us to produce a 16-frame 3D movie of a beating chick embryo heart. The heart was excised from a day two (stage 13) chicken embryo and electrically paced at 1 Hz. We acquired 2D images (B-scans) in 62.5 ms, which provides enough temporal resolution to distinguish end

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue.

  5. Optimized Three Dimensional Sodium Imaging of the Human Heart on a Clinical 3T scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Neville D.; Rochitte, Carlos; Nacif, Marcelo S.; Bluemke, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Optimization of sequence and sequence parameters to allow 3D sodium imaging of the entire human heart in-vivo in a clinically reasonable time. Theory and Methods A stack of spirals pulse sequence was optimized for cardiac imaging by considering factors such as spoiling, nutation angles, repetition time, echo time, T1/T2 relaxation, off-resonance, data acquisition window, motion and segmented k-space acquisition. Simulations based on Bloch equations as well as the exact trajectory used for data acquisition provided the basis for choice of parameter combinations for sodium imaging. Sodium phantom scanning was used to validate the choice of parameters and for corroboration with simulations. In-vivo cardiac imaging in six volunteers was also done with an optimized sequence. Results Phantom studies showed good correlation with simulation results. Images obtained from human volunteers showed that the heart can be imaged with a nominal resolution of 5 × 5 × 10 mm3 and with SNR>15 (in the septum) in about 6-10 minutes. Long axis views of the reformatted human heart show true 3D imaging capability. Conclusion Optimization of the sequence and its parameters allowed in-vivo 3D sodium imaging of the entire human heart in a clinically reasonable time. PMID:24639022

  6. TIMMI2 Images the Heart of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    with ESO's new Thermal Infrared MultiMode Instrument (TIMMI2) , now mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. The area is located close to the Trapezium cluster and is identified on a near-infrared image ( PR Photo 12a/01 ) obtained with the ISAAC instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope (cf. ESO PR Photos 03a-d/01 ). The complex itself is so heavily obscured by the dust cloud that it is not visible at this wavelength. However, the dust is more transparent at longer wavelengths and the complex is clearly seen on images obtained with TIMMI2 at wavelengths of 10.3 µm ( PR Photo 12b/01 ; with isophotes at the brightest object) and 20.0µm, ( PR Photo 12c/01 ). They show in some detail the structures around the compact sources and the extended thermal emission from the dust. The ratio of these two photos ( PR Photo 12d/01 ) illustrates how the temperature of the dust in this area varies. The brighter areas are the hotter ones. Technical information about these photos is available below. A group of astronomers [1] has recently imaged a star-forming region in the Orion Nebula with a new and powerful astronomical instrument, the Thermal Infrared MultiMode Instrument (TIMMI2) , now available at the La Silla Observatory. In addition to being scientifically very interesting, these observations also provide a demonstration of the impressive capabilities of this new facility. It has been known for some time that the "BN/KL Complex" is a site of recent, massive star formation. It is located deep inside the Orion Nebula ( PR Photo 12a/01 ) and is observed as a cluster of infrared-emitting objects and compact regions of ionized Hydrogen ("H II regions"), associated with intricate interstellar dust filaments and circumstellar dust clouds. There are also several hot and large stars in this heavily obscured area - together they shine as bright as 100,000 suns. It is a difficult task to identify the main sources of heating in this region - the "heart" of the

  7. Impact of heart magnetic resonance imaging on chelation choices, compliance with treatment and risk of heart disease in patients with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Origa, Raffaella; Danjou, Fabrice; Cossa, Stefano; Matta, Gildo; Bina, Patrizio; Dessì, Carlo; Defraia, Elisabetta; Foschini, Maria L; Leoni, Giovanbattista; Morittu, Maddalena; Galanello, Renzo

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to verify the impact of heart magnetic resonance imaging on chelation choices and patient compliance in a single-institution cohort as well as its predictive value for heart failure and arrhythmias. Abnormal cardiac T2* values determined changes in treatment in most subjects. Heart T2* was confirmed to be highly predictive over 1 year for heart failure and arrhythmias. The choice of chelation regimens known to remove heart iron efficiently was not sufficient by itself to influence the risk. Compliance with treatment had a more remarkable role. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Personalized medicine in the care of the child with congenital heart disease: discovery to application.

    PubMed

    Binesh Marvasti, Tina; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Manase, Dorin; Papaz, Tanya; Mital, Seema

    2013-01-01

    On October 27-28, 2012, the SickKids Labatt Family Heart Centre and the Heart Centre Biobank Registry hosted the second international GenomeHeart symposium in Toronto, Ontario. The symposium featured experts in cardiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, genomics, bioinformatics, stem cell biology, biobanking, and ethics. The theme of this year's symposium was the application of emerging technologies in genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics to diagnostics and therapeutics of the child with heart disease. Social, ethical, and economic issues were also discussed in the context of clinical translation. We highlight some of the themes that emerged from this exciting 2-day event.

  9. An automatic and accurate method of full heart segmentation from CT image based on linear gradient model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zili

    2017-07-01

    Heart segmentation is an important auxiliary method in the diagnosis of many heart diseases, such as coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation, and in the planning of tumor radiotherapy. Most of the existing methods for full heart segmentation treat the heart as a whole part and cannot accurately extract the bottom of the heart. In this paper, we propose a new method based on linear gradient model to segment the whole heart from the CT images automatically and accurately. Twelve cases were tested in order to test this method and accurate segmentation results were achieved and identified by clinical experts. The results can provide reliable clinical support.

  10. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. State-of-the-art CT imaging techniques for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2010-01-01

    CT is increasingly being used for evaluating the cardiovascular structures and airways in the patients with congenital heart disease. Multi-slice CT has traditionally been used for the evaluation of the extracardiac vascular and airway abnormalities because of its inherent high spatial resolution and excellent air-tissue contrast. Recent developments in CT technology primarily by reducing the cardiac motion and the radiation dose usage in congenital heart disease evaluation have helped expand the indications for CT usage. Tracheobronchomalacia associated with congenital heart disease can be evaluated with cine CT. Intravenous contrast injection should be tailored to unequivocally demonstrate cardiovascular abnormalities. Knowledge of the state-of-the-art CT imaging techniques that are used for evaluating congenital heart disease is helpful not only for planning and performing CT examinations, but also for interpreting and presenting the CT image findings that consequently guide the proper medical and surgical management.

  12. Endoscopic Time-Lapse Imaging of Immune Cells in Infarcted Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Leuschner, Florian; Gorbatov, Rostic; Kim, Jun Ki; Ueno, Takuya; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Rationale High-resolution imaging of the heart in vivo is challenging due to the difficulty in accessing the heart and the tissue motion caused by the heartbeat. Objective Here, we describe a suction-assisted endoscope for visualizing fluorescently labeled cells and vessels in the beating heart tissue through a small incision made in the intercostal space. Methods and Results A suction tube with a diameter of 2-3 mm stabilizes the local tissue motion safely and effectively at a suction pressure of 50 mmHg. Using a minimally invasive endoscope integrated into a confocal microscope, we performed fluorescence cellular imaging in both normal and diseased hearts in live mice for an hour per session repeatedly over a few weeks. Real-time imaging revealed the surprisingly rapid infiltration of CX3CR1+ monocytes into the injured site within several minutes after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Conclusions The time-lapse analysis of flowing and rolling (patrolling) monocytes in the heart and the peripheral circulation provide evidence that the massively recruited monocytes come first from the vascular reservoir and later from the spleen. The imaging method requires minimal surgical preparation and can be implemented into standard intravital microscopes. Our results demonstrate the applicability of our imaging method for a wide range of cardiovascular research. PMID:23392842

  13. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-02-12

    We hypothesize that our smartphone-based fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  14. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively. PMID:28208678

  15. A Novel Technique for Image-Guided Local Heart Irradiation in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G.; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing. PMID:24000983

  16. A novel technique for image-guided local heart irradiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing.

  17. Effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine as an adjunctive treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongyuan; Li, Yafeng; Han, Ke; Gong, Min; Ma, Aiqun

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjunctive treatment for patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. Studies on biomedical treatment plus CHM versus biomedical treatment alone in treating patients with DCM and heart failure were retrieved from PubMed and other major databases (1980-2011). Meta-analysis was performed on the overall effects on effective rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic end diameter, and other outcome measures. Twenty-seven studies with 1887 patients were included. Compared with biomedical treatment alone, biomedical treatment plus CHM showed significant improvement in effective rate (relative risk, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.34), left ventricular ejection fraction (%) (mean difference, 5.88; 95% CI, 3.92-7.85), left ventricular diastolic end diameter (mm) (mean difference, -2.78; 95% CI, -5.15 to -0.42), and other outcome measures. Most adverse events observed in the studies were not severe and resolved without special treatment. This meta-analysis indicated that biomedical treatment plus CHM is more effective than biomedical treatment alone in treating patients with DCM and heart failure. However, further studies with long-term follow-up, systemic adverse events evaluation, and other ethnic groups are still required to verify the efficacy and safety of CHM as an adjunctive treatment in all patients with DCM and heart failure.

  18. Water-fat separation imaging of the heart with standard magnetic resonance bSSFP CINE imaging.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, James W; Arnold-Anteraper, Sheeba

    2014-06-01

    To study balanced steady-state free precession CINE phase-sensitive water-fat separation imaging in four cardiac imaging planes to determine the necessary phase correction and image artifacts particular to this technique. Ten healthy volunteers and two subjects with known heart pathologies were studied with standard balanced steady-state free precession CINE imaging. Water-only and fat-only images were calculated using sign detection of the real part of the complex image after phase correction with constant and linear terms. Phase correction values were determined using both manual and automated methods. Differences in phase correction values between imaging planes, cardiac phases, coil elements, automated image reconstruction parameters as well as artifact scores between the automated and manual methods were studied with statistical tests. Water-fat separation performed well in the heart after constant and linear phase correction. Both constant (p = 0.8) and linear x (p = 1) and y (p = 1) phase correction values did not vary significantly across cardiac phases, but varied significantly among the coils (p < 0.001) and imaging planes (p < 0.001). False water-fat separation artifacts were most frequent in the chest/back and also were present at the mitral and aortic valves. Constant and linear phase correction is necessary to provide consistent results in standard imaging planes using a balanced steady-state free precession water-fat separation postprocessing algorithm applied to standard cardiac CINE imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Three-dimensional segmentation of the heart muscle using image statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nillesen, Maartje M.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Gerrits, Inge H.; Kapusta, Livia; Huisman, Henkjan H.; Thijssen, Johan M.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2006-03-01

    Segmentation of the heart muscle in 3D echocardiographic images provides a tool for visualization of cardiac anatomy and assessment of heart function, and serves as an important pre-processing step for cardiac strain imaging. By incorporating spatial and temporal information of 3D ultrasound image sequences (4D), a fully automated method using image statistics was developed to perform 3D segmentation of the heart muscle. 3D rf-data were acquired with a Philips SONOS 7500 live 3D ultrasound system, and an X4 matrix array transducer (2-4 MHz). Left ventricular images of five healthy children were taken in transthoracial short/long axis view. As a first step, image statistics of blood and heart muscle were investigated. Next, based on these statistics, an adaptive mean squares filter was selected and applied to the images. Window size was related to speckle size (5x2 speckles). The degree of adaptive filtering was automatically steered by the local homogeneity of tissue. As a result, discrimination of heart muscle and blood was optimized, while sharpness of edges was preserved. After this pre-processing stage, homomorphic filtering and automatic thresholding were performed to obtain the inner borders of the heart muscle. Finally, a deformable contour algorithm was used to yield a closed contour of the left ventricular cavity in each elevational plane. Each contour was optimized using contours of the surrounding planes (spatial and temporal) as limiting condition to ensure spatial and temporal continuity. Better segmentation of the ventricle was obtained using 4D information than using information of each plane separately.

  20. Central nervous system disorders affecting the heart-insights from radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Pianou, Nikoletta; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing research activity focusing on the brain heart cross-talk. A great variety of brain disorders affect the heart and recent developments in neurosciences have revealed the particular role of specific neuroanatomic sites on heart rhythm and rate, myocardial function and vascular tone. Cardiac radionuclide imaging plays a pivotal role in this setting, since not only helps elucidating underlying pathobiological mechanisms but in addition, it promises exciting possibilities for early identification of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular manifestations of certain neurological diseases.

  1. High-resolution tissue Doppler imaging of the zebrafish heart during its regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Su, Ta-Han; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2015-02-01

    The human heart cannot regenerate after injury, whereas the adult zebrafish can fully regenerate its heart even after 20% of the ventricle is amputated. Many studies have begun to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this regenerative process, which have exciting implications for human cardiac diseases. However, the dynamic functions of the zebrafish heart during regeneration are not yet understood. This study established a high-resolution echocardiography for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the zebrafish heart to explore the cardiac functions during different regeneration phases. Experiments were performed on AB-line adult zebrafish (n=40) in which 15% of the ventricle was surgically removed. An 80-MHz ultrasound TDI based on color M-mode imaging technology was employed. The cardiac flow velocities and patterns from both the ventricular chamber and myocardium were measured at different regeneration phases relative to the day of amputation. The peak velocities of early diastolic inflow, early diastolic myocardial motion, late diastolic myocardial motion, early diastolic deceleration slope, and heart rate were increased at 3 days after the myocardium amputation, but these parameters gradually returned to close to their baseline values for the normal heart at 7 days after amputation. The peak velocities of late diastolic inflow, ventricular systolic outflow, and systolic myocardial motion did not significantly differ during the heart regeneration.

  2. High-Resolution Tissue Doppler Imaging of the Zebrafish Heart During Its Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Han; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human heart cannot regenerate after injury, whereas the adult zebrafish can fully regenerate its heart even after 20% of the ventricle is amputated. Many studies have begun to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this regenerative process, which have exciting implications for human cardiac diseases. However, the dynamic functions of the zebrafish heart during regeneration are not yet understood. This study established a high-resolution echocardiography for tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the zebrafish heart to explore the cardiac functions during different regeneration phases. Experiments were performed on AB-line adult zebrafish (n=40) in which 15% of the ventricle was surgically removed. An 80-MHz ultrasound TDI based on color M-mode imaging technology was employed. The cardiac flow velocities and patterns from both the ventricular chamber and myocardium were measured at different regeneration phases relative to the day of amputation. The peak velocities of early diastolic inflow, early diastolic myocardial motion, late diastolic myocardial motion, early diastolic deceleration slope, and heart rate were increased at 3 days after the myocardium amputation, but these parameters gradually returned to close to their baseline values for the normal heart at 7 days after amputation. The peak velocities of late diastolic inflow, ventricular systolic outflow, and systolic myocardial motion did not significantly differ during the heart regeneration. PMID:25517185

  3. Estimating cardiac fiber orientations in pig hearts using registered ultrasound and MR image volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormer, James D.; Meng, Yuguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Rong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2017-03-01

    Heart fiber mechanics can be important predictors in current and future cardiac function. Accurate knowledge of these mechanics could enable cardiologists to provide a diagnosis before conditions progress. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) has been used to determine cardiac fiber orientations. Ultrasound is capable of providing anatomical information in real time, enabling a physician to quickly adjust parameters to optimize image scans. If known fiber orientations from a template heart measured using DTI can be accurately deformed onto a cardiac ultrasound volume, fiber orientations could be estimated for the patient without the need for a costly MR scan while still providing cardiologists valuable information about the heart mechanics. In this study, we apply the method to pig hearts, which are a close representation of human heart anatomy. Experiments from pig hearts show that the registration method achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.819 +/- 0.050 between the ultrasound and deformed MR volumes and that the proposed ultrasound-based method is able to estimate the cardiac fiber orientation in pig hearts.

  4. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation. PMID:27630924

  5. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Building and Querying RDF/OWL Database of Semantically Annotated Nuclear Medicine Images.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Haejun; Koh, Geon; Willrett, Debra; Rubin, Daniel L

    2017-02-01

    As the use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has increased rapidly, there is a need to retrieve relevant medical images that can assist image interpretation. However, the images themselves lack the explicit information needed for query. We constructed a semantically structured database of nuclear medicine images using the Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) format and evaluated the ability the AIM annotations to improve image search. We created AIM annotation templates specific to the nuclear medicine domain and used them to annotate 100 nuclear medicine PET-CT studies in AIM format using controlled vocabulary. We evaluated image retrieval from 20 specific clinical queries. As the gold standard, two nuclear medicine physicians manually retrieved the relevant images from the image database using free text search of radiology reports for the same queries. We compared query results with the manually retrieved results obtained by the physicians. The query performance indicated a 98 % recall for simple queries and a 89 % recall for complex queries. In total, the queries provided 95 % (75 of 79 images) recall, 100 % precision, and an F1 score of 0.97 for the 20 clinical queries. Three of the four images missed by the queries required reasoning for successful retrieval. Nuclear medicine images augmented using semantic annotations in AIM enabled high recall and precision for simple queries, helping physicians to retrieve the relevant images. Further study using a larger data set and the implementation of an inference engine may improve query results for more complex queries.

  7. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011.

  8. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Oct 27,2016 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  9. The causal conundrum: the diet-heart debates and the management of uncertainty in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Todd M

    2015-04-01

    Starting in the 1950s, physicians and researchers began to debate the exact nature of the relationship among blood cholesterol, diet, and cardiovascular risk. Using professional medical, public health, and scientific journals, this article examines the history of a series of intense and sustained debates regarding the credibility of the diet-heart hypothesis, which proposed that diet was causally linked to coronary artery disease. Brought about by intellectual disagreements and illuminated by personal quarrels, these debates created a profound professional rift among researchers who debated whether observational data could be used to prove that dietary intake caused heart disease and who sought to differentiate between "good" and "bad" science. But while the debate persisted into the early 1980s, Americans had begun to adopt the diet-heart hypothesis as public health truth as early as the 1960s, embracing cookbooks promoting "heart healthy" diets that promised to prevent coronary artery disease. Although critics and advocates of diet-heart continued to debate the theory's finer points, the widespread adoption of diet-heart in American homes meant that the debate had become almost moot by the time the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute officially endorsed the hypothesis in the 1980s.

  10. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Westcott, J.L.; Steiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid progress of MRI has been remarkable, and it is clear that it will become an important method for cardiac imaging. Its major advantages are the lack of ionizing radiation and the ability to obtain excellent global images of the cardiac walls and chambers without the need for contrast injection or cardiac catheterization. High resolution surface coil imaging, tissue spectroscopy, and other improvements and applications should be rapidly forthcoming.

  11. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: highlights of the 23rd Annual EANM Congress.

    PubMed

    Carrió, Ignasi

    2011-02-01

    The most recent research developments in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging were presented at the 2010 Annual Congress of the EANM. This review summarizes some of the most relevant contributions made in the fields of oncology, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers. Presentations covered basic and clinical research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals on a global scale. The results reported demonstrate that investigative strategies using nuclear medicine techniques facilitate effective diagnosis and management of patients with most prevalent disease states. At the same time novel tracers and technologies are being explored, which hold promise for future new applications of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in research and clinical practice.

  12. [Application of spatio-temporal image correlation in normal fetal heart ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Tao; Xiong, Yi; Zang, Ling

    2008-02-01

    To explore the clinical application of real-time three-dimensional ultrasonography in the routine scanning of normal fetal heart. A total of 110 volume datasets of normal fetal hearts in the second trimester were acquired by spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC). An off-line analysis of acquired volume datasets was performed to examine each segment of fetal heart with tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) and dynamic multi-planar mode (MP). The re-slice images of four-chamber view, ventricular outflow tract views, and the three vessels plane were viewed with TUI. The quality of images obtained from TUI was compared with the conventional 2D imaging mode. The volume datasets were displayed interactively with MP as a series of three-orthogonal planes. The dynamic loops of one cardiac cycle were preformed by navigating the pivot point and rotational axis and shifting each re-slice image plane inside the volume datasets. Satisfactory gray-scale volume acquisitions were accomplished in 110 cases. The average STIC scanning time of fetal heart was (55 +/- 15) s. An offline analysis showed that four standard planes of 2D routine screening for fetal hearts were easily obtained by TUI. The quality of the images derived from volume datasets were comparable to that directly obtained from 2D echocardiography. The visualization rate had no significant difference between TUI and routine 2D screening (P > 0.05). In MP mode, 39 cases with the starting plan of apical four-chamber view were obtained. Each segment of fetal heart was almost visualized off line, both in a frozen state and with heart in motion to fulfill sequential segmental analysis in fetal cardiac anatomy. The 72% - 100% main features of atria, ventricles, aorta, and the junction segments were viewed with MP by adjusting the three dimensional volume datasets, whose quality and contents met the expectations of off-line segmental analysis of normal fetal heart. A sagittal section of ventricular septum was obtained in

  13. Medicine Wheel Imag(in)ings: Exploring Holistic Curriculum Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Sylvia; Irwin, Rita L.; Grauer, Kit; de Cosson, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Education is longing for a deeper more connected, more inclusive, and more aware way of knowing. One that connects heart and hand and head and does not split knowledge into dualities of thought and being, mind and body, emotion and intellect, but resonates with a wholeness and fullness that engages every part of one's being. Engagement with the…

  14. Dynamic 3D ultrasound and MR image registration of the beating heart.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xishi; Hill, Nicholas A; Ren, Jing; Guiraudon, Gerard; Boughner, Derek; Peters, Terry M

    2005-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound (RT3D US) is an ideal imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiac disease. RT3D US is a flexible, inexpensive, non-invasive tool that provides important diagnostic information related to cardiac function. Unfortunately, RT3D US suffers from inherent shortcomings, such as low signal-to-noise ratio and limited field of view, producing images that are difficult to interpret. Multi-modal dynamic cardiac image registration is a well-recognized approach that compensates for these deficiencies while retaining the advantages of RT3D US imaging. The clinical application of multi-modal image registration methods is difficult, and there are a number of implementation issues to be resolved. In this work, we present a method for the rapid registration of RT3D US images of the beating heart to high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method was validated using a volunteer image set. Validation results demonstrate that this approach can achieve rapid registration of images of the beating heart with fiducial landmark and registration errors of 1.25 +/- 0.63 and 1.76 mm respectively. This technique can potentially be used to improve the diagnosis of cardiac disease by augmenting RT3D US images with high-resolution MR images and to facilitate intra-operative image fusion for minimally invasive cardio-thoracic surgical navigation.

  15. Two-dimensional sonographic cine imaging improves confidence in the initial evaluation of the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Poole, Patricia Sims; Chung, Romy; Lacoursiere, Yvette; Palmieri, Carolina Rossi; Hull, Andrew; Engelkemier, Dawn; Rochelle, Michele; Trivedi, Neha; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2013-06-01

    Initial screening sonography of the fetal heart with static images is often inadequate, resulting in repeated imaging or failure to detect abnormalities. We hypothesized that the addition of short cine clips would reduce the need for repeated imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) static sonograms and short 2D cine clips of the 4-chamber view and left and right ventricular outflow tracts were obtained from 342 patients with gestational ages of greater than 16 weeks. A diagnostic radiologist and a perinatologist retrospectively reviewed the static and cine images independently and graded them as normal, abnormal, or suboptimal. A statistically significant increase in the number of structures called normal was seen when 2D cine clips were added to static imaging for both observers (P < .05); the radiologist called 86.5% normal with combined static and cine images versus 61.9% with static images alone, whereas the perinatologist recorded 68.1% as normal versus 58.8%, respectively. The radiologist called 77.8% of structures normal with cine images only versus 61.9% with static images only (P < .001), whereas the perinatologist called fewer structures normal with cine images alone (38.9%) versus static images alone (58.8%). The use of cine loops alone resulted in no significant increase in the ability to clear the heart as normal. The maternal body mass index was inversely associated with the ability to clear structures when 2D cine images were added to static images (P < .05). The addition of 2D cine clips to standard 2D static imaging of the fetal heart significantly improves the number of structures cleared as normal. Two-dimensional cine clips are easily obtained, add little time to a study, and require minimal archival space.

  16. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  17. 256-Slice CT Angiographic Evaluation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts: Effect of Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability and Z-Axis Location on Image Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Bettina M.; Diez Martinez, Patricia; Chin, Anne S.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Larrivée, Sandra; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Noiseux, Nicolas; Soulez, Gilles; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to assess the effect of heart rate, heart rate variability and z-axis location on coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) image quality using a 256-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. Methods A total of 78 patients with 254 CABG (762 graft segments) were recruited to undergo CABG assessment with 256-slice CT and prospective ECG-gating. Two observers rated graft segments for image quality on a 5-point scale. Quantitative measurements were also made. Logistic and cumulative link mixed models were used to assess the predictors of graft image quality. Results Graft image quality was judged as diagnostic (scores 5 (excellent), 4 (good) and 3 (moderate)) in 96.6% of the 762 segments. Interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa ≥0.90). Graft image quality was not affected by heart rate level. However, high heart rate variability was associated with an important and significant image quality deterioration (odds ratio 4.31; p  =  0.036). Distal graft segments had significantly lower image quality scores than proximal segments (p ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher noise was noted at the origin of the mammary grafts (p  =  0.001), owing to streak artifacts from the shoulders. Conclusion CABG imaging with 270-msec rotation 256-slice CT and prospective ECG-gating showed an adequate image quality in 96.6% of graft segments, and an excellent interobserver agreement. Graft image quality was not influenced by heart rate level. Image quality scores were however significantly decreased in patients with high heart rate variability, as well as in distal graft segments, which are closer to the heart. PMID:24637891

  18. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    ... or longer Echocardiogram Electrophysiology study (EPS) Coronary angiography ... E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  19. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem

    2006-10-01

    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  20. Recent Developments in Vascular Imaging Techniques in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mark, Chong Seow Khoon; Pramanik, Manojit

    2015-01-01

    Adequate vascularisation is key in determining the clinical outcome of stem cells and engineered tissue in regenerative medicine. Numerous imaging modalities have been developed and used for the visualization of vascularisation in tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly discuss the very recent advances aiming at high performance imaging of vasculature. We classify the vascular imaging modalities into three major groups: nonoptical methods (X-ray, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and positron emission imaging), optical methods (optical coherence, fluorescence, multiphoton, and laser speckle imaging), and hybrid methods (photoacoustic imaging). We then summarize the strengths and challenges of these methods for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25821821

  1. Cardiovascular translational medicine (III). Genomics and proteomics in heart failure research.

    PubMed

    González, Arantxa; López, Begoña; Beaumont, Javier; Ravassa, Susana; Arias, Teresa; Hermida, Nerea; Zudaire, Amaia; Díez, Javier

    2009-03-01

    Heart failure is a complex syndrome and is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Despite considerable research effort in recent years, heart failure prevention and treatment strategies still suffer significant limitations. New theoretical and technical approaches are, therefore, required. It is in this context that the "omic" sciences have a role to play in heart failure. The incorporation of "omic" methodologies into the study of human disease has substantially changed biological approaches to disease and has given an enormous impetus to the search for new disease mechanisms, as well as for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The application of genomics, proteomics and metabonomics to heart failure research could increase our understanding of the origin and development of the different processes contributing to this syndrome, thereby enabling the establishment of specific diagnostic profiles and therapeutic templates that could help improve the poor prognosis associated with heart failure. This brief review contains a short description of the fundamental principles of the "omic" sciences and an evaluation of how these new techniques are currently contributing to research into human heart failure. The focus is mainly on the analysis of gene expression microarrays in the field of genomics and on studies using two-dimensional electrophoresis with mass spectrometry in the area of proteomics.

  2. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  3. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part I: Clinical Perspective, Anatomy and Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    Rapid evolution in technology in the recent years has lead to availability of multiple options for cardiac imaging. Availability of multiple options of varying capability, poses a challenge for optimal imaging choice. While new imaging choices are added, some of the established methods find their role re-defined. State of the art imaging practices are limited to few specialist cardiac centres, depriving many radiologists and radiologist in-training of optimal exposure to the field. This presentation is aimed at providing a broad idea about complexity of clinical problem, imaging options and a large library of images of congenital heart disease. Some emphasis is made as to the need of proper balance between performing examination with technical excellence in an ideal situation against the need of the majority of patients who are investigated with less optimal resources. Cases of congenital cardiac disease are presented in an illustrative way, showing imaging appearances in multiple modalities, highlighting specific observations in given instance. PMID:27376034

  4. Tomographic ultrasound imaging of the fetal heart: a new technique for identifying normal and abnormal cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Devore, Greggory R; Polanko, Bardo

    2005-12-01

    In 2003 and 2004, the American College of Radiology, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published guidelines for the standard ultrasound examination of the fetus. Each group recommended that the outflow tracts of the fetal heart be examined if technically feasible. One method to accomplish this task is to perform a free-hand sweep of the transducer beam directed in a transverse plane from the 4-chamber view to the fetal neck. One problem with this approach is that the examiner may not direct the beam transversely and, therefore, may not accurately identify the outflow tract anatomy. A new technology, tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), allows the examiner to obtain a volume data set that simultaneously displays multiple images at specific distances from the 4-chamber view. This study examined TUI technology for identifying normal and abnormal fetal cardiac anatomy with the use of either static or spatiotemporal image correlation volume data sets. The 4 views used in the screening examination of the outflow tracts of the fetal heart (4-chamber, 5-chamber, 3-vessel, and tracheal views) could be identified with the use of TUI technology in fetuses between 13 and 40 weeks' gestation. Examples of fetuses with abnormal cardiac anatomy of the outflow tracts (tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, and pulmonary stenosis) all showed abnormal anatomy on TUI. Tomographic ultrasound imaging technology enables the fetal examiner to evaluate the 4-chamber view and the outflow tracts in a systematic manner to identify normal and abnormal cardiac anatomy.

  5. Imaging of wall motion coupled with blood flow velocity in the heart and vessels in vivo: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianwen; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2011-06-01

    The mechanical property and geometry changes as a result of cardiovascular disease affect both the wall motion and blood flow in the heart and vessels, whereas the latter two are also coupled and therefore continuously influence one another. Simultaneous and registered imaging of both cardiovascular wall motion and blood velocity may thus contribute to more complete computational models of cardiovascular mechanical and fluid dynamics as well as provide additional diagnostic information. The objective of this paper was to determine the feasibility of imaging cardiovascular wall motion coupled with blood flow in vivo. Normal (n = 6) and infarcted (n = 5) murine left ventricles, and normal (n = 5) and aneurysmal (n = 4) murine abdominal aortas, were imaged in longitudinal views with a 30-MHz ultrasound probe. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) gating, 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data were acquired at a frame rate of 8 kHz. The axial wall velocity and blood velocity were estimated using a speckle-tracking technique. Spatially and temporally registered imaging of both cardiovascular wall motion and blood flow was shown to be feasible. Reduced wall motion was detected in the infarcted region, whereas vortex flow patterns were imaged in diastolic phases of both normal and infarcted left ventricles. The myocardial wall motion and blood flow were found to be more synchronous in the normal heart, where the blood moves toward the anteroseptal wall after the mitral valve opens (i.e., rapid filling phase), and the anteroseptal wall simultaneously undergoes outward motion. In the infarcted heart, however, in the rapid filling phase, the basal anteroseptal wall starts moving about 20 ms before the mitral valve opens and the blood enters the left ventricle. In the normal aorta, the wall motion and blood velocity were uniform and synchronous. In the aneurysmal aorta, reduced and spatially varied wall motion and vortex flow patterns in the aneurysmal sac were found. The wall motion and

  6. Delayed cardiac tamponade after open heart surgery - is supplemental CT imaging reasonable?

    PubMed

    Floerchinger, Bernhard; Camboni, Daniele; Schopka, Simon; Kolat, Philipp; Hilker, Michael; Schmid, Christof

    2013-06-24

    Cardiac tamponade is a severe complication after open heart surgery. Diagnostic imaging is challenging in postoperative patients, especially if tamponade develops with subacute symptoms. Hypothesizing that delayed tamponade after open heart surgery is not sufficiently detected by transthoracic echocardiography, in this study CT scans were used as standard reference and were compared with transthoracic echocardiography imaging in patients with suspected cardiac tamponade. Twenty-five patients after open heart surgery were enrolled in this analysis. In case of suspected cardiac tamponade patients underwent both echocardiography and CT imaging. Using CT as standard of reference sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasound imaging in detecting pericardial effusion/hematoma were analyzed. Clinical appearance of tamponade, need for re-intervention as well as patient outcome were monitored. In 12 cases (44%) tamponade necessitated surgical re-intervention. Most common symptoms were deterioration of hemodynamic status and dyspnea. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of echocardiography were 75%, 64%, 75%, and 64% for detecting pericardial effusion, and 33%, 83%, 50, and 71% for pericardial hematoma, respectively. In-hospital mortality of the re-intervention group was 50%. Diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography is limited in patients after open heart surgery. Suplemental CT imaging provides rapid diagnostic reliability in patients with delayed cardiac tamponade.

  7. Delayed cardiac tamponade after open heart surgery - is supplemental CT imaging reasonable?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac tamponade is a severe complication after open heart surgery. Diagnostic imaging is challenging in postoperative patients, especially if tamponade develops with subacute symptoms. Hypothesizing that delayed tamponade after open heart surgery is not sufficiently detected by transthoracic echocardiography, in this study CT scans were used as standard reference and were compared with transthoracic echocardiography imaging in patients with suspected cardiac tamponade. Method Twenty-five patients after open heart surgery were enrolled in this analysis. In case of suspected cardiac tamponade patients underwent both echocardiography and CT imaging. Using CT as standard of reference sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasound imaging in detecting pericardial effusion/hematoma were analyzed. Clinical appearance of tamponade, need for re-intervention as well as patient outcome were monitored. Results In 12 cases (44%) tamponade necessitated surgical re-intervention. Most common symptoms were deterioration of hemodynamic status and dyspnea. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of echocardiography were 75%, 64%, 75%, and 64% for detecting pericardial effusion, and 33%, 83%, 50, and 71% for pericardial hematoma, respectively. In-hospital mortality of the re-intervention group was 50%. Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography is limited in patients after open heart surgery. Suplemental CT imaging provides rapid diagnostic reliability in patients with delayed cardiac tamponade. PMID:23800191

  8. Point-of-Care Technologies for the Advancement of Precision Medicine in Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Brian G.; Chui, Chi On; Mao, Yufei; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Huang, Tony Jun; Huang, Po-Hsun; Ren, Liqiang; Adhikari, Bishow; Chen, Jue; Iturriaga, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of new point of care technologies holds great potential in facilitating and advancing precision medicine in heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) disorders. The delivery of individually tailored health care to a patient depends on how well that patient’s health condition can be interrogated and monitored. Point of care technologies may enable access to rapid and cost-effective interrogation of a patient’s health condition in near real time. Currently, physiological data are largely limited to single-time-point collection at the hospital or clinic, whereas critical information on some conditions must be collected in the home, when symptoms occur, or at regular intervals over time. A variety of HLBS disorders are highly dependent on transient variables, such as patient activity level, environment, time of day, and so on. Consequently, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored a request for applications to support the development and commercialization of novel point-of-care technologies through small businesses (RFA-HL-14-011 and RFA-HL-14-017). Three of the supported research projects are described to highlight particular point-of-care needs for HLBS disorders and the breadth of emerging technologies. While significant obstacles remain to the commercialization of such technologies, these advancements will be required to achieve precision medicine. PMID:27602308

  9. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-07

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  10. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  11. Accelerated isotropic sub-millimeter whole-heart coronary MRI: compressed sensing versus parallel imaging.

    PubMed

    Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer A; Chan, Raymond H; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-02-01

    To enable accelerated isotropic sub-millimeter whole-heart coronary MRI within a 6-min acquisition and to compare this with a current state-of-the-art accelerated imaging technique at acceleration rates beyond what is used clinically. Coronary MRI still faces major challenges, including lengthy acquisition time, low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and suboptimal spatial resolution. Higher spatial resolution in the sub-millimeter range is desirable, but this results in increased acquisition time and lower SNR, hindering its clinical implementation. In this study, we sought to use an advanced B1-weighted compressed sensing technique for highly accelerated sub-millimeter whole-heart coronary MRI, and to compare the results to parallel imaging, the current-state-of-the-art, where both techniques were used at acceleration rates beyond what is used clinically. Two whole-heart coronary MRI datasets were acquired in seven healthy adult subjects (30.3 ± 12.1 years; 3 men), using prospective 6-fold acceleration, with random undersampling for the proposed compressed sensing technique and with uniform undersampling for sensitivity encoding reconstruction. Reconstructed images were qualitatively compared in terms of image scores and perceived SNR on a four-point scale (1 = poor, 4 = excellent) by an experienced blinded reader. The proposed technique resulted in images with clear visualization of all coronary branches. Overall image quality and perceived SNR of the compressed sensing images were significantly higher than those of parallel imaging (P = 0.03 for both), which suffered from noise amplification artifacts due to the reduced SNR. The proposed compressed sensing-based reconstruction and acquisition technique for sub-millimeter whole-heart coronary MRI provides 6-fold acceleration, where it outperforms parallel imaging with uniform undersampling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Young community of EACVI: the transition from EACVI Club 35 to Heart Imagers of Tomorrow: a promising yet challenging step

    PubMed Central

    Grapsa, Julia; Cameli, Matteo; Granier, Camille; Muraru, Denisa; Ernande, Laura; Popescu, Bogdan A.; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the activity and potential of the young community of European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and to highlight the transition from Club 35 to ‘Heart Imagers of tomorrow’. PMID:26690950

  13. Infectious Diseases of the Heart: Pathophysiology, Clinical and Imaging Overview.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Horacio; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Marmol-Velez, Juan Alejandro; Vargas, Daniel; Ocazionez, Daniel; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Reddick, Robert Lee; Baxi, Ameya Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    Myriad infectious organisms can infect the endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Significant cardiac infections are rare in the general population but are associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increased risk in certain populations, such as the elderly, those undergoing cardiac instrumentation, and intravenous drug abusers. Diagnostic imaging of cardiac infections plays an important role despite its variable sensitivity and specificity, which are due in part to the nonspecific manifestations of the central inflammatory process of infection and the time of onset with respect to the time of imaging. The primary imaging modality remains echocardiography. However, cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have emerged as the modalities of choice wherever available, especially for diagnosis of complex infectious complications including abscesses, infected prosthetic material, central lines and instruments, and the cryptic manifestations of viral and parasitic diseases. MR imaging can provide functional, morphologic, and prognostic value in a single examination by allowing characterization of inflammatory changes from the acute to chronic stages, including edema and the patterns and extent of delayed gadolinium enhancement. We review the heterogeneous and diverse group of cardiac infections based on their site of primary cardiac involvement with emphasis on their cross-sectional imaging manifestations. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Live imaging and modeling for shear stress quantification in the embryonic zebrafish heart.

    PubMed

    Boselli, Francesco; Vermot, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is sensed by the endocardial cells composing the inner cell layer of the heart, and plays a major role in cardiac morphogenesis. Yet, the underlying hemodynamics and the associated mechanical stimuli experienced by endocardial cells remains poorly understood. Progress in the field has been hampered by the need for high temporal resolution imaging allowing the flow profiles generated in the beating heart to be resolved. To fill this gap, we propose a method to analyze the wall dynamics, the flow field, and the wall shear stress of the developing zebrafish heart. This method combines live confocal imaging and computational fluid dynamics to overcome difficulties related to live imaging of blood flow in the developing heart. To provide an example of the applicability of the method, we discuss the hemodynamic frequency content sensed by endocardial cells at the onset of valve formation, and how the fundamental frequency of the wall shear stress represents a unique mechanical cue to endocardial, heart-valve precursors.

  15. The use of diagnostic imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John W; Read, John W; Anderson, Ian Jock F

    2005-11-07

    Imaging should only be undertaken if it is likely to influence patient management. The dose of ionising radiation to the patient should be considered. Requesting the appropriate imaging method requires an understanding of the pathological process. Plain x-ray should still generally be the first imaging technique; exceptions include some forms of superficial tendinopathy, in which ultrasound may be more appropriate, and situations where radiation exposure is contraindicated, such as in a pregnant patient. The cost of the examination to the patient and the community should also be considered (eg, ultrasound v magnetic resonance imaging).

  16. Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Rasmussen, John C

    2008-01-01

    We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine.

  17. Dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography: image quality and stenosis diagnosis in patients with high heart rates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minwen; Li, Jiayi; Xu, Jian; Chen, Kang; Zhao, Hongliang; Huan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate prospectively the effects of heart rate and heart-rate variability on dual-source computed tomographic coronary image quality in patients whose heart rates were high, and to determine retrospectively the accuracy of dual-source computed tomographic diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis in the same patients.We compared image quality and diagnostic accuracy in 40 patients whose heart rates exceeded 70 beats/min with the same data in 40 patients whose heart rates were 70 beats/min or slower. In both groups, we analyzed 1,133 coronary arterial segments. Five hundred forty-five segments (97.7%) in low-heart-rate patients and 539 segments (93.7%) in high-heart-rate patients were of diagnostic image quality. We considered P < 0.05 to be statistically significant. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found in diagnostic-image quality scores of total segments or of any coronary artery, nor were any significant differences found between the groups in the accurate diagnosis of angiographically significant stenosis.Calcification was the chief factor that affected diagnostic accuracy. In high-heart-rate patients, heart-rate variability was significantly related to the diagnostic image quality of all segments (P = 0.001) and of the left circumflex coronary artery (P = 0.016). Heart-rate variability of more than 5 beats/min most strongly contributed to an inability to evaluate segments in both groups. When heart rates rose, the optimal reconstruction window shifted from diastole to systole.The image quality of dual-source computed tomographic coronary angiography at high heart rates enables sufficient diagnosis of stenosis, although variability of heart rates significantly deteriorates image quality.

  18. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Structural and Valvular Heart Disease Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, João L; Lalude, Omosalewa O; Schoenhagen, Paul; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2016-03-14

    The field of percutaneous interventions for the treatment of structural and valvular heart diseases has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. Noninvasive cardiac imaging has been a critical part of the planning, procedural guidance, and follow-up of these procedures. Although echocardiography and cardiovascular computed tomography are the most commonly used and studied imaging techniques in this field today, advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging continue to provide important contributions in the comprehensive assessment and management of these patients. In this comprehensive paper, we will review and demonstrate how cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients who are being considered for and/or who have undergone interventions for structural and valvular heart diseases.

  19. Automatic estimation of heart boundaries and cardiothoracic ratio from chest x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallal, Ahmed H.; Agarwal, Chirag; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is a widely used radiographic index to assess heart size on chest X-rays (CXRs). Recent studies have suggested that also two-dimensional CTR might contain clinical information about the heart function. However, manual measurement of such indices is both subjective and time consuming. This study proposes a fast algorithm to automatically estimate CTR indices based on CXRs. The algorithm has three main steps: 1) model based lung segmentation, 2) estimation of heart boundaries from lung contours, and 3) computation of cardiothoracic indices from the estimated boundaries. We extended a previously employed lung detection algorithm to automatically estimate heart boundaries without using ground truth heart markings. We used two datasets: a publicly available dataset with 247 images as well as clinical dataset with 167 studies from Geisinger Health System. The models of lung fields are learned from both datasets. The lung regions in a given test image are estimated by registering the learned models to patient CXRs. Then, heart region is estimated by applying Harris operator on segmented lung fields to detect the corner points corresponding to the heart boundaries. The algorithm calculates three indices, CTR1D, CTR2D, and cardiothoracic area ratio (CTAR). The method was tested on 103 clinical CXRs and average error rates of 7.9%, 25.5%, and 26.4% (for CTR1D, CTR2D, and CTAR respectively) were achieved. The proposed method outperforms previous CTR estimation methods without using any heart templates. This method can have important clinical implications as it can provide fast and accurate estimate of cardiothoracic indices.

  20. Doppler tissue imaging for assessing left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, S; Allemann, Y; Zimmerli, M; Lipp, E; Kucher, N; Mohacsi, P; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that diastolic mitral annular motion velocity, as determined by Doppler tissue imaging and left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity, is related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
METHODS—In 41 heart transplant recipients undergoing 151 myocardial biopsies, the following Doppler echocardiographic measurements were performed within one hour of biopsy: transmitral and pulmonary vein flow indices; mitral annular motion velocity indices; left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity.
RESULTS—Late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (ADTI) and mitral annular systolic contraction velocity (SCDTI) were higher in patients with ISHLT < IIIA than in those with ISHLT ⩾ IIIA (ADTI, 8.8 cm/s v 7.7 cm/s (p = 0.03); SCDTI, 19.3 cm/s v 9.3 cm/s (p < 0.05)). Sensitivity and specificity of ADTI < 8.7 cm/s (the best cut off value) in predicting significant heart transplant rejection were 82% and 53%, respectively. Early diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (EDTI) and flow propagation velocity were not related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection.
CONCLUSIONS—Doppler tissue imaging of the mitral annulus is useful in diagnosing heart transplant rejection because a high late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity can reliably exclude severe rejection. However, a reduced late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity cannot predict severe rejection reliably because it is not specific enough.


Keywords: heart transplant rejection; diastolic function; Doppler tissue imaging; echocardiography PMID:11559685

  1. Association Between Echocardiography Laboratory Accreditation and the Quality of Imaging and Reporting for Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Tsang, Michael Y; Ayoub, Chadi; Padang, Ratnasari; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Tucker, Stephen F; Cassidy, Cynthia S; Bremer, Merri; Kane, Garvan C; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-08-01

    It is presumed that echocardiographic laboratory accreditation leads to improved quality, but there are few data. We sought to compare the quality of echocardiographic examinations performed at accredited versus nonaccredited laboratories for the evaluation of valvular heart disease. We enrolled 335 consecutive valvular heart disease subjects who underwent echocardiography at our institution and an external accredited or nonaccredited institution within 6 months. Completeness and quality of echocardiographic reports and images were assessed by investigators blinded to the external laboratory accreditation status and echocardiographic results. Compared with nonaccredited laboratories, accredited sites more frequently reported patient sex (94% versus 78%; P<0.001), height and weight (96% versus 63%; P<0.001), blood pressure (86% versus 39%; P<0.001), left ventricular size (96% versus 83%; P<0.001), right ventricular size (94% versus 80%; P=0.001), and right ventricular function (87% versus 73%; P=0.006). Accredited laboratories had higher rates of complete and diagnostic color (58% versus 35%; P=0.002) and spectral Doppler imaging (45% versus 21%; P<0.0001). Concordance between external and internal grading of external studies was improved when diagnostic quantification was performed (85% versus 69%; P=0.003), and in patients with mitral regurgitation, reproducibility was improved with higher quality color Doppler imaging. Accredited echocardiographic laboratories had more complete reporting and better image quality, while echocardiographic quantification and color Doppler image quality were associated with improved concordance in grading valvular heart disease. Future quality improvement initiatives should highlight the importance of high-quality color Doppler imaging and echocardiographic quantification to improve the accuracy, reproducibility, and quality of echocardiographic studies for valvular heart disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Uncovering brain-heart information through advanced signal and image processing.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-05-13

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain-heart physiology and physiopathology.

  3. Uncovering brain–heart information through advanced signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain–heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  4. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    PubMed

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers.

  5. NCRP report 160 and what it means for medical imaging and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain report 160 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and the significance of the report to medical imaging as a whole and nuclear medicine specifically. The implications of the findings of report 160 have had repercussions and will continue to affect all of ionizing radiation medical imaging. The nuclear medicine community should have an understanding of why and how report 160 is important. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with the main focus of report 160, the significant change that has occurred since the 1980s in the ionizing radiation exposure of people in the United States, the primary background source of ionizing radiation in the United States, the primary medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States, trends in nuclear medicine procedures and patient exposure, and a comparison of population doses between 2006 and the early 1980s as outlined in report 160.

  6. Accelerating cine-MR Imaging in Mouse Hearts Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wech, Tobias; Lemke, Angela; Medway, Debra; Stork, Lee-Anne; Lygate, Craig A; Neubauer, Stefan; Köstler, Herbert; Schneider, Jürgen E

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To combine global cardiac function imaging with compressed sensing (CS) in order to reduce scan time and to validate this technique in normal mouse hearts and in a murine model of chronic myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods To determine the maximally achievable acceleration factor, fully acquired cine data, obtained in sham and chronically infarcted (MI) mouse hearts were 2–4-fold undersampled retrospectively, followed by CS reconstruction and blinded image segmentation. Subsequently, dedicated CS sampling schemes were implemented at a preclinical 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, and 2- and 3-fold undersampled cine data were acquired in normal mouse hearts with high temporal and spatial resolution. Results The retrospective analysis demonstrated that an undersampling factor of three is feasible without impairing accuracy of cardiac functional parameters. Dedicated CS sampling schemes applied prospectively to normal mouse hearts yielded comparable left-ventricular functional parameters, and intra- and interobserver variability between fully and 3-fold undersampled data. Conclusion This study introduces and validates an alternative means to speed up experimental cine-MRI without the need for expensive hardware. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21932360

  7. Expecting the holistic regulation from Chinese medicine based on the "solar system" hypothesis of ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Wang, An-Lu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Chen, Ke-Ji

    2016-11-01

    Stenosis of the coronary artery has been considered as an essential component of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Consequently, revascularization [e.g., percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass] has been the primary therapeutic approach to IHD. Such strategy has indeed revolutionized the management of IHD patients. However, not all patients with myocardial ischemia have visible coronary stenosis. Moreover, cardiovascular events occur in nearly 20% patients with stable coronary artery disease who have undergone PCI. The recently proposed "solar system" hypothesis of IHD postulates that coronary stenosis is only one (albeit important) of its features. Mechanistic contribution and clinical implication of multiple pathophysiological processes beyond coronary stenosis are highlighted in this hypothesis. On the basis of a holistic regulation and individualized medicine, Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the real-world setting to manage a variety of diseases, including IHD, for more than two thousands years. In this article, we summarize the evidence of CM that supports the "solar system" IHD hypothesis, and argue for a comprehensive approach to IHD. At the theoretical level, the central features of this approach include a holistic view of disease and human subjects, as well as individualized medicine. At the practical level, this approach emphasizes anoxia-tolerance and self-healing.

  8. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium.

    PubMed

    Spitalnik, Steven L; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V; Dzik, Walter H; Eder, Anne F; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D; Kor, Daryl J; Luban, Naomi L C; Roubinian, Nareg H; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone

    2015-09-01

    On March 25 and 26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to identify important research questions that could be answered in the next 5 to 10 years and which would have the potential to transform the clinical practice of transfusion medicine. These questions could be addressed by basic, translational, and/or clinical research studies and were focused on four areas: the three "classical" transfusion products (i.e., red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) and blood donor issues. Before the meeting, four working groups, one for each area, prepared five major questions for discussion along with a list of five to 10 additional questions for consideration. At the meeting itself, all of these questions, and others, were discussed in keynote lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and large-group sessions with open discourse involving all meeting attendees. In addition to the final lists of questions, provided herein, the meeting attendees identified multiple overarching, cross-cutting themes that addressed issues common to all four areas; the latter are also provided. It is anticipated that addressing these scientific priorities, with careful attention to the overarching themes, will inform funding priorities developed by the NIH and provide a solid research platform for transforming the future practice of transfusion medicine.

  9. 2015 Proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Spitalnik, Steven L.; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V.; Dzik, Walter H.; Eder, Anne F.; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Kor, Daryl J.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Roubinian, Nareg H.; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    On March 25-26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to identify important research questions that could be answered in the next 5-10 years, and which would have the potential to transform the clinical practice of transfusion medicine. These questions could be addressed by basic, translational, and/or clinical research studies and were focused on four areas: the three “classical” transfusion products (i.e., red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) and blood donor issues. Prior to the meeting, four Working Groups, one for each area, prepared five major questions for discussion along with a list of 5-10 additional questions for consideration. At the meeting itself, all of these questions, and others, were discussed in Keynote lectures, small group breakout sessions, and large group sessions with open discourse involving all meeting attendees. In addition to the final lists of questions, provided herein, the meeting attendees identified multiple overarching, cross-cutting themes that addressed issues common to all four areas; the latter are also provided. It is anticipated that addressing these scientific priorities, with careful attention to the overarching themes, will inform funding priorities developed by the NIH and provide a solid research platform for transforming the future practice of transfusion medicine. PMID:26260861

  10. The accuracy and efficacy of palpation versus image-guided peripheral injections in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mederic M

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate in the sports medicine community regarding the need for image guidance during peripheral joint and soft tissue injections. With the increasing availability of office-based ultrasound, many injections that were performed previously with a palpation-guided technique are being performed now under direct sonographic guidance. However some question the need for such guidance, particularly given the increased cost. This manuscript will review the reported accuracy and efficacy for various injections commonly performed in a sports medicine practice.

  11. [Evaluation of therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging: comparison with heart rate variability power spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Ikeda, J; Takita, T; Sekiguchi, Y; Demachi, J; Chikama, H; Goto, A; Shirato, K

    1998-11-01

    The relationship between the myocardial uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and heart rate variability parameters has not been determined. This study determined the relationship between the change in myocardial uptake of 123I-MIBG and improvement in left ventricular function after treatment, to determine the usefulness of 123I-MIBG imaging to assess the effect of therapy on heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). 123I-MIBG imaging and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability were performed before and after treatment in 17 patients with heart failure due to DCM. The following parameters were compared before and after treatment: New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, radiographic cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), blood pressure, echocardiographic data [left ventricular end-systolic (LVDs) and end-diastolic (LVDd) diameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)], plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine, heart rate variability power spectral analysis data [mean low frequency (MLF) and high frequency power (MHF)] and the myocardium to mediastinum activity ratio (MYO/M) obtained in early and late images, and washout rate calculated by anterior planar imaging of 123I-MIBG. The NYHA functional class, LVEF, LVDs, CTR, MLF and MHF improved after treatment. Early MYO/M and late MYO/M improved after treatment. The rate of increase in late MYO/M was positively correlated with the rate of improvement of LVEF after treatment. Furthermore, the late MYO/M was negatively correlated with MLF. Washout rate revealed no correlation with hemodynamic parameters. These findings suggest that late MYO/M is more useful than washout rate to assess the effect of treatment on heart failure due to DCM. Furthermore, the 123I-MIBG imaging and heart rate variability parameters are useful to assess the autonomic tone in DCM with heart failure.

  12. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Werner Júnior, Heron; dos Santos, Jorge Lopes; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Objective To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. PMID:27818540

  13. Acoustic imaging with time reversal methods: From medicine to NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    This talk will present an overview of the research conducted on ultrasonic time-reversal methods applied to biomedical imaging and to non-destructive testing. We will first describe iterative time-reversal techniques that allow both focusing ultrasonic waves on reflectors in tissues (kidney stones, micro-calcifications, contrast agents) or on flaws in solid materials. We will also show that time-reversal focusing does not need the presence of bright reflectors but it can be achieved only from the speckle noise generated by random distributions of non-resolved scatterers. We will describe the applications of this concept to correct distortions and aberrations in ultrasonic imaging and in NDT. In the second part of the talk we will describe the concept of time-reversal processors to get ultrafast ultrasonic images with typical frame rates of order of 10.000 F/s. It is the field of ultrafast ultrasonic imaging that has plenty medical applications and can be of great interest in NDT. We will describe some applications in the biomedical domain: Quantitative Elasticity imaging of tissues by following shear wave propagation to improve cancer detection and Ultrafast Doppler imaging that allows ultrasonic functional imaging.

  14. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-automated measurements of heart-to-mediastinum ratio on 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigrams by using image fusion method with chest X-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Ryosuke; Hara, Takeshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Ishihara, Tadahiko; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Abe, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    MIBG (iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is a radioactive medicine that is used to help diagnose not only myocardial diseases but also Parkinson's diseases (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The difficulty of the segmentation around the myocardium often reduces the consistency of measurement results. One of the most common measurement methods is the ratio of the uptake values of the heart to mediastinum (H/M). This ratio will be a stable independent of the operators when the uptake value in the myocardium region is clearly higher than that in background, however, it will be unreliable indices when the myocardium region is unclear because of the low uptake values. This study aims to develop a new measurement method by using the image fusion of three modalities of MIBG scintigrams, 201-Tl scintigrams, and chest radiograms, to increase the reliability of the H/M measurement results. Our automated method consists of the following steps: (1) construct left ventricular (LV) map from 201-Tl myocardium image database, (2) determine heart region in chest radiograms, (3) determine mediastinum region in chest radiograms, (4) perform image fusion of chest radiograms and MIBG scintigrams, and 5) perform H/M measurements on MIBG scintigrams by using the locations of heart and mediastinum determined on the chest radiograms. We collected 165 cases with 201-Tl scintigrams and chest radiograms to construct the LV map. Another 65 cases with MIBG scintigrams and chest radiograms were also collected for the measurements. Four radiological technologists (RTs) manually measured the H/M in the MIBG images. We compared the four RTs' results with our computer outputs by using Pearson's correlation, the Bland-Altman method, and the equivalency test method. As a result, the correlations of the H/M between four the RTs and the computer were 0.85 to 0.88. We confirmed systematic errors between the four RTs and the computer as well as among the four RTs. The variation range of the H

  16. Towards Rapid Screening of Tagged MR Images of the Heart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tag line from above of the infracted human cardiac image. The exaggerated curvature is because of zooming on the tag and unequal scaling of both axis...National Magnetic Resonance Conference, Izmir 2000 [9]. Goksel D., Ozkan M. ve Ozturk C., “MR Tag Analysis using Harmonic Phase Method”, 9. Signal Processing Conference, Northern Cyprus 2000

  17. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  18. Social images of medicine and dentistry in Japan. An exploratory study using correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, N; Nakagaki, H; Ishino, M; Tanaka, D; Toyama, A; Prendergast, M J; Williams, S A

    2000-10-01

    To investigate social images associated with dentistry in comparison with nine other medical disciplines. A questionnaire survey among members of the general public. Subjects were asked to state, in not more than five words, the images which they associated with each of the ten disciplines. Komaki City, Shikatsu Town and Nagoya City in Japan. 261 respondents from a convenience sample of 300 residents, not associated with any branch of medicine. Frequency distribution of word images used on at least five occasions and a correspondence analysis of the responses for the ten disciplines. Of the 163 coded image items, 60 were related to internal medicine, 56 to dentistry, 55 to dermatology, 51 to orthopaedic surgery, 51 to ophthalmology, 50 to surgery, 47 to obstetrics and gynaecology, 43 to otolaryngology, 40 to paediatrics and 33 to psychiatry. Correspondence analysis applied to the 163 items and 10 medical disciplines indicated that three similar paired image groups were found, namely between dermatology and ophthalmology, surgery and orthopaedic surgery, and between dentistry and internal medicine, which were the more commonly encountered disciplines across all age groups. However, compared with the other specialities, dentistry had a significantly greater association with pain, this response being four times more common than for surgery. This group of members of the public in Japan perceived dentistry-associated images in a similar way to internal medicine, but the negative associations with pain need to be addressed by the dental profession and health educators alike.

  19. Molecular Morphology of the Chick Heart Visualized by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Angus C.; Gelasco, Andrew K.; Section, Jarren; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo A.; Krug, Edward L.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of MALDI-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) for tissue imaging is a relatively new proteomic technique that simultaneously maps the spatial distribution of multiple proteins directly within a single frozen tissue section. Here we report the development of a methodology to apply MALDI tissue imaging to chick heart tissue sections acquired from fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. This protocol produces molecular images that can be related to the high quality histological tissue sections. Perfused term chick hearts were fixed in acidic ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Tissue sections (15 μm) were collected onto conductive slides, deparaffinized with xylene and transitioned into water with graded ethanol washes and allowed to air dry. In separate experiments three different MALDI matrices were applied to chick heart tissue sections through repeated cycles from a glass nebulizer. Tissue sections were then analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry using a raster step-size of 75–100 μm, and molecular images for specific m/z ratios reconstituted. MALDI tissue imaging revealed spatially-resolved protein signals within single heart sections that are specific to structures or regions of the heart, e.g., vessels, valves, endocardium, myocardium, or septa. Moreover, no prior knowledge of protein expression is required as is the case for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methodologies. The ability to simultaneously localize a large number of unique protein signals within a single tissue section, with good preservation of histological features, provides cardiovascular researchers a new tool to give insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying normal and pathological conditions. PMID:20186963

  20. Molecular morphology of the chick heart visualized by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grey, Angus C; Gelasco, Andrew K; Section, Jarren; Moreno-Rodriguez, Ricardo A; Krug, Edward L; Schey, Kevin L

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of MALDI-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) for tissue imaging is a relatively new proteomic technique that simultaneously maps the spatial distribution of multiple proteins directly within a single frozen tissue section. Here, we report the development of a methodology to apply MALDI tissue imaging to chick heart tissue sections acquired from fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. This protocol produces molecular images that can be related to the high-quality histological tissue sections. Perfused term chick hearts were fixed in acidic ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Tissue sections (15 microm) were collected onto conductive slides, deparaffinized with xylene, and transitioned into water with graded ethanol washes and allowed to air dry. In separate experiments, three different MALDI matrices were applied to chick heart tissue sections through repeated cycles from a glass nebulizer. Tissue sections were then analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry using a raster step-size of 75-100 microm, and molecular images for specific m/z ratios reconstituted. MALDI tissue imaging revealed spatially resolved protein signals within single heart sections that are specific to structures or regions of the heart, for example, vessels, valves, endocardium, myocardium, or septa. Moreover, no prior knowledge of protein expression is required as is the case for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methodologies. The ability to simultaneously localize a large number of unique protein signals within a single tissue section, with good preservation of histological features, provides cardiovascular researchers a new tool to give insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Computational high-resolution heart phantoms for medical imaging and dosimetry simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Songxiang; Gupta, Rajiv; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular, are the leading cause of death worldwide. They are principally diagnosed using either invasive percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograms or non-invasive computed tomography angiograms (CTA). Minimally invasive therapies for CAD such as angioplasty and stenting are rendered under fluoroscopic guidance. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities employ ionizing radiation and there is concern for deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Accurate simulation to optimize image quality with minimal radiation dose requires detailed, gender-specific anthropomorphic phantoms with anatomically correct heart and associated vasculature. Such phantoms are currently unavailable. This paper describes an open source heart phantom development platform based on a graphical user interface. Using this platform, we have developed seven high-resolution cardiac/coronary artery phantoms for imaging and dosimetry from seven high-quality CTA datasets. To extract a phantom from a coronary CTA, the relationship between the intensity distribution of the myocardium, the ventricles and the coronary arteries is identified via histogram analysis of the CTA images. By further refining the segmentation using anatomy-specific criteria such as vesselness, connectivity criteria required by the coronary tree and image operations such as active contours, we are able to capture excellent detail within our phantoms. For example, in one of the female heart phantoms, as many as 100 coronary artery branches could be identified. Triangular meshes are fitted to segmented high-resolution CTA data. We have also developed a visualization tool for adding stenotic lesions to the coronaries. The male and female heart phantoms generated so far have been cross-registered and entered in the mesh-based Virtual Family of phantoms with matched age/gender information. Any phantom in this family, along with user

  2. [Social Security Needs Social Medicine: Self-image of Physicians Practicing Social Medicine in Statutory Health Insurances and Social Security Systems].

    PubMed

    Nüchtern, E; Bahemann, A; Egdmann, W; van Essen, J; Gostomzyk, J; Hemmrich, K; Manegold, B; Müller, B; Robra, B P; Röder, M; Schmidt, L; Zobel, A; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2015-09-01

    In January, 2014, the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention established a working group on the self-image of the physicians active in the field of social medicine (medical expertise and counseling). The result of this work is the contribution presented here after consensus was achieved by specialists of social medicine from different fields and institutions (social security etc.) and in good cooperation with Prof. Dr. Gostomzyk and Prof. Dr. Robra. Based on the importance of an up to date social medicine for claimants and recipients of benefits on the one hand and the social security system on the other, and also on a description of the subjects, objectives and methods the following aspects are presented: · The perspective of social medicine. · Qualification in social medicine, concerning specialist training and continuing medical education. · The fields of duty of experts in social medicine. · The proceedings in social medicine. The working group identified challenges for the specialists in social medicine by a narrowed perception of social medicine by physicians in hospitals and practice, accompanied by an enlarged importance of expertise in social medicine, by the demand for more "patient orientation" and gain of transparency, and concerning the scientific foundation of social medicine. The working group postulates: · The perspective of social medicine should be spread more widely.. · Confidence in experts of social medicine and their independency should be strengthened.. · The not case-related consulting of the staff and executives should be expanded.. · Social medicine in practice needs support by politics and society, and especially by research and teaching.. · Good cooperation and transfer of experiences of the different branches of social security are essential for the impact of social medicine.. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats per minute: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allan B; Nandurkar, Dee; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Cameron, James D; Troupis, John M

    2011-06-01

    High heart rate may negatively influence the image quality of cardiac CT. The technical advances of 320-MDCT may overcome issues with poor image quality associated with high heart rate. This study aimed to evaluate the coronary image quality of 320-MDCT in patients with heart rates above 65 beats/min. Patients who presented for cardiac CT were divided into two groups according to heart rate, either greater than 65 beats/min or less than or equal to 65 beats/min. Two radiologists were blinded to the patient groups and evaluated images of 15 coronary artery segments per patient using 320-MDCT with consensus agreement. The image quality was scored subjectively as 1 or 2 (diagnostic quality) or 3 (poor quality and nondiagnostic). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass index (p > 0.05). The median heart rate was 70 beats/min (range, 67-110 beats/min) for the group with heart rate greater than 65 beats/min and 60 beats/min (range, 48-65 beats/min) for the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p < 0.001). In patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, diagnostic quality images (scores of 1 or 2) were obtained in 95.6% of the analyzed segments, compared with 96.9% in the group with heart rate less than or equal to 65 beats/min (p = 0.7). Our initial evaluation suggests that coronary artery images of diagnostic quality can be obtained using 320-MDCT in most patients with heart rates greater than 65 beats/min, in percentages similar to those for patients with heart rates less than or equal to 65 beats/min. This finding may be the result of the inherent image acquisition and reconstruction technique of 320-MDCT.

  4. Stability of membrane potential in heart mitochondria: Single mitochondrion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Yukiko; Yoshioka, Hisashi; Morikawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Yoshihiro . E-mail: ohta@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2006-06-16

    Mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi} {sub m}) plays an important role in cellular activity. Although {delta}{psi} {sub m} of intracellular mitochondria are relatively stable, the recent experiments with isolated mitochondria demonstrate that individual mitochondria show frequent fluctuations of {delta}{psi} {sub m}. The current study is performed to investigate the factors that stabilize {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells by observing {delta}{psi} {sub m} of individual isolated mitochondria with fluorescence microscopy. Here, we report that (1) the transient depolarizations are also induced for mitochondria in plasma membrane permeabilized cells, (2) almost all mitochondria isolated from porcine hearts show the transient depolarizations that is enhanced with the net efflux of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space, and (3) ATP and ADP significantly inhibit the transient depolarizations by plural mechanisms. These results suggest that the suppression of acute alkalinization of the matrix together with the presence of ATP and ADP contributes to the stabilization of {delta}{psi} {sub m} in cells.

  5. Structure and function relationship of Zebrafish embryonic heart from confocal microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Forouhar, Arian; Liebling, Michael; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Gharib, Morteza

    2006-03-01

    Confocal microscopy enables us to track myocytes in the embryonic zebrafish heart. The Zeiss LSM 5 Live high speed confocal microscope has been used to take optical sections (at 3 μm intervals and 151 frames per second) through a fluorescently labeled zebrafish heart at two developmental stages (26 and 34 hours post fertilization (hpf)). This data provides unique information allowing us to conjecture on the morphology and biomechanics of the developing vertebrate heart. Nevertheless, the myocytes, whose positions could be determined in a reliable manner, were located sparsely and mostly in one side of the heart tube. This difficulty was overcome using computational methods, that give longitudinal, radial and circumferential displacements of the myocytes as well as their contractile behavior. Applied strain analysis has shown that in the early embryonic heart tube, only the caudal region (near the in-flow) and another point in the middle of the tube can be active; the rest appears to be mostly passive. This statement is based on the delay between major strain and displacement which a material point experiences. Wave-like propagation of all three components of the displacement, especially in the circumferential direction, as well as the almost-periodic changes of the maximum strain support the hypothesis of helical muscle structure embedded in the tube. Changes of geometry in the embryonic heart after several hours are used to verify speculations about the structure based on the earlier images and aforementioned methods.

  6. 3-D Reconstruction From 2-D Radiographic Images and Its Application to Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi

    3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.

  7. A Set of Image Processing Algorithms for Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine Whole Body Bone Scan Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jia-Yann; Kao, Pan-Fu; Chen, Yung-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Adjustment of brightness and contrast in nuclear medicine whole body bone scan images may confuse nuclear medicine physicians when identifying small bone lesions as well as making the identification of subtle bone lesion changes in sequential studies difficult. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis system, based on the fuzzy sets histogram thresholding method and anatomical knowledge-based image segmentation method that was able to analyze and quantify raw image data and identify the possible location of a lesion. To locate anatomical reference points, the fuzzy sets histogram thresholding method was adopted as a first processing stage to suppress the soft tissue in the bone images. Anatomical knowledge-based image segmentation method was then applied to segment the skeletal frame into different regions of homogeneous bones. For the different segmented bone regions, the lesion thresholds were set at different cut-offs. To obtain lesion thresholds in different segmented regions, the ranges and standard deviations of the image's gray-level distribution were obtained from 100 normal patients' whole body bone images and then, another 62 patients' images were used for testing. The two groups of images were independent. The sensitivity and the mean number of false lesions detected were used as performance indices to evaluate the proposed system. The overall sensitivity of the system is 92.1% (222 of 241) and 7.58 false detections per patient scan image. With a high sensitivity and an acceptable false lesions detection rate, this computer-aided automatic lesion detection system is demonstrated as useful and will probably in the future be able to help nuclear medicine physicians to identify possible bone lesions.

  8. Model tags: direct three-dimensional tracking of heart wall motion from tagged magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Young, A A

    1999-12-01

    Although magnetic resonance tissue tagging is a useful tool for the non-invasive measurement of three-dimensional (3-D) heart wall motion, the clinical utility of current analysis techniques is limited by the prohibitively long time required for image analysis. A method was therefore developed for the reconstruction of 3-D heart wall motion directly from tagged magnetic resonance images, without prior identification of ventricular boundaries or tag stripe locations. The method utilized a finite-element model to describe the shape and motion of the heart. Initially, the model geometry was determined at the time of tag creation by fitting a small number of guide points which were placed interactively on the images. Model tags were then created within the model as material surfaces which defined the location of the magnetic tags. An objective function was derived to measure the degree of match between the model tags and the image stripes. The objective was minimized by allowing the model to deform directly under the influence of the images, utilizing an efficient method for calculating image-derived motion constraints. The model deformation could also be manipulated interactively by guide points. Experiments were performed using clinical images of a normal volunteer, as well as simulated images in which the true motion was specified. The root-mean-squared errors between the known and calculated displacement and strain for the simulated images were similar to those obtained using previous stripe-tracking and model-fitting methods. A significant improvement in analysis time was obtained for the normal volunteer and further improvements may allow the method to be applied in a 'real-time' clinical environment.

  9. Multispot two-photon imaging of mice heart tissue detecting calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mauro, C.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Alfieri, D.; Borile, G.; Mongillo, M.; Pavone, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    High rate, full field image acquisition in multiphoton imaging is achievable by parallelization of the excitation and of the detection paths. Via a Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) which splits a pulsed laser, and a spatial resolved descanned detection path, a new approach to microscopy has been developed. By exploiting the three operating mode, single beam, 16 beamlets or 64 beamlets, the best experimental conditions can be found by adapting the power per beamlet. This Multiphoton Multispot system (MCube) has been characterized in thick tissue samples, and subsequently used for the first time for Ca2+ imaging of acute heart slices. A test sample with fixed mice heart slices with embedded sub-resolution fluorescent beads has been used to test the capability of optical axial resolution up to ~200 microns in depth. Radial and axial resolutions of 0.6 microns and 3 microns have been respectively obtained with a 40X water immersion objective, getting close to the theoretical limit. Then images of heart slices cardiomyocites, loaded with Fluo4-AM have been acquired. The formation of Ca2+ waves during electrostimulated beating has been observed, and the possibility of easily acquire full frame images at 15 Hz (16 beamlets) has been demonstrated, towards the in vivo study of time resolved cellular dynamics and arrhythmia trigger mechanisms in particular. A very high speed two-photon Random Access system for in vivo electrophysiological studies, towards the correlation of voltage and calcium signals in arrhythmia phenomena, is now under developing at Light4tech.

  10. In vivo imaging of the Drosophila Melanogaster heart using a novel optical coherence tomography microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izatt, Susan D.; Choma, Michael A.; Israel, Steven; Wessells, Robert J.; Bodmer, Rolf; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Real time in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster heart using a newly designed OCT microscope allows accurate assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. D. melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic research for over a century, but in vivo evaluation of the heart has been limited by available imaging technology. The ability to assess phenotypic changes with micrometer-scale resolution noninvasively in genetic models such as D. melanogaster is needed in the advancing fields of developmental biology and genetics. We have developed a dedicated small animal OCT imaging system incorporating a state-of-the-art, real time OCT scanner integrated into a standard stereo zoom microscope which allows for simultaneous OCT and video imaging. System capabilities include A-scan, B-scan, and M-scan imaging as well as automated 3D volumetric acquisition and visualization. Transverse and sagittal B-mode scans of the four chambered D. melanogaster heart have been obtained with the OCT microscope and are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature. Further analysis by M-mode scanning is currently under way to assess cardiac function as a function of age and sex by determination of shortening fraction and ejection fraction. These studies create control cardiac data on the wild type D. melanogaster, allowing subsequent evaluation of phenotypic cardiac changes in this model after regulated genetic mutation.

  11. Immune cells detection of the in vivo rejecting heart in USPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, José M F; Wu, Yijen L; Ho, Chien

    2006-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of immune cells, in particular macrophages. Contrast agents, for example ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles, administered intravenously into the blood stream will be engulfed by macrophages circulating in the circulation system. When a transplanted heart rejects, macrophages and other immune cells will infiltrate the rejecting tissue. Imaged by T*2 weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages will display dark pixel intensities. Detecting the presence of USPIO particles in the images facilitates the study of heart rejection. We cast the problem of detecting the presence of USPIO-labeled myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory, and treat our decision function as a level set function on the image. The pixels with positive level set values correspond to the presence of immune cells, and negative to the absence. When the image is modeled by a graph, the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian provides a basis to represent the level set function. We develop from the Cheeger constant of the graph an objective functional of the level set function. The minimization of the objective leads to the optimal level set function. Experimental results suggest the feasibility of our approach in the study of rejecting hearts.

  12. Role of Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management of Heart Failure Patients: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) has evolved into a major tool for the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of patients suffering from heart failure. Anatomical and structural imaging, functional assessment, T1 and T2 mapping tissue characterization and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) have provided clinicians with tools to distinguish between non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathies and to identify the etiology of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. LGE is a useful tool to predict the likelihood of functional recovery after revascularization in patients with CAD and to guide the LV lead placement in those who qualify for cardiac resynchronization (CRT) therapy. In addition, the presence of LGE and its extent in myocardial tissue relates to overall cardiovascular outcomes. Emerging roles for cardiac imaging in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) are being studied and CMR continues to be among the most promising noninvasive imaging alternatives in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26041670

  13. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging of the heart in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Glowniak, J.V.; Turner, F.E.; Gray, L.L.; Palac, R.T.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Woodward, W.R.

    1989-07-01

    Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((/sup 123/I)MIBG) is a norepinephrine analog which can be used to image the sympathetic innervation of the heart. In this study, cardiac imaging with (/sup 123/I)MIBG was performed in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and compared to normal controls. Initial uptake, half-time of tracer within the heart, and heart to lung ratios were all significantly reduced in patients compared to normals. Uptake in lungs, liver, salivary glands, and spleen was similar in controls and patients with cardiomyopathy indicating that decreased MIBG uptake was not a generalized abnormality in these patients. Iodine-123 MIBG imaging was also performed in cardiac transplant patients to determine cardiac nonneuronal uptake. Uptake in transplants was less than 10% of normals in the first 2 hr and nearly undetectable after 16 hr. The decreased uptake of MIBG suggests cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction while the rapid washout of MIBG from the heart suggests increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy.

  14. Imaging the beating heart in the mouse using intravital microscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Aguirre, Aaron D; Lee, Sungon; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Real-time microscopic imaging of moving organs at single-cell resolution represents a major challenge in studying complex biology in living systems. Motion of the tissue from the cardiac and respiratory cycles severely limits intravital microscopy by compromising ultimate spatial and temporal imaging resolution. However, significant recent advances have enabled single-cell resolution imaging to be achieved in vivo. In this protocol, we describe experimental procedures for intravital microscopy based on a combination of thoracic surgery, tissue stabilizers and acquisition gating methods, which enable imaging at the single-cell level in the beating heart in the mouse. Setup of the model is typically completed in 1 h, which allows 2 h or more of continuous cardiac imaging. This protocol can be readily adapted for the imaging of other moving organs, and it will therefore broadly facilitate in vivo high-resolution microscopy studies. PMID:26492138

  15. [(11)C]-Acetoacetate PET imaging: a potential early marker for cardiac heart failure.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Etienne; Tremblay, Sébastien; Gascon, Suzanne; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Labbé, Sébastien M; Rousseau, Jacques A; Cunnane, Stephen C; Carpentier, André C; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The ketone body acetoacetate could be used as an alternate nutrient for the heart, and it also has the potential to improve cardiac function in an ischemic-reperfusion model or reduce the mitochondrial production of oxidative stress involved in cardiotoxicity. In this study, [(11)C]-acetoacetate was investigated as an early marker of intracellular damage in heart failure. A rat cardiotoxicity heart failure model was induced by doxorubicin, Dox(+). [(14)C]-Acetoacetate, a non-positron (β-) emitting radiotracer, was used to characterize the arterial blood input function and myocardial mitochondrial uptake. Afterward, [(11)C]-acetoacetate (β+) myocardial PET images were obtained for kinetic analysis and heart function assessment in control Dox(-) (n=15) and treated Dox(+) (n=6) rats. The uptake rate (K1) and myocardial clearance rate (k2or kmono) were extracted. [(14)C]-Acetoacetate in the blood was increased in Dox(+), from 2 min post-injection until the last withdrawal point when the heart was harvested, as well as the uptake in the heart and myocardial mitochondria (unpaired t-test, p <0.05). PET kinetic analysis of [(11)C]-acetoacetate showed that rate constants K1, k2 and kmono were decreased in Dox(+) (p <0.05) combined with a reduction of 24% of the left ventricular ejection fraction (p <0.001). Radioactive acetoacetate ex vivo analysis [(14)C], and in vivo kinetic [(11)C] studies provided evidence that [(11)C]-acetoacetate can assess heart failure Dox(+). Contrary to myocardial flow reserve (rest-stress protocol), [(11)C]-acetoacetate can be used to assess reduced kinetic rate constants without requirement of hyperemic stress response. The proposed [(11)C]-acetoacetate cardiac radiotracer in the investigation of heart disease is novel and paves the way to a potential role for [(11)C]-acetoacetate in cardiac pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Mathurine, Germaine; Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that:(1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized;(2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended.

  17. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  18. Noninvasive Imaging to Evaluate Women With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Lauren A; Raman, Subha V; Min, James K; Mieres, Jennifer H; Gulati, Martha; Wenger, Nanette K; Marwick, Thomas H; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Ferdinand, Keith C; Pepine, Carl J; Walsh, Mary Norine; Narula, Jagat; Shaw, Leslee J

    2016-04-01

    Declines in cardiovascular deaths have been dramatic for men but occur significantly less in women. Among patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease (IHD), women experience relatively worse outcomes compared with their male counterparts. Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore unique female imaging targets and their correlative signs and symptoms of IHD as major determinants of IHD risk. We highlight sex-specific anatomic and functional differences in contemporary imaging and introduce imaging approaches that leverage refined targets that may improve IHD risk prediction and identify potential therapeutic strategies for symptomatic women. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mena, Esther; Thippsandra, Shwetha; Yanamadala, Anusha; Redy, Siddaling; Pattanayak, Puskar; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized personalized cancer treatment. Head and neck (HN) cancer management is being influenced by recent discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and related targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapies for Kristen Rat Sarcoma, and MET proto-oncogenes. Molecular imaging using PET plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of HN cancer with the goal of delivering individualized cancer treatment. This review summarizes recent genomic discoveries in HN cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging in assessing response to targeted therapies, and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [New challenges and perspectives in nuclear medicine imaging].

    PubMed

    Borbély, Katalin

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computer tomography/computer tomography (SPECT/CT) have resulted in significant advances both in medical research and routine clinical use. The most recent multimodality system that combines PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new potentials unthinkable before. The hybrid techniques allow obtaining simultaneous morphologic, functional, and molecular information of a living system. The proper use of multimodality imaging is of high importance as they facilitate both basic medical research and clinical practice.

  1. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Martin; Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C; Oyen, Wim J G

    2006-01-01

    Radiolabelled peptides are used for specific targeting of receptors (over-)expressed by tumour cells. Dependent on the kind of labelling and the radionuclide used, these compounds may be utilised for imaging or for therapy. A concise overview is provided on basic principles of designing and developing radiopeptides for these applications. Furthermore, clinical application of these compounds for imaging and therapy is described. Advantages of the method compared to other techniques (such as the use of radiolabelled antibodies or antibody fragments) are discussed as well as pitfalls and limitations. PMID:17114073

  2. Nuclear medicine in the acute clinical setting: indications, imaging findings, and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1.

  3. Colour atlas of first pass functional imaging of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, N.; Andrews, E.J.; Fleming, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 21 chapters. Some of the titles are: Functional imaging; Fist pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of mitral valve replacement in chronic insufficiency using Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves; First pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of left and right ventricular function in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement after 9-11 years; and First pass radionuclide studies in the evaluation of long term (up to about 15 years) follow up of aortic valve replacement using Starr-Edwards ball prosthesis.

  4. Integrated package for interactive analysis and interpretation of nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Augusto F. d.; Sousa Pereira, Antonio; Botelho, M. F.; de Lima, J. J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a software package based on a set of integrated tools intended to be used in nuclear medicine imaging environments. These tools, following a functionally consistent and open architecture, aim to provide an efficient and user-friendly way for handling the analysis and interpretation of nuclear medicine images in a broad range of applications. The Image, Graphics, and Colors tools are the basic building blocks. Besides basic image handling facilities, the Image tool was designed to accomplish both conventional and special purposed processing tasks. Among these, the interactive definition of organ shaped regions of interest, functional imaging (e.g., mean transit time images in ventilatory lung studies) and activity quantitation should be pointed out as the most intensively used facilities. The Graphics tool is used mainly to display and analyze the activity/time curves resulting from parametric related studies. As intensity color coding has gained wide acceptance in nuclear medicine it was thought convenient to implement a Colors tool intended to provide interactive intensity manipulation. The X Window graphics interface system is the basis for the implementation of this set of independent but intercommunicating tools which are intended to run on all UNIX workstations provided with, at least, an 8 bit depth frame buffer.

  5. Heart rate control with adrenergic blockade: Clinical outcomes in cardiovascular medicine

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, David; Elton, Terry S; Menachemi, Doron M; Wexler, Randy K

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating various cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR) and HR variability. Aberrant sympathetic nervous system expression may result in elevated HR or decreased HR variability, and both are independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Epidemiologic studies have established that impaired HR control is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One successful way of decreasing HR and cardiovascular mortality has been by utilizing β-blockers, because their ability to alter cell signaling at the receptor level has been shown to mitigate the pathogenic effects of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that β-blocker-mediated HR control improvements are associated with decreased mortality in postinfarct and heart failure patients. Although improved HR control benefits have yet to be established in hypertension, both traditional and vasodilating β-blockers exert positive HR control effects in this patient population. However, differences exist between traditional and vasodilating β-blockers; the latter reduce peripheral vascular resistance and exert neutral or positive effects on important metabolic parameters. Clinical evidence suggests that attainment of HR control is an important treatment objective for patients with cardiovascular conditions, and vasodilating β-blocker efficacy may aid in accomplishing improved outcomes. PMID:20539841

  6. [Nuclear medicine residents' clinical aptitude for interpreting gammagraphic images].

    PubMed

    Pérez Campos, José Pascual; Aguilar Mejía, Estela; Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The study deals theoretical aspects of evaluation and the importance of consider one as part of a research process. The diverse theoretical trends in the field of education are synthesized in two main tendencies: the participating and passive education perspectives. The influences of these two tendencies in selection the subjects for evaluation are also discussed in order to explore the gammagraphic interpretation aptitude in residents of nuclear medicine. An evaluation instrument developed by us to explore aptitudes result of a long validation process. It consists of 90 questions was applied to the whole sample (19 residents in two IMSS courses) in one single session. We also applied other instrument of multiple choice (90 questions too) within the passive tendency of education (control instrument). Scores obtained by three groups of residents in nuclear medicine in the aptitudes instrument, showed difference in accordance with the respective time of experience: first year obtained the lowest scores (31.5) second year showed intermediate scores (36) 3rd the highest (43) (p = 0.03 between 1st and 3rd). The scores obtained by the control instrument, was not clear difference: the 2nd year of residents was found better (score of 56) than 3rd year residents (score 52.5) The aptitude instrument is better than the control instrument in order to explored, discriminated and estratificated by time of formative experience in medical courses. We believe that the aptitude instrument is capable of detecting learning dependent on the time of clinical experience. Some considerations on the advantages and scope of this instrument, as compared to other current instruments, which are also intended to measure clinical aptitudes, are done. The theoretical superiority of the clinical aptitudes instrument in relation the others are discussed.

  7. Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

    PubMed

    Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark; Garcia, Ernest V

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease.

  8. Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    PubMed Central

    Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma. Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, 123I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

  9. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author.

  10. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  11. Transmembrane current imaging in the heart during pacing and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard A; Mashburn, David N; Sidorov, Veniamin Y; Roth, Bradley J; Pathmanathan, Pras; Wikswo, John P

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we described a method to quantify the time course of total transmembrane current (Im) and the relative role of its two components, a capacitive current (Ic) and a resistive current (Iion), corresponding to the cardiac action potential during stable propagation. That approach involved recording high-fidelity (200 kHz) transmembrane potential (Vm) signals with glass microelectrodes at one site using a spatiotemporal coordinate transformation via measured conduction velocity. Here we extend our method to compute these transmembrane currents during stable and unstable propagation from fluorescence signals of Vm at thousands of sites (3 kHz), thereby introducing transmembrane current imaging. In contrast to commonly used linear Laplacians of extracellular potential (Ve) to compute Im, we utilized nonlinear image processing to compute the required second spatial derivatives of Vm. We quantified the dynamic spatial patterns of current density of Im and Iion for both depolarization and repolarization during pacing (including nonplanar patterns) by calibrating data with the microelectrode signals. Compared to planar propagation, we found that the magnitude of Iion was significantly reduced at sites of wave collision during depolarization but not repolarization. Finally, we present uncalibrated dynamic patterns of Im during ventricular fibrillation and show that Im at singularity sites was monophasic and positive with a significant nonzero charge (Im integrated over 10 ms) in contrast with nonsingularity sites. Our approach should greatly enhance the understanding of the relative roles of functional (e.g., rate-dependent membrane dynamics and propagation patterns) and static spatial heterogeneities (e.g., spatial differences in tissue resistance) via recordings during normal and compromised propagation, including arrhythmias. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bodies, Hearts and Minds: Why Emotions Matter to Historians of Science and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    The history of emotion addresses many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured; the rise of the mind sciences; and the anthropological analyses by which “ways of knowing” are culturally situated. Yet studying emotions brings its own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds and emotions. This paper explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the surgeon John Hunter’s sudden death from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modern assumptions about the origin of emotions, and “brainhood” that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind. PMID:20380348

  13. Bodies, hearts, and minds: Why emotions matter to historians of science and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Fay Bound

    2009-12-01

    The histories of emotion address many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured, the rise of the mind sciences, and the anthropological analyses by which "ways of knowing" are culturally situated. Yet such histories bring their own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds, and emotions. This essay explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the sudden death of the surgeon John Hunter from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modem assumptions about the origin of emotions, and "brainhood", that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind.

  14. Progressive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Heart Transplantation: Insights and Mechanisms Suggested by Multimodal Images

    PubMed Central

    Garikapati, Kiran; Williams, Celeste T.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is the typical measure to prevent rejection after heart transplantation. Although rejection is the usual cause of cardiac hypertrophy, numerous other factors warrant consideration. Calcineurin inhibitors rarely cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the few relevant reports have described children after orthotopic kidney or liver transplantation. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman, an asymptomatic orthotopic heart transplantation patient, in whom chronic immunosuppression with prednisone and cyclosporine apparently caused a phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The natural course of her midapical hypertrophy was revealed by single-photon-emission computed tomography, positron-emission tomography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Clinicians and radiographers should be alert to progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and various perfusion patterns in heart transplantation patients even in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease. Toward this end, we recommend that advanced imaging methods be used to their fullest extent. PMID:27047289

  15. Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Scott; Kan, Kees-Jan; Chaarani, Bader; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Batalla, Albert; Brooks, Samantha; Cousijn, Janna; Dagher, Alain; de Ruiter, Michiel; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Hutchison, Kent; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; London, Edythe D.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Luijten, Maartje; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Morales, Angelica M.; Paulus, Martin P.; Paus, Tomas; Pearlson, Godfrey; Schluter, Renée; Momenan, Reza; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Sinha, Rajita; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Elliot A.; Solowij, Nadia; Tapert, Susan; Uhlmann, Anne; Veltman, Dick; van Holst, Ruth; Walter, Henrik; Wright, Margaret J.; Yucel, Murat; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Hibar, Derrek P.; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of leveraging these resources to study addiction. The authors of this review have joined together to form an Addiction working group within the framework of the ENIGMA project, a meta-analytic approach to multisite genetic imaging data. Collectively, the Addiction working group possesses neuroimaging and genomic data obtained from over 10,000 subjects. The deadline for contributing data to the first round of analyses occurred at the beginning of May 2015. The studies performed on this data should significantly impact our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological basis of addiction. PMID:26822360

  16. Structural imaging for addiction medicine: From neurostructure to neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gregory G.; Jacobus, Joanna; McKenna, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging have provided new insights into structural brain changes associated with drugs of abuse. In this chapter, we review recent studies using these methods to investigate structural brain abnormalities associated with excessive use of marijuana, stimulants, and opiates. Although many brain regions have been associated with structural abnormalities following abuse of these drugs, brain systems underlying inhibition, mood regulation, and reward are particularly involved. Candidate pathological mechanisms underlying these structural abnormalities include the direct toxic effects of the drugs, neuroinflammation, ischemia, hemorrhage, and abnormal brain development. Returning damaged brain areas to neural health would involve enhancing neuroplasticity. Behavioral, environmental, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies have been correlated with enhanced neuroplasticity following brain injury, providing a basis for new treatments of brain changes associated with excessive drug use. When testing new treatments, structural imaging may prove useful in selecting patients, monitoring recovery, and perhaps, tailoring interventions. PMID:26822356

  17. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rupani, H.D.; Holder, L.E.; Espinola, D.A.; Engin, S.I.

    1985-07-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions.

  18. Genetic imaging consortium for addiction medicine: From neuroimaging to genes.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Scott; Kan, Kees-Jan; Chaarani, Bader; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Batalla, Albert; Brooks, Samantha; Cousijn, Janna; Dagher, Alain; de Ruiter, Michiel; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Goldstein, Rita Z; Goudriaan, Anna E; Heitzeg, Mary M; Hutchison, Kent; Li, Chiang-Shan R; London, Edythe D; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Luijten, Maartje; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Morales, Angelica M; Paulus, Martin P; Paus, Tomas; Pearlson, Godfrey; Schluter, Renée; Momenan, Reza; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Sinha, Rajita; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Elliot A; Solowij, Nadia; Tapert, Susan; Uhlmann, Anne; Veltman, Dick; van Holst, Ruth; Walter, Henrik; Wright, Margaret J; Yucel, Murat; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Hibar, Derrek P; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Garavan, Hugh; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of leveraging these resources to study addiction. The authors of this review have joined together to form an Addiction working group within the framework of the ENIGMA project, a meta-analytic approach to multisite genetic imaging data. Collectively, the Addiction working group possesses neuroimaging and genomic data obtained from over 10,000 subjects. The deadline for contributing data to the first round of analyses occurred at the beginning of May 2015. The studies performed on this data should significantly impact our understanding of the genetic and neurobiological basis of addiction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional infrared imaging in medicine: a quantitative diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Merla, A; Romani, G L

    2006-01-01

    The role and the potentialities of high-resolution infrared thermography, combined to bio-heat modelling, have been largely described in the last years in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Quantitative assessment over time of the cutaneous temperature and/or of other biomedical parameters related to the temperature (e.g., cutaneous blood flow, thermal inertia, sympathetic skin response) allows for a better and more complete understanding and description of functional processes involved and/or altered in presence of ailment and interfering with the regular cutaneous thermoregulation. Such an approach to thermal medical imaging requires both new methodologies and tools, like diagnostic paradigms, appropriate software for data analysis and, even, a completely new way to look at data processing. In this paper, some of the studies recently made in our laboratory are presented and described, with the general intent of introducing the reader to these innovative methods to obtain quantitative diagnostic tools based on thermal imaging.

  20. Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Conor L; Xie, X Sunney

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is a label-free imaging technique that is capable of real-time, nonperturbative examination of living cells and organisms based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Recent advances in detection schemes, understanding of contrast mechanisms, and developments of laser sources have enabled superb sensitivity and high time resolution. Emerging applications, such as metabolite and drug imaging and tumor identification, raise many exciting new possibilities for biology and medicine.

  1. Can we talk? Reflections on effective communication between imager and interventionalist in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Shelby; Delaney, Jeffrey W; Latson, Larry A; Danford, David A

    2013-08-01

    The rapid proliferation of catheter-mediated treatments for congenital heart defects has brought with it a critical need for cooperation and communication among the numerous physicians supporting these new and complex procedures. New interdependencies between physicians in specialties including cardiac imaging, interventional cardiology, pediatric cardiology, anesthesia, cardiothoracic surgery, and radiology have become apparent, as centers have strived to develop the best systems to foster success. Best practices for congenital heart disease interventions mandate confident and timely input from an individual with excellent adjunctive imaging skills and a thorough understanding of the devices and procedures being used. The imager and interventionalist must share an understanding of what each offers for the procedure, use a common terminology and spatial orientation system, and convey concise and accurate information about what is needed, what is seen, and what cannot be seen. The goal of this article is to review how the cardiovascular imaging specialists and interventionalists can work together effectively to plan and execute catheter interventions for congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

    2006-04-01

    Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field.

  3. Integrated Colony Imaging, Analysis, and Selection Device for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Edward; Herderick, Edward E; Adams, Thomas; Dunn, James; Germanowski, Robert; Krakosh, Frank; Boehm, Cynthia; Monnich, James; Powell, Kimerly; Muschler, George

    2017-04-01

    Stem and progenitor cells derived from human tissues are being developed as cell sources for cell-based assays and therapies. However, tissue-derived stem and progenitor cells are heterogeneous. Differences in observed clones of stem cells likely reflect important aspects of the underlying state of the source cells, as well as future potency for cell therapies. This paper describes a colony analysis and picking device that provides quantitative analysis of heterogeneous cell populations and precise tools for cell picking for research or biomanufacturing applications. We describe an integrated robotic system that enables image acquisition and automated image analysis to be coupled with rapid automated selection of individual colonies in adherent cell cultures. Other automated systems have demonstrated feasibility with picking from semisolid media or off feeder layers. We demonstrate the capability to pick adherent bone-derived stem cells from tissue culture plastic. Cells are efficiently picked from a target site and transferred to a recipient well plate. Cells demonstrate viability and adherence and maintain biologic potential for surface markers CD73 and CD90 based on phase contrast and fluorescence imaging 6 days after transfer. Methods developed here can be applied to the study of other stem cell types and automated culture of cells.

  4. Integrated residency training pathways of the future: diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Oates, M Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    Following up on the recommendations of the ACR/SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training, the respective leaderships convened Task Force II. Its charge is to develop realistic residency training pathways integrating diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging. The diagnostic radiology participants offer these "pathways of the future" that are built on a foundation of training in diagnostic radiology. It is hoped that these pathways will ensure that the traditional and emerging clinical, educational, and research domains of nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging will be sustained and will indeed flourish in the decades to come. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Echo planar imaging of isolated perfused rat hearts at 4.7 T: a comparison of Langendorff and working heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Blackband, S J; Chatham, J C; O'Dell, W; Day, S

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of echo planar imaging at 4.7 T is demonstrated using a homebuilt gradient and radiofrequency assembly. The application of such a technique to the study of the isolated perfused rat heart is demonstrated. Langendorff and working heart perfusion preparations are compared and changes in the left ventricular volume shown are to be much larger in the working heart preparation. Such a methodology is expected to provide a useful model for the study of cardiac function and dynamics in the normal and diseased states under controlled perfusion conditions.

  6. Polyglucose nanoparticles with renal elimination and macrophage avidity facilitate PET imaging in ischaemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Keliher, Edmund J.; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tricot, Benoit; Senders, Max L.; Groenen, Hannah; Fay, Francois; Perez-Medina, Carlos; Calcagno, Claudia; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Reiner, Thomas; Sun, Yuan; Courties, Gabriel; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Wang, Cuihua; Chen, John W.; Swirski, Filip K.; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Hooker, Jacob; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18. The particle's short blood half-life, measured in three species, including a primate, enables macrophage imaging in inflamed cardiovascular tissues. Macroflor enriches in cardiac and plaque macrophages, thereby increasing PET signal in murine infarcts and both mouse and rabbit atherosclerotic plaques. In PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments, Macroflor PET imaging detects changes in macrophage population size while molecular MRI reports on increasing or resolving inflammation. These data suggest that Macroflor PET/MRI could be a clinical tool to non-invasively monitor macrophage biology. PMID:28091604

  7. Altered sympathetic nervous system signaling in the diabetic heart: emerging targets for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T; Beanlands, Rob S; DaSilva, Jean N

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Perturbations in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) signaling have been linked to the progression of diabetic heart disease. Glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids contribute to elevated sympathetic nervous activity and norepinephrine release. Reduced left ventricular compliance and impaired cardiac function lead to further SNS activation. Chronic elevation of cardiac norepinephrine culminates in altered expression of pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic signaling elements, changes in calcium regulatory proteins, and abnormal contraction-excitation coupling. Clinically, these factors manifest as altered resting heart rate, depressed heart rate variability, and impaired cardiac autonomic reflex, which may contribute to elevated cardiovascular risk. Development of molecular imaging probes enable a comprehensive evaluation of cardiac SNS signaling at the neuron, postsynaptic receptor, and intracellular second messenger sites of signal transduction, providing mechanistic insights into cardiac pathology. This review will examine the evidence for abnormal SNS signaling in the diabetic heart and establish the physiological consequences of these changes, drawing from basic biological research in isolated heart and rodent models of diabetes, as well as from clinical reports. Particular attention will be paid to the use of molecular imaging approaches to non-invasively characterize and evaluate sympathetic signal transduction in diabetes, including pre-synaptic norepinephrine reuptake assessment using 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (11C-HED) with PET or 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) with SPECT, and postsynaptic β-adrenoceptor density measurements using CGP12177 derivatives. Finally, the review will attempt to define the future role of these non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques in diabetes research and clinical care. PMID:23133819

  8. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance zeugmatographic imaging of the heart: application to the study of ventricular septal defect. [Lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Heneghan, M.A.; Biancaniello, T.M.; Heidel, E.; Peterson, S.B.; Marsh, M.J.; Lauterbur, P.C.

    1982-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging to the study of congenital heart disease. Three-dimensional proton density images of preserved lamb hearts with and without an artificially created ventricular septal defect were reconstructed and displayed in multiple planes. Sections obtained in the sagittal plane through the ventricular septum clearly showed the size, shape, and location of the defect. Results of these experiments suggest that NMR zeugmatography will become a valuable addition to existing imaging techniques for the study of congenital heart disease.

  11. Acute Heart Failure and a Pseudo Cystic Image in the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    RIMBAS, Roxana C.; VINEREANU, Dragos

    2014-01-01

    The association between acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiac tumor may change the short and long term management of both conditions. A 51-year-old man presented with signs of AHF. ECG showed sinus tachycardia and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Chest x-Ray found dilated heart and pulmonary congestion. There were no significant changes in blood tests. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed chambers dilation, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 17%. Unexpectedly, we found an apical 2/2 cm cystic image in the LV. This had a myocardium-like membrane, seen better in 3D echocardiography, suggestive for hydatic cyst. Cerebral, thoracic, and abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed no hydatic lesions. Anti-Echinococcus antibodies were negative. Initially the clinical challenge was the management of the tumor in a patient with AHF and dilated cardiomyopathy. He was treated for AHF and followed up for the cystic image. He exhibited significant improvement of the clinical status and LVEF (increased to 42 %), with important cardiac reverse remodeling. Surprisingly, the apical cystic image disappeared. However, we found a hypertrophic aberrant cordae from apex to mid-septum, in the same position as the previous image. Thus, we believe that this cordae, by important remodeling and torsion generated the cystic image. This case highlights the importance of serial 2D and 3D echo examinations in patients with severely remodeled LV, and also with tumoral images. PMID:25705277

  12. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Otávio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30 fps or 60 fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study.

  13. The Primer for Sports Medicine Professionals on Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A.; Jain Palrecha, Sapna; Farshad, Mazda

    2013-01-01

    Because of its inherent superior soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly suited to study the complex anatomy of the shoulder joint, particularly when assessing the relatively high incidence of shoulder injuries in young, athletic patients. This review aims to serve as a primer for understanding shoulder MRI in an algorithmical approach, including MRI protocol and technique, normal anatomy and anatomical variations of the shoulder, pathologic conditions of the rotator cuff tendons and muscles, the long head of the biceps tendon, shoulder impingement, labral and glenohumeral ligament pathology, MR findings in shoulder instability, adhesive capsulitis, and osteoarthritis. PMID:24381700

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  15. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  16. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  17. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  18. Molecular imaging of the embryonic heart: Fables and facts on 3D imaging of gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Soufan, Alexandre T; Hagoort, Jaco; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2004-09-01

    Molecular imaging, which is the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of gene expression patterns, is indispensable for the study of the function of genes in cardiac development. The instrumentation, as well as the development of specific contrast agents for molecular imaging, has shown spectacular advances in the last decade. In this review, the spatial resolutions, contrast agents, and applications of these imaging methods in the field of cardiac embryology are discussed. Apart from 3D reconstructions from histological sections, not many of these methods have been applied in embryological research. This review shows that, for most methods, neither the spatial resolutions nor the specificity and applicability of the contrast agents are adequate for the reliable imaging of specific gene expression at the microscopic resolution required for embryological studies of small organs like the developing heart. Although a 3D reconstruction from sections will always suffer from imperfections, the resulting reconstructions meet the aim of most biological studies, especially since the original microscopic images are linked. With respect to imaging of gene expression, only histological sections and laser scanning microscopy provide the required resolution and specificity at the tissue and cellular level. Episcopic fluorescence image capturing and optical projection tomography are being used for microscopic phenotyping and lineage analysis, and both show potential for detailed molecular imaging. Other methods can be used very efficiently in rapid evaluation of biological experiments and high-throughput screens of large-scale gene expression profiling efforts when high spatial resolution is not required. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cancer Imaging at the Crossroads of Precision Medicine: Perspective From an Academic Imaging Department in a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Krajewski, Katherine M; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Fennessy, Fiona M; DiPiro, Pamela J; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Harris, Gordon J; Jacene, Heather A; Lefever, Greg; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-04-01

    The authors propose one possible vision for the transformative role that cancer imaging in an academic setting can play in the current era of personalized and precision medicine by sharing a conceptual model that is based on experience and lessons learned designing a multidisciplinary, integrated clinical and research practice at their institution. The authors' practice and focus are disease-centric rather than imaging-centric. A "wall-less" infrastructure has been developed, with bidirectional integration of preclinical and clinical cancer imaging research platforms, enabling rapid translation of novel cancer drugs from discovery to clinical trial evaluation. The talents and expertise of medical professionals, scientists, and staff members have been coordinated in a horizontal and vertical fashion through the creation of Cancer Imaging Consultation Services and the "Adopt-a-Radiologist" campaign. Subspecialized imaging consultation services at the hub of an outpatient cancer center facilitate patient decision support and management at the point of care. The Adopt-a-Radiologist campaign has led to the creation of a novel generation of imaging clinician-scientists, fostered new collaborations, increased clinical and academic productivity, and improved employee satisfaction. Translational cancer research is supported, with a focus on early in vivo testing of novel cancer drugs, co-clinical trials, and longitudinal tumor imaging metrics through the imaging research core laboratory. Finally, a dedicated cancer imaging fellowship has been developed, promoting the future generation of cancer imaging specialists as multidisciplinary, multitalented professionals who are trained to effectively communicate with clinical colleagues and positively influence patient care.

  20. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  1. The future of imaging in veterinary oncology: learning from human medicine.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, John S; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-09-01

    Imaging technology is critical for adequate diagnosis and staging in human and veterinary oncology. Sensitive detection of lesions is necessary to determine appropriate local or systemic therapy and to monitor therapeutic results. New technology in digital radiography, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) scanning are now widely available in veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging with high-detail CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET) are now available in academic centers and some private specialty practices. This review describes the current and future applications of these new imaging systems and modalities in veterinary oncology and how advanced imaging contributes to diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of cancers. The potential of molecular imaging for accurate, minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring is discussed.

  2. [Effect of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine for patients with chronic heart failure: a multi-center research].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xu; Pan, Guang-Ming; Sheng, Xiao-Gang; Yao, Geng-Zhen; Zhu, Ming-Jun; Wu, Yang; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Wang, Yong-Xia; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jian-Dong

    2013-06-01

    To assess a multi-center study effectiveness of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine (IM) for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A combined method of historical control study and clinical study on concurrent control was used. After the standard management for clinical pathways was carried out in four hospitals at home, the effects on hospitalization days, medical expenses, clinical efficacy, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were assessed. Results of non-concurrent historical control study showed that: the hospital stay was significantly shorter in the pathways group than in the retrospective group (12.59 days vs 18.44 days), and the total cost of hospitalization was significantly reduced in the pathways group (yen 9 051.90 vs yen 11 978.40), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Moreover, the effect on the heart function was better in the pathways group than in the retrospective group (the markedly effective rate: 45.60% vs 21.90%; the total effective rate: 96.80% vs 86.10%), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Results of clinical study on concurrent control showed that the hospital stay was significantly shorter in the pathways group than in the control group (11.19 days vs 13.21 days), showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). The average total cost of hospitalization was significantly lower in the pathways group than in the control group (yen 8 656.80 vs yen 11 609.70), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). As for clinical efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome, the total effective rate was higher in the pathways group than in the control group (97.10% vs 93.62%), showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). The markedly effective rate of heart function was better in the pathways group than in the control group, showing statistical difference (49.30% vs 38.30%, P < 0.05). The overall satisfaction was higher in the pathways group than in the conventional group (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference in the mortality

  3. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-20

    The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of "precision medicine", "fusion imaging", "multimodality", and "tumor diagnosis and treatment". Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  4. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Implementation of a Quality Improvement Bundle Improves Echocardiographic Imaging after Congenital Heart Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Anitha; Levine, Jami C; Nathan, Meena; Marshall, Jennifer A; Shirali, Girish S; Simon, Stephen D; Colan, Steven D; Newburger, Jane W; Raghuveer, Geetha

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative echocardiography after congenital heart disease surgery is of prognostic importance, but variable image quality is problematic. We implemented a quality improvement bundle comprising of focused imaging protocols, procedural sedation, and sonographer education to improve the rate of optimal imaging (OI). Predischarge echocardiograms were evaluated in 116 children (median age, 0.51 years; range, 0.01-5.6 years) from two centers after tetralogy of Fallot repair, arterial switch operation, and bidirectional Glenn and Fontan procedures. OI rates were compared between the centers before and after the implementation of a quality improvement bundle at center 1, with center 2 serving as the comparator. Echocardiographic images were independently scored by a single reader from each center, blinded to center and time period. For each echocardiographic variable, quality score was assigned as 0 (not imaged or suboptimally imaged) or 1 (optimally imaged); structures were classified as intra- or extracardiac. The rate of OI was calculated for each variable as the percentage of patients assigned a score of 1. Intracardiac structures had higher OI than extracardiac structures (81% vs 57%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.47; P < .01). Center 1 improved overall OI from 48% to 73% (OR, 4.44; P < .01), intracardiac OI from 69% to 85% (OR, 3.53; P = .01), and extracardiac OI from 35% to 67% (OR, 5.16; P < .01). There was no temporal difference for center 2. After congenital heart disease surgery in children, intracardiac structures are imaged more optimally than extracardiac structures. Focused imaging protocols, patient sedation, and sonographer education can improve OI rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved dark blood imaging of the heart using radial balanced steady-state free precession.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Robert R; Botelho, Marcos; Pursnani, Amit; Giri, Shivraman; Koktzoglou, Ioannis

    2016-10-19

    Dark blood imaging of the heart is conventionally performed using a breath-hold, dual-inversion Cartesian fast spin-echo pulse sequence. Our aim was to develop a faster, more flexible approach that would be less motion-sensitive and provide better image quality. For this purpose, we implemented a prototype radial balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) pulse sequence. The study was approved by the institutional review board. Six healthy volunteers and 27 subjects undergoing clinically-indicated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were imaged using dark blood Cartesian fast spin-echo and radial bSSFP. For patient studies, overall image quality, fat suppression and blood nulling were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. The quality of visualization of the right and left ventricular free walls and septum were individually scored. Streaking and ghosting artifacts were noted, as well as signal dropout in the free wall of the left ventricle. In volunteer studies, radial bSSFP showed less degradation by cardiac or respiratory motion than fast spin-echo as indicated by visual analysis and calculation of the temporal signal-to-noise ratio. The least motion sensitivity and maximal imaging efficiency were achieved with a single-shot radial bSSFP acquisition using only 35 views (temporal resolution = 95 ms). In patient studies, radial bSSFP images showed fewer motion artifacts and were judged to provide better myocardial visibility, including depiction of the right ventricular free wall, than fast spin-echo. Dual-inversion radial bSSFP provides the benefits of diminished sensitivity to image artifacts from respiratory or cardiac motion, better myocardial visibility, and improved imaging efficiency compared with standard-of-care Cartesian fast spin-echo for dark blood imaging of the heart.

  7. Leg edema quantification for heart failure patients via 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayn, Dieter; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Riedel, Arthur; Falgenhauer, Markus; Schreier, Günter

    2013-08-14

    Heart failure is a common cardiac disease in elderly patients. After discharge, approximately 50% of all patients are readmitted to a hospital within six months. Recent studies show that home monitoring of heart failure patients can reduce the number of readmissions. Still, a large number of false positive alarms as well as underdiagnoses in other cases require more accurate alarm generation algorithms. New low-cost sensors for leg edema detection could be the missing link to help home monitoring to its breakthrough. We evaluated a 3D camera-based measurement setup in order to geometrically detect and quantify leg edemas. 3D images of legs were taken and geometric parameters were extracted semi-automatically from the images. Intra-subject variability for five healthy subjects was evaluated. Thereafter, correlation of 3D parameters with body weight and leg circumference was assessed during a clinical study at the Medical University of Graz. Strong correlation was found in between both reference values and instep height, while correlation in between curvature of the lower leg and references was very low. We conclude that 3D imaging might be a useful and cost-effective extension of home monitoring for heart failure patients, though further (prospective) studies are needed.

  8. Leg Edema Quantification for Heart Failure Patients via 3D Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayn, Dieter; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Riedel, Arthur; Falgenhauer, Markus; Schreier, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a common cardiac disease in elderly patients. After discharge, approximately 50% of all patients are readmitted to a hospital within six months. Recent studies show that home monitoring of heart failure patients can reduce the number of readmissions. Still, a large number of false positive alarms as well as underdiagnoses in other cases require more accurate alarm generation algorithms. New low-cost sensors for leg edema detection could be the missing link to help home monitoring to its breakthrough. We evaluated a 3D camera-based measurement setup in order to geometrically detect and quantify leg edemas. 3D images of legs were taken and geometric parameters were extracted semi-automatically from the images. Intra-subject variability for five healthy subjects was evaluated. Thereafter, correlation of 3D parameters with body weight and leg circumference was assessed during a clinical study at the Medical University of Graz. Strong correlation was found in between both reference values and instep height, while correlation in between curvature of the lower leg and references was very low. We conclude that 3D imaging might be a useful and cost-effective extension of home monitoring for heart failure patients, though further (prospective) studies are needed. PMID:23948874

  9. Clinical and Research Considerations for Patients With Hypertensive Acute Heart Failure: A Consensus Statement from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the Heart Failure Society of America Acute Heart Failure Working Group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean P; Levy, Phillip D; Martindale, Jennifer L; Dunlap, Mark E; Storrow, Alan B; Pang, Peter S; Albert, Nancy M; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David E; Lenihan, Daniel J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn M; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Butler, Javed

    2016-08-01

    Management approaches for patients in the emergency department (ED) who present with acute heart failure (AHF) have largely focused on intravenous diuretics. Yet, the primary pathophysiologic derangement underlying AHF in many patients is not solely volume overload. Patients with hypertensive AHF (H-AHF) represent a clinical phenotype with distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms that result in elevated ventricular filling pressures. To optimize treatment response and minimize adverse events in this subgroup, we propose that clinical management be tailored to a conceptual model of disease that is based on these mechanisms. This consensus statement reviews the relevant pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, approach to therapy, and considerations for clinical trials in ED patients with H-AHF. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Functional MR Imaging Techniques in Oncology in the Era of Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Benz, Matthias R; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis

    2016-02-01

    DW and DCE MR imaging contribute significantly to diagnosis, treatment planning, response assessment, and prognosis in personalized cancer medicine. Nevertheless, the need for further standardization of these techniques needs to be addressed. Whole-body DW MR imaging is an exciting field; however, future studies need to investigate in more depth the biologic significance of the findings depicted, their prognostic relevance, and cost-effectiveness in comparison with MDCT and PET/CT. New MR imaging probes, such as targeted or activatable contrast agents and dynamic nuclear hyperpolarization, show great promise to further improve the care of patients with cancer in the near future.

  11. Shedding light on bioscience. Symposium on Optical Imaging: Applications to Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mary J; Pirity, Melinda; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2003-09-01

    This dynamic symposium, held on 11-16 February 2003 in Taos, New Mexico, was the first Keystone meeting to focus on optical techniques and their use in biology and medicine. It was organized by D. Becker, D. Farkas and S. Fraser and attracted almost 100 participants from both academia and industry. Fluorescence imaging and its applications, ranging from nano-bioscience to small-animal imaging and imaging of disease progression in humans, were the main topics, with opportunities for further discussion in the cantinas of the town and on the ski slopes of Taos mountain.

  12. Principles of nuclear medicine imaging: planar, SPECT, PET, multi-modality, and autoradiography systems.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2012-04-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear medicine imaging involve the use of unsealed sources of radioactivity in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The ionizing radiations that accompany the decay of the administered radioactivity can be quantitatively detected, measured, and imaged in vivo with instruments such as gamma cameras. This paper reviews the design and operating principles, as well as the capabilities and limitations, of instruments used clinically and preclinically for in vivo radionuclide imaging. These include gamma cameras, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners, and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The technical basis of autoradiography is reviewed as well.

  13. Clinical applications of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation and management of patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Partington, Sara L; Valente, Anne Marie; Landzberg, Michael; Grant, Frederick; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive testing of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) began in the 1950s with the introduction of radionuclide studies to assess shunt fractions, pulmonary blood flow, and ventricular contractile function. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have since replaced radionuclide imaging in many of these roles. Concurrently, percutaneous and surgical repairs of complex CHD evolved, creating new roles for radionuclide imaging. In this paper on applications of radionuclide imaging in CHD, we review the multiple mechanisms for myocardial ischemia in CHD. We critically compare optimal radionuclide imaging techniques to other imaging modalities for assessing ischemia in CHD. We present the current role of nuclear imaging for assessing viability and pulmonary blood flow. We highlight the value added by advances in dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners, novel reconstruction software, and cardiac PET in performing low-dose radionuclide imaging in CHD. Finally, we discuss the emerging clinical indications for radionuclide imaging in CHD including coronary flow reserve assessment and evaluation of cardiovascular prosthesis and device infections.

  14. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. • Fractal analysis of perfusion images can be successfully performed. • Tumour, pulmonary, myocardial, renal, skeletal muscle and cerebral perfusion have already been examined. • Clinical applications of fractal analysis include tumour and brain perfusion assessment. • Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying perfusion heterogeneity. • Fractal analysis requires further research concerning the development of clinical applications.

  15. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  16. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  17. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 256-slice CT coronary angiography in atrial fibrillation: The impact of mean heart rate and heart rate variability on image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Mok, Greta S. P.; Law, Wei-Yip; Lu, Kun-Mu; Yang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of 256-MDCT in atrial fibrillation and to compare the findings with those among patients in sinus rhythm.MaterialsAll reconstructed images were evaluated by two independent experienced readers blinded to patient information, heart rate, and ECG results to assess the diagnostic quality of images of the coronary artery segments using axial images, multi-planar reformations, maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering technique.ResultsNo statistical significance was detected in terms of the overall image quality between patients in sinus rhythm and with atrial fibrillation. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no significant association between image quality and mean heart rate no matter for patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Similarly, there was no correlation between image quality and heart rate variability for either patients in sinus rhythm or with atrial fibrillation. Our results showed that the optimal reconstruction window depends on patient's HR, and the pattern for patients in atrial fibrillation is similar to that obtained from non-atrial fibrillation patients.ConclusionThis study shows the potential of using 256-MDCT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our results suggest that when appropriate reconstruction timing window is applied, patients with atrial fibrillation do not have to be excluded from MDCT coronary angiographic examinations.

  19. Picture This... Developing Standards for Electronic Images at the National Library of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    New computer technologies have made it feasible to represent, store, and communicate high resolution biomedical images via electronic means. Traditional two dimensional medical images such as those on printed pages have been supplemented by three dimensional images which can be rendered, rotated, and “dissected” from any point of view. The library of the future will provide electronic access not only to words and numbers, but to pictures, sounds, and other nontextual information. There currently exist few widely-accepted standards for the representation and communication of complex images, yet such standards will be critical to the feasibility and usefulness of digital image collections in the life sciences. The National Library of Medicine is embarked on a project to develop a complete digital volumetric representation of an adult human male and female. This “Visible Human Project” will address the issue of standards for computer representation of biological structure.

  20. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular modeling of congenital heart disease based on neonatal echocardiographic images.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Megumi; Maeda, Kazuma; Haraguchi, Ryo; Kurosaki, Ken-ichi; Kagisaki, Koji; Shiraishi, Isao; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Minato, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a 3-D cardiovascular modeling system based on neonatal echocardiographic images. With the system, medical doctors can interactively construct patient-specific cardiovascular models, and share the complex topology and the shape information. For the construction of cardiovascular models with a variety of congenital heart diseases, we propose a set of algorithms and interface that enable editing of the topology and shape of the 3-D models. In order to facilitate interactivity, the centerline and radius of the vessels are used to edit the surface of the heart vessels. This forms a skeleton where the centerlines of blood vessel serve as the nodes and edges, while the radius of the blood vessel is given as an attribute value to each node. Moreover, parent-child relationships are given to each skeleton. They are expressed as the directed acyclic graph, where the skeletons are viewed as graph nodes and the connecting points are graph edges. The cardiovascular models generated from some patient data confirmed that the developed technique is capable of constructing cardiovascular disease models in a tolerable timeframe. It is successful in representing the important structures of the patient-specific heart vessels for better understanding in preoperative planning and electric medical recording of the congenital heart disease.

  2. Uptake of perfusion imaging agents by transplanted hearts: an experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Feldman, M.J.; Kung, H.; Wright, J.R.

    1989-02-01

    There is a need for a reliable noninvasive marker of rejection in transplanted hearts. Endomyocardial biopsy is now the universally accepted diagnostic method of choice, but the invasiveness of the procedure and the limited size of the sample obtained makes this method far from ideal. As coronary blood flow may be expected to decrease during acute rejection, there has been interest in thallium-201 chloride (T1), a perfusion marker, as an imaging agent for diagnosing cardiac rejection. Hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium (Tc-TBI) is a representative of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals proposed as perfusion markers. We have compared the uptake of these imaging agents in a rat model of cardiac transplantation. Uptake of Tc-TBI as well as of T1 was significantly lower in rejecting than in nonrejecting hearts. This change was found in both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Allografts in animals treated with cyclosporine (CyA) showed less severe rejection and higher uptakes of both imaging agents as compared to unmodified rejection. Our results suggest that perfusion imaging with these radionuclides is a potentially useful approach to the problem of detecting allograft rejection.

  3. First in vivo traveling wave magnetic particle imaging of a beating mouse heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, P.; Rückert, M. A.; Klauer, P.; Kullmann, W. H.; Jakob, P. M.; Behr, V. C.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive imaging modality for direct detection of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles based on the nonlinear magnetization response of magnetic materials to alternating magnetic fields. This highly sensitive and rapid method allows both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of the measured signal. Since the first publication of MPI in 2005 several different scanner concepts have been presented and in 2009 the first in vivo imaging results of a beating mouse heart were shown. However, since the field of view (FOV) of the first MPI-scanner only covers a small region several approaches and hardware enhancements were presented to overcome this issue and could increase the FOV on cost of acquisition speed. In 2014 an alternative scanner concept, the traveling wave MPI (TWMPI), was presented, which allows scanning an entire mouse-sized volume at once. In this paper the first in vivo imaging results using the TWMPI system are presented. By optimizing the trajectory the temporal resolution is sufficiently high to resolve the dynamic of a beating mouse heart.

  4. Gallium-67 imaging in human heart transplantation: correlation with endomyocardial biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Soares, J. Jr.; Bellotti, G.; Bocchi, E.; Higuchi, M.L.; Stolff, N.; Hironaka, F.H.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Pileggi, F.

    1987-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy seems to be the most accurate method to use for diagnosis and follow-up of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. This investigation compared a noninvasive procedure, gallium-67 imaging, with endomyocardial biopsy in the detection of acute rejection in heart transplantation. Seven male patients (aged 41 to 54 years) sequentially had 46 gallium-67 scintigrams and 46 endomyocardial biopsies between 1 week and 8 months after transplantation. Both studies were obtained in the same day, 48 hours after the administration of an intravenous injection of gallium-67 citrate. Cardiac uptake was graded as negative, mild, moderate, and marked according to an increasing count ratio with rib and sternal uptakes. Histologic findings were graded as negative, mild acute rejection, moderate acute rejection, severe acute rejection, resolving rejection, and nonspecific reaction. Negative biopsies were not found with moderate uptake, and neither moderate nor severe acute rejection were found with negative scintigrams. Imaging sensitivity was 83% with 17% false negatives and 9% false positives. Of seven studies with moderate uptake, five showed moderate acute rejection, and the patients had specific therapy with a decline in uptake, which correlated with resolving rejection. It is conceivable that in the future this technique may be used as a screening procedure for sequential endomyocardial biopsies in the follow-up of heart transplant patients.

  5. Bayesian multi-scale smoothing of photon-limited images with applications to astronomy and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John

    Multi-scale models for smoothing Poisson signals or images have gained much attention over the past decade. A new Bayesian model is developed using the concept of the Chinese restaurant process to find structures in two-dimensional images when performing image reconstruction or smoothing. This new model performs very well when compared to other leading methodologies for the same problem. It is developed and evaluated theoretically and empirically throughout Chapter 2. The newly developed Bayesian model is extended to three-dimensional images in Chapter 3. The third dimension has numerous different applications, such as different energy spectra, another spatial index, or possibly a temporal dimension. Empirically, this method shows promise in reducing error with the use of simulation studies. A further development removes background noise in the image. This removal can further reduce the error and is done using a modeling adjustment and post-processing techniques. These details are given in Chapter 4. Applications to real world problems are given throughout. Photon-based images are common in astronomical imaging due to the collection of different types of energy such as X-Rays. Applications to real astronomical images are given, and these consist of X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray observatory satellite. Diagnostic medicine uses many types of imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography that can also benefit from smoothing techniques such as the one developed here. Reducing the amount of radiation a patient takes will make images more noisy, but this can be mitigated through the use of image smoothing techniques. Both types of images represent the potential real world use for these methods.

  6. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166–220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  7. Whole heart coronary imaging with flexible acquisition window and trigger delay.

    PubMed

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166-220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  8. SU-F-I-50: Finite Element-Based Deformable Image Registration of Lung and Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Penjweini, R; Kim, M; Zhu, T

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used after surgical resection to treat the microscopic disease for malignant pleural mesothelioma and to increase survival rates. Although accurate light delivery is imperative to PDT efficacy, the deformation of the pleural volume during the surgery impacts the delivered light dose. To facilitate treatment planning, we use a finite-element-based (FEM) deformable image registration to quantify the anatomical variation of lung and heart volumes between CT pre-(or post-) surgery and surface contours obtained during PDT using an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI). Methods: NDI is used during PDT to obtain the information of the cumulative light fluence on every cavity surface point that is being treated. A wand, comprised of a modified endotrachial tube filled with Intralipid and an optical fiber inside the tube, is used to deliver the light during PDT. The position of the treatment is tracked using an attachment with nine reflective passive markers that are seen by the NDI system. Then, the position points are plotted as three-dimensional volume of the pleural cavity using Matlab and Meshlab. A series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs and heart, in the same patient, are also acquired before and after the surgery. The NDI and CT contours are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics, where the FEM-based deformable image registration is obtained. The NDI and CT contours acquired during and post-PDT are considered as the reference, and the Pre-PDT CT contours are used as the target, which will be deformed. Results: Anatomical variation of the lung and heart volumes, taken at different times from different imaging devices, was determined by using our model. The resulting three-dimensional deformation map along x, y and z-axes was obtained. Conclusion: Our model fuses images acquired by different modalities and provides insights into the variation in anatomical structures over time.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging in medicine: image pre-processing problems and solutions in Matlab.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents problems and solutions related to hyperspectral image pre-processing. New methods of preliminary image analysis are proposed. The paper shows problems occurring in Matlab when trying to analyse this type of images. Moreover, new methods are discussed which provide the source code in Matlab that can be used in practice without any licensing restrictions. The proposed application and sample result of hyperspectral image analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Interior tomographic imaging of mouse heart in a carbon nanotube micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hao; Liu, Rui; Yu, Hengyong; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Kan, Lijuan; He, Jia-Qiang; Cao, Guohua

    2016-05-02

    The relatively high radiation dose from micro-CT is a cause for concern in preclinical research involving animal subjects. Interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging was proposed for dose reduction, but has not been experimentally applied in micro-CT. Our aim is to implement interior ROI imaging in a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source based micro-CT, and present the ROI image quality and radiation dose reduction for interior cardiac micro-CT imaging of a mouse heart in situ. An aperture collimator was mounted at the source-side to induce a small-sized cone beam (10 mm width) at the isocenter. Interior in situ micro-CT scans were conducted on a mouse carcass and several micro-CT phantoms. A GPU-accelerated hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm was employed for volumetric image reconstruction. Radiation dose was measured for the same system operated at the interior and global micro-CT modes. Visual inspection demonstrated comparable image quality between two scan modes. Quantitative evaluation demonstrated high structural similarity index (up to 0.9614) with improved contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) on interior micro-CT mode. Interior micro-CT mode yielded significant reduction (up to 83.9%) for dose length product (DLP). This work demonstrates the applicability of using CNT x-ray source based interior micro-CT for preclinical imaging with significantly reduced radiation dose.

  11. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Anisotropic Elastography for Local Passive Properties and Active Contractility of Myocardium from Dynamic Heart Imaging Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Sun, L. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Major heart diseases such as ischemia and hypertrophic myocardiopathy are accompanied with significant changes in the passive mechanical properties and active contractility of myocardium. Identification of these changes helps diagnose heart diseases, monitor therapy, and design surgery. A dynamic cardiac elastography (DCE) framework is developed to assess the anisotropic viscoelastic passive properties and active contractility of myocardial tissues, based on the chamber pressure and dynamic displacement measured with cardiac imaging techniques. A dynamic adjoint method is derived to enhance the numerical efficiency and stability of DCE. Model-based simulations are conducted using a numerical left ventricle (LV) phantom with an ischemic region. The passive material parameters of normal and ischemic tissues are identified during LV rapid/reduced filling and artery contraction, and those of active contractility are quantified during isovolumetric contraction and rapid/reduced ejection. It is found that quasistatic simplification in the previous cardiac elastography studies may yield inaccurate material parameters. PMID:23165032

  13. Anisotropic elastography for local passive properties and active contractility of myocardium from dynamic heart imaging sequence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ge; Sun, L Z

    2006-01-01

    Major heart diseases such as ischemia and hypertrophic myocardiopathy are accompanied with significant changes in the passive mechanical properties and active contractility of myocardium. Identification of these changes helps diagnose heart diseases, monitor therapy, and design surgery. A dynamic cardiac elastography (DCE) framework is developed to assess the anisotropic viscoelastic passive properties and active contractility of myocardial tissues, based on the chamber pressure and dynamic displacement measured with cardiac imaging techniques. A dynamic adjoint method is derived to enhance the numerical efficiency and stability of DCE. Model-based simulations are conducted using a numerical left ventricle (LV) phantom with an ischemic region. The passive material parameters of normal and ischemic tissues are identified during LV rapid/reduced filling and artery contraction, and those of active contractility are quantified during isovolumetric contraction and rapid/reduced ejection. It is found that quasistatic simplification in the previous cardiac elastography studies may yield inaccurate material parameters.

  14. Role of MR imaging in sports medicine research. Basic science and clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, W G; Steadman, J R; Ho, C P

    1999-02-01

    The advent and advancement of MR imaging have provided an entire new dimension for medical imaging. MR imaging has been especially useful because of its capacity to image nonmineralized tissues with a very high degree of resolution. Although modalities such as ultrasound and scintigraphy have proven useful for specific purposes, it is MR imaging that has the most utility and capabilities, especially in the area of sports-induced injuries. The technology associated with MR imaging has expanded greatly, and it continues to evolve at a rapid pace. The result has been an ever-increasing diagnostic capability that has become more economic with time. As described previously, MR imaging is gaining importance in the area of comparative medicine for animal athletes as well. It is also interesting to note that MR imaging now has a greater potential for monitoring physiological and biochemical changes as well as anatomic ones. Some newer MR units actually include physiologic data acquisition components. Consequently, new bioassays and nondestructive tissue tests can be performed to further understand the molecular biology and ongoing cellular processes in any given condition. Coupled with MR spectroscopy, the enhanced MR techniques should continue to contribute to the overall information that will be integrated into the training and rehabilitation of patients with sports-induced inflammation and injuries. The authors support and encourage ongoing efforts in the area of MR imaging research, both basic science and clinical studies.

  15. Segmentation of the heart and great vessels in CT images using a model-based adaptation framework.

    PubMed

    Ecabert, Olivier; Peters, Jochen; Walker, Matthew J; Ivanc, Thomas; Lorenz, Cristian; von Berg, Jens; Lessick, Jonathan; Vembar, Mani; Weese, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    Recently, model-based methods for the automatic segmentation of the heart chambers have been proposed. An important application of these methods is the characterization of the heart function. Heart models are, however, increasingly used for interventional guidance making it necessary to also extract the attached great vessels. It is, for instance, important to extract the left atrium and the proximal part of the pulmonary veins to support guidance of ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation treatment. For cardiac resynchronization therapy, a heart model including the coronary sinus is needed. We present a heart model comprising the four heart chambers and the attached great vessels. By assigning individual linear transformations to the heart chambers and to short tubular segments building the great vessels, variable sizes of the heart chambers and bending of the vessels can be described in a consistent way. A configurable algorithmic framework that we call adaptation engine matches the heart model automatically to cardiac CT angiography images in a multi-stage process. First, the heart is detected using a Generalized Hough Transformation. Subsequently, the heart chambers are adapted. This stage uses parametric as well as deformable mesh adaptation techniques. In the final stage, segments of the large vascular structures are successively activated and adapted. To optimize the computational performance, the adaptation engine can vary the mesh resolution and freeze already adapted mesh parts. The data used for validation were independent from the data used for model-building. Ground truth segmentations were generated for 37 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients. Segmentation errors were assessed for anatomical sub-structures resulting in a mean surface-to-surface error ranging 0.50-0.82mm for the heart chambers and 0.60-1.32mm for the parts of the great vessels visible in the images.

  16. Extracting cardiac shapes and motion of the chick embryo heart outflow tract from four-dimensional optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Liu, Aiping; Thornburg, Kent L; Wang, Ruikang K; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the development of image reconstruction algorithms, enabled four-dimensional (4-D) (three-dimensional imaging over time) imaging of the embryonic heart. To further analyze and quantify the dynamics of cardiac beating, segmentation procedures that can extract the shape of the heart and its motion are needed. Most previous studies analyzed cardiac image sequences using manually extracted shapes and measurements. However, this is time consuming and subject to inter-operator variability. Automated or semi-automated analyses of 4-D cardiac OCT images, although very desirable, are also extremely challenging. This work proposes a robust algorithm to semi automatically detect and track cardiac tissue layers from 4-D OCT images of early (tubular) embryonic hearts. Our algorithm uses a two-dimensional (2-D) deformable double-line model (DLM) to detect target cardiac tissues. The detection algorithm uses a maximum-likelihood estimator and was successfully applied to 4-D in vivo OCT images of the heart outflow tract of day three chicken embryos. The extracted shapes captured the dynamics of the chick embryonic heart outflow tract wall, enabling further analysis of cardiac motion.

  17. [Cluster Analysis of Medication Laws for Treating Coronary Heart Disease by Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Min-zhou; Guo, Li-heng; He, De-ying

    2016-04-01

    To provide inspiration and ideas for clinical treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) by data mining technology based frequency analysis and cluster analysis of medical records, prescriptions and herbs in treating CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of traditional Chinese Dedicine (TCM). Totally 386 medical cases were retrieved from Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP medical information resources system, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Typical Collections of Medical Cases by Contemporary Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They input into database trimmed after unified standard. Medication laws of CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of TCM were analyzed using frequency analysis and cluster analysis, and so on. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM frequently used top ten herbs in treatment of C D as Salvia miltiorrhiz , Ligusticum wallichii, Trichosanthes kirilowi, Pinellia ternat, Angelica sinensis, Poria coco stragalu , Panax ginseng, Allium macrostemon, and Radix Ophiopogonis. Cluster analysis summarized that there were 16 herb pairs commonly used, 7drug assemblies consisting of 3 herbs and 5 drug assemblies consisting of multiple herbs. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM mainly used herbs assemblies capable for invigorating Pi to resolve phlegm, and promoting qi and activating blood circulation in treating CHD. Meanwhile, they concurrently used herbs combination of nourishing Xin and tranquilization, and regulating yin and yang.

  18. Mechanisms of Chinese Medicine Xinmailong’s protection against heart failure in pressure-overloaded mice and cultured cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianyong; Yu, Juan; Tan, Yafang; Chen, Renshan; Xu, Wen; Chen, Yanfen; Lu, Jun; Liu, Qin; Wu, Jiashin; Gu, Weiwang; Zhang, Minzhou

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) have high mortality and mobility. Xinmailong (XML) injection, a Chinese Medicine, is clinically effective in treating HF. However, the mechanism of XML’s effectiveness on HF was unclear, and thus, was the target of the present study. We created a mouse model of pressure-overload-induced HF with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery and compared among 4 study groups: SHAM (n = 10), TAC (n = 12), MET (metoprolol, positive drug treatment, n = 7) and XML (XML treatment, n = 14). Dynamic changes in cardiac structure and function were evaluated with echocardiography in vivo. In addition, H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT, GSK3β and protein expression of GATA4 in nucleus were detected with Western blot experiment. The results showed that XML reduced diastolic thickness of left ventricular posterior wall, increased ejection fraction and fraction shortening, so as to inhibit HF at 2 weeks after TAC. Moreover, XML inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT and GSK3β, subsequently inhibiting protein expression of GATA4 in nucleus (P < 0.001). Together, our data demonstrated that XML inhibited the TAC-induced HF via inactivating the ERK1/2, AKT/GSK3β, and GATA4 signaling pathway. PMID:28205629

  19. "Beauty is a light in the heart": the transformative potential of optogenetics for clinical applications in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Patrick M; Karathanos, Thomas V; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2015-02-01

    Optogenetics is an exciting new technology in which viral gene or cell delivery is used to inscribe light sensitivity in excitable tissue to enable optical control of bioelectric behavior. Initial progress in the fledgling domain of cardiac optogenetics has included in vitro expression of various light-sensitive proteins in cell monolayers and transgenic animals to demonstrate an array of potentially useful applications, including light-based pacing, silencing of spontaneous activity, and spiral wave termination. In parallel to these developments, the cardiac modeling community has developed a versatile computational framework capable of realistically simulating optogenetics in biophysically detailed, patient-specific representations of the human heart, enabling the exploration of potential clinical applications in a predictive virtual platform. Toward the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility and potential impact of optogenetics-based therapies in cardiovascular medicine, this review provides (1) a detailed synopsis of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico developments in the field and (2) a critical assessment of how existing clinical technology for gene/cell delivery and intra-cardiac illumination could be harnessed to achieve such lofty goals as light-based arrhythmia termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study of traditional Chinese medicine pulse signals in patients with coronary heart disease based on recurrence quantification analysis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yi-qin; Yan, Jian-jun; Yan, Han-xia; Yang, Yu-ci

    2011-11-01

    By using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to analyze traditional Chinese medicine pulse signals of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), this study aims to find nonlinear dynamic parameters of pulses to distinguish patients with CHD from normal subjects. First, pulse signals were collected using ZBOX-I pulse digitization gathering analyzer from October 2007 to June 2008. RQA was used to analyze RQA parameters of pulses of 63 patients with CHD and 61 normal subjects. RQA parameters included recurrence rate (RR), determinism (DET), averaged diagonal length (L), entropy of diagonal length (ENTR), length of longest diagonal line (L(max)), laminarity (LAM), trapping time (TT) and length of longest vertical line (V(max)). Then, rank-sum test and BoxPlot were employed to find significant difference and distribution of RQA parameters. Lastly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of the measurements with significant difference. There were significant differences in RQA parameters of pulse signals between the two groups, including RR, DET, L, ENTR, LAM, TT and V(max), and their areas under the ROC curves were 1.000, 0.898, 0.653, 0.673, 0.885, 0.898, 0.986 and 0.994, respectively. Compared with the normal subjects, the pulse signals of the patients with CHD are presented with more certainty, regularity and stability. RQA measurements of RR, TT, Vmax, DET and LAM show good diagnostic value according to their ROC curves.

  1. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J; Alfonso-Almazán, José M; Quintanilla, Jorge G; Chorro, Francisco J; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-27

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  2. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  3. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-01-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model. PMID:28240274

  4. From clinical imaging and computational models to personalised medicine and image guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David J

    2016-10-01

    This short paper describes the development of the UCL Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC) from 2006 to 2016, together with reference to historical developments of the Computational Imaging sciences Group (CISG) at Guy's Hospital. Key early work in automated image registration led to developments in image guided surgery and improved cancer diagnosis and therapy. The work is illustrated with examples from neurosurgery, laparoscopic liver and gastric surgery, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer, and image guided radiotherapy for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioluminescent Imaging of Genetically Selected Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes after Transplantation into Infarcted Heart of Syngeneic Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lepperhof, Vera; Polchynski, Olga; Kruttwig, Klaus; Brüggemann, Chantal; Neef, Klaus; Drey, Florian; Zheng, Yunjie; Ackermann, Justus P.; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wunderlich, Thomas F.; Hoehn, Mathias; Hescheler, Jürgen; Šarić, Tomo

    2014-01-01

    Cell loss after transplantation is a major limitation for cell replacement approaches in regenerative medicine. To assess the survival kinetics of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CM) we generated transgenic murine iPSC lines which, in addition to CM-specific expression of puromycin N-acetyl-transferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), also constitutively express firefly luciferase (FLuc) for bioluminescence (BL) in vivo imaging. While undifferentiated iPSC lines generated by random integration of the transgene into the genome retained stable FLuc activity over many passages, the BL signal intensity was strongly decreased in purified iPS-CM compared to undifferentiated iPSC. Targeted integration of FLuc-expression cassette into the ROSA26 genomic locus using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology strongly reduced transgene silencing in iPS-CM, leading to a several-fold higher BL compared to iPS-CM expressing FLuc from random genomic loci. To investigate the survival kinetics of iPS-CM in vivo, purified CM obtained from iPSC lines expressing FLuc from a random or the ROSA26 locus were transplanted into cryoinfarcted hearts of syngeneic mice. Engraftment of viable cells was monitored by BL imaging over 4 weeks. Transplanted iPS-CM were poorly retained in the myocardium independently of the cell line used. However, up to 8% of cells survived for 28 days at the site of injection, which was confirmed by immunohistological detection of EGFP-positive iPS-CM in the host tissue. Transplantation of iPS-CM did not affect the scar formation or capillary density in the periinfarct region of host myocardium. This report is the first to determine the survival kinetics of drug-selected iPS-CM in the infarcted heart using BL imaging and demonstrates that transgene silencing in the course of iPSC differentiation can be greatly reduced by employing genome editing technology. FLuc-expressing iPS-CM generated in this study will enable further

  6. Testing the constant-volume hypothesis by magnetic resonance imaging of Mytilus galloprovincialis heart.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eriko; Ohishi, Kazue; Maruyama, Tadashi; Imaizumi-Ohashi, Yoshie; Murakami, Masataka; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2014-03-15

    The constant-volume (CV) hypothesis was tested using the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart under two conditions. The volume of the ventricle, auricles and pericardium, and the flow in the heart and adjacent vessels were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. In synthetic seawater at 23°C (immersed condition), the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and stroke volume (SV) were 50%, 21% and 29% of the heart volume, respectively, and the auricle volume (VA) was maximized at end-systole. Assuming a constant volume of the heart, venous return to the auricles (IV) was constant, and out-flow from the pericardium to the kidney (IPK) was 2/3 of SV. During aerial exposure (emersed condition), EDV, ESV and SV decreased to 33%, 22% and 11%, respectively. VA was maximized at end-diastole and associated with the decrease of systolic IV to 1/2 of diastolic IV, while IPK remained at 80% of the immersed condition. Based on these results--in addition to two postulates of the CV hypothesis: (1) the total volume of the heart is always the same, and (2) ventricle contraction causes a decrease in pressure in the pericardium--we modified two postulates: (3) the low pericardial pressure maintains venous return from the anterior oblique vein to the auricle, and (4) the pressure difference between the auricle and the pericardium drives haemolymph filtration through the auricle walls. We also added a new postulate: (5) dilatation of the ventricle is associated with the haemolymph output to the kidney via the renopericardial canals.

  7. Micron-scale voltage and [Ca2+]i imaging in the intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-long; Rubart, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies in isolated cardiomyocytes have provided tremendous information at the cellular and molecular level concerning regulation of transmembrane voltage (Vm) and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The ability to use the information gleaned to gain insight into the function of ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins in a more complex system, e.g., the intact heart, has remained a challenge. We have developed laser scanning fluorescence microscopy-based approaches to monitor, at the sub-cellular to multi-cellular level in the immobilized, Langendorff-perfused mouse heart, dynamic changes in [Ca2+]i and Vm. This article will review the use of single- or dual-photon laser scanning microscopy [Ca2+]i imaging in conjunction with transgenic reporter technology to (a) interrogate the extent to which transplanted, donor-derived myocytes or cardiac stem cell-derived de novo myocytes are capable of forming a functional syncytium with the pre-existing myocardium, using entrainment of [Ca2+]i transients by the electrical activity of the recipient heart as a surrogate for electrical coupling, and (b) characterize the Ca2+ handling phenotypes of cellular implants. Further, we will review the ability of laser scanning fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with a fast-response voltage-sensitive to resolve, on a subcellular level in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, Vm dynamics that typically occur during the course of a cardiac action potential. Specifically, the utility of this technique to measure microscopic-scale voltage gradients in the normal and diseased heart is discussed. PMID:25520663

  8. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-15

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  9. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography.

    PubMed

    Umetani, K; Fukushima, K

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  10. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  11. Particle image velocimetry study of pulsatile flow in bi-leaflet mechanical heart valves with image compensation method.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing; Yeo, Tony Joon Hock; Zhao, Yong; Hwang, Ned H C

    2006-12-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is an important technique in studying blood flow in heart valves. Previous PIV studies of flow around prosthetic heart valves had different research concentrations, and thus never provided the physical flow field pictures in a complete heart cycle, which compromised their pertinence for a better understanding of the valvular mechanism. In this study, a digital PIV (DPIV) investigation was carried out with improved accuracy, to analyse the pulsatile flow field around the bi-leaflet mechanical heart valve (MHV) in a complete heart cycle. For this purpose a pulsatile flow test rig was constructed to provide the necessary in vitro test environment, and the flow field around a St. Jude size 29 bi-leaflet MHV and a similar MHV model were studied under a simulated physiological pressure waveform with flow rate of 5.2 l/min and pulse rate at 72 beats/min. A phase-locking method was applied to gate the dynamic process of valve leaflet motions. A special image-processing program was applied to eliminate optical distortion caused by the difference in refractive indexes between the blood analogue fluid and the test section. Results clearly showed that, due to the presence of the two leaflets, the valvular flow conduit was partitioned into three flow channels. In the opening process, flow in the two side channels was first to develop under the presence of the forward pressure gradient. The flow in the central channel was developed much later at about the mid-stage of the opening process. Forward flows in all three channels were observed at the late stage of the opening process. At the early closing process, a backward flow developed first in the central channel. Under the influence of the reverse pressure gradient, the flow in the central channel first appeared to be disturbed, which was then transformed into backward flow. The backward flow in the central channel was found to be the main driving factor for the leaflet rotation in the valve

  12. Radiation dose and image quality of 70 kVp functional cardiovascular computed tomography imaging in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Andrew M; Newell, Marc C; Samara, Michael A; Gornick, Charles; Grant, Katharine; Garberich, Ross; Han, B Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The use of cardiac computed tomography (CT) for quantification of ventricular function is limited by relatively high radiation dose. The goal of this study was to describe the radiation exposure and image quality of 70 kVp functional cardiac CT in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). A retrospective review of 70 kVp ECG gated functional CT scans using tube current modulation was performed in CHD patients at a single institution. Quantitative and qualitative (assessed by myocardial segment, 1-4; 1 = optimal) image quality was determined. Per segment image quality was compared between thin (1.5 mm) and thick (8 mm) reconstructions and by patient age and size. Scan DLP was used to estimate radiation dose. 72 scans were performed during the time of review (7/2013-6/2015). Median patient age was 19.5 years (8.0, 27.1) and BMI was 20.1 (16.6, 24.5) kg/m(2). Median functional scan DLP was 78.8 (45.5, 98) and unadjusted and adjusted procedural mSv were 1.10 (0.64, 1.37) and 1.13 (0.90, 1.37). Image quality of 1 was achieved in all myocardial segments in >75% of scans. Patients with a weight ≥75 kg were more likely to have a scan achieve optimal image when using thick reconstructions compared to thin (81.3% vs. 43.8%; p = 0.028). Imaging of ventricular function with 70 kVp in CHD patients can be done with low radiation doses and provides diagnostic image quality, particularly for patients <75 kg. In larger patients, thicker slice reconstruction improved image quality. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Somatostatin receptors as targets for nuclear medicine imaging and radionuclide treatment.

    PubMed

    Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2011-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides have been an important class of compounds in radiopharmaceutical sciences and nuclear medicine for more than 20 years. Despite strong research efforts, only somatostatin-based radiopeptides have a real impact on patient care, diagnostically and therapeutically. [(111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(0)]octreotide is commercially available for imaging. Imaging was highly improved by the introduction of PET radionuclides such as (68)Ga, (64)Cu, and (18)F. Two peptides are successfully used in targeted radionuclide therapy when bound to DOTA and labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu.

  14. Preparation of the traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe heart-protecting musk pH-dependent gradient-release pellets.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongtao; Guo, Tao; Zhang, Ruhua; Zheng, Chunli; Ma, Yan; Li, Xian; Bi, Kaishun; Tang, Xing

    2002-11-01

    In this study a sustained-release formulation of traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe (TCMCR) was developed by selecting heart-protecting musk pills (HPMP) as the model drug. Heart-protecting musk pellets were prepared with the refined medicinal materials contained in the recipe of HPMP. Two kinds of coated pellets were prepared by using pH-dependent methacrylic acid as film-forming material, which could dissolve under different pH values in accordance with the physiological range of human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The pellets coated with Eudragit L30D-55, which dissolves at pH value over 5.5, were designed to disintegrate and release drug in the duodenum. The pellets coated with Eudragit L100-Eudragit S100 combinations in the ratio of 1:5, which dissolve at pH value 6.8 or above, were designed to disintegrate and release drug in the jejunum to ileum. The pellets coated with HPMC, which dissolves in water at any pH value, were designed to disintegrate and release drug in the stomach. Finally, the heart-protecting musk sustained-release capsules (HPMSRC) with a pH-dependent gradient-release pattern were prepared by encapsulating the above three kinds of coated pellets at a certain ratio in hard gelatin capsule. The results of dissolution of borneol (one of the active compounds of the TCMCR) in vitro demonstrated that the coating load and the pH value of the dissolution medium had little effect on the release rate of borneol from pellets coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), but had a significant effect on the release rate of borneol from pellets coated with Eudragit L30D-55 or Eudragit L100-Eudragit S100 combinations in the ratio of 1:5. The pellets coated with Eudragit L30D-55 at 30% (w/w) coating load or above had little drug release in 0.1 mol/L HCl for 3 hr and started to release drug at pH value over 5.5. The pellets coated with Eudragit L100-Eudragit S100 combinations in the ratio of 1:5 at 36% (w/w) coating load or higher had little

  15. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  16. Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography of the Fetal Heart using a Novel Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging Display

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Luís F.; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Swope, Betsy; Nien, Jyh Kae; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Treadwell, Marjorie C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of examining the fetal heart with Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) using four-dimensional (4D) volume datasets acquired with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). Material and Methods One hundred and ninety-five fetuses underwent 4D ultrasonography (US) of the fetal heart with STIC. Volume datasets were acquired with B-mode (n=195) and color Doppler imaging (CDI) (n=168), and were reviewed offline using TUI, a new display modality that automatically slices 3D/4D volume datasets, providing simultaneous visualization of up to eight parallel planes in a single screen. Visualization rates for standard transverse planes used to examine the fetal heart were calculated and compared for volumes acquired with B-mode or CDI. Diagnoses by TUI were compared to postnatal diagnoses. Results 1) The four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views were visualized in 97.4% (190/195), 88.2% (172/195), and 79.5% (142/195), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with B-mode; 2) these views were visualized in 98.2% (165/168), 97.0% (163/168), and 83.6% (145/168), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with CDI; 3) CDI contributed additional diagnostic information to 12.5% (21/168), 14.2% (24/168) and 10.1% (17/168) of the four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views; 4) cardiac anomalies other than isolated ventricular septal defects were identified by TUI in 16 of 195 fetuses (8.2%) and, among these, CDI provided additional diagnostic information in 5 (31.3%); 5) the sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of TUI to diagnose congenital heart disease in cases where both B-mode and CDI volume datasets were acquired prenatally were 92.9%, 98.8%, 92.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Conclusion Standard transverse planes commonly used to examine the fetal heart can be automatically displayed with TUI in the majority of fetuses undergoing 4D US

  17. Four-dimensional ultrasonography of the fetal heart using a novel Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging display.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Swope, Betsy; Nien, Jyh Kae; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of examining the fetal heart with Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) using four-dimensional (4D) volume datasets acquired with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). One hundred and ninety-five fetuses underwent 4D ultrasonography (US) of the fetal heart with STIC. Volume datasets were acquired with B-mode (n=195) and color Doppler imaging (CDI) (n=168), and were reviewed offline using TUI, a new display modality that automatically slices 3D/4D volume datasets, providing simultaneous visualization of up to eight parallel planes in a single screen. Visualization rates for standard transverse planes used to examine the fetal heart were calculated and compared for volumes acquired with B-mode or CDI. Diagnoses by TUI were compared to postnatal diagnoses. (1) The four- and five-chamber views and the three-vessel and trachea view were visualized in 97.4% (190/195), 88.2% (172/195), and 79.5% (142/195), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with B-mode; (2) these views were visualized in 98.2% (165/168), 97.0% (163/168), and 83.6% (145/168), respectively, of the volume datasets acquired with CDI; (3) CDI contributed additional diagnostic information to 12.5% (21/168), 14.2% (24/168) and 10.1% (17/168) of the four- and five-chamber and the three-vessel and trachea views; (4) cardiac anomalies other than isolated ventricular septal defects were identified by TUI in 16 of 195 fetuses (8.2%) and, among these, CDI provided additional diagnostic information in 5 (31.3%); (5) the sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of TUI to diagnose congenital heart disease in cases where both B-mode and CDI volume datasets were acquired prenatally were 92.9%, 98.8%, 92.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Standard transverse planes commonly used to examine the fetal heart can be automatically displayed with TUI in the majority of fetuses undergoing 4D US with STIC. Due to the retrospective nature

  18. Advanced Imaging and Diagnostic Methods in the Assessment of Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Joly, Joanna M; Bittner, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Although differences diminish with age, outcomes are overall worse for women compared to men who present with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The reasons for this discrepancy are multifactorial, including sex-related differences in atherosclerosis biology and fluid dynamics, as well as a premature conclusion by providers that chest pain must be noncardiac in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In this review of existing literature, we explore the diverse differential diagnosis in this unique set of patients. Especially in women with persistent symptoms, absence of occlusive disease should prompt consideration for subangiographic plaque disruption, epicardial or microvascular endothelial dysfunction, transient neurohormonal imbalance predisposing to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or spontaneous coronary artery dissection, underlying systemic inflammatory conditions, thromboembolic disease, myocarditis, and sequelae of congenital heart disease. As always, a thorough history and attentive physical exam will help guide further work-up, which in many cases may warrant noninvasive imaging, such as contrast-enhanced echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography, with their respective means of measuring myocardial perfusion and myocardial tissue pathology. Lastly, intracoronary imaging such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and invasive diagnostic methods such as coronary reactivity testing continue to add to our understanding that what appear to be atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease in women may in fact be typical presentations of pathologic cousin entities that remain incompletely defined.

  19. Non-Invasive Imaging for Congenital Heart Disease: Recent Innovations in Transthoracic Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Koestenberger, Martin; Friedberg, Mark K.; Ravekes, William; Nestaas, Eirik; Hansmann, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Appropriate use of TTE can reduce the need for more invasive and complex modalities, such as cardiac catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. New echocardiographic techniques have emerged for the assessment of ventricular systolic and diastolic function: Tissue Doppler imaging, tissue tracking, strain and strain rate imaging, vector velocity imaging (VVI), myocardial performance index, myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA), the ratio of systolic to diastolic duration (S/D ratio), and other measurements of systolic right ventricular (RV) function like tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). These modalities may become valuable indicators of ventricular performance, compliance and disease progression, with the caveat of preload-dependency of the variables measured. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography for the assessment of cardiac anatomy, valvular function, device position, ventricular volumes and ejection fraction is integrated into routine clinical care. In this review, we discuss the potential use and limitations of these new echocardiographic techniques in patients with CHD. A particular focus is on the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) function by means of tissue Doppler imaging, tissue tracking, and three-dimensional imaging, in conditions associated with increased right ventricular volume or pressure load. PMID:24163784

  20. 4D retrospective black blood trueFISP imaging of mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Miraux, Sylvain; Calmettes, Guillaume; Massot, Philippe; Lefrançois, William; Parzy, Elodie; Muller, Bernard; Arsac, Laurent M; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Diolez, Philippe; Thiaudière, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state True fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP) four-dimensional imaging of mouse heart at high resolution and its efficiency for cardiac volumetry. Three-dimensional cine-imaging of control and hypoxic mice was carried out at 4.7 T without magnetization preparation or ECG-triggering. The k-space lines were acquired with the TrueFISP sequence (pulse repetition time/echo time = 4/2 ms) in a repeated sequential manner. Retrospective reordering of raw data allowed the reconstruction of 10 three-dimensional images per cardiac cycle. The acquisition scheme used an alternating radiofrequency phase and sum-of-square reconstruction method. Black-blood three-dimensional images at around 200 mum resolution were produced without banding artifact throughout the cardiac cycle. High contrast to noise made it possible to estimate cavity volumes during diastole and systole. Right and left ventricular stroke volume was significantly higher in hypoxic mice vs controls (20.2 +/- 2 vs 15.1 +/- 2; P < 0.05, 24.9 +/- 2 vs 20.4 +/- 2; P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, four-dimensional black-blood TrueFISP imaging in living mice is a method of choice to investigate cardiac abnormalities in mouse models. c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Radionuclide imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart failure: unlocking untapped potential.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchita; Amanullah, Aman

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with sympathetic overactivity, which contributes to disease progression and arrhythmia development. Cardiac sympathetic innervation imaging can be performed using radiotracers that are taken up in the presynaptic nerve terminal of sympathetic nerves. The commonly used radiotracers are (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) for planar and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and (11)C-hydroxyephedrine for positron emission tomography imaging. Sympathetic innervation imaging has been used in assessing prognosis, response to treatment, risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death and prediction of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with HF. Other potential applications of these techniques are in patients with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, predicting myocardial recovery in patients with left ventricular assist devices, and assessing reinnervation following cardiac transplantation. There is a lack of standardization with respect to technique of (123)I-mIBG imaging that needs to be overcome for the imaging modality to gain popularity in clinical practice.

  2. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial imaging in assessing right ventricular pressure in patients with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, M; Fischer, K C; Treves, S

    1981-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in patients with congenital heart defects to determine whether, by quantification of right ventricular isotope uptake, one could assess the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy and so predict the level of right ventricular pressure. A total of 24 patients ranging in age from 7 months to 30 years was studied; 18 were studied before corrective surgery and six after operation. All but three had congenital heart defects which had resulted in pressure and/or volume-overload of the right ventricle. At routine cardiac catheterisation, 20 microCi/kg thallium-201 as thallous chloride was injected through the venous catheter and myocardial images were recorded in anterior and left anterior oblique projections; these were subsequently analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Insignificant right ventricular thallium-201 counts judged as being less than 1 per cent of the injected dose or less than 0.3 of the left ventricular counts were present in six patients all with right ventricular peak systolic pressure less than 30 mmHg. In the remaining 18 patients there was a good correlation between the right ventricular/left ventricular peak systolic pressure ratio and the right ventricular/left ventricular thallium-201 counts ratio. All patients with right ventricular/left ventricular peak systolic pressure less than 0.5 had right ventricular/left ventricular thallium-201 counts less than 0.4. Qualitative evaluation of right ventricular isotope intensity proved helpful mainly in distinguishing the patients with right ventricular pressures at or above systemic levels. Thus quantitative analysis of myocardial imaging with thallium-201 is of use clinically in patients with congenital heart defects, in assessing the severity of pulmonary stenosis or the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension. Images PMID:7459178

  3. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Heart Failure High Blood Cholesterol High ... us | Customer Support | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  4. Telematics in medicine: a network infrastructure to optimize processes in cardiology and heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Hülsken, G; Rothenburger, M; Etz, C; Löher, A; Schmid, C; Scheld, H H

    2007-06-01

    During the past 2 decades, cardiac surgery has developed into a high-tech field. Increasing numbers of urgent surgical procedures mean that the time interval from diagnosis to surgical treatment must become ever shorter. Optimizing inconvenient and slow processes such as postal correspondence by using internet services is therefore mandatory in current cardiosurgical practice, and this includes the electronic transfer of patient data and diagnostic imaging material [12]. This study focuses on the internet connection of several cardiac referral centers to a cardiosurgical institution. Eleven cath lab centers were connected to a cardiosurgical center by internet. Auser program was especially developed to optimize connecting processes with the department. Data conversion was based on HL7 codes and angiograms were based on CD-ROM mediums and the DICOM standard. An online registration based on the HL7 communications standard was provided. All cath lab centers were successfully connected to the cardiosurgical institution. Angiography data were transmitted within 30 +/- 15minutes. The time interval from diagnosis to decision for surgery decreased from 36 +/- 13 hours to 1 +/- 0.5 hours (p = 0.01). Urgent or emergent surgery could be provided after 18 +/- 19 hours, compared to 56 +/- 35 hours before (p = 0.02). Special programs transmitting data via the internet significantly reduces the time interval from diagnosis to surgical treatment. Standardizing data transmitting processes from referral centers markedly optimizes cardiological and cardiosurgical treatments and could thereby improve survival rates and reduce costs.

  5. Consensus Document of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine on the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Manito, N; Cerqueiro, J M; Comín-Colet, J; García-Pinilla, J M; González-Franco, A; Grau-Amorós, J; Peraira, J R; Manzano, L

    Iron deficiency in patients with heart failure is a medical problem of recent particular interest. This interest has resulted from the publication of several clinical trials that demonstrated that the administration of intravenous iron to such patients improved their functional capacity and even reduced the number of hospitalisations for heart failure decompensation. However, applying the evidence from these studies in clinical practice is still controversial, both in terms of the diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency (absolute and functional) and the optimal method for iron replenishment. This article is a consensus document that integrates the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and the Spanish Society of Cardiology. The article reviews the scientific evidence and proposes a diagnostic and therapeutic performance protocol for iron deficiency in heart failure.

  6. Autoradiography study and SPECT imaging of reporter gene HSV1-tk expression in heart.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaoli; Liu, Ying; He, Yong; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Binqing; Gao, Zairong; An, Rui; Zhang, Yongxue

    2010-04-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and optimal conditions of imaging herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene transferred into hearts with (131)I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ((131)I-FIAU) using autoradiography (ARG) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in animal models. HSV1-tk inserted into adenovirus vector (Ad5-tk) and adenovirus (Ad5-null) was prepared. Rats or rabbits were divided into a study group receiving intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk, and a control group receiving Ad-null injection. In the study group of rats, two sets of experiments, time-course study and dose-dependence study, were performed. In time-course experiments, rats were injected with (131)I-FIAU on Days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7, after transfection of 1x10(8) pfu Ad5-tk, to study the feasibility and suitable time course for reporter gene imaging. In dose-dependence study, various titers of Ad5-tk (5x10(8), 1x10(8), 5x10(7) and 1x10(7) pfu) were used to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. The gamma counts of hearts were measured. The rat myocardium was analyzed by ARG and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SPECT whole-body planar imaging and cardiac tomographic imaging were performed in the rabbit models. From the ARG images, rats injected with Ad5-tk showed significant (131)I-FIAU activity in the anterolateral wall compared with background signals seen in the control Ad5-null rats. In time-course study, the highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium could be seen on Day 1, and then progressively declined with time. In dose-dependence study, the level of (131)I-FIAU accumulation in the transfected myocardium declined with the decrease of Ad viral titers. From the ARG analysis and gamma counting, the threshold viral titer was 5x10(7) pfu, and the optimal Ad titer was 1x10(8) pfu. The ARG images in region of interest-derived semi-quantitative study correlated well

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted pediatric heart as a potential predictor of rejection

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, Steven C; Dallaire, Frederic; Kantor, Paul F; Dipchand, Anne I; Chaturvedi, Rajiv R; Warade, Monali; Riesenkampff, Eugenie; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as a non-invasive tool to detect acute cellular rejection (ACR) in children after heart transplant (HT). METHODS Thirty pediatric HT recipients underwent CMR at the time of surveillance endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and results were compared to 14 non-transplant controls. Biventricular volumes, ejection fractions (EFs), T2-weighted signal intensities, native T1 times, extracellular volumes (ECVs) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were compared between patients and controls and between patients with International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade ≥ 2R rejection and those with grade 0/1R. Heart rate (HR) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were assessed as potential biomarkers. RESULTS Significant ACR (ISHLT grade ≥ 2R) was an infrequent event in our population (5/30, 17%). Ventricular volumes, EFs, LGE prevalence, ECVs, native T1 times, T2 signal intensity ratios, HR and BNP were not associated with the presence of ≥ 2R ACR. CONCLUSION In this pilot study CMR did not reliably identify ACR-related changes in pediatric HT patients. PMID:28058227

  8. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  9. A reappraisal of the use of infrared thermal image analysis in medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, B F

    1998-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging of the skin has been used for several decades to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Abnormalities such as malignancies, inflammation, and infection cause localized increases in temperature which show as hot spots or as asymmetrical patterns in an infrared thermogram. Even though it is nonspecific, infrared thermology is a powerful detector of problems that affect a patient's physiology. While the use of infrared imaging is increasing in many industrial and security applications, it has declined in medicine probably because of the continued reliance on first generation cameras. The transfer of military technology for medical use has prompted this reappraisal of infrared thermology in medicine. Digital infrared cameras have much improved spatial and thermal resolutions, and libraries of image processing routines are available to analyze images captured both statically and dynamically. If thermographs are captured under controlled conditions, they may be interpreted readily to diagnose certain conditions and to monitor the reaction of a patient's physiology to thermal and other stresses. Some of the major areas where infrared thermography is being used successfully are neurology, vascular disorders, rheumatic diseases, tissue viability, oncology (especially breast cancer), dermatological disorders, neonatal, ophthalmology, and surgery.

  10. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging in live rabbit hearts using clinical intracardiac catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian

    Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) is a noninvasive modality for mapping electrical activities in the body (brain and heart) in 4-dimensions (space + time). Conventional cardiac mapping technologies for guiding the radiofrequency ablation procedure for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias have certain limitations. UCSDI can potentially overcome these limitations and enhance the electrophysiology mapping of the heart. UCSDI exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity. When an ultrasound beam intersects a current path in a material, the local resistivity of the material is modulated by the ultrasonic pressure, and a change in voltage signal can be detected based on Ohm's Law. The degree of modulation is determined by the AE interaction constant K. K is a fundamental property of any type of material, and directly affects the amplitude of the AE signal detected in UCSDI. UCSDI requires detecting a small AE signal associated with electrocardiogram. So sensitivity becomes a major challenge for transferring UCSDI to the clinic. This dissertation will determine the limits of sensitivity and resolution for UCSDI, balancing the tradeoff between them by finding the optimal parameters for electrical cardiac mapping, and finally test the optimized system in a realistic setting. This work begins by describing a technique for measuring K, the AE interaction constant, in ionic solution and biological tissue, and reporting the value of K in excised rabbit cardiac tissue for the first time. K was found to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart tissue, K was determined to be 0.041 +/- 0.012 %/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiologic saline: 0.034 +/- 0.003 %/MPa. Next, this dissertation investigates the sensitivity limit of UCSDI by quantifying the relation

  11. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  12. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    PubMed

    Mahajan, A; Goh, V; Basu, S; Vaish, R; Weeks, A J; Thakur, M H; Cook, G J

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure-function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed "theranostics". Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research.

  13. Image Quality of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography with 320-Row Area Detector Computed Tomography in Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Kanie, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Inai, Ryota; Akagi, Noriaki; Morimitsu, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting image quality of 320-row computed tomography angiography (CTA) of coronary arteries in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We retrospectively reviewed 28 children up to 3 years of age with CHD who underwent prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 320-row CTA with iterative reconstruction. We assessed image quality of proximal coronary artery segments using a five-point scale. Age, body weight, average heart rate, and heart rate variability were recorded and compared between two groups: patients with good diagnostic image quality in all four coronary artery segments and patients with at least one coronary artery segment with nondiagnostic image quality. Altogether, 96 of 112 segments (85.7 %) had diagnostic-quality images. Patients with nondiagnostic segments were significantly younger (10.0 ± 11.6 months) and had lower body weight (5.9 ± 2.9 kg) (each p < 0.05) than patients with diagnostic image quality of all four segments (20.6 ± 13.8 months and 8.4 ± 2.5 kg, respectively; each p < 0.05). Differences in heart rate and heart rate variability between the two imaging groups were not significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for predicting patients with nondiagnostic image quality revealed an optimal body weight cutoff of ≤5.6 kg and an optimal age cutoff of ≤12.5 months. Prospective ECG-gated 320-row CTA with iterative reconstruction provided feasible image quality of coronary arteries in children with CHD. Younger age and lower body weight were factors that led to poorer image quality of coronary arteries.

  14. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity.

  15. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images*

    PubMed Central

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. Results With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. PMID:25741101

  16. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient

  17. Precision Medicine in Multiple Sclerosis: Future of PET Imaging of Inflammation and Reactive Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poutiainen, Pekka; Jaronen, Merja; Quintana, Francisco J.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques can enhance diagnosis to achieve successful treatment, as well as reveal underlying pathogenic mechanisms in disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The cooperation of advanced multimodal imaging techniques and increased knowledge of the MS disease mechanism allows both monitoring of neuronal network and therapeutic outcome as well as the tools to discover novel therapeutic targets. Diverse imaging modalities provide reliable diagnostic and prognostic platforms to better achieve precision medicine. Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been considered the golden standard in MS research and diagnosis. However, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can provide functional information of molecular biology in detail even prior to anatomic changes, allowing close follow up of disease progression and treatment response. The recent findings support three major neuroinflammation components in MS: astrogliosis, cytokine elevation, and significant changes in specific proteins, which offer a great variety of specific targets for imaging purposes. Regardless of the fact that imaging of astrocyte function is still a young field and in need for development of suitable imaging ligands, recent studies have shown that inflammation and astrocyte activation are related to progression of MS. MS is a complex disease, which requires understanding of disease mechanisms for successful treatment. PET is a precise non-invasive imaging method for biochemical functions and has potential to enhance early and accurate diagnosis for precision therapy of MS. In this review we focus on modulation of different receptor systems and inflammatory aspect of MS, especially on activation of glial cells, and summarize the recent findings of PET imaging in MS and present the most potent targets for new biomarkers with the main focus on experimental MS research. PMID:27695400

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (YΓΕΙΑ/ΔYΓΕΙΑ/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their

  19. A medical student elective promoting humanism, communication skills, complementary and alternative medicine and physician self-care: an evaluation of the HEART program.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Kohatsu, Wendy; Nunley, William; Mehta, Darshan; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S; Yeh, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) created a fourth-year medical student elective known as the Humanistic Elective in alternative medicine, Activism, and Reflective Transformation (HEART) that provided the opportunity for students to explore humanism in medicine, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine modalities, communication, activism, and community building in a four-week immersion experience. The educational effects of this elective, and whether it has met its stated goals, are unknown. The authors conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of the first eight cohorts of HEART graduates in 2010. Survey questions assessed respondents' demographics and perspectives on the educational impact of the elective. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and qualitative analyses were guided by grounded theory. Of 168 eligible alumni, 122 (73%) completed the survey. The majority were female (70%), age ≤35 (77%) years, and trained in primary care specialties (66%). Half were attendings in practice. The majority of respondents felt the elective taught professionalism (89%) and communication skills (92%) well or very well. The majority highly agreed that the elective helped them better cope with stress during residency training (80%), taught them self-care skills (75%), and improved their ability to empathize and connect with patients (71%). Qualitative analysis of the personal and professional impact of the elective identified twelve common themes with self-discovery, self-care, and collegial development/community most frequently cited. The majority of HEART graduates endorse learning important skills and benefiting from the experience both personally and professionally. Aspects of the HEART curriculum may help training programs teach professionalism and improve trainee well-being. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Women With Heart Disease, Hypertension and Diabetes (from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health).

    PubMed

    Sibbritt, David; Davidson, Patricia; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Newton, Phillip; Adams, Jon

    2015-06-15

    The uptake of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common, especially among patients with chronic illness. However, the use of CAM by women with cardiovascular disease and how this influences the interface with conventional medicine is poorly understood. To examine the relation between heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes and the use of CAM and conventional medicine in a cohort of women, data were taken from the 2010 survey (n = 9,748) of the 1946 to 1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Analyses focused on women who had been diagnosed or treated for heart disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. The outcome measures were the use of conventional or CAM treatments in the previous year. Most women had hypertension only (n = 2,335), and few (n = 78) reported having heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Women with hypertension were less likely (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74 to 0.91) to consult with a CAM practitioner and less likely (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97) to use self-prescribed CAM, while women with diabetes were also less likely (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81) to consult with a CAM practitioner and less likely (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.83) to use self-prescribed CAM. In conclusion, compared with studies conducted on CAM use and other chronic illness groups, the use of CAM by women with heart disease, hypertension, and/or diabetes in this study was lower, and future research is needed to explore patients' perceptions of cardiovascular risk and the role of CAM in their self-management in the community, among other issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice.

  2. Body image after heart transplantation compared to mechanical aortic valve insertion.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Armin; Heilmann, Claudia; Kaps, Josefine; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Zeh, Wolfgang; Albert, Wolfgang; Wirsching, Michael; Fritzsche, Kurt; Joos, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Heart transplantation (HT) obviously affects body image and integrity. However, there are very few empirical data post-transplant. In a cross-sectional study, 57 HT patients were compared with 47 subjects with mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) using the Dresden-Body-Image questionnaire (DKB) and specific questions regarding integration of the organ/device. In addition, affective symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were assessed (12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). DKB-35 scores did not differ. HT patients scored higher than AVR on specific questions regarding integration of the organ/device. AVR patients showed more affective disturbance and lower mental QoL than HT subjects. Affective scores correlated negatively with body image scores. Seventeen percent of all patients showed psychological distress (HADS scores >8). HT patients integrated the new organ well - and even better than AVR subjects did with the device. In general, our data corroborate a good adaptation process, in particular in HT patients. Similar to other reported data, a subgroup of 15-20% of patients shows stronger mental distress, including body image problems. These must be identified and treated by professionals. Patients with AVR deserve more attention in the future.

  3. Single camera system for multi-wavelength fluorescent imaging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takeshi; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Shibata, Nitaro; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Optical mapping has been a powerful method to measure the cardiac electrophysiological phenomenon such as membrane potential(V(m)), intracellular calcium(Ca(2+)), and the other electrophysiological parameters. To measure two parameters simultaneously, the dual mapping system using two cameras is often used. However, the method to measure more than three parameters does not exist. To exploit the full potential of fluorescence imaging, an innovative method to measure multiple, more than three parameters is needed. In this study, we present a new optical mapping system which records multiple parameters using a single camera. Our system consists of one camera, custom-made optical lens units, and a custom-made filter wheel. The optical lens units is designed to focus the fluorescence light at filter position, and form an image on camera's sensor. To obtain optical signals with high quality, efficiency of light collection was carefully discussed in designing the optical system. The developed optical system has object space numerical aperture(NA) 0.1, and image space NA 0.23. The filter wheel was rotated by a motor, which allows filter switching corresponding with needed fluorescence wavelength. The camera exposure and filter switching were synchronized by phase locked loop, which allow this system to record multiple fluorescent signals frame by frame alternately. To validate the performance of this system, we performed experiments to observe V(m) and Ca(2+) dynamics simultaneously (frame rate: 125fps) with Langendorff perfused rabbit heart. Firstly, we applied basic stimuli to the heart base (cycle length: 500ms), and observed planer wave. The waveforms of V(m) and Ca(2+) show the same upstroke synchronized with cycle length of pacing. In addition, we recorded V(m) and Ca(2+) signals during ventricular fibrillation induced by burst pacing. According to these experiments, we showed the efficacy and availability of our method for cardiac electrophysiological research.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiac Strain Pattern Following Transplantation of Human Tissue Engineered Heart Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Riegler, Johannes; Tiburcy, Malte; Zhao, Xin; Chour, Tony; Ndoye, Babacar; Nguyen, Michael; Adams, Jackson; Ameen, Mohamed; Denney, Thomas S.; Yang, Phillip C.; Nguyen, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance following such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. As the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. Methods and Results Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds. EHMs were transplanted (n=12) to cover infarct and border zones of recipient rat hearts one month after ischemia reperfusion injury. A control group (n=10) received only sham placement of sutures without EHMs. To assess the efficacy of EHMs, MRI and ultrasound-based strain imaging were performed prior to and four weeks after transplantation. In addition to strain imaging, global cardiac performance was estimated from cardiac MRI. Although no significant differences were found with global changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (Control −9.6±1.3% vs. EHM −6.2±1.9%, P=0.17), regional myocardial strain from tagged MRI was able to detect preserved systolic function in EHM-treated animals compared to control (Control 4.4±1.0% vs. EHM 1.0±0.6%, P=0.04). However, ultrasound-based strain failed to detect any significant change (Control 2.1±3.0% vs. EHM 6.3±2.9%, P=0.46). Conclusions This study highlights the feasibility of using cardiac strain from tagged MRI to assess functional changes in rat models due to localized regenerative therapies, which may not be detected by conventional measures of global systolic performance. PMID:27903535

  5. Imaging mass spectrometry: enabling a new age of discovery in biology and medicine through molecular microscopy.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a valuable tool for the production of molecular maps in samples ranging from solid inorganic materials to biologicals such as cells and tissues. The unique features of IMS are its ability to map a wide variety of different types of molecules, its superb molecular specificity, and its potential for discovery since no target-specific reagents are needed. IMS has made significant contributions in biology and medicine and promises to be a next generation tool in anatomic pathology.

  6. Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Enabling a New Age of Discovery in Biology and Medicine Through Molecular Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a valuable tool for the production of molecular maps in samples ranging from solid inorganic materials to biologicals such as cells and tissues. The unique features of IMS are its ability to map a wide variety of different types of molecules, its superb molecular specificity, and its potential for discovery since no target specific reagents are needed. IMS has made significant contributions in biology and medicine and promises to be a next generation tool in anatomic pathology. PMID:25801587

  7. Imaging mass spectrometry: Molecular microscopy for the new age of biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry provides a powerful tool for monitoring and discovery of molecular processes in the spatial domain in tissues for research and practical applications in both biology and medicine. This technology directly measures molecular compounds in tissues without the use of target-specific reagents such as antibodies, is applicable to a wide variety of analytes, and can provide spatial resolutions below the single cell level. Importantly, it has paradigm shifting capabilities in clinical applications, especially for anatomic pathology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Enabling a New Age of Discovery in Biology and Medicine Through Molecular Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has become a valuable tool for the production of molecular maps in samples ranging from solid inorganic materials to biologicals such as cells and tissues. The unique features of IMS are its ability to map a wide variety of different types of molecules, its superb molecular specificity, and its potential for discovery since no target-specific reagents are needed. IMS has made significant contributions in biology and medicine and promises to be a next generation tool in anatomic pathology.

  9. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-07

    medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  10. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  11. Enterprise-class Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image infrastructure.

    PubMed

    York, G; Wortmann, J; Atanasiu, R

    2001-06-01

    Most current picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are designed for a single department or a single modality. Few PACS installations have been deployed that support the needs of the hospital or the entire Integrated Delivery Network (IDN). The authors propose a new image management architecture that can support a large, distributed enterprise.

  12. Development of the hyperspectral cellular imaging system to apply to regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Matsumura, Kouji; Mochida, Joji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Regenerative medicine by the transplantation of differentiated cells or tissue stem cells has been clinically performed, particularly in the form of cell sheets. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of cell therapy, the efficient selection of desired cells with high quality is a critical issue, which requires the development of a new evaluation method to discriminate cells non-invasively with high throughput. There were many ways to characterize cells and their components, among which the optical spectral analysis has a powerful potential for this purpose. We developed a cellular hyperspectral imaging system, which captured both spatial and spectral information in a single pixel. Hyperspectral data are composed of continual spectral bands, whereas multispectral data are usually composed of about 5 to 10 discrete bands of large bandwidths. The hyperspectral imaging system which we developed was set up by a commonly-used inverted light microscope for cell culture experiments, and the time-lapse imaging system with automatic focus correction. Spectral line imaging device with EMCCD was employed for spectral imaging. The system finally enabled to acquire 5 dimensional (x, y, z, time, wavelength) data sets and cell-by-cell evaluation. In this study, we optimized the protocol for the creation of cellular spectral database under biological understanding. We enabled to confirm spectrum of autofluorescence of collagen, absorption of specific molecules in the cultural sample and increase of scattering signal due to cell components although detail spectral analyses have not been performed.

  13. Distributing digital imaging and communications in medicine data and optimizing access over satellite networks.

    PubMed

    Ernst, R D; Kawashima, A; Shepherd, W; Tamm, E P; Sandler, C M

    1999-05-01

    To improve radiology access to full uncompressed Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets, we evaluated satellite access to a DICOM server. Radiologists' home computers were connected by satellite to a Medweb DICOM server (Medweb, San Francisco, CA). A 10.2-kb data set containing a 19-image head computed tomography (CT) scan was transferred using DirecPC (Hughes Electronics Corp, Arlington, VA) at three different times of the day; 6 AM, 3 PM, and 8 PM. The average transfer time for all 19 images from the DICOM server was 4 minutes and 17 seconds (257 seconds). The slowest transfer rate of 670 seconds (121 kbps) was obtained at 8 PM. The best transfer rate of 2 minutes, 54 seconds (467 kbps) was obtained at 6 AM. The full 16-bit DICOM images were viewed with bone, brain, and soft tissue windows. The Medweb plug-in viewer loaded the first image within 30 seconds of selecting the case for satellite transfer. In conclusion, satellite internet transfer of radiology studies is suitable for timely review of full DICOM data sets and can expand the range of teleradiology consultation.

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  15. Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

    2006-08-01

    Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these

  16. Image based evaluation of mediastinal constraints for the development of a pulsatile total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Good anatomical compatibility is an important aspect in the development of cardiovascular implants. This work analyzes the interaction of the pump unit of an electrically driven pulsatile Total Artificial Heart (TAH) and the mediastinum. For an adequate compliance, both overall dimensions and alignment of inlets and outlets must be matched. Methods Cross-sectional medical image data of 27 individuals, including male and female patients suffering from end stage heart failure, was segmented and reconstructed to three dimensional (3D) surface models. Dimensions and orientations of relevant structures were identified and analyzed. The TAH surface model was virtually placed in orthotopic position and aligned with atrioventricular valves and big vessels. Additionally seven conventional cadaver studies were performed to validate different pump chamber designs based on virtual findings. Thereby 3D-coordinates were captured and introduced to the virtual environment to allow quantitative comparison between different individuals. Results Spatial parameters varied more in male patients with higher values if heart failure persists. Good correlation of the virtual analysis both to literature data and conventional cadaver studies could be shown. The full data of the 27 individuals as well as the summarized values found in literature are enclosed in the appendix. By superimposing the TAH-volume model to the anatomy, various misalignments were found and the TAH-design was adjusted. Conclusions Virtual fitting allows implant design adjustments in realistic anatomy which has not been influenced by thoracotomy. Higher numbers of relevant individuals can be reasonably investigated in the virtual environment and quantitatively correlated. Using this approach, conventional cadaver studies can be significantly reduced but not obviated, due to the unavailable haptic feedback and immobility of potentially compressed structures. PMID:23941400

  17. The network and its role in digital imaging and communications in medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Ballance, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The elements of a digital imaging system are bound together by the network, so careful attention must be paid to this essential component. Networking hardware and cable choice will affect the speed of image transmission between devices within a network. Wireless networking offers convenience at the expense of speed and potentially, security. If a facility allows its network to connect to the Internet, security precautions are essential. Firewalls prevent unauthorized and destructive access to the network; virtual private networks allow encrypted communication with the network; and email and web browser encryption allow data transmitted from the network to other users on the Internet safely. This article presents an overview of this broad array of technologies. Readers are encouraged to seek additional depth as needed to address individual networking needs.

  18. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  19. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  20. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  1. Novel Card Games for Learning Radiographic Image Quality and Urologic Imaging in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ober, Christopher P

    Second-year veterinary students are often challenged by concepts in veterinary radiology, including the fundamentals of image quality and generation of differential lists. Four card games were developed to provide veterinary students with a supplemental means of learning about radiographic image quality and differential diagnoses in urogenital imaging. Students played these games and completed assessments of their subject knowledge before and after playing. The hypothesis was that playing each game would improve students' understanding of the topic area. For each game, students who played the game performed better on the post-test than students who did not play that game (all p<.01). For three of the four games, students who played each respective game demonstrated significant improvement in scores between the pre-test and the post-test (p<.002). The majority of students expressed that the games were both helpful and enjoyable. Educationally focused games can help students learn classroom and laboratory material. However, game design is important, as the game using the most passive learning process also demonstrated the weakest results. In addition, based on participants' comments, the games were very useful in improving student engagement in the learning process. Thus, use of games in the classroom and laboratory setting seems to benefit the learning process.

  2. Big heart data: advancing health informatics through data sharing in cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A

    2015-07-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be reused beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data reuse, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases.

  3. Big Heart Data: Advancing Health Informatics through Data Sharing in Cardiovascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R.; Young, Alistair A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of heart disease is rapidly worsening due to increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Data sharing and open database resources for heart health informatics are important for advancing our understanding of cardiovascular function, disease progression and therapeutics. Data sharing enables valuable information, often obtained at considerable expense and effort, to be re-used beyond the specific objectives of the original study. Many government funding agencies and journal publishers are requiring data re-use, and are providing mechanisms for data curation and archival. Tools and infrastructure are available to archive anonymous data from a wide range of studies, from descriptive epidemiological data to gigabytes of imaging data. Meta-analyses can be performed to combine raw data from disparate studies to obtain unique comparisons or to enhance statistical power. Open benchmark datasets are invaluable for validating data analysis algorithms and objectively comparing results. This review provides a rationale for increased data sharing and surveys recent progress in the cardiovascular domain. We also highlight the potential of recent large cardiovascular epidemiological studies enabling collaborative efforts to facilitate data sharing, algorithms benchmarking, disease modeling and statistical atlases. PMID:25415993

  4. Cardiovascular genomics, personalized medicine, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: part I: the beginning of an era.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics arrives at a remarkable time in the history of genetic research and cardiovascular medicine. Despite tremendous progress in knowledge gained, cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States,1 and it has overcome infectious diseases as the leading cause of death worldwide.2 In addition, rates of CVD remain higher in black and Hispanic populations in the United States.1 The recent Strategic Plan of the National Heart, Lung,and Blood Institute (NHLBI) emphasizes research areas to fill the significant knowledge gaps needed to improve the diagnosis,treatment, and control of known risk factors and clinically apparent disease. Simultaneously, the NHLBI Strategic Plan recognizes a tremendous opportunity that is available for use of genetic and genomic research to generate new knowledge that might reduce the morbidity and mortality from CVD in US populations.3 Public availability of vast amounts of detailed sequence information about the human genome, completed sequence data on dozens of other animal genomes, and private sector development of high-throughput genetic technologies has transformed in a few short years the conduct of cardiovascular genetics and genomics research from a primary focus on mendelian disorders to a current emphasis on genome-wide association studies (GWAS; Figure1). In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, summarize the evolving approaches and progress to date, and identify immediate-term research needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the NHLBI are supporting a portfolio of large-scale genetic and genomic programs in diverse US populations with the longer-term objective of translating knowledge into the prediction, prevention, and preemption of CVD, as well as lung, sleep, and blood disorders. Underlying this portfolio is a strong commitment to make available participant-level data and

  5. Modelling of inquiry diagnosis for coronary heart disease in traditional Chinese medicine by using multi-label learning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common cardiovascular disease that is extremely harmful to humans. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the diagnosis and treatment of CHD have a long history and ample experience. However, the non-standard inquiry information influences the diagnosis and treatment in TCM to a certain extent. In this paper, we study the standardization of inquiry information in the diagnosis of CHD and design a diagnostic model to provide methodological reference for the construction of quantization diagnosis for syndromes of CHD. In the diagnosis of CHD in TCM, there could be several patterns of syndromes for one patient, while the conventional single label data mining techniques could only build one model at a time. Here a novel multi-label learning (MLL) technique is explored to solve this problem. Methods Standardization scale on inquiry diagnosis for CHD in TCM is designed, and the inquiry diagnostic model is constructed based on collected data by the MLL techniques. In this study, one popular MLL algorithm, ML-kNN, is compared with other two MLL algorithms RankSVM and BPMLL as well as one commonly used single learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (kNN) algorithm. Furthermore the influence of symptom selection to the diagnostic model is investigated. After the symptoms are removed by their frequency from low to high; the diagnostic models are constructed on the remained symptom subsets. Results A total of 555 cases are collected for the modelling of inquiry diagnosis of CHD. The patients are diagnosed clinically by fusing inspection, pulse feeling, palpation and the standardized inquiry information. Models of six syndromes are constructed by ML-kNN, RankSVM, BPMLL and kNN, whose mean results of accuracy of diagnosis reach 77%, 71%, 75% and 74% respectively. After removing symptoms of low frequencies, the mean accuracy results of modelling by ML-kNN, RankSVM, BPMLL and kNN reach 78%, 73%, 75% and 76% when 52 symptoms are remained

  6. Synchronization and Registration of Cine Magnetic Resonance and Dynamic Computed Tomography Images of the Heart.

    PubMed

    Betancur, Julian; Simon, Antoine; Langella, Bernard; Leclercq, Christophe; Hernandez, Alfredo; Garreau, Mireille

    2016-09-01

    The synchronization and registration of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the heart is required to perform a combined analysis of their complementary information. We propose a novel method that synchronizes and registers intrapatient dynamic CT and cine-MRI short axis view (SAX). For the synchronization step, a normalized cross-correlation curve is computed from each image sequence to describe the global cardiac dynamics. The time axes of these curves are then warped using an adapted dynamic time warping (DTW) procedure. The adaptation constrains the time deformation to obtain a coherent warping function. The registration step then computes the rigid transformation that maximizes the multiimage normalized mutual information of DTW-synchronized images. The DTW synchronization and the multiimage registration were evaluated using dynamic CT and cine-SAX acquisitions from nine patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. The distance between the end-systolic phases after DTW was used to evaluate the synchronization. Mean errors, expressed as a percentage of the RR-intervals, were 3.9% and 3.7% after adapted DTW synchronization against 10.8% and 11.3% after linear synchronization, for dynamic CT and cine-SAX, respectively. This suggests that the adapted DTW synchronization leads to a coherent warping of cardiac dynamics. The multiimage registration was evaluated using fiducial points. Compared to a monoimage and a two-image registration, the multiimage registration of DTW-synchronized images obtained the lowest mean fiducial error showing that the use of dynamic voxel intensity information improves the registration.

  7. Functional imaging of murine hearts using accelerated self-gated UTE cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Motaal, Abdallah G; Noorman, Nils; de Graaf, Wolter L; Hoerr, Verena; Florack, Luc M J; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a fast protocol for ultra-short echo time (UTE) Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the beating murine heart. The sequence involves a self-gated UTE with golden-angle radial acquisition and compressed sensing reconstruction. The self-gated acquisition is performed asynchronously with the heartbeat, resulting in a randomly undersampled kt-space that facilitates compressed sensing reconstruction. The sequence was tested in 4 healthy rats and 4 rats with chronic myocardial infarction, approximately 2 months after surgery. As a control, a non-accelerated self-gated multi-slice FLASH sequence with an echo time (TE) of 2.76 ms, 4.5 signal averages, a matrix of 192 × 192, and an acquisition time of 2 min 34 s per slice was used to obtain Cine MRI with 15 frames per heartbeat. Non-accelerated UTE MRI was performed with TE = 0.29 ms, a reconstruction matrix of 192 × 192, and an acquisition time of 3 min 47 s per slice for 3.5 averages. Accelerated imaging with 2×, 4× and 5× undersampled kt-space data was performed with 1 min, 30 and 15 s acquisitions, respectively. UTE Cine images up to 5× undersampled kt-space data could be successfully reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm. In contrast to the FLASH Cine images, flow artifacts in the UTE images were nearly absent due to the short echo time, simplifying segmentation of the left ventricular (LV) lumen. LV functional parameters derived from the control and the accelerated Cine movies were statistically identical.

  8. Volumetric cardiac quantification by using 3D dual-phase whole-heart MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sergio; Tangchaoren, Tarinee; Parish, Victoria; Wolf, Ivo; Razavi, Reza; Greil, Gerald; Schaeffter, Tobias

    2008-08-01

    This study was approved by the local institutional ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all volunteers and patients. The purpose of the study was to assess ventricular volumes by using three-dimensional (3D) whole-heart data sets acquired during end-systolic and end-diastolic phases during one free-breathing magnetic resonance imaging examination. In five healthy volunteers and 10 patients, 3D dual cardiac phase data sets, short-axis multisection breath-hold images, and through-plane flow images of the great vessels were acquired. Within these data sets, statistic analyses were performed to compare stroke, end-systolic, and end-diastolic volumes for the left ventricle (LV) and the right ventricle (RV). Results showed that the breath-hold multisection approach, the flow measurement approach, and the new dual-phase 3D approach delivered comparable results for quantification of cardiac volumes and function. High correlation values greater than 0.95 were found when these methods were compared, and no significant differences were recognized for stroke, end-systolic, or end-diastolic volumes in either the LV or the RV.

  9. Extraction of heart and vessel walls on ultrasound images using snake splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taine, Marie-Claire; Herment, Alain

    1995-05-01

    A segmentation algorithm devoted to extracting heart and vessel walls on ultrasound image sequences was developed. This algorithm is based on a variety of active contours called Snake-Splines. It addresses the specific problems of ultrasonography (texture, dropouts) while using all the information available from temporal redundancy in a scheme of sequence processing for motion analysis. Active contours are 2D deformable models defined as energy- minimizing curves, including internal and external energy terms. The internal energy refers to smoothness constraints characteristics of the curve (controlled continuity splines), whereas the external one refers to forces computed from the gray-level image. A contour B-spline parametrization which intrinsically provides smoothness properties helps formulate the numerical problem with the only consideration of external forces governing the spline curve deformation. The algorithm is tested either on apical and parasternal transthoracic views, or transoesophageal or again intravascular ones, directly digitized at the video output or after recording on video-tapes. However, the methodology can be applied to all structures. The results show the necessity to deal with adaptive iterative process as well as problems associated with numerical stability, and the methodology is currently being extended to tracking structures through image sequences.

  10. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. Date Sources: The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of “precision medicine”, “fusion imaging”, “multimodality”, and “tumor diagnosis and treatment”. Study Selection: Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Results: Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Conclusion: Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice. PMID:27958232

  11. Free-breathing 3D whole-heart black-blood imaging with motion sensitized driven equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Subashini; Hu, Peng; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois; Schmidt, Ehud J; Kozerke, Sebastian; Nezafat, Reza

    2012-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and robustness of motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE) for blood suppression in volumetric 3D whole-heart cardiac MR. To investigate the efficacy of MSDE on blood suppression and myocardial signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss on different imaging sequences, seven healthy adult subjects were imaged using 3D electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered MSDE-prep T(1) -weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), and spoiled gradient echo (GRE), after optimization of MSDE parameters in a pilot study of five subjects. Imaging artifacts, myocardial and blood SNR were assessed. Subsequently, the feasibility of isotropic spatial resolution MSDE-prep black-blood was assessed in six subjects. Finally, 15 patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease were recruited to be imaged using a conventional multislice 2D double inversion recovery (DIR) TSE imaging sequence and a 3D MSDE-prep spoiled GRE. The MSDE-prep yielded significant blood suppression (75%-92%), enabling a volumetric 3D black-blood assessment of the whole heart with significantly improved visualization of the chamber walls. The MSDE-prep also allowed successful acquisition of black-blood images with isotropic spatial resolution. In the patient study, 3D black-blood MSDE-prep and DIR resulted in similar blood suppression in left ventricle and right ventricle walls but the MSDE-prep had superior myocardial signal and wall sharpness. MSDE-prep allows volumetric black-blood imaging of the heart. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Molecular imaging of the tumor microenvironment for precision medicine and theranostics.

    PubMed

    Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Chen, Zhihang; Jin, Jiefu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2014-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from cancer and their associated conditions and treatments continue to extract a heavy social and economic global burden despite the transformative advances in science and technology in the twenty-first century. In fact, cancer incidence and mortality are expected to reach pandemic proportions by 2025, and costs of managing cancer will escalate to trillions of dollars. The inability to establish effective cancer treatments arises from the complexity of conditions that exist within tumors, the plasticity and adaptability of cancer cells coupled with their ability to escape immune surveillance, and the co-opted stromal cells and microenvironment that assist cancer cells in survival. Stromal cells, although destroyed together with cancer cells, have an ever-replenishing source that can assist in resurrecting tumors from any residual cancer cells that may survive treatment. The tumor microenvironment landscape is a continually changing landscape, with spatial and temporal heterogeneities that impact and influence cancer treatment outcome. Importantly, the changing landscape of the tumor microenvironment can be exploited for precision medicine and theranostics. Molecular and functional imaging can play important roles in shaping and selecting treatments to match this landscape. Our purpose in this review is to examine the roles of molecular and functional imaging, within the context of the tumor microenvironment, and the feasibility of their applications for precision medicine and theranostics in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Small flexible structure for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging moieties in precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjie; Qiu, Xiuchun; Zou, Chaoxia; Ran, Henry; Zhang, Fujun; Ke, Shi

    2016-01-01

    The goals of precision medicine are to link diagnostic and therapeutic agents, improve clinical outcomes, and minimize side effects. We present a simple, small, flexible three-armed core structure that can be conjugated to targeting, imaging, and therapeutic moieties. The targeting molecule can be a peptide, protein, or chemical compound. The diagnostic reporter can be optical and/or nuclear in nature, and can be replaced by chemo- and/or radiotherapeutic compounds for treatment using a single targeting molecule. Imaging components can be used to detect disease biomarkers, monitor treatment response, and guide surgery in real-time to create a tumor-free margin. Isotope impurity can be exploited to visualize whole-body distribution of therapeutic agents. The one-to-one ratio of targeting component to therapeutic agents facilitates dose calculation. The simple synthesis and flexible, modular nature of the agent facilitate high-purity, large-scale production. The core capacity to “seek, treat, and see” may advance precision medicine in the future. PMID:27027441

  14. CT imaging in congenital heart disease: an approach to imaging and interpreting complex lesions after surgical intervention for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and single ventricle heart disease.

    PubMed

    Han, B Kelly; Lesser, John R

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are the most commonly performed diagnostic studies in patients with congenital heart disease. A small percentage of patients with congenital heart disease will be referred to cardiac CT subsequent to echocardiography when magnetic resonance imaging is insufficient, contraindicated, or considered high risk. The most common complex lesions referred for CT at our institution are tetralogy of Fallot, transposition complexes, and single ventricle heart disease. This review discusses the most common surgical procedures performed in these patients and the technical considerations for optimal image acquisition on the basis of the prior procedure and the individual patient history. Cardiac CT can provide the functional and anatomic information required for decision making in complex congenital heart disease. Image interpretation is aided by knowledge of the common approaches to operative repair and the residual hemodynamic abnormalities. Acquisition and interpretation that is both individualized to the patient's underlying disease and the specific clinical question is likely to maintain diagnostic accuracy while decreasing the potential risk of cardiac CT.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Coronary Arteries and Heart Valves in a Living Mouse: Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Jan; Wiesmann, Frank; Lanz, Titus; Haase, Axel

    2000-10-01

    New investigations in MRI of a mouse heart showed high-contrast cardiac images and thereby the possibility of doing functional cardiac studies of in vivo mice. But is MRI, in addition, capable of visualizing microstructures such as the coronary arteries and the heart valves of a living mouse? To answer this question, 2D and 3D gradient echo sequences with and without flow compensation were used to image the coronary arteries. To increase signal-to-noise ratio, a birdcage resonator was optimized for mouse heart imaging. Contrast between blood and myocardium was achieved through the inflow effect. A segmented three-dimensional FLASH sequence acquired with a multiple overlap thin slab technique showed the best results. With this technique an isotropic resolution of 100 μm was achieved. The left coronary artery could be visualized up to the apex of the heart. This is demonstrated with short axis views and 3D surface reconstructions of the mouse heart. The four cardiac valves were also visible with the 3D method.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of coronary arteries and heart valves in a living mouse: techniques and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ruff, J; Wiesmann, F; Lanz, T; Haase, A

    2000-10-01

    New investigations in MRI of a mouse heart showed high-contrast cardiac images and thereby the possibility of doing functional cardiac studies of in vivo mice. But is MRI, in addition, capable of visualizing microstructures such as the coronary arteries and the heart valves of a living mouse? To answer this question, 2D and 3D gradient echo sequences with and without flow compensation were used to image the coronary arteries. To increase signal-to-noise ratio, a birdcage resonator was optimized for mouse heart imaging. Contrast between blood and myocardium was achieved through the inflow effect. A segmented three-dimensional FLASH sequence acquired with a multiple overlap thin slab technique showed the best results. With this technique an isotropic resolution of 100 microm was achieved. The left coronary artery could be visualized up to the apex of the heart. This is demonstrated with short axis views and 3D surface reconstructions of the mouse heart. The four cardiac valves were also visible with the 3D method.

  17. Cardiovascular imaging trends in congenital heart disease: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Han, B Kelly; Lesser, Andrew M; Vezmar, Marko; Rosenthal, Kristi; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie; Lindberg, Jana; Caye, David; Lesser, John R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT are available in the recent era at many pediatric cardiac centers. The aim was to provide a contemporary description of diagnostic imaging trends for definition of congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, cardiac MRI, and cardiac CT use in patients with congenital heart disease at a single institution was retrospectively recorded (2005-2012). Surgical procedures were recorded. Total and modality-specific rates were estimated by Poisson regression and compared. The median age, studies in patients aged >17 years, and referral diagnosis were tabulated for the last year of review. An average of 11,940 cardiovascular diagnostic tests was performed annually. The number of total studies, echocardiograms, catheterizations, and surgical procedures, did not change significantly across time. Echocardiography comprised 95% to 97% of all studies performed during each year of review. The use of cardiac MRI (2%) and cardiac CT (1%) increased linearly (P < .001), and the use of diagnostic catheterization decreased (0.7%; P = .0005). The median age was 3 years for echocardiography, 15 years for MRI, 11 years for CT, and 3 years for catheterization. The percentage of patients aged >17 years was 9% for echocardiography, 33% for cardiac MRI, 29% for cardiac CT, and 8% for catheterization. Most patients undergoing CT, MRI, and diagnostic catheterization had moderate or complex CHD. Cardiac CT is used increasingly in the recent era for evaluation of CHD. The increased use of both cardiac CT and cardiac MRI are temporally associated with a decrease in diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Copyright © 2013 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional EPR imaging of ischemic rat heart: monitoring of tissue oxygenation and pH

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, A.A.; Kirilyuk, I.A.; Khramtsov, V. V; Komarov, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose EPR imaging in spectral-spatial domain with application of soluble paramagnetic probes provides an opportunity for spatially-resolved functional measurements on living objects. The main purpose of this work was development of EPR methods for visualization of oxygenation and acidosis of ischemic myocardium. Methods EPR oxygen measurements were performed using isotopically substituted 2H,15N-dicarboxyproxyl. The radical has EPR linewidth of 320 mG and oxygen-induced line broadening of 0.53 mG/mmHg providing oxygen sensitivity down to 5 μM. pH measurements were performed using previously developed pH-sensitive imidazoline nitroxide. The radical has EPR spectrum with pH-dependable hyperfine splitting, pK = 6.6, providing pH sensitivity of about 0.05 units in physiological range. Results EPR imaging of isolated and perfused rat hearts were performed in 2D + spectral domain. Spatial resolution of the measurements was about 1.4 mm. Marked tissue hypoxia was observed in ischemic area of the hearts after occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery. Tissue oxygenation was partly restored upon reperfusion. EPR mapping of myocardial pH indicated acidosis of ischemic area down to pH 6.7 – 6.8. Conclusion This work demonstrates capability of low-field EPR and the nitroxide spin probes for mapping of myocardial oxygenation and pH. The developed approaches might be used for noninvasive investigation of microenvironment on living objects. PMID:26301868

  19. Left Ventricular Mass, Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cognitive Performance: Results From the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Haring, Bernhard; Omidpanah, Adam; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Best, Lyle G; Verney, Steven P; Shibata, Dean K; Cole, Shelley A; Ali, Tauqeer; Howard, Barbara V; Buchwald, Dedra; Devereux, Richard B

    2017-09-11

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) has been shown to serve as a measure of target organ damage resulting from chronic exposure to several risk factors. Data on the association of midlife LVM with later cognitive performance are sparse. We studied 721 adults (mean age 56 years at baseline) enrolled in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, 1993-1995) and the ancillary CDCAI (Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians) Study (2010-2013), a study population with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. LVM was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography at baseline in 1993 to 1995. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Generalized estimating equations were used to model associations between LVM and later imaging and cognition outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 17 years. A difference of 25 g in higher LVM was associated with marginally lower hippocampal volume (0.01%; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.00; P=0.001) and higher white matter grade (0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.18; P=0.014). Functionally, participants with higher LVM tended to have slightly lower scores on the modified mini-mental state examination (0.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-0.08; P=0.024). The main results persisted after adjusting for blood pressure levels or vascular disease. The small overall effect sizes are partly explained by survival bias because of the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in our population. Our findings emphasize the role of cardiovascular health in midlife as a target for the prevention of deleterious cognitive and functional outcomes in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The evaluation of clinical therapy effects of oral western medicine combined with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation in treating elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin; Guo, Li; Jiang, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treat the patients suffered from coronary heart disease with oral western medicine, combining with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation, and observe the therapeutic effects of such combination therapy method. Methods: 56 old people with coronary heart disease are randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Both groups of patients are treated by the routine drugs, in addition, the patients of the treatment group are treated by magnetic pulse therapy additionally. Compare clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the two groups when they are selected and after 30 days’ treatment. Results: after 30 days’ treatment, it is found that clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the treatment group are significantly improved compared with those when they are selected and those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: patients with coronary heart disease, treated by pulsed magnetic therapy and the conventional drug intervention, had relieved synptom, improve blood lipid and heart blood supply function. PMID:26309664

  1. A mathematical model of motion of the heart for use in generating source and attenuation maps for simulating emission imaging.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, P H; King, M A; Tsui, B M; LaCroix, K J; Xia, W

    1999-11-01

    This manuscript documents the alteration of the heart model of the three-dimensional (3D) mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom to represent cardiac motion. The objective of the inclusion of motion was to develop a digital simulation of the heart such that the impact of cardiac motion on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging could be assessed and methods of quantitating cardiac function could be investigated. The motion of the gated 3D MCAT's (gMCAT) heart is modeled using 128 separate and evenly spaced time samples from a blood volume curve approximating an average heart cycle. Sets of adjacent time samples can be grouped together to represent a single time interval within the heart cycle. Maximum and minimum chamber volumes were selected to be similar to those of a normal healthy person while the total heart volume stayed constant during the cardiac cycle. Myocardial mass was conserved during the cardiac cycle and the bases of the ventricles were modeled as moving towards the static apex. The orientation of the 3D MCAT heart was changed during contraction to rotate back and forth around the long axis through the center of the left ventricle (LV) using the end systolic time interval as the time point at which to reverse direction. Simple respiratory motion was also introduced by changing the orientation of the long axis of the heart to represent its variation with respiration. Heart models for 24 such orientations spanning the range of motion during the respiratory cycle were averaged together for each time sample to represent the blurring of the heart during the acquisition of multiple cardiac cycles. Finally, an option to model apical thinning of the myocardium was included. As an illustration of the application of the gMCAT phantom, the gated heart model was evaluated by measuring myocardial wall thickening. A linear relationship was obtained between maximum myocardial counts and myocardial thickness, similar to published results

  2. Settling the 'Score' with Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Technology and medicine forged a bond in 1986 when a group of dedicated NASA scientists, University of Southern California (USC) medical professors, and a Dutch cardiologist joined forces to prevent heart attacks, using ultrasound images of astronauts blood-flow patterns and the supercomputer depended upon to orchestrate the "Star Wars" Strategic Defense Initiative.

  3. Study of myocardial cell inhomogeneity of the human heart: Simulation and validation using polarized light imaging.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Paul Audain; Michalowicz, Gabrielle; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Usson, Yves; Zhu, Yuemin

    2016-05-01

    The arrangement or architecture of myocardial cells plays a fundamental role in the heart's function and its change was shown to be directly linked to heart diseases. Inhomogeneity level is an important index of myocardial cell arrangements in the human heart. The authors propose to investigate the inhomogeneity level of myocardial cells using polarized light imaging simulations and experiments. The idea is based on the fact that the myosin filaments in myocardial cells have the same properties as those of a uniaxial birefringent crystal. The method then consists in modeling the myosin filaments of myocardial cells as uniaxial birefringent crystal, simulating the behavior of the latter by means of the Mueller matrix, and measuring the final intensity of polarized light and consequently the inhomogeneity level of myocardial cells in each voxel through the use of crossed polarizers. The method was evaluated on both simulated and real tissues and under various myocardial cell configurations including parallel cells, crossed cells, and cells with random orientations. When myocardial cells run perfectly parallel to each other, all the polarized light was blocked by those parallel myocardial cells, and a high homogeneity level was observed. However, if myocardial cells were not parallel to each other, some leakage of the polarized light was observed, thus causing the decrease of the polarized light amplitude and homogeneity level. The greater the crossing angle between myocardial cells, the smaller the amplitude of the polarized light and the greater the inhomogeneity level. For two populations of myocardial cell crossing at an angle, the resulting azimuth angle of the voxel was the bisector of this angle. Moreover, the value of the inhomogeneity level began to decrease from a nonzero value when the voxel was not totally homogeneous, containing for example cell crossing. The proposed method enables the physical information of myocardial tissues to be estimated and the

  4. Advanced Functional Tumor Imaging and Precision Nuclear Medicine Enabled by Digital PET Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the background, basic principles, technological evolution, clinical capabilities, and future directions for functional tumor imaging as PET evolves from the conventional photomultiplier tube-based platform into a fully digital detector acquisition platform. The recent introduction of solid-state digital photon counting PET detector is the latest evolution of clinical PET which enables faster time-of-flight timing resolution that leads to more precise localization of the annihilation events and further contributes to reduction in partial volume and thus makes high definition and ultrahigh definition PET imaging feasible with current standard acquisition procedures. The technological advances of digital PET can be further leveraged by optimizing many of the acquisition and reconstruction methodologies to achieve faster image acquisition to improve cancer patient throughput, lower patient dose in accordance with ALARA, and improved quantitative accuracy to enable biomarker capability. Digital PET technology will advance molecular imaging capabilities beyond oncology and enable Precision Nuclear Medicine.

  5. Dawn of Advanced Molecular Medicine: Nanotechnological Advancements in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Shaffer, Travis M.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role not only in our everyday life (with all its benefits and dangers) but also in medicine. Nanoparticles are to date the most intriguing option to deliver high concentrations of agents specifically and directly to cancer cells; therefore, a wide variety of these nanomaterials has been developed and explored. These span the range from simple nanoagents to sophisticated smart devices for drug delivery or imaging. Nanomaterials usually provide a large surface area, allowing for decoration with a large amount of moieties on the surface for either additional functionalities or targeting. Besides using particles solely for imaging purposes, they can also carry as a payload a therapeutic agent. If both are combined within the same particle, a theranostic agent is created. The sophistication of highly developed nanotechnology targeting approaches provides a promising means for many clinical implementations and can provide improved applications for otherwise suboptimal formulations. In this review we will explore nanotechnology both for imaging and therapy to provide a general overview of the field and its impact on cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:25271430

  6. Correlative imaging in abdominal infection: an algorithmic approach using nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, P.D.; Hoffer, P.B.; Rosenfield, A.T.

    1988-10-01

    A wide variety of focal and diffuse infectious processes involve the abdomen. At one extreme are diseases such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, conditions usually diagnosed without imaging studies and treated without complications. At the other extreme are abdominal abscesses, which may defy clinical diagnosis, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may remain undetected or insufficiently characterized in spite of multiple imaging studies. The limited diagnostic value of clinical evaluation and plain film radiography in abscess detection has lead to widespread use of sophisticated imaging techniques including Gallium-67 (67Ga) scintigraphy, Indium-111 WBC (111In-WBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography (US). Abdominal abscesses occur in a wide variety of anatomic sites, may involve any abdominal organ system, and have a number of different causes. The heterogeneity of the disease process and the varying capabilities of the different imaging techniques (with respect to site and organ system) make reliance on a single technique undesirable. An algorithmic approach using 67Ga or 111In-WBC scintigraphy, CT, and US provides a logical and clinically practical approach to complicated abdominal infection. By recognizing differences in clinical presentation and by appreciating the diagnostic strengths and weaknesses of nuclear medicine, CT, and US, the algorithm provides a reliable and direct route to accurate diagnosis while minimizing unnecessary examinations.

  7. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  8. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal: an approach for perfusion imaging on the beating calf heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Karin; Karlsson, Daniel M.; Loenn, Urban; Traff, Stefan; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik

    2001-06-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) has successfully been used to map the myocardial perfusion on patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery on the arrested heart. The need for intra-operative evaluation of graft function is obvious in routine surgery but even more imperative when adapting new surgical techniques where the procedure is performed on the beating heart. When using LDPI on the beating heart, artifacts originating from the movement of the heart are superimposed on the Doppler signal. We have investigated a method to reduce these artifacts by controlling the sampling sequence with ECG-triggering. The method has been assessed in an animal model on the beating calf heart. After sternotomy, an area covering 1 cm2 was imaged at the anterior wall of the left ventricle. In this area, six perfusion images were captured each of them recorded at fixed, but different time intervals in the cardiac cycle. In addition continuous measurements at one spot was done during 1 - 2 minutes. The signal recorded during pumping action was high compared to measurements performed in the same muscle area during infusion of blood with a syringe pump. Repeated measurements captured at a fixed delay time from the R-peak in the same areas at the same heart frequency showed reproducibility. ECG-triggering of the laser Doppler signal is the first step in our attempts to adapt LDPI to enabling assessment of myocardial perfusion on the beating heart. Further technical achievements and in-vivo investigations are, however, needed and will be performed by our research team in future studies.

  9. A Medical Student Elective Promoting Humanism, Communication Skills, Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Physician Self-Care: An Evaluation of the HEART Program

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Michelle L.; Kohatsu, Wendy; Nunley, William; Mehta, Darshan; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Yeh, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2002 AMSA created a fourth year medical student elective known as HEART that provided the opportunity for students to explore humanism in medicine, self-care, complementary and alternative medicine modalities, communication, activism, and community building in a four week immersion experience. The educational effects of this elective, and whether it has met its stated goals, are unknown. Method The authors conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of the first eight cohorts of HEART graduates in 2010. Survey questions assessed respondents’ demographics and perspectives on the educational impact of the elective. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and qualitative analyses were guided by grounded theory. Results Of 168 eligible alumni, 122 (73%), completed the survey. The majority were female (70%), age ≤35 (77%), and trained in primary care specialties (66%). Half were attendings in practice. The majority of respondents felt the elective taught professionalism (89%) and communication skills (92%) well or very well. The majority highly agreed that the elective helped them better cope with stress during residency training (80%), taught them self-care skills (75%), and improved their ability to empathize and connect with patients (71%). Qualitative analysis of the personal and professional impact of the elective identified twelve common themes with self-discovery, self-care, and collegial development/community most frequently cited. Conclusions The majority of HEART graduates endorse learning important skills and benefiting from the experience both personally and professionally. Aspects of the HEART curriculum may help training programs teach professionalism and improve trainee well-being. PMID:24021470

  10. Automatic cumulative sums contour detection of FBP-reconstructed multi-object nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Protonotarios, Nicholas E; Spyrou, George M; Kastis, George A

    2017-06-01

    The problem of determining the contours of objects in nuclear medicine images has been studied extensively in the past, however most of the analysis has focused on a single object as opposed to multiple objects. The aim of this work is to develop an automated method for determining the contour of multiple objects in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructed images. These contours can be used for computing body edges for attenuation correction in PET and SPECT, as well as for eliminating streak artifacts outside the objects, which could be useful in compressive sensing reconstruction. Contour detection has been accomplished by applying a modified cumulative sums (CUSUM) scheme in the sinogram. Our approach automatically detects all objects in the image, without requiring a priori knowledge of the number of distinct objects in the reconstructed image. This method has been tested in simulated phantoms, such as an image-quality (IQ) phantom and two digital multi-object phantoms, as well as a real NEMA phantom and a clinical thoracic study. For this purpose, a GE Discovery PET scanner was employed. The detected contours achieved root mean square accuracy of 1.14 pixels, 1.69 pixels and 3.28 pixels and a Hausdorff distance of 3.13, 3.12 and 4.50 pixels, for the simulated image-quality phantom PET study, the real NEMA phantom and the clinical thoracic study, respectively. These results correspond to a significant improvement over recent results obtained in similar studies. Furthermore, we obtained an optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA) localization error of 0.94 and 1.48, for the two-objects and three-objects simulated phantoms, respectively. Our method performs efficiently for sets of convex objects and hence it provides a robust tool for automatic contour determination with precise results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  12. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  13. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XII. Ultrasound imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Filippucci, E; Meenagh, G; Delle Sedie, A; Riente, L; Iagnocco, A; Bombardieri, S; Valesini, G; Grassi, W

    2007-01-01

    The present review discusses the most frequent sport-related conditions which can present to rheumatologists and the available evidence base for using ultrasonography (US) in such scenarios. From a rheumatological perspective, sports-related pathology is mainly characterised by sub-acute and chronic overuse and stress-related disorders involving tendons, ligaments, muscles, joints and entheses. Major acute injuries are less frequently assessed in a standard rheumatological setting.Longitudinal studies are required to determine the clinical importance of US findings in athletes, particularly those who are asymptomatic. US findings need to be correlated with standard references including surgical and magnetic resonance imaging assessments. Future research should also be directed at determining the usefulness of power Doppler technique in monitoring sport-related abnormalities.

  14. Dual-source computed tomography angiography image quality in patients with fast heart rates.

    PubMed

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Kim, Danny; Babb, James; Bod, Jessica; Bodd, Jessica; Jacobs, Jill E

    2009-01-01

    Dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) provides diagnostic quality images of the coronary arteries over a wide range of heart rates (HRs). Current dose reduction techniques, including electrocardiographic (ECG) dose modulation and prospective triggering, are optimized for use in patients with relatively slow (<70 beats/min) HRs by limiting radiation dose to the ideal phases of image acquisition. We evaluated coronary vessel image quality (IQ) at different reconstruction phases in patients with fast HRs (>80 beats/min) to assess potential feasibility of prospective triggering techniques on DSCT. Patients (n=101) underwent 64-slice DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating without beta-blocker premedication. Image reconstructions were performed at 10% R-R wave phase intervals (0%-90%). Patients were grouped by mean HR: group A, <60 beats/min (n=22); group B, 60-80 beats/min (n=57); group C, >80 beats/min (n=22). Coronary artery IQ was assessed by 2 readers in consensus on a 5-point scale. Optimal IQ occurred at 70% phase for all arteries in groups A and B. In group C, optimal IQ occurred at 30% and 40% phases. The 70% phase achieved diagnostic IQ in 97% of group A and 86% of group B. A widened reconstruction window (30%-50%) was necessary for diagnostic IQ in a similar high proportion (84%) of group C. Optimal IQ occurs during late-systolic phases for patients with fast HRs (>80 beats/min). Late-systolic phase prospective triggering is potentially feasible in these patients; however, given the widened reconstruction windows required, a higher radiation dose may be required compared with patients with slower HRs (<80 beats/min).

  15. Shadowed by light, knowing by heart: Preservice teachers' images of knowing (in) math and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Kathleen T.

    Elementary preservice teachers' school experiences of math and science have shaped their images of knowing, including what counts as knowledge and what it means to know (in) math and science. In this dissertation, preservice teachers' voices challenge the hegemony of official everyday narratives relating to these images. The presentation of this research text as a physical science textbook (entitled: postMODERN conSCIENCEness: Reflections on Light) presents a kaleidoscope of elementary preservice teachers' narratives of knowing (in) math and science. These narratives are tied together by the metaphorical thread of the properties of light, but also held apart by the tensions and contradictions with/in such a critical epistemological exploration. The only grand narrative that could be imag(in)ed is one in which the personal lived experience narratives of the participants mingle and interweave to create a sort of kaleidoscope of narratives. With each turn of a kaleidoscope, light's reflection engenders new patterns and emergent designs. The narratives of this research text highlight patterns of exclusion, gendered messages, binary oppositions, and the particle nature and shadowy texture of knowing (in) math and science. Emphasized in the (re)presentation format is the reflexive and polyphonic nature of the research design, illustrated through layers of voiced re-presentation text with/in performing text with/in metaphorical text. The metaphor of a kaleidoscope is an empowering possibility for a critical narrative written to both engage and provoke the reader into imag(in)ing a critical journey toward possibilities for a different "knowing by heart" in math and science and for appreciating lived experience narratives with/in teacher education.

  16. Augmented reality intravenous injection simulator based 3D medical imaging for veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education.

  17. Fetal and neonatal imaging and strategy of primary neonatal heart transplantation in hypoplastic left heart with Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Hammel, James M; Danford, David A; Spicer, Robert L; Kutty, Shelby

    2015-03-01

    We present the anatomic constellation of mitral stenosis/aortic atresia variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Ebstein's anomaly, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, an exceeding rare congenital heart defect. Prenatal echocardiography led to concern about the capacity of the right ventricle to increase cardiac output with lung expansion and pulmonary arterial runoff at birth, prompting the precaution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator standby at delivery. Stage I palliation was not attempted, and control of pulmonary arterial blood flow was achieved with pulmonary artery banding, allowing sufficient ongoing hemodynamic stability. Orthotopic cardiac transplantation, repair of hypoplastic aortic arch, and primary sutureless repair of left pulmonary veins was performed, using dual-site arterial cannulation and continuous mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. We discuss how this unique echocardiographic anatomy influenced the surgical decision and point out how it guided therapy toward a strategy of primary transplantation rather than standard staged surgical palliation.

  18. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part II: Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Extracardiac Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease. PMID:27504381

  19. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part II: Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease and Extracardiac Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-06-01

    Acyanotic heart disease constitutes a significant majority of patient who may present with non-cardiac symptoms. Either they are detected incidentally or present with respiratory complaints. Equipped with knowledge of anatomy by echocardiography and radiographic methods described in previous part of this presentation, diagnosis may be confidently attempted. On plain radiography acyanotic congenital heart diseases have variable appearance depending upon severity of disease. Cardiac size, chamber enlargement and pulmonary vascular pattern are key elements. Typically left to right shunts with large volume flow are associated with pulmonary plethora. Plain radiography has an important role in detecting manifestation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severe stenosis of pulmonary valve is associated with pulmonary oligemia. Small intra-cardiac shunts and anomalies of coronary arteries generally present with normal cardiac size and pulmonary arterial pattern. Disease spectrum presented in this illustration demands thorough scrutiny of pulmonary, osseous and abdominal abnormalities. This section illustrates some commonly encountered spectrum of acyanotic cardiac disease.

  20. Adult congenital heart disease imaging with second-generation dual-source computed tomography: initial experiences and findings.

    PubMed

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Sidhu, Manavjot S; El-Sherief, Ahmed; Rojas, Carlos; Yeh, Doreen Defaria; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Liberthson, Richard; Abbara, Suhny; Bhatt, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Adult congenital heart disease patients present a unique challenge to the cardiac imager. Patients may present with both acute and chronic manifestations of their complex congenital heart disease and also require surveillance for sequelae of their medical and surgical interventions. Multimodality imaging is often required to clarify their anatomy and physiology. Radiation dose is of particular concern in these patients with lifelong imaging needs for their chronic disease. The second-generation dual-source scanner is a recently available advanced clinical cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanner. It offers a combination of the high-spatial resolution of modern CT, the high-temporal resolution of dual-source technology, and the wide z-axis coverage of modern cone-beam geometry CT scanners. These advances in technology allow novel protocols that markedly reduce scan time, significantly reduce radiation exposure, and expand the physiologic imaging capabilities of cardiac CT. We present a case series of complicated adult congenital heart disease patients imaged by the second-generation dual-source CT scanner with extremely low-radiation doses and excellent image quality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nuclear medicine and radionuclide imaging: a survey of recruitment issues in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gray, H W; Prvulovich, E; Nunan, T

    2003-04-01

    This wide ranging survey has highlighted difficulties in recruiting trained and committed individuals into nuclear medicine and radionuclide radiology. Several key factors have been recognised that reduce the attractiveness of the training. Recommendations include the rotation of medical senior house officers through nuclear medicine, reconsideration of dual accreditation in nuclear medicine and medicine, an increase in the number of consultant posts in nuclear medicine, parity of remuneration for nuclear medicine trainees and finally, an appropriate sessional provision for those providing radionuclide radiology services.

  2. Quo vadis pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Conway, James J

    2007-07-01

    What has happened to the nuclear medicine subspecialty since those earlier issues of the Seminars in Nuclear Medicine? The earliest issues in 1972 presented topics in vogue at the time that included brain "scanning," cisternography, whole body counting, and abdominal imaging with (99m)Tc pertechnetate. The second pediatric subspecialty issues in 1993 reflected a 21-year evolution of the subspecialty and included the topics of renal scintigraphy, labeled cells for abdominal imaging, metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy for benign disorders. The current issues will address diverse topics that cover the spectrum of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine. They include radiation exposure and absorbed dose reduction, positron emission tomography/computed tomography in children, neuroblastoma and other neuroendocrine tumors, thyroid cancer and therapy, bone density studies and, of course, the most prevalent studies in children, renal and bone. Brain, heart, and lung studies complete the spectrum.

  3. Dose Optimization to Minimize Radiation Risk for Children Undergoing CT and Nuclear Medicine Imaging Is Misguided and Detrimental.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Sacks, Bill; Pennington, Charles W; Welsh, James S

    2017-06-01

    A debate exists within the medical community on whether the linear no-threshold model of ionizing radiation exposure accurately predicts the subsequent incidence of radiogenic cancer. In this article, we evaluate evidence refuting the linear no-threshold model and corollary efforts to reduce radiation exposure from CT and nuclear medicine imaging in accord with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle, particularly for children. Further, we review studies demonstrating that children are not, in fact, more radiosensitive than adults in the radiologic imaging dose range, rendering dose reduction for children unjustifiable and counterproductive. Efforts to minimize nonexistent risks are futile and a major source of persistent radiophobia. Radiophobia is detrimental to patients and parents, induces stress, and leads to suboptimal image quality and avoidance of imaging, thus increasing misdiagnoses and consequent harm while offering no compensating benefits. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  4. Medical imaging in personalised medicine: a white paper of the research committee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR).

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually tailored treatments, a concept that has been designated 'personalised medicine' (PM), which aims to deliver the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Medical imaging has always been personalised and is fundamental to almost all aspects of PM. It is instrumental in solving clinical differential diagnoses. Imaging procedures are tailored to the clinical problem and patient characteristics. Screening for preclinical disease is done with imaging. Stratification based on imaging biomarkers can help identify individuals suited for preventive intervention. Treatment decisions are based on the in vivo visualisation of the location and extent of an abnormality, as well as the loco-regional physiological, biochemical and biological processes using structural and molecular imaging. Image-guided biopsy provides relevant tissue specimens for genetic/molecular characterisation. In addition, radiogenomics relate imaging biomarkers to these genetic and molecular features. Furthermore, imaging is essential to patient-tailored therapy planning, therapy monitoring and follow-up of disease, as well as targeting non-invasive or minimally invasive treatments, especially with the rise of theranostics. Radiologists need to be prepared for this new paradigm as it will mean changes in training, clinical practice and in research. Key Points • Medical