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Sample records for medicine trial launched

  1. Lung-MAP Launches: First Precision Medicine Trial From National Clinical Trials Network

    Cancer.gov

    A unique public-private collaboration today announced the initiation of the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) trial, a multi-drug, multi-arm, biomarker-driven clinical trial for patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinom

  2. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  3. NIH announces the launch of 3 integrated precision medicine trials: ALCHEMIST

    Cancer.gov

    The Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials, or ALCHEMIST, will identify early-stage lung cancer patients with tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against

  4. U.S. Launches Early Trial of Zika Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160226.html U.S. Launches Early Trial of Zika Vaccine The DNA-based jab is intended to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A potential vaccine for the Zika virus has entered early clinical trials to assess ...

  5. Challenges in launching multinational oncology clinical trials in India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Kamal S.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Jagannathan, Ramesh; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Saini, Monika L.; Mistry, Khurshid; Ali, Raghib; Gupta, Sudeep

    2013-01-01

    In the recent past, there has been an impressive growth in the number of clinical trials launched worldwide, including India. Participation in well-designed oncology clinical trials is of advantage to Indian healthcare system in general, and cancer patients in particular. However, the number of clinical trials being run in India is not commensurate with the cancer burden prevailing in the country. In this article, the authors investigate the reasons for this discrepancy, highlight critical bottlenecks, and propose ways to ameliorate the situation. PMID:24455545

  6. Herbal medicine, randomised controlled trials and global core competencies.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Nandi Louise; Hughes, Gail

    2012-12-01

    Despite widespread use, few empirical data on the efficacy of traditional medicine are available. We conducted systematic reviews of eight widely used African medicines and identified only one plant, Pelargonium sidoides, which has been extensively studied (including in a Cochrane systematic review). To address the need for rigorous science to underpin traditional medicine claims, the South African Herbal Science and Medicine Institute at the University of Western Cape launched the Multi-disciplinary University Traditional Health Initiative (MUTHI) in 2011. The European Union-funded initiative aims to build sustainable research capacity on plants for better public health in Africa. A 2011 needs analysis of clinicians and scientists from 14 African countries confirmed a lack of clinical trial methodology, knowledge and experience. In response, MUTHI deliverables include annual clinical trial methodology workshops in host countries and development of e-learning modules. The initiative provides a unique opportunity for developing African capacity to discover new medicinal products. PMID:23498035

  7. [Clinical trials with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Schüssler-Lenz, M; Schneider, C K

    2010-01-01

    For advanced therapies, the same basic principles for assessment apply as for any other biotechnological medicinal product. Nevertheless, the extent of data for quality, safety, and efficacy can be highly specific. Until recently, advanced therapies were not uniformly regulated across Europe, e.g., tissue engineered products were regulated either as medicinal products or medical devices. Thus, for some products no data from clinical studies are available, e.g., for autologous chondrocyte products. The draft guideline on Good Clinical Practice for clinical trials with advanced therapies describes specific additional requirements, e.g., ensuring traceability. Most clinical studies with advanced therapies in Germany are still in early phase I or II trials with highly divergent types of products and clinical indications. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) has been established to meet the scientific and regulatory challenges with advanced therapies.

  8. A new era in sports science: the launch of BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Elizabeth C; Horne, Genevieve

    2013-03-28

    This Editorial celebrates the launch of BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation within the BMC series of journals published by BioMed Central. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation incorporates the recently closed Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology (SMARTT) with an expanded scope and Editorial Board. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation will fill its own niche in the BMC series alongside other companion journals including BMC Physiology, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders and BMC Surgery.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Cancer Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients. Currently, what cancer clinical trials are the NCI and medical community sponsoring involving CAM modalities? Cancer CAM clinical trials are listed in NCI’s PDQ ® (Physician Data Query) computer database of clinical ...

  10. Stem cell trials for cardiovascular medicine: ethical rationale.

    PubMed

    Niemansburg, Sophie L; Teraa, Martin; Hesam, Husna; van Delden, Johannes J M; Verhaar, Marianne C; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell-based interventions provide new treatment prospects for many disease conditions, including cardiovascular disorders. Clinical trials are necessary to collect adequate evidence on (long-term) safety and efficacy of novel interventions such as stem cells, but the design and launch of clinical trials, from first-in-human studies to larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs), is scientifically and ethically challenging. Stem cells are different from traditional pharmaceuticals, surgical procedures, and medical devices in the following ways: the novelty and complexity of stem cells, the invasiveness of the procedures, and the novel aim of regeneration. These specifics, combined with the characteristics of the study population, will have an impact on the design and ethics of RCTs. The recently closed JUVENTAS trial will serve as an example to identify the (interwoven) scientific and ethical challenges in the design and launch of stem cell RCTs. The JUVENTAS trial has investigated the efficacy of autologous bone marrow cells in end-stage vascular patients, in a double-blind sham-controlled design. We first describe the choices, considerations, and experiences of the JUVENTAS team. Subsequently, we identify the main ethical and scientific challenges and discuss what is important to consider in the design of future stem cell RCTs: assessment of risks and benefits, the choice for outcome measures, the choice for the comparator, the appropriate selection of participants, and adequate informed consent. Additionally, the stem cell field is highly in the spotlight due to the (commercial) interests and expectations. This warrants a cautious pace of translation and scrupulous set up of clinical trials, as failures could put the field in a negative light. At the same time, knowledge from clinical trials is necessary for the field to progress. We conclude that in the scientifically and ethically challenging field of stem cell RCTs, researchers and clinicians have to

  11. The placebo effect and randomized trials: analysis of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2002-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials are generally regarded as the gold standard of study designs to determine causality. The inclusion of a placebo group in these trials, when appropriate, is critical to access the efficacy of a drug or supplement. The placebo response itself has received some attention in the medical literature over the past fifty years. The recent increasing utilization of dietary supplements and herbal medications by patients makes it imperative to reevaluate the placebo response in conventional and alternative medicine. This article will review some of the negative and positive results from randomized trials utilizing dietary supplements (androstenedione, beta-carotene, CoQ10, garlic, soy, vitamin C and E...) for a number of non-urologic and urologic conditions, including cancer. PMID:12109341

  12. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. Methods We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Results Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. Conclusion No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may

  13. Evidence-based medicine: the design and interpretation of noninferiority clinical trials in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Freise, K J; Lin, T-L; Fan, T M; Recta, V; Clark, T P

    2013-01-01

    Noninferiority trials are clinical studies designed to demonstrate that an investigational drug is at least as effective as an established treatment within a predetermined margin. They are conducted, in part, because of ethical concerns of administering a placebo to veterinary patients when an established effective treatment exists. The use of noninferiority trial designs has become more common in veterinary medicine with the increasing number of established veterinary therapeutics and the desire to eliminate potential pain or distress in a placebo-controlled study. Selecting the appropriate active control and an a priori noninferiority margin between the investigational and active control drug are unique and critical design factors for noninferiority studies. Without reliable historical knowledge of the disease response in the absence of treatment and of the response to the selected active control drug, proper design and interpretation of a noninferiority trial is not possible. Despite the appeal of conducting noninferiority trials to eliminate ethical concerns of placebo-controlled studies, there are real limitations and possible ethical conundrums associated with noninferiority trials. The consequences of incorrect study conclusions because of poor noninferiority trial design need careful attention. Alternative trial designs to typical noninferiority studies exist, but these too have limitations and must also be carefully considered.

  14. Clinical trials with herbal medicinal products in children: a literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Peter; Kaft, Karin; Nieber, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products have been used since several decades for the health care of children. Nevertheless, well-controlled clinical studies with herbal medicinal products for children are rare. The authors' objective therefore was to evaluate clinical trials with herbal medicinal products in children, based on a literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. A total of 133 trials were identified. 90 studies were randomized, 32.2% were randomized and double-blinded. Most studies were performed in China, in the age group 6-12 years, and in children with respiratory diseases, most often herbal medicinal products with Hedera helix were tested. The analysis revealed that studies on herbal medicinal products were feasible in children. Although clinical trials have been found, this literature search have limitations and did not cover all studies performed. However, only few clinical trials of high quality were identified. Further studies therefore are urgently needed to support the good empirical findings. PMID:26183729

  15. Herbal Medicines for Treating Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soobin; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Ko, Youme; Sasaki, Yui; Park, Jeong-Su; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods. On December 9, 2015, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, AMED, CNKI, KoreaMed, KMBASE, OASIS, and J-STAGE with no restriction on language or published year. We selected randomized controlled trials that involved patients with metabolic syndrome being treated with herbal medicines as intervention. The main keywords were "Chinese herbal medicines", "metabolic syndrome", and "randomized controlled trials". Herbal substances which were not based on East Asian medical theory, combination therapy with western medicines, and concurrent diseases other than metabolic syndrome were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane's "Risk of Bias" tool. The protocol or review was registered in PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (CRD42014006842). Results. From 1,098 articles, 12 RCTs were included in this review: five trials studied herbal medicines versus a placebo or no treatment, and seven trials studied herbal medicines versus western medicines. Herbal medicines were effective on decreasing waist circumference, blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Conclusion. This study suggests the possibility that herbal medicines can be complementary and alternative medicines for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27413388

  16. [Insist on the nature of evidence-based medicine for the development of glaucoma clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Ge, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has markedly promoted the development of ophthalmology.Glaucoma clinical trials have been developed rapidly. Clinical trial papers have been tremendously increasing in the decade, but unhealthy tendency deviating from the nature of EBM---"conscientious, explicit and judicious" has come into notice by the medical society. It is the time to develop patient based medicine, combining with experience-based, experiment-based, ethics-based, economy-based medicine. Only face up to the fundamental problems can we avoid misleading clinicians and provide better health care of affordable, accessible, accountable medical service for patients. This is the intrinsic value of evidence-based medicine.

  17. Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xue; Han, Mei; Wang, Yu-Yi; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Patients with gout referring to Chinese herbal medicine are not rare in China, and a great number of clinical trials on herbal medicine have been published. However, there has not been a systematic review to summarize the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for gout. We searched for randomized clinical trials on Chinese herbal medicine for gout till December 2012. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. RevMan 5.2 was used to synthesize the results. We included 57 trials involving 4,527 gout patients. The quality of trials was generally poor. No trial reported health-related quality of life in patients. There is not enough evidence showing that herbal medicine was statistically more effective than conventional medications in pain relief [mean difference (MD), -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.06, 0.00], but herbal medicine combined with conventional medicines may have better effectiveness (MD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59, -0.07). Trials that reported function limitation relief found herbal medicine more effective than conventional medications (MD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.32, -0.15). There was no evidence showing that herbal medicine prevents gout recurrence better. Twenty-five out of 41 trials, involving 23 different herbal prescriptions, found statistical significance in lowering serum uric acid level, and the overall effect from Chinese herbal medicine in inflammation relief is better than conventional therapies in 19 trials with 17 different prescriptions. The current data show that herbal medicine leads to fewer side reactions compared to conventional therapies [risk ratio (RR), 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.15]. Chinese herbal medicine may have clinical effectiveness for functional recovery in patients with gout, and lead to a safe control of serum uric acid level and inflammation severity. Due to low quality of trials

  18. [Defining trials of medicinal products according to the revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO)].

    PubMed

    Vos, E J; Huitema, A D R

    2006-09-23

    The revised Dutch Medical Research in Human Subjects Act (WMO), which implements the European directive regarding 'good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use' (2001/20/EC), became effective on March 1, 2006. The revision places additional requirements on trials of medicinal products. Whether a trial should be regarded as a trial of a medicinal product is therefore an important question. The law does not provide adequate guidance for the classification of trials in which biological samples are collected, e.g. for genomic, proteomic or pharmacokinetic studies, while a medicinal product is given for a registered indication. Classifying these types of trials as trials of medicinal products does not enhance the safety of the participants. Therefore, these studies should not be considered as trials of medicinal products to avoid the increased administrative burden required by the revised WMO.

  19. Randomised trials in context: practical problems and social aspects of evidence-based medicine and policy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Warren; Raman, Sujatha; Turner, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Randomised trials can provide excellent evidence of treatment benefit in medicine. Over the last 50 years, they have been cemented in the regulatory requirements for the approval of new treatments. Randomised trials make up a large and seemingly high-quality proportion of the medical evidence-base. However, it has also been acknowledged that a distorted evidence-base places a severe limitation on the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We describe four important ways in which the evidence from randomised trials is limited or partial: the problem of applying results, the problem of bias in the conduct of randomised trials, the problem of conducting the wrong trials and the problem of conducting the right trials the wrong way. These problems are not intrinsic to the method of randomised trials or the EBM philosophy of evidence; nevertheless, they are genuine problems that undermine the evidence that randomised trials provide for decision-making and therefore undermine EBM in practice. Finally, we discuss the social dimensions of these problems and how they highlight the indispensable role of judgement when generating and using evidence for medicine. This is the paradox of randomised trial evidence: the trials open up expert judgment to scrutiny, but this scrutiny in turn requires further expertise. PMID:26341114

  20. Randomised trials in context: practical problems and social aspects of evidence-based medicine and policy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Warren; Raman, Sujatha; Turner, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Randomised trials can provide excellent evidence of treatment benefit in medicine. Over the last 50 years, they have been cemented in the regulatory requirements for the approval of new treatments. Randomised trials make up a large and seemingly high-quality proportion of the medical evidence-base. However, it has also been acknowledged that a distorted evidence-base places a severe limitation on the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We describe four important ways in which the evidence from randomised trials is limited or partial: the problem of applying results, the problem of bias in the conduct of randomised trials, the problem of conducting the wrong trials and the problem of conducting the right trials the wrong way. These problems are not intrinsic to the method of randomised trials or the EBM philosophy of evidence; nevertheless, they are genuine problems that undermine the evidence that randomised trials provide for decision-making and therefore undermine EBM in practice. Finally, we discuss the social dimensions of these problems and how they highlight the indispensable role of judgement when generating and using evidence for medicine. This is the paradox of randomised trial evidence: the trials open up expert judgment to scrutiny, but this scrutiny in turn requires further expertise.

  1. [Features of Clinical Register of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy Based on ClinicalTrials.gov. (USA)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-fei; Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Zhi-guo

    2015-11-01

    In recent 10 years, clinical trials of Chinese medicine and pharmacy (cMP) at clinicalTrials.gov.(USA) are gradually increasing. In order to analyze features of CMP clinical register, ClinicalTrials.gov register database were comprehensively retrieved in this study. Included clinical trials were input one item after another using EXCEL. A final of 348 CMP clinical trials were included. Results showed that China occupied the first place in CMP clinical register, followed by USA. CMP clinical trials, sponsored mainly by colleges/universities and hospitals, mostly covered interventional studies on evaluating safety/effectiveness of CMP. The proportions of studies, sponsored by mainland China and companies, recruitment trials and multi-center clinical trials in interventional trials were increasing. The proportions of studies sponsored by Hong Kong and Taiwan, research completed trials, unclear research status, phase III clinical trials, and published research trials in interventional trials were decreasing. Published ratios of CMP clinical trials were quite low. There were more missing types and higher proportions in trial register information.

  2. Herbal Medicines for Treating Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Youme; Sasaki, Yui; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods. On December 9, 2015, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, AMED, CNKI, KoreaMed, KMBASE, OASIS, and J-STAGE with no restriction on language or published year. We selected randomized controlled trials that involved patients with metabolic syndrome being treated with herbal medicines as intervention. The main keywords were “Chinese herbal medicines”, “metabolic syndrome”, and “randomized controlled trials”. Herbal substances which were not based on East Asian medical theory, combination therapy with western medicines, and concurrent diseases other than metabolic syndrome were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane's “Risk of Bias” tool. The protocol or review was registered in PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (CRD42014006842). Results. From 1,098 articles, 12 RCTs were included in this review: five trials studied herbal medicines versus a placebo or no treatment, and seven trials studied herbal medicines versus western medicines. Herbal medicines were effective on decreasing waist circumference, blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Conclusion. This study suggests the possibility that herbal medicines can be complementary and alternative medicines for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27413388

  3. Regulation of Clinical Trials with Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in Germany.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matthias; Anliker, Brigitte; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schuele, Silke

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union, clinical trials for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products are regulated at the national level, in contrast to the situation for a Marketing Authorisation Application, in which a centralised procedure is foreseen for these medicinal products. Although based on a common understanding regarding the regulatory requirement to be fulfilled before conduct of a clinical trial with an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product, the procedures and partly the scientific requirements for approval of a clinical trial application differ between the European Union Member States. This chapter will thus give an overview about the path to be followed for a clinical trial application and the subsequent approval process for an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product in Germany and will describe the role of the stakeholders that are involved. In addition, important aspects of manufacturing, quality control and non-clinical testing of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in the clinical development phase are discussed. Finally, current and future approaches for harmonisation of clinical trial authorisation between European Union Member States are summarised.

  4. [Post launch studies].

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Isonishi, Seiji; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Shigeru; Sone, Saburo; Nakamura, Seigo; Kato, Masuhiro; Mikami, Osamu; von Euler, Mikael; Blackledge, George; Milsted, Bob; Vose, Brent

    2002-11-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a growing concept in Japan as it is elsewhere. Central to improving the use of EBM is generation of data through well conducted controlled clinical studies. There are many problems associated with conduct of clinical studies after launch in Japan, and many initiatives are ongoing to improve the situation. Development of Clinical Research Coordinators (CRO) and central Data Management centers are key to improving the quality of clinical research in Japan. Currently Japan has an undeveloped legal system with regard to post-launch trials and off-label use of registered drugs. There is no reimbursement for off-label and various restrictions imposed on the recipients of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's (MHLW) funds. Maybe the biggest problem is the high cost of post-marketing studies sponsored by pharmaceutical manufacturers. A high quality system to support post launch clinical studies need a solid financial base. There is a need for a suitable review system for investigator initiated multi-centre studies, as the current IRB system is not sufficient. There are also challenges regarding the differences, perceived or real, in treatment practice and available registrations in Japan and in the West, causing problems in choosing suitable comparators and study designs. At the present time it is not clear whether investigator initiated trials will be acceptable for registration purposes in Japan. The agreed first priority is to build a suitable and strong infrastructure within the academic community to support researchers to investigate important questions with or without pharmaceutical company support. Despite all these issues, several groundbreaking projects are under way throughout Japan, in many different areas and by different collaborative groups, some with government support. In fact, researcher-initiated clinical trials achieved a rapid growth in Japan in the past year.

  5. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP): −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P < 0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P = 0.0003). The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P < 0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P < 0.00001) or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P < 0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P < 0.00001). 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension. PMID:24693319

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Acute Mountain Sickness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Xing, Yanwei; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Wenrui; Huang, Junyi; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P = 0.01). Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P < 0.00001). Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P < 0.0001). Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P = 0.02). Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results. PMID:24454510

  7. Curcumin: from ancient medicine to current clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, H; Planalp, R; Cho, J; Torti, F M; Torti, S V

    2008-06-01

    Curcumin is the active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). Curcumin has a surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. The pleiotropic activities of curcumin derive from its complex chemistry as well as its ability to influence multiple signaling pathways, including survival pathways such as those regulated by NF-kappaB, Akt, and growth factors; cytoprotective pathways dependent on Nrf2; and metastatic and angiogenic pathways. Curcumin is a free radical scavenger and hydrogen donor, and exhibits both pro- and antioxidant activity. It also binds metals, particularly iron and copper, and can function as an iron chelator. Curcumin is remarkably non-toxic and exhibits limited bioavailability. Curcumin exhibits great promise as a therapeutic agent, and is currently in human clinical trials for a variety of conditions, including multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer, myelodysplastic syndromes, colon cancer, psoriasis and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Designs and challenges for personalized medicine studies in oncology: focus on the SHIVA trial.

    PubMed

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Trédan, Olivier; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Campone, Mario; Goncalves, Anthony; Isambert, Nicolas; Conroy, Thierry; Gentien, David; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Pouliquen, Anne-Lise; Servant, Nicolas; Stern, Marc-Henri; Le Corroller, Anne-Gaëlle; Armanet, Sébastien; Rio Frio, Thomas; Paoletti, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Personalized medicine is defined by the National Cancer Institute as "a form of medicine that uses information about a person's genes, proteins, and environment to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease." In oncology, the term "personalized medicine" arose with the emergence of molecularly targeted agents. The prescription of approved molecularly targeted agents to cancer patients currently relies on the primary tumor location and histological subtype. Predictive biomarkers of efficacy of these modern agents have been exclusively validated in specific tumor types. A major concern today is to determine whether the prescription of molecularly targeted therapies based on tumor molecular abnormalities, independently of primary tumor location and histology, would improve the outcome of cancer patients. This new paradigm requires prospective validation before being implemented in clinical practice. In this paper, we will first review different designs, including observational cohorts, as well as nonrandomized and randomized clinical trials, that have been recently proposed to evaluate the relevance of this approach, and further discuss their advantages and drawbacks. The design of the SHIVA trial, a randomized proof-of-concept phase II trial comparing therapy based on tumor molecular profiling versus conventional therapy in patients with refractory cancer will be detailed. Finally, we will discuss the multiple challenges associated with the implementation of personalized medicine in oncology, as well as perspectives for the future.

  9. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth O; Patay, Bradley; Diamant, Joel; Issell, Brian; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    N-of-1 or single subject clinical trials consider an individual patient as the sole unit of observation in a study investigating the efficacy or side-effect profiles of different interventions. The ultimate goal of an n-of-1 trial is to determine the optimal or best intervention for an individual patient using objective data-driven criteria. Such trials can leverage study design and statistical techniques associated with standard population-based clinical trials, including randomization, washout and crossover periods, as well as placebo controls. Despite their obvious appeal and wide use in educational settings, n-of-1 trials have been used sparingly in medical and general clinical settings. We briefly review the history, motivation and design of n-of-1 trials and emphasize the great utility of modern wireless medical monitoring devices in their execution. We ultimately argue that n-of-1 trials demand serious attention among the health research and clinical care communities given the contemporary focus on individualized medicine. PMID:21695041

  10. Syndrome Differentiation in Chinese Herbal Medicine for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Literature Review of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yan; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been commonly used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Syndrome differentiation is one of the important characteristics of TCM. To assess the application and basic characteristics of syndrome differentiation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS, we performed this paper. We conducted electronic searches in main Chinese and English databases till March 2012. A total of 735 RCTs involving 67,784 IBS participants were included. 224 (30.5%) studies applied syndrome differentiation. The major syndromes of IBS patients were the syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency (56.8%), spleen-stomach weakness (49.4%), spleen-kidney yang deficiency (48.1%), and cold and heat in complexity (29.6%). Herbal formulas were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation in 202 studies. Chinese patent medicine was more commonly used in studies that only enrolled patients with a specific syndrome. 15 studies compared the therapeutic effect among different syndromes, of which 6 studies showed that there were significant differences among different syndromes. The low use of TCM syndrome differentiation in randomized trials of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS results in the poor pertinence of treatment. TCM syndrome differentiation should be used in further studies at the stage of recruitment, treatment, and data analyses. PMID:23554827

  11. Randomized controlled trials on complementary and traditional medicine in the korean literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Da-Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Wieland, L Susan; Shin, Byung-Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to identify all of the features of complementary and alternative (CAM) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the Korean literature and then introduce English-speaking researchers to the bibliometric and risk of bias characteristics of this literature. Methods. Eleven electronic databases and sixteen Korean journals were searched to August 2013 for RCTs of CAM therapies. Key study characteristics were extracted and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Results. Three hundred and sixty publications met our inclusion criteria. Complementary and traditional medicine RCTs in the Korean literature emerged in the mid-1990s and increased in the mid-2000s. The most common CAM interventions include acupuncture (59.4%) and herbal medicine (8.3%). The largest proportion of trials evaluated CAM for musculoskeletal conditions (20.7%). Adequate methods of randomization were reported in 41.7% of the RCTs, whereas only 8.3% reported adequate allocation concealment. A low proportion of trials reported participant blinding (34.2%) and outcome assessor blinding (22.5%). Conclusions. Korean CAM RCTs are typically omitted from systematic reviews resulting in the potential for language bias. This study will enable these trials of diverse quality to be identified and assessed for inclusion in future systematic reviews on CAM interventions.

  12. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Wang, Yuyi; Chen, Shiuan; Liu, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumor associated with male reproductive system. Objective The existing eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were critically appraised for the safety and effectiveness of CHM for prostate cancer. Methods A literature search was conducted by using PubMed, CENTRAL, CNKI, CBM, VIP and Wanfang databases until August 2015. RCTs of CHM or CHM plus conventional medicine for prostate cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes appraised were survival time, time to progression and quality of life. The risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane Handbook was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included trials. Revman 5.3 software was used for data analyses. Risk ratio and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as effect measures. Meta-analysis was to be used if sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity were available. Results A total of 17 RCTs involving 1224 participants were analyzed. One trial was about CHM comparing to no treatment. The remaining 16 trials used CHMs as adjunctive treatment for endocrine therapy. Due to the poor quality of methodologies of most trials, only limited evidence showed that a combination of CHM and endocrine therapy might be more effective in restraining the development of the disease (MD 10.37 months, 95%CI 9.10 to 11.63 months), increasing patients’ survival time (7–15 months) or improving patients’ performance status, when compared to endocrine therapy alone (Karnofsky performance scale average changed 15 scores between groups). No severe adverse event was reported related to CHM. Conclusion Due to the insufficient quality of trials that were analyzed, it is not appropriate to recommend any kind of CHMs in treating prostate cancer at the present time. Well-designed trials with high methodological quality are needed to validate the effect of CHMs for patients with prostate cancer. PMID

  13. Effectiveness guidance document (EGD) for Chinese medicine trials: a consensus document

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for more Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) on Chinese medicine (CM) to inform clinical and policy decision-making. This document aims to provide consensus advice for the design of CER trials on CM for researchers. It broadly aims to ensure more adequate design and optimal use of resources in generating evidence for CM to inform stakeholder decision-making. Methods The Effectiveness Guidance Document (EGD) development was based on multiple consensus procedures (survey, written Delphi rounds, interactive consensus workshop, international expert review). To balance aspects of internal and external validity, multiple stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, researchers and payers were involved in creating this document. Results Recommendations were developed for “using available data” and “future clinical studies”. The recommendations for future trials focus on randomized trials and cover the following areas: designing CER studies, treatments, expertise and setting, outcomes, study design and statistical analyses, economic evaluation, and publication. Conclusion The present EGD provides the first systematic methodological guidance for future CER trials on CM and can be applied to single or multi-component treatments. While CONSORT statements provide guidelines for reporting studies, EGDs provide recommendations for the design of future studies and can contribute to a more strategic use of limited research resources, as well as greater consistency in trial design. PMID:24885146

  14. A Pilot Whole Systems Clinical Trial of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Naturopathic Medicine for the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Calabrese, Carlo; Mist, Scott; Aickin, Mikel; Sutherland, Elizabeth; Leben, Joseph; DeBAR, Lynn; Elder, Charles; Dworkin, Samuel F.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of studying whole systems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Naturopathic medicine (NM) in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and to determine whether there is indication to support further research. Design A pilot study using a randomized controlled clinical trial design of whole system TCM and NM versus state-of-the-art specialty care (SC). Setting/location Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), and practitioner offices in Portland, Oregon. Subjects One hundred and sixty (160) women 25–55 years of age attending a KPNW TMD specialty clinic. Interventions Whole system TCM and NM, and KPNW TMD clinic SC; the intervention protocols were designed to model the individually tailored type of community care offered in alternative medicine practices in Portland and in the KPNW TMD clinic, using protocols that enhanced similarities among practitioners within each system and permitted full descriptions of the treatments provided. Outcome measures TMD was ascertained using the Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD; outcomes were self-reported worst and average facial pain and interference with activities (scaled 0–10 where 10 is worst). Results Of 948 consecutive eligible patients, 160 were randomized to one of three arms; 128 provided endpoint data. TCM and NM demonstrated significantly greater in-treatment reductions for worst facial pain compared to SC (adjusted regression analysis; higher negative values indicate greater improvement, = −1.11 ± 0.43, p = 0.010 and −1.02 ± 0.45, p = 0.025 for TCM and NM, respectively, compared to SC) and at 3 months post-treatment (−1.07 ± 0.51, p = 0.037 and −1.27 ± 0.54, p = 0.019 for TCM and NM versus SC, respectively). Additionally, TCM provided significantly greater decreases in average pain than SC; NM provided significantly greater decreases than SC or TCM in TMD-related psychosocial interference

  15. Personalised and Precision Medicine in Cancer Clinical Trials: Panacea for Progress or Pandora's Box?

    PubMed

    Lawler, Mark; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials have been one of the key foundations for significant advances in oncology. However, there is a clear recognition within the academic, care delivery and pharmaceutical/biotech communities that our current model of clinical trial discovery and development is no longer fit for purpose. Delivering transformative cancer care should increasingly be our mantra, rather than maintaining the status quo of, at best, the often miniscule incremental benefits that are observed with many current clinical trials. As we enter the era of precision medicine for personalised cancer care (precision and personalised medicine), it is important that we capture and utilise our greater understanding of the biology of disease to drive innovative approaches in clinical trial design and implementation that can lead to a step change in cancer care delivery. A number of advances have been practice changing (e.g. imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukaemia, Herceptin in erb-B2-positive breast cancer), and increasingly we are seeing the promise of a number of newer approaches, particularly in diseases like lung cancer and melanoma. Targeting immune checkpoints has recently yielded some highly promising results. New algorithms that maximise the effectiveness of clinical trials, through for example a multi-stage, multi-arm type design are increasingly gaining traction. However, our enthusiasm for the undoubted advances that have been achieved are being tempered by a realisation that these new approaches may have significant cost implications. This article will address these competing issues, mainly from a European perspective, highlight the problems and challenges to healthcare systems and suggest potential solutions that will ensure that the cost/value rubicon is addressed in a way that allows stakeholders to work together to deliver optimal cost-effective cancer care, the benefits of which can be transferred directly to our patients.

  16. Qualitative systemic review of randomized controlled trials on complementary and alternative medicine treatments in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Baranowsky, Julia; Klose, Petra; Musial, Frauke; Häuser, Winfried; Haeuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the study were identification, quality evaluation and summary of RCTs on complementary and alternative medicine as defined by the National Institute of Health with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements. A computerized search of databases from 1990 (year of publication of the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia) to July 2007 was performed. The RCTs were assessed by a methodological quality score. A total of 23 RCTs issued from 1992 to 2007 on acupuncture, balneotherapy, thermotherapy, magnetic therapy, homeopathy, manual manipulation, mind-body medicine, diet therapy and music therapy were identified. The RCTs had an average group size of 25 with the number of groups ranging from two to four. The quality score assessment of the RCTs yielded a mean score of 51 out of 100. The average methodological quality of the identified studies was fairly low. Best evidence was found for balneotherapy/hydrotherapy in multiple studies. Positive results were also noted for homeopathy and mild infrared hyperthermia in 1 RCT in each field. Mindfulness meditation showed mostly positive results in two trials and acupuncture mixed results in multiple trials with a tendency toward positive results. Tendencies for improvement were furthermore noted in single trials of the Mesendieck system, connective tissue massage and to some degree for osteopathy and magnet therapy. No positive evidence could be identified for Qi Gong, biofeedback, and body awareness therapy.

  17. Precision Medicine for Molecularly Targeted Agents and Immunotherapies in Early-Phase Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Juanita; Harris, Sam; Roda, Desam; Yap, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine in oncology promises the matching of genomic, molecular, and clinical data with underlying mechanisms of a range of novel anticancer therapeutics to develop more rational and effective antitumor strategies in a timely manner. However, despite the remarkable progress made in the understanding of novel drivers of different oncogenic processes, success rates for the approval of oncology drugs remain low with substantial fiscal consequences. In this article, we focus on how recent rapid innovations in technology have brought greater clarity to the biological and clinical complexities of different cancers and advanced the development of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies in clinical trials. We discuss the key challenges of identifying and validating predictive biomarkers of response and resistance using both tumor and surrogate tissues, as well as the hurdles associated with intratumor heterogeneity. Finally, we outline evolving strategies employed in early-phase trial designs that incorporate omics-based technologies. PMID:26609214

  18. Launching a Novel Preclinical Infrastructure: Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium Directed Therapeutic Targeting of TNFα to Cancer Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Mazcko, Christina; Hanna, Engy; Kachala, Stefan; LeBlanc, Amy; Newman, Shelley; Vail, David; Henry, Carolyn; Thamm, Douglas; Sorenmo, Karin; Hajitou, Amin; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2009-01-01

    Background Under the direction and sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute, we report on the first pre-clinical trial of the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC). The COTC is a novel infrastructure to integrate cancers that naturally develop in pet dogs into the development path of new human drugs. Trials are designed to address questions challenging in conventional preclinical models and early phase human trials. Large animal spontaneous cancer models can be a valuable addition to successful studies of cancer biology and novel therapeutic drug, imaging and device development. Methodology/Principal Findings Through this established infrastructure, the first trial of the COTC (COTC001) evaluated a targeted AAV-phage vector delivering tumor necrosis factor (RGD-A-TNF) to αV integrins on tumor endothelium. Trial progress and data was reviewed contemporaneously using a web-enabled electronic reporting system developed for the consortium. Dose-escalation in cohorts of 3 dogs (n = 24) determined an optimal safe dose (5×1012 transducing units intravenous) of RGD-A-TNF. This demonstrated selective targeting of tumor-associated vasculature and sparing of normal tissues assessed via serial biopsy of both tumor and normal tissue. Repetitive dosing in a cohort of 14 dogs, at the defined optimal dose, was well tolerated and led to objective tumor regression in two dogs (14%), stable disease in six (43%), and disease progression in six (43%) via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Conclusions/Significance The first study of the COTC has demonstrated the utility and efficiency of the established infrastructure to inform the development of new cancer drugs within large animal naturally occurring cancer models. The preclinical evaluation of RGD-A-TNF within this network provided valuable and necessary data to complete the design of first-in-man studies. PMID:19330034

  19. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  20. Participant selection for preventive Regenerative Medicine trials: ethical challenges of selecting individuals at risk.

    PubMed

    Niemansburg, Sophie L; Habets, Michelle G J L; Dhert, Wouter J A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2015-11-01

    The innovative field of Regenerative Medicine (RM) is expected to extend the possibilities of prevention or early treatment in healthcare. Increasingly, clinical trials will be developed for people at risk of disease to investigate these RM interventions. These individuals at risk are characterised by their susceptibility for developing clinically manifest disease in future due to the existence of degenerative abnormalities. So far, there has been little debate about the ethical appropriateness of including such individuals at risk in clinical trials. We discuss three main challenges of selecting this participant model for testing RM interventions: the challenge of achieving a proportional risk-benefit balance; complexities in the trial design in terms of follow-up and sample size; and the difficulty of obtaining informed consent due to the many uncertainties. We conclude that selecting the model is not ethically justifiable for first-in-man trials with RM interventions due to the high risks and uncertainties. However, the model can be ethically appropriate for testing the efficacy of RM interventions under the following conditions: interventions should be low risk; the degenerative abnormalities (and other risk factors) should be strongly related with disease within a short time frame; robust preclinical evidence of efficacy needs to be present; and the informed consent procedure should contain extra safeguards with regard to communication on uncertainties.

  1. Launching a salt substitute to reduce blood pressure at the population level: a cluster randomized stepped wedge trial in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Controlling hypertension rates and maintaining normal blood pressure, particularly in resource-constrained settings, represent ongoing challenges of effective and affordable implementation in health care. One of the strategies being largely advocated to improve high blood pressure calls for salt reduction strategies. This study aims to estimate the impact of a population-level intervention based on sodium reduction and potassium increase – in practice, introducing a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute – on adult blood pressure levels. Methods/Design The proposed implementation research study includes two components: Phase 1, an exploratory component, and Phase 2, an intervention component. The exploratory component involves a triangle taste test and a formative research study designed to gain an understanding of the best implementation methods. Phase 2 involves a pragmatic stepped wedge trial design where the intervention will be progressively implemented in several clusters starting the intervention randomly at different times. In addition, we will evaluate the implementation strategy using a cost-effectiveness analysis. Discussion This is the first project in a Latin-American setting to implement a salt substitution intervention at the population level to tackle high blood pressure. Data generated and lessons learnt from this study will provide a strong platform to address potential interventions applicable to other similar low- and middle-income settings. Trial registration This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01960972. PMID:24667035

  2. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ≥3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  3. Comprehensive rehabilitation with integrative medicine for subacute stroke: A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Ma, Ruijie; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Xu, Shouyu

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) that combines conventional rehabilitation (CR) with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine has better effects for subacute stroke than CR alone, we conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial that involved three hospitals in China. Three hundred sixty patients with subacute stroke were randomized into IMR and CR groups. The primary outcome was the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The secondary outcomes were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton’s Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). All variables were evaluated at week 0 (baseline), week 4 (half-way of intervention), week 8 (after treatment) and week 20 (follow-up). In comparison with the CR group, the IMR group had significantly better improvements (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in all the primary and secondary outcomes. There were also significantly better changes from baseline in theses outcomes in the IMR group than in the CR group (P < 0.01). A low incidence of adverse events with mild symptoms was observed in the IMR group. We conclude that conventional rehabilitation combined with integrative medicine is safe and more effective for subacute stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27174221

  4. Comprehensive rehabilitation with integrative medicine for subacute stroke: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Ma, Ruijie; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Xu, Shouyu

    2016-05-13

    To determine whether integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) that combines conventional rehabilitation (CR) with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine has better effects for subacute stroke than CR alone, we conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial that involved three hospitals in China. Three hundred sixty patients with subacute stroke were randomized into IMR and CR groups. The primary outcome was the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The secondary outcomes were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton's Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). All variables were evaluated at week 0 (baseline), week 4 (half-way of intervention), week 8 (after treatment) and week 20 (follow-up). In comparison with the CR group, the IMR group had significantly better improvements (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in all the primary and secondary outcomes. There were also significantly better changes from baseline in theses outcomes in the IMR group than in the CR group (P < 0.01). A low incidence of adverse events with mild symptoms was observed in the IMR group. We conclude that conventional rehabilitation combined with integrative medicine is safe and more effective for subacute stroke rehabilitation.

  5. Herbal Medicines for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Ki-Ho; Jung, Woo-Sang; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted systematic review to evaluate current evidence of herbal medicines (HMs) for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Along with hand searches, relevant literatures were located from the electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycInfo, CNKI, 7 Korean Medical Databases and J-East until August, 2010 without language and publication status. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials, which evaluate HMs for idiopathic PD were selected for this review. Two independent authors extracted data from the relevant literatures and any disagreement was solved by discussion. Results From the 3432 of relevant literatures, 64 were included. We failed to suggest overall estimates of treatment effects on PD because of the wide heterogeneity of used herbal recipes and study designs in the included studies. When compared with placebo, specific effects were not observed in favor of HMs definitely. Direct comparison with conventional drugs suggested that there was no evidence of better effect for HMs. Many studies compared combination therapy with single active drugs and combination therapy showed significant improvement in PD related outcomes and decrease in the dose of anti-Parkinson's drugs with low adverse events rate. Conclusion Currently, there is no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness and efficacy of HMs on PD. For establishing clinical evidence of HMs on PD, rigorous RCTs with sufficient statistical power should be promoted in future. PMID:22615738

  6. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of over the counter cough medicines for acute cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Knut; Fahey, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether over the counter cough medicines are effective for acute cough in adults. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Search of the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group specialised register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, and the UK Department of Health National Research Register in all languages. Included studies All randomised controlled trials that compared oral over the counter cough preparations with placebo in adults with acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection in ambulatory settings and that had cough symptoms as an outcome. Results 15 trials involving 2166 participants met all the inclusion criteria. Antihistamines seemed to be no better than placebo. There was conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of antitussives, expectorants, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and other drug combinations compared with placebo. Conclusion Over the counter cough medicines for acute cough cannot be recommended because there is no good evidence for their effectiveness. Even when trials had significant results, the effect sizes were small and of doubtful clinical relevance. Because of the small number of trials in each category, the results have to be interpreted cautiously. What is already know on this topicThe NHS encourages self treatment of acute self limiting illnessesOver the counter cough medicines are commonly used as first line treatment for acute coughWhat this study addsThere is little evidence for or against the effectiveness of over the counter cough medicinesAlthough cough medicines are generally well tolerated, they may be an unnecessary expenseRecommendation of over the counter cough medicines to patients is not justified by current evidence PMID:11834560

  7. A prospective, randomized trial of integrative medicine for women with ovarian cancer☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Patricia L.; Dickson, Elizabeth L.; Argenta, Peter A.; Xiong, Yin; Geller, Melissa A.; Carson, Linda F.; Ghebre, Rahel; Jonson, Amy L.; Downs, Levi S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite increased use of integrative medicine in cancer therapy, little data exist on its efficacy. This prospective, randomized, pilot trial sought to evaluate the feasibility of combined modality integrative medicine (CM-IM) in women with ovarian cancer (OvCA) and evaluate its effects on quality of life (QoL), chemotherapy toxicity and immunologic profiles. Methods Women with newly diagnosed OvCA requiring chemotherapy were offered enrollment. Those randomized to the experimental arm received hypnosis, therapeutic massage and healing touch with each cycle of chemotherapy. The control arm received chemotherapy without CM-IM. All patients completed QoL questionnaires prior to cycles 1, 3 and 6, and 6-months after chemotherapy. Immunologic profiles were measured. Statistical analysis was based on intent-to-treat. Student’s t-test and Fischer’s exact-test were used to determine differences. Results Forty-three women enrolled. All women randomized to CM-IM were successfully treated. There were no statistical differences between the groups in age, stage, grade, histologic cell type, CA125 levels, or surgical cytoreductive status. There was no difference in overall QoL measurements. Re-hospitalization rates, treatment delays, anti-emetic use, and infection rates were similar. Immunologic profiles revealed no difference between arms for WBC or salivary IgA levels. Women receiving CM-IM had consistently higher levels of CD4, CD8 and NK cells, although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Prospective clinical evaluation of integrative medicine for women with gynecologic malignancy is feasible. This first, pilot study of CM-IM in gynecologic oncology demonstrated no improvement in QoL or chemotherapy toxicity. Integrative medicine-associated improvements in immunologic profiles warrant further investigation. PMID:21864886

  8. Bioinformatics for precision medicine in oncology: principles and application to the SHIVA clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Nicolas; Roméjon, Julien; Gestraud, Pierre; La Rosa, Philippe; Lucotte, Georges; Lair, Séverine; Bernard, Virginie; Zeitouni, Bruno; Coffin, Fanny; Jules-Clément, Gérôme; Yvon, Florent; Lermine, Alban; Poullet, Patrick; Liva, Stéphane; Pook, Stuart; Popova, Tatiana; Barette, Camille; Prud’homme, François; Dick, Jean-Gabriel; Kamal, Maud; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Hupé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) requires the delivery of individually adapted medical care based on the genetic characteristics of each patient and his/her tumor. The last decade witnessed the development of high-throughput technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing which paved the way to PM in the field of oncology. While the cost of these technologies decreases, we are facing an exponential increase in the amount of data produced. Our ability to use this information in daily practice relies strongly on the availability of an efficient bioinformatics system that assists in the translation of knowledge from the bench towards molecular targeting and diagnosis. Clinical trials and routine diagnoses constitute different approaches, both requiring a strong bioinformatics environment capable of (i) warranting the integration and the traceability of data, (ii) ensuring the correct processing and analyses of genomic data, and (iii) applying well-defined and reproducible procedures for workflow management and decision-making. To address the issues, a seamless information system was developed at Institut Curie which facilitates the data integration and tracks in real-time the processing of individual samples. Moreover, computational pipelines were developed to identify reliably genomic alterations and mutations from the molecular profiles of each patient. After a rigorous quality control, a meaningful report is delivered to the clinicians and biologists for the therapeutic decision. The complete bioinformatics environment and the key points of its implementation are presented in the context of the SHIVA clinical trial, a multicentric randomized phase II trial comparing targeted therapy based on tumor molecular profiling versus conventional therapy in patients with refractory cancer. The numerous challenges faced in practice during the setting up and the conduct of this trial are discussed as an illustration of PM application. PMID:24910641

  9. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  10. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-04-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  11. A regulatory perspective of clinical trial applications for biological products with particular emphasis on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs).

    PubMed

    Jones, David R; McBlane, James W; McNaughton, Graham; Rajakumaraswamy, Nishanthan; Wydenbach, Kirsty

    2013-08-01

    The safety of trial subjects is the tenet that guides the regulatory assessment of a Clinical Trial Authorization application and applies equally to trials involving small molecules and those with biological/biotechnological products, including Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. The objective of a regulator is to ensure that the potential risk faced by a trial subject is outweighed by the potential benefit to them from taking part in the trial. The focus of the application review is to assess whether risks have been identified and appropriate steps taken to alleviate these as much as possible. Other factors are also taken into account during a review, such as regulatory requirements, and emerging non-clinical and clinical data from other trials on the same or similar products. This paper examines the regulatory review process of a Clinical Trial Authorization application from the perspectives of Quality, Non-Clinical and Clinical Regulatory Assessors at the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. It should be noted that each perspective has highlighted specific issues from their individual competence and that these can be different between the disciplines.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Hui-qin; Li, Ji-huang; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin resistance (AR) is a prevalent phenomenon and leads to significant clinical consequences, but the current evidence for effective interventional strategy is insufficient. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AR. A systematical literature search was conducted in 6 databases until December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for AR. As a result, sixteen RCTs with a total of 1011 subjects were identified, suggesting that the interests of the medical profession and the public in the use of CHM for AR have grown considerably in the recent years. Tongxinluo capsule and Danshen-based prescriptions were the most frequently used herbal prescriptions, while danshen root, milkvetch root, Leech, and Rosewood were the most frequently used single herbs. Despite the apparent reported positive findings, it is premature to determine the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of AR due to poor methodological quality and insufficient safety data. However, CHMs appeared to be well tolerated in all included studies. Thus, CHM as a promising candidate is worthy of improvement and development for further clinical AR trials. Large sample-size and well-designed rigorous RCTs are needed. PMID:24701247

  13. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  14. Scout Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Scout Launch. James Hansen wrote: 'As this sequence of photos demonstrates, the launch of ST-5 on 30 June 1961 went well; however, a failure of the rocket's third stage doomed the payload, a scientific satellite known as S-55 designed for micrometeorite studies in orbit.'

  15. Chinese herbal medicine for obesity: a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Chang, Bai; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Zhen, Zhong; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Sun, Xin; Zhou, Yuan; Xie, Wan-Qing; Liu, Hong-Fang; Xu, Yuan; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Li-Bo; Lian, Feng-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of xin-ju-xiao-gao-fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58 ± 0.48 and -1.91 ± 0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65 ± 1.04 and -1.58 ± 1.3, respectively (p < 0 .05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects. PMID:25406653

  16. NPP Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  17. Nurse-Led Medicines' Monitoring for Patients with Dementia in Care Homes: A Pragmatic Cohort Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Susan; Gabe-Walters, Marie Ellenor; Watkins, Alan; Humphreys, Ioan; Newson, Louise; Snelgrove, Sherrill; Dennis, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background People with dementia are susceptible to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, they are not always closely monitored for potential problems relating to their medicines: structured nurse-led ADR Profiles have the potential to address this care gap. We aimed to assess the number and nature of clinical problems identified and addressed and changes in prescribing following introduction of nurse-led medicines’ monitoring. Design Pragmatic cohort stepped-wedge cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) of structured nurse-led medicines’ monitoring versus usual care. Setting Five UK private sector care homes Participants 41 service users, taking at least one antipsychotic, antidepressant or anti-epileptic medicine. Intervention Nurses completed the West Wales ADR (WWADR) Profile for Mental Health Medicines with each participant according to trial step. Outcomes Problems addressed and changes in medicines prescribed. Data Collection and Analysis Information was collected from participants’ notes before randomisation and after each of five monthly trial steps. The impact of the Profile on problems found, actions taken and reduction in mental health medicines was explored in multivariate analyses, accounting for data collection step and site. Results Five of 10 sites and 43 of 49 service users approached participated. Profile administration increased the number of problems addressed from a mean of 6.02 [SD 2.92] to 9.86 [4.48], effect size 3.84, 95% CI 2.57–4.11, P <0.001. For example, pain was more likely to be treated (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 3.84, 1.78–8.30), and more patients attended dentists and opticians (aOR 52.76 [11.80–235.90] and 5.12 [1.45–18.03] respectively). Profile use was associated with reduction in mental health medicines (aOR 4.45, 1.15–17.22). Conclusion The WWADR Profile for Mental Health Medicines can improve the quality and safety of care, and warrants further investigation as a strategy to mitigate the known adverse

  18. The Practice of Korean Medicine: An Overview of Clinical Trials in Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture, one of the Oriental medical therapeutic techniques that can be traced back at least 2500 years, is growing in popularity all over the world. Korea has continued to develop its own unique tradition of medicine throughout its long history, and has formed different types of acupuncture methods. The purpose of this review is to summarize clinical case studies in acupuncture and related therapies, such as acupressure, electric acupuncture, auricular acupuncture and moxibustion in Korea. A survey of Korean journals revealed that a total of 124 studies were published from 1983 to 2001. Results obtained from the survey showed that most clinical studies using acupuncture, electric acupuncture, moxibustion and other traditional therapies could alleviate a relatively broad range of medical problems. However, it should be emphasized that almost all clinical case studies published in various local journals did not follow the ‘good clinical practice’ with respect to regulatory aspects. Since they were not conducted using the randomized double-blinded controls with a large sample size, all the results should be considered as therapeutic indications. This review is an attempt to show the scope of acupuncture in our country and the kind of diseases, after many years of clinical experience, that were deemed valid targets for clinical trials. PMID:16136212

  19. Effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in treating liver fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies on the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating liver fibrosis (LF) were not consistent. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of CHM on treating LF patients. Methods Databases including MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, TCMOnline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese Medical Current Contents were searched up to March 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving LF patients receiving CHM, Western medicine, combined CHM and Western medicine compared with placebo, Western medicine or no intervention were included. LF markers including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC-III), type IV collagen (IV-C), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were measured as primary outcomes. Liver biochemistry, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartarte aminotransferase (AST), and improvement of related clinical symptoms were measured as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases were assessed. Results Twenty-three RCTs with 2123 participants were analyzed in subgroups of types of comparison and study quality. Fifteen studies were graded as good quality. CHM alone and combined with Western medicine showed significant improvements in HA, LN, PC-III and IV-C compared with Western medicine alone. However, there were no significant differences observed between CHM and placebo treatments. Conclusion The current inconclusive results in determining the effectiveness of CHM treatment on LF, due to the poor methodological quality and high heterogeneity of the studies, suggests that large RCTs using standardized Chinese medicine syndrome diagnosis and CHM formulae with longer follow-up are required for further evaluation. PMID

  20. Use of Rorschach tests at the Nuremberg war crimes trial: A forgotten chapter in history of medicine.

    PubMed

    Dimsdale, Joel E

    2015-06-01

    Seventy years ago, psychiatrists and psychologists had unusual access to the Nazi leaders awaiting trial by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Early leaders in the field of psychosomatic medicine were instrumental in facilitating these interviews as well as arranging for the administration of psychological testing with the Rorschach inkblot test. These observations were kept under wraps for decades and there remains controversy even now about what these Rorschachs revealed-demonic psychopaths or just morally corrupt individuals. PMID:25896214

  1. Use of Rorschach tests at the Nuremberg war crimes trial: A forgotten chapter in history of medicine.

    PubMed

    Dimsdale, Joel E

    2015-06-01

    Seventy years ago, psychiatrists and psychologists had unusual access to the Nazi leaders awaiting trial by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Early leaders in the field of psychosomatic medicine were instrumental in facilitating these interviews as well as arranging for the administration of psychological testing with the Rorschach inkblot test. These observations were kept under wraps for decades and there remains controversy even now about what these Rorschachs revealed-demonic psychopaths or just morally corrupt individuals.

  2. Indispensable value of clinical trials in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine: 12 years' experience at CUHK and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Willmann; Yew, David T; Hon, Kam Lun; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Leung, Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen a wealth of information reporting the beneficial effects of Chinese herbal medicines. While a lot more studies were done using in vitro and in vivo research platforms, much fewer investigations were conducted according to evidence-based requirements in clinical settings. The Institute of Chinese Medicine at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has had the opportunity to collaborate with clinicians over the years to initiate and conduct dozens of clinical trials investigating and verifying the therapeutic values of Chinese herbs in selected disease conditions. Of the many disorders, we chose to focus on those that are known for their difficulties achieving perfect results with conventional treatment methods. Examples include non-healing ulcers, allergic conditions, degenerative diseases and cancer. Protective effects of the herbs in such chronic diseases as coronary artery disease and osteoporosis were also part of our focus. Even in healthy individuals and those recovering from chemotherapy, Chinese herbs could help with the immune system and were studied in our clinical trials as well. This paper aims to highlight the important findings from these clinical studies while at the same time, stressing the indispensable value of clinical trials in modernizing the use of Chinese herbs in present-day medicine.

  3. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development.

  4. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development. PMID:25814257

  5. Endorsement for improving the quality of reports on randomized controlled trials of traditional medicine journals in Korea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Kang, Byoung Kab; Kim, Kun Hyung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-11-05

    The aim of this study was to assess the endorsement of reporting guidelines in Korean traditional medicine (TM) journals by reviewing their instructions to authors. We examined the instructions to authors in all of the TM journals published in Korea to assess the appropriate use of reporting guidelines for research studies. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published after 2010 in journals that endorsed reporting guidelines were obtained. The reporting quality was assessed using the following guidelines: the 38-item Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement for non-pharmacological trials (NPT); the 17-item Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) statement, instead of the 5-item CONSORT for acupuncture trials; and the 22-item CONSORT extensions for herbal medicine trials. The overall item score was calculated and expressed as a proportion.One journal that endorsed reporting guidelines was identified. Twenty-nine RCTs published in this journal after 2010 met the selection criteria. General editorial policies such as those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) were endorsed by 15 journals. In each of the CONSORT-NPT articles, 21.6 to 56.8% of the items were reported, with an average of 11.3 items (29.7%) being reported. In the 24 RCTs (24/29, 82.8%) appraised using the STRICTA items, an average of 10.6 items (62.5%) were addressed, with a range of 41.2 to 100%. For the herbal intervention reporting, 17 items (77.27%) were reported. In the RCT studies before and after the endorsement of CONSORT and STRICTA guidelines by each journal, all of the STRICTA items had significant improvement, whereas the CONSORT-NPT items improved without statistical significance.The endorsement of reporting guidelines is limited in the TM journals in Korea. Authors should adhere to the reporting guidelines, and editorial departments should refer authors to the various reporting guidelines to

  6. Balloon Launch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a science learning experience in which intermediate grade students launched balloons with attached postcards to study wind currents. More than 200 (of over 900 balloons) were returned, and their analysis supported the students' hypothesis about the direction of wind currents. (DB)

  7. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jeremy Z; Walton, Kenneth G; Schneider, Robert H; Nidich, Sanford; Pomerantz, Rhoda; Suchdev, Parmi; Castillo-Richmond, Amparo; Payne, Kathleen; Clark, Elizabeth T; Rainforth, Maxwell

    2002-04-15

    Although the onset and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) involve multiple risk factors, few intervention studies have attempted to modify these factors simultaneously. This pilot study tested the effect of a multimodality intervention involving dietary, exercise, herbal food supplement, and stress reduction approaches from a traditional system of natural medicine, Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). The primary outcome measure was carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a noninvasive measure of peripheral atherosclerosis and surrogate measure of coronary atherosclerosis. Comparison groups included modern medicine (conventional dietary, exercise, and multivitamin approaches) and usual care (no added intervention). Of 57 healthy seniors (mean age 74 years) randomized to the 3 treatment groups, 46 completed IMT post-testing. Carotid IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound before and after 1 year of treatment. IMT decreased in a larger fraction of MVM subjects (16 of 20) than in the modern (5 of 9) and usual care (7 of 14) groups combined (i.e., 12 of 23; odds ratio 3.7, p = 0.05). For subjects with multiple CHD risk factors ("high-risk" subjects, n = 15), IMT decreased more in the MVM (-0.32 +/- 0.23 mm, mean +/- SD) than in the usual care (+0.022 +/- 0.085; p = 0.009) or modern (-0.082 +/- 0.095, p = 0.10) groups. Within-group reductions in IMT were significant for all MVM subjects (-0.15 +/- 0.21, n = 20, p = 0.004) and for high-risk MVM subjects (n = 6, p = 0.01). These results show that this multimodality traditional approach can attenuate atherosclerosis in older subjects, particularly those with marked CHD risk.

  8. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  9. Chinese medicine combined with calcipotriol betamethasone and calcipotriol ointment for Psoriasis vulgaris (CMCBCOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoriasis causes worldwide concern because of its high-prevalence, as well as its harmful, and incurable characteristics. Topical therapy is a conventional treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. Chinese medicine (CM) has been commonly used in an integrative way for psoriasis patients for many years. Some CM therapies have shown therapeutic effects for psoriasis vulgaris (PV), including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and may reduce the relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained. The purpose of the present trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of the YXBCM01 granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, with a combination of topical therapy for PV patients. Methods/Design Using an add-on design, the trial is to evaluate whether the YXBCM01 granule combined topical therapy is more effective than topical therapy alone for the treatment of PV. The study design is a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial comparing the YXBCM01 granule (5.5 g twice daily) to a placebo. The duration of treatment is 12 weeks. A total of 600 participants will be randomly allocated into two groups, YXBCM01 granule group and placebo group, from 11 general or dermatological hospitals in China. Topical use of calcipotriol betamethasone for the first 4 weeks and calcipotriol ointment for the remaining 8 weeks will be the same standard therapy for the two groups. Patients will be enrolled if they have a clinical diagnosis of PV, a psoriasis area severe index (PASI) of more than 10 or body surface area (BSA) of more than 10%, but PASI of less than 30 and BSA of less than 30%, are aged between 18 and 65-years-old, and provide signed informed consent. The primary outcome, relapse rate, is based on PASI assessed blindly during the treatment. Secondary outcomes include: (i) relapse time interval, (ii) time to onset, (iii) rebound rate, (iv) PASI score, (v) cumulative consumption of medicine, (vi) the dermatology quality life index

  10. The evolution of phase I trials in cancer medicine: a critical review of the last decade.

    PubMed

    Tolcher, Anthony W

    2011-12-01

    The advent of targeted therapies, combined with an unsustainable rate of failure in oncology drug development, has resulted in a number of new approaches to clinical trials. Early clinical trials are no exception, with efforts to improve the eventual success rate of late stage trials through evolving phase I trial methodologies, the addition of extensive pharmacodynamic studies, and early adoption of patient selection strategies. Unfortunately, some of these new approaches have met with mixed results. Furthermore, no clear metrics are available to determine whether these designs are more successful than previous strategies. This review examines the evolution of phase I trials and draws upon several examples of strategies that have been successful as well as those that have not, and outlines a pragmatic approach to phase I trials as our understanding of the molecular biology of individual malignancies emerges. PMID:22059910

  11. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  12. Why do – or don’t – patients with urinary tract infection participate in a clinical trial? A qualitative study in German family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bleidorn, Jutta; Bucak, Sermin; Gágyor, Ildikó; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    family medicine, the following key issues should be considered: emphasizing patients’ personal benefit, featuring patient relevant trial topics, providing a maximum of safety, keeping effort by trial procedures comfortable. PMID:26512232

  13. Randomized trial of epidural injections for spinal stenosis published in the New England Journal of Medicine: further confusion without clarification.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Candido, Kenneth D; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Falco, Frank J E; Gharibo, Christopher G; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are considered the hallmark of evidence-based medicine. This conveys the idea that up-to-date evidence applied consistently in clinical practice, in combination with clinicians' individual expertise and patients own preference/expectations are enjoined to achieve the best possible outcome. Since its inception in 1990s, evidence-based medicine has evolved in conjunction with numerous changes in the healthcare environment. However, the benefits of evidence-based medicine have not materialized for spinal pain including surgical interventions. Consequently, the debate continues on the efficacy and medical necessity of multiple interventions provided in managing spinal pain. Friedly et al published a randomized controlled trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis in the July 2014 edition of the highly prestigious New England Journal of Medicine. This was accompanied by an editorial from Andersson. This manuscript provided significant sensationalism for the media and confusion for the spine community. This randomized trial of epidural glucocorticoid injections for spinal stenosis and accompanying editorial concluded that epidural injections of glucocorticoids plus lidocaine offered minimal or no short-term benefit as compared with epidural injections of lidocaine alone, with the editorial emphasizing proceeding directly to surgical intervention. In addition media statements by the authors also emphasized the idea that exercise or surgery might be better options for patients suffereing from narrowing of the spinal canal. The interventional pain management community believes that there are severe limitations to this study, manuscript, and accompanying editorial. The design, inclusion criteria, outcomes assessment, analysis of data and interpretation, and conclusions of this trial point to the fact that this highly sophisticated and much publicized randomized trial may not be appropriate and lead to misinformation. The

  14. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70–0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality. PMID:26952966

  15. Effect of Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicine versus Western Medicine on Mortality in Patients after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxiu; Lu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dalong; Chen, Tuo; Fan, Zhiwei; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment combined with conventional western therapy has been widely used and reported in many clinical trials in China, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of this combination in the treatment of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This systematic review aimed to assess whether the risk of mortality has decreased comparing the combination of CHM treatment with conventional western therapy. Methods. To identify relevant studies, the literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared outcomes of patients after CPR taking combination of CHM treatment with those taking just conventional western therapy. Results. This meta-analysis showed that patients randomly assigned to combined CHM treatment group had a statistically significant 23% reduction in mortality compared with those randomly assigned to conventional western therapy group (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.84). Conclusions. This meta-analysis provides evidence suggesting that a combined CHM therapy is associated with a decreased risk of mortality compared with conventional western therapy in patients after CPR. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence to prove or refute our conclusion and identify reasons for the reduction of mortality.

  16. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months < middle long course ≤ 6 months was the highest (1.04%), whereas that in short course ≤ half a month was the lowest (0.48%). The adverse reaction was closely related with the route of administration, 1.28% for topical > 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0

  17. Effect of oriental medicine music therapy on patients with Hwa-byung: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hwa-byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome with both psychological and somatic symptoms, is also known as ‘anger syndrome’. It includes various physical symptoms including anxiety, a feeling of overheating, a sensation of pressure on the chest, heart palpitations, respiratory stuffiness, insomnia, and anxiety. Methods/design The proposed study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms: an oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT) group and a control music therapy (CMT) group. In total, 48 patients will be enrolled into the trial. The first visit will be the screening visit. At baseline (visit 2), all participants fulfilling both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria will be split and randomly divided into two equal groups: the OMMT and the CMT (n = 24 each). Each group will receive treatment sessions over the course of 4 weeks, twice per week, for eight sessions in total. The primary outcome is the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the secondary outcomes are the Hwa-byung scale (H-scale), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hwa-byung visual analogue scale (H-VAS) for primary symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), and levels of salivary cortisol. Patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at the baseline visit (visit 2), after the last treatment session (visit 9), and at 4 weeks after the end of all trial sessions (visit 10). From the baseline (visit 2) through the follow-up (visit 10), the entire process will take a total of 53 days. Discussion This proposed study targets patients with Hwa-byung, especially those who have exhibited symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, the primary outcome is set to measure the level of anxiety. OMMT is music therapy combined with traditional Korean medicinal theories. Unlike previously reported music therapies, for which patients simply listen to music passively, in OMMT, patients

  18. Herbal medicine (Gyejibongneyong-hwan) for treating primary dysmenorrhoea: a protocol for a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Park, Sunju; Jung, Jeeyoun; Jun, Ji Hee; Choi, Jiae

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gyejibongneyong-hwan (GBH), also known as Guizhi Fuling formula, and is widely used for uterine fibroids in East Asian countries. Many clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of GBH formula for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea have been reported. This review will assess the clinical evidence for and against the use of GBH formula as a treatment for dysmenorrhoea. It will also discuss the proposed mechanism(s) that could link herbal medicine to improvements in dysmenorrhoea. Methods and analysis Fourteen databases will be searched until September 2016. We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining GBH decoctions for any type of dysmenorrhoea. All RCTs of decoctions or modified decoctions will be included. The methodological qualities of the RCTs will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. It will be updated to inform and guide healthcare practices. Trial registration number CRD42015023419. PMID:27683510

  19. Nanoparticle-Based Medicines: A Review of FDA-Approved Materials and Clinical Trials to Date.

    PubMed

    Bobo, Daniel; Robinson, Kye J; Islam, Jiaul; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Corrie, Simon R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we provide an up to date snapshot of nanomedicines either currently approved by the US FDA, or in the FDA clinical trials process. We define nanomedicines as therapeutic or imaging agents which comprise a nanoparticle in order to control the biodistribution, enhance the efficacy, or otherwise reduce toxicity of a drug or biologic. We identified 51 FDA-approved nanomedicines that met this definition and 77 products in clinical trials, with ~40% of trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov started in 2014 or 2015. While FDA approved materials are heavily weighted to polymeric, liposomal, and nanocrystal formulations, there is a trend towards the development of more complex materials comprising micelles, protein-based NPs, and also the emergence of a variety of inorganic and metallic particles in clinical trials. We then provide an overview of the different material categories represented in our search, highlighting nanomedicines that have either been recently approved, or are already in clinical trials. We conclude with some comments on future perspectives for nanomedicines, which we expect to include more actively-targeted materials, multi-functional materials ("theranostics") and more complicated materials that blur the boundaries of traditional material categories. A key challenge for researchers, industry, and regulators is how to classify new materials and what additional testing (e.g. safety and toxicity) is required before products become available. PMID:27299311

  20. Evidence of Chinese herbal medicine Duhuo Jisheng decoction for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Shangquan; Zhang, Ranxing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xinjian; Lin, Yanping; Wei, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Duhuo Jisheng decoction (DJD) is considered beneficial for controlling knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related symptoms in some Asian countries. This review compiles the evidence from randomised clinical trials and quantifies the effects of DJD on KOA. Designs 7 online databases were investigated up to 12 October 2015. Randomised clinical trials investigating treatment of KOA for which DJD was used either as a monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapy compared to no intervention, placebo or conventional therapy, were included. The outcomes included the evaluation of functional activities, pain and adverse effect. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The estimated mean difference (MD) and SMD was within a 95% CI with respect to interstudy heterogeneity. Results 12 studies with 982 participants were identified. The quality presented a high risk of bias. Meta-analysis found that DJD combined with glucosamine (MD 4.20 (1.72 to 6.69); p<0.001) or DJD plus meloxicam and glucosamine (MD 3.48 (1.59 to 5.37); p<0.001) had a more significant effect in improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (total WOMAC scores). Also, meta-analysis presented more remarkable pain improvement when DJD plus sodium hyaluronate injection (MD 0.89 (0.26 to 1.53); p=0.006) was used. These studies demonstrated that active treatment of DJD in combination should be practiced for at least 4 weeks. Information on the safety of DJD or comprehensive therapies was insufficient in few studies. Conclusions DJD combined with Western medicine or sodium hyaluronate injection appears to have benefits for KOA. However, the effectiveness and safety of DJD is uncertain because of the limited number of trials and low methodological quality. Therefore, practitioners should be cautious when applying DJD in daily practice. Future clinical trials should be well designed; more research is needed. PMID:26729379

  1. Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi Fuling Formula for treatment of uterine fibroids: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and four Chinese databases were searched through May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that tested Guizhi Fuling Formula for uterine fibroids, compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmaceutical medication, or other Chinese patent medicines approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Authors extracted data and assessed the quality independently. We applied RevMan 5.2.0 software to analyse data of included randomised trials. Results A total of 38 RCTs involving 3816 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that Guizhi Fuling Formula plus mifepristone were more effective than mifepristone alone in reducing the volume of fibroids (in total volume of multiple fibroids, MD −19.41 cm3, 95% CI −28.68 to −10.14; in average volume of multiple fibroids, MD −1.00 cm3, 95% CI −1.23 to −0.76; in average volume of maximum fibroids, MD −3.35 cm3, 95% CI −4.84 to −1.87, I2 = 93%, random effects model). Guizhi Fuling Formula significantly improved symptoms of dysmenorrhea either when it was used alone (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.97) or in combination with mifepristone (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.82). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Guizhi Fuling Formula appears to have additional benefit based on mifepristone treatment in reducing volume of fibroids. However, due to high risk of bias of the trials, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on its benefit. Future clinical trials should be well-designed and avoid the issues that are identified in this study. PMID:24383676

  2. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed. PMID:19940964

  3. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  4. [Medicinal glaucoma therapy. What can we learn from large randomized clinical trials?].

    PubMed

    Jünemann, A G M; Huchzermeyer, C; Rejdak, R

    2013-12-01

    The prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) Ocular Hypertension Glaucoma Treatment Study (OHTS), Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CITGS) and Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study (CNGTS) are often named as landmarks for glaucoma management as the results of these studies provided the evidence for numerous therapeutic decisions in clinical practice. The studies confirmed the consensus that reduction of intraocular pressure reduces the risk of glaucoma progression covering the whole spectrum of glaucoma from ocular hypertension to advanced glaucoma. Furthermore, the identification of new risk factors allows a higher precision of assessment of the risk of progression. The RCTs achieved the main goal of high level of evidence, thus making progress in the understanding of glaucoma and its treatment and bridging consensus-based and evidence-based decisions. However, the implementation of the results into clinical practice needs adequate and accurate interpretation of the results.

  5. Can attention control conditions have detrimental effects in behavioral medicine randomized trials?

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; McDermott, Mary M.; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Whited, Matt; Schneider, Kristin; Appelhans, Brad; Leung, Kathy; Merriam, Philip; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention control conditions are used to balance nonspecific attention in randomized trials of behavioral interventions. Very little guidance is available in the literature about which behavioral interventions and outcomes merit an attention control. The primary aim of the present paper is to demonstrate a scenario in which use of attention control in a behavioral randomized trial was unnecessary and possibly detrimental. Methods Exploratory analyses were performed in a randomized controlled trial that tested whether a patient-centered telephone counseling (PC) intervention reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in 355 participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), compared to attention control (AC) and usual care (UC) conditions. The PC intervention was designed to activate participants to ask their physician for lipid-lowering medication and/or increase dose intensity, increase medication adherence, and reduce fat intake. The AC condition involved attention-matched phone-delivered health education, and the UC condition consisted of an educational pamphlet. Results At 12-month follow-up, mean LDL-C changes were −11.1, and −6.8 mg/dl in the UC and AC conditions, respectively (p=.17). The proportion of participants who increased use or dose intensity of medication was significantly lower in AC than UC, 17.5% versus 30.5% (p=0.03). No significant difference between AC and UC were observed on other outcomes. Conclusions The AC had significantly worse medication outcomes and there was no indication of a therapeutic effect on other endpoints. Implications for use of attention control in behavioral randomized trials are discussed. PMID:23197844

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Type A H1N1 Influenza: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Kang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbs are thought to be effective for type A H1N1 influenza. Series of Chinese herbs have been authorized recommended by the Chinese government, and until now a number of clinical trials of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza have been conducted. However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on potential benefits and harms of medicinal herbs for H1N1 influenza to justify their clinical use and their recommendation. Methods and Findings CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza till 31 August, 2011. A total of 26 RCTs were identified and reviewed. Most of the RCTs were of high risk of bias with flawed study design and poor methodological quality. The combination of several Chinese herbal medicines with or without oseltamivir demonstrated positive effect on fever resolution, relief of symptoms, and global effectiveness rate compared to oseltamivir alone. However, only one herbal medicine showed positive effect on viral shedding. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of herbal medicines is still uncertain. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines demonstrated potential positive effect for 2009 type A H1N1 influenza; however, due to the lack of placebo controlled trial and lack of repeated test of the intervention, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on the beneficial effect of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use. PMID:22164232

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongle; Chen, Zijie; Yu, Ning; Yao, Keyu; Che, Yiwen; Xi, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) does great harm to women following childbirth. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of PPD. Methods. Published or ongoing registered trials were searched for from the inception of the various databases to December 31, 2015. Data extraction and methodology assessment were conducted independently by two researchers. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze the data. Results. Forty-seven registered clinical trials (RCTs) were identified and reviewed. The results showed CHM alone or in combination with routine treatments could reduce HAMD score, EPDS score, incidence of adverse events, TESS, and SERS. CHM combined with routine treatment was more effective in increasing serum estradiol levels and reducing progesterone levels than routine treatment alone. Meanwhile, pooled data revealed that MRLQS combined with routine treatments or MRLQS plus MSHS combined with routine treatments were more effective than other therapeutic methods in TCM. MRLQS plus MSHS alone was found to be an effective alternative when compared to routine treatments. Conclusions. This review suggested that CHM was safe and effective in the treatment of PPD. However, this could not be proven conclusively. To ensure evidence-based clinical practice, more rigorously designed trials are warranted. PMID:27774110

  8. From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies…

  9. Clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for Wilson's disease: a systematic review of 9 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Cheng-long; Fu, Deng-lei; Lu, Lin; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-qian; Wang, Xiao-tong; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2012-06-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Despite being treatable, there is no universally accepted treatment regimen. Currently, various Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used in the treatment of Wilson's disease in China, but there is a lack of reliable scientific evidence for the effectiveness of such therapies. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of CHM as an alternative or/and adjuvant therapy for Wilson's disease. A systematic literature search in different medical databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials comparing CHM as monotherapy or CHM as adjuvant therapy with western conventional medical therapy in the treatment of Wilson's disease. A total of 687 participants were included in nine eligible studies. The main findings are that CHM as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy for Wilson's disease may be able to improve the clinical symptoms, to promote the urinary copper excretion, to ameliorate liver function and/or liver cirrhosis, and has fewer adverse effects in comparison with western conventional medication. Furthermore, CHM generally appeared to be safe and well tolerated in patients with Wilson's disease. However, the evidence presented in this review are insufficient to warrant a clinical recommendation due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies. In conclusion, CHM seems to be beneficial and safe for Wilson's disease, but high-quality evidences are still needed to further evaluate this therapy. Therefore, additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed.

  10. Herbal medicine (Danggui Shaoyao San) for treating primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Jun, Ji Hee; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byong-Seob; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat menopause-related symptoms, including dysmenorrhea. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of DSS for dysmenorrhea. We searched the following electronic databases through October 2015: PubMed; EMBASE; the Cochrane Library; AMED; five Korean databases (KoreaMed, DBPIA, OASIS, RISS, and KISS); three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wan Fang Database, and VIP), and one Japanese database (CiNii). The Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias for the individual studies. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of DSS or modified DSS were included. Data from all articles were extracted by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was used to pool the data. A total of 746 potentially relevant studies were identified, and four RCTs met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs had a high risk of bias across their domains. Three RCTs showed favourable effects of DSS on response rate compared with conventional medicine, and a meta-analysis showed that DSS had superior effects compared to analgesics (RR: 1.31, 95%CI, 1.06-1.63, I(2)=73%). One RCT showed a beneficial effect of DSS on pain compared with placebo control. Our systematic review and meta-analysis provided suggestive evidence of the superiority of DSS over analgesics or placebo for dysmenorrhea. The quality of evidence for this finding was low to moderate because of a high risk of bias. PMID:26857875

  11. Lab Plays Central Role in Groundbreaking National Clinical Trial in Precision Medicine | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Molecular Characterization Laboratory lies at the heart of an ambitious new approach for testing cancer drugs that will use the newest tools of precision medicine to select the best treatment for individual patients based on the genetic makeup of their tumors. The protocol, called NCI-Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH), will start with tumor biopsies from as many as 3,000 patients to see if they have genetic defects for which a targeted cancer drug is available. Cancers will be treated based on their genetic profiles rather than by their location in the body, which is the conventional approach.

  12. Medical Students' and Tutors' Experiences of Directed and Self-Directed Learning Programs in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Qualitative Evaluation Accompanying a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Peter; Oterholt, Christina; Nordheim, Lena; Bjorndal, Arild

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to interpret the results of a randomized controlled trial comparing two educational programs (directed learning and self-directed learning) in evidence-based medicine (EBM) for medical students at the University of Oslo from 2002 to 2003. There is currently very little comparative educational research in this field. In…

  13. Complementary therapies for labour and birth study: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal integrative medicine for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Levett, Kate M; Smith, C A; Bensoussan, A; Dahlen, H G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an antenatal integrative medicine education programme in addition to usual care for nulliparous women on intrapartum epidural use. Design Open-label, assessor blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting 2 public hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Population 176 nulliparous women with low-risk pregnancies, attending hospital-based antenatal clinics. Methods and intervention The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth protocol, based on the She Births and acupressure for labour and birth courses, incorporated 6 evidence-based complementary medicine techniques: acupressure, visualisation and relaxation, breathing, massage, yoga techniques, and facilitated partner support. Randomisation occurred at 24–36 weeks’ gestation, and participants attended a 2-day antenatal education programme plus standard care, or standard care alone. Main outcome measures Rate of analgesic epidural use. Secondary: onset of labour, augmentation, mode of birth, newborn outcomes. Results There was a significant difference in epidural use between the 2 groups: study group (23.9%) standard care (68.7%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.55), p≤0.001). The study group participants reported a reduced rate of augmentation (RR=0.54 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77), p<0.0001); caesarean section (RR=0.52 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.87), p=0.017); length of second stage (mean difference=−0.32 (95% CI −0.64 to 0.002), p=0.05); any perineal trauma (0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), p=0.02) and resuscitation of the newborn (RR=0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), p≤0.015). There were no statistically significant differences found in spontaneous onset of labour, pethidine use, rate of postpartum haemorrhage, major perineal trauma (third and fourth degree tears/episiotomy), or admission to special care nursery/neonatal intensive care unit (p=0.25). Conclusions The Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth study protocol significantly reduced epidural use and caesarean section. This

  14. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ronald J; Toperoff, Will; Vaida, Florin; van den Brande, Geoffrey; Gonzales, James; Gouaux, Ben; Bentley, Heather; Atkinson, J Hampton

    2009-02-01

    Despite management with opioids and other pain modifying therapies, neuropathic pain continues to reduce the quality of life and daily functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems have been shown to modulate pain perception. We conducted a clinical trial to assess the impact of smoked cannabis on neuropathic pain in HIV. This was a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of analgesia with smoked cannabis in HIV-associated distal sensory predominant polyneuropathy (DSPN). Eligible subjects had neuropathic pain refractory to at least two previous analgesic classes; they continued on their prestudy analgesic regimens throughout the trial. Regulatory considerations dictated that subjects smoke under direct observation in a hospital setting. Treatments were placebo and active cannabis ranging in potency between 1 and 8% Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, four times daily for 5 consecutive days during each of 2 treatment weeks, separated by a 2-week washout. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity as measured by the Descriptor Differential Scale (DDS) from a pretreatment baseline to the end of each treatment week. Secondary measures included assessments of mood and daily functioning. Of 127 volunteers screened, 34 eligible subjects enrolled and 28 completed both cannabis and placebo treatments. Among the completers, pain relief was greater with cannabis than placebo (median difference in DDS pain intensity change, 3.3 points, effect size=0.60; p=0.016). The proportions of subjects achieving at least 30% pain relief with cannabis versus placebo were 0.46 (95%CI 0.28, 0.65) and 0.18 (0.03, 0.32). Mood and daily functioning improved to a similar extent during both treatment periods. Although most side effects were mild and self-limited, two subjects experienced treatment-limiting toxicities. Smoked cannabis was generally well tolerated and effective when added to concomitant analgesic

  15. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ronald J; Toperoff, Will; Vaida, Florin; van den Brande, Geoffrey; Gonzales, James; Gouaux, Ben; Bentley, Heather; Atkinson, J Hampton

    2009-02-01

    Despite management with opioids and other pain modifying therapies, neuropathic pain continues to reduce the quality of life and daily functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems have been shown to modulate pain perception. We conducted a clinical trial to assess the impact of smoked cannabis on neuropathic pain in HIV. This was a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of analgesia with smoked cannabis in HIV-associated distal sensory predominant polyneuropathy (DSPN). Eligible subjects had neuropathic pain refractory to at least two previous analgesic classes; they continued on their prestudy analgesic regimens throughout the trial. Regulatory considerations dictated that subjects smoke under direct observation in a hospital setting. Treatments were placebo and active cannabis ranging in potency between 1 and 8% Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, four times daily for 5 consecutive days during each of 2 treatment weeks, separated by a 2-week washout. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity as measured by the Descriptor Differential Scale (DDS) from a pretreatment baseline to the end of each treatment week. Secondary measures included assessments of mood and daily functioning. Of 127 volunteers screened, 34 eligible subjects enrolled and 28 completed both cannabis and placebo treatments. Among the completers, pain relief was greater with cannabis than placebo (median difference in DDS pain intensity change, 3.3 points, effect size=0.60; p=0.016). The proportions of subjects achieving at least 30% pain relief with cannabis versus placebo were 0.46 (95%CI 0.28, 0.65) and 0.18 (0.03, 0.32). Mood and daily functioning improved to a similar extent during both treatment periods. Although most side effects were mild and self-limited, two subjects experienced treatment-limiting toxicities. Smoked cannabis was generally well tolerated and effective when added to concomitant analgesic

  16. Precision Medicine in NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network: Progress and Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Jeff Abrams, M.D., Acting Director for Clinical Research in the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) and Associate Director of the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) and Nita Seibel, M.D., Head of the Pediatric Solid Tumor Therapeutics in the Clinical Investigations Branch of CTEP, DCTD will host a Google Hangout on Air. The discussion will be moderated by Andrea Denicoff, R.N., N.P, Head, NCTN Clinical Trials Operations in the Investigational Drug Branch of CTEP, DCTD.

  17. Acellular approaches for regenerative medicine: on the verge of clinical trials with extracellular membrane vesicles?

    PubMed

    Fuster-Matanzo, Almudena; Gessler, Florian; Leonardi, Tommaso; Iraci, Nunzio; Pluchino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous population of naturally occurring secreted small vesicles, with distinct biophysical properties and different functions both in physiology and under pathological conditions. In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that EVs might hold remarkable potential in regenerative medicine by acting as therapeutically promising nanodrugs. Understanding their final impact on the biology of specific target cells as well as clarification of their overall therapeutic impact remains a matter of intense debate. Here we review the key principles of EVs in physiological and pathological conditions with a specific highlight on the most recently described mechanisms regulating some of the EV-mediated effects. First, we describe the current debates and the upcoming research on EVs as potential novel therapeutics in regenerative medicine, either as unmodified agents or as functionalized small carriers for targeted drug delivery. Moreover, we address a number of safety aspects and regulatory limitations related to the novel nature of EV-mediated therapeutic applications. Despite the emerging possibilities of EV treatments, these issues need to be overcome in order to allow their safe and successful application in future explorative clinical studies. PMID:26631254

  18. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  19. Launch summary for 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

  20. Updated clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaojia; Shergis, Johannah Linda; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Li, Yan; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-12-01

    This systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for people with insomnia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating oral CHM alone or in combination with conventional therapies for primary insomnia were identified by searching English and Chinese publications and databases of clinical trial registration. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2.4. Seventy-nine trials (7886 participants) were finally included in the review, and 76 were included in the meta-analysis. Twenty-seven trials reported the methods of random sequence generation, and five of them used the allocation concealment. Blinding of participants and personnel were used in 10 studies. The main meta-analysis showed that CHM alone was more effective than placebo by reducing scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (mean difference, MD: -3.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: -5.14 to -0.98, I(2) = 97%) and benzodiazepine drugs (BZDs) (MD: -1.94, 95% CI: -2.45 to -1.43, I(2) = 96%). The effect was also seen when CHM was combined with BZDs compared with placebo plus BZDs (MD: -1.88, 95% CI: -2.78 to -0.97, I(2) = 0%) or cognitive and behavioral therapy (MD: -3.80, 95% CI: -4.91 to -2.68, I(2) = 68%) alone. There was no significant difference between CHM and placebo regarding the frequency of adverse events (relative risk, RR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.67-4.10, I(2) = 0). Overall, oral CHM used as a monotherapy or as an adjunct to conventional therapies appears safe, and it may improve subjective sleep in people with insomnia. However, the typical effect of CHM for insomnia cannot be determined due to heterogeneity. Further study focusing on individual CHM formula for insomnia is needed. The development of a comparable placebo is also needed to improve the successful blinding in RCTs.

  1. New Product Launching Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  2. [Emphasis on the application of precision medicine in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Sun, X D; Zhu, H

    2016-02-01

    Accompany with dramatically growth of large-scale biological databases (such as human genome sequence), improvement of life science and development of international clinical trials, science offers great potential for improving health care through precision medicine. As a hot topic recently, precision medicine might launch a revolution of the methodology in medical research. How to achieve precision medicine in clinical ophthalmology by means of biological data mining is a challenge for ophthalmologist-scientists. The best approach for advanced individual medicine is to buildup the digital ophthalmology, which includes human eye biobank, national biological databases network, clinical department, basic research lab, and international clinical trial center. The system of digital ophthalmology could explore the methods for ophthalmology research, integrate the source of eye biologic databases, promote international cooperation, and thus eventually supply the opportunity for translational medicine.

  3. [Emphasis on the application of precision medicine in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Sun, X D; Zhu, H

    2016-02-01

    Accompany with dramatically growth of large-scale biological databases (such as human genome sequence), improvement of life science and development of international clinical trials, science offers great potential for improving health care through precision medicine. As a hot topic recently, precision medicine might launch a revolution of the methodology in medical research. How to achieve precision medicine in clinical ophthalmology by means of biological data mining is a challenge for ophthalmologist-scientists. The best approach for advanced individual medicine is to buildup the digital ophthalmology, which includes human eye biobank, national biological databases network, clinical department, basic research lab, and international clinical trial center. The system of digital ophthalmology could explore the methods for ophthalmology research, integrate the source of eye biologic databases, promote international cooperation, and thus eventually supply the opportunity for translational medicine. PMID:26906701

  4. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

  5. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Collin, C; Davies, P; Mutiboko, I K; Ratcliffe, S

    2007-03-01

    Symptoms relating to spasticity are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be difficult to treat. We have investigated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a standardized oromucosal whole plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), upon spasticity in MS. A total of 189 subjects with definite MS and spasticity were randomized to receive daily doses of active preparation (n = 124) or placebo (n = 65) in a double blind study over 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in a daily subject-recorded Numerical Rating Scale of spasticity. Secondary endpoints included a measure of spasticity (Ashworth Score) and a subjective measure of spasm. The primary efficacy analysis on the intention to treat (ITT) population (n = 184) showed the active preparation to be significantly superior (P = 0.048). Secondary efficacy measures were all in favour of active preparation but did not achieve statistical significance. The responder analysis favoured active preparation, 40% of subjects achieved >30% benefit (P = 0.014). Eight withdrawals were attributed to adverse events (AEs); six were on active preparation and two on placebo. We conclude that this CBM may represent a useful new agent for treatment of the symptomatic relief of spasticity in MS. PMID:17355549

  6. How evidence-based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Howick, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was announced in the early 1990s as a 'new paradigm' for improving patient care. Yet there is currently little evidence that EBM has achieved its aim. Since its introduction, health care costs have increased while there remains a lack of high-quality evidence suggesting EBM has resulted in substantial population-level health gains. In this paper we suggest that EBM's potential for improving patients' health care has been thwarted by bias in the choice of hypotheses tested, manipulation of study design and selective publication. Evidence for these flaws is clearest in industry-funded studies. We argue EBM's indiscriminate acceptance of industry-generated 'evidence' is akin to letting politicians count their own votes. Given that most intervention studies are industry funded, this is a serious problem for the overall evidence base. Clinical decisions based on such evidence are likely to be misinformed, with patients given less effective, harmful or more expensive treatments. More investment in independent research is urgently required. Independent bodies, informed democratically, need to set research priorities. We also propose that evidence rating schemes are formally modified so research with conflict of interest bias is explicitly downgraded in value.

  7. Exploring effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment with Chinese herbal medicine: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinician’s prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians. Methods/design A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial will be performed. Three clinicians will diagnose and treat every eligible patient individually and independently, producing three prescriptions from three clinicians for every patient. Patients will equally be randomized to one of four groups – medical group A, medical group B, medical group C, or placebo group – and observed for efficacy of treatment. The sample will include primary insomnia patients meeting DSM IV-TR criteria, Spiegel scale score >18, and age 18 to 65 years. A sequential design is employed. Interim analysis will be conducted when between 80 and 160 patients complete the study. The interim study could be stopped and treated as final if a statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo groups can be obtained and core effective drug patterns can be determined. Otherwise, the study continues until the maximum sample size reaches 300. Treatment of the CM group is one of three Chinese clinicians’ prescriptions, who provide independently prescriptions based on their own CM theory and the patient’s disease condition. Assessment will be by sleep diary and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and CM symptoms and signs will be measured. Primary outcome is total sleep time. Assessment will be carried out at the washout period, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 4th week after the end of treatment. Effectiveness analysis will be per intent to treat. A multi-dimension association rule and scale

  8. Prospective Molecular Profiling of Canine Cancers Provides a Clinically Relevant Comparative Model for Evaluating Personalized Medicine (PMed) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mazcko, Christina; Cherba, David; Hendricks, William; Lana, Susan; Ehrhart, E. J.; Charles, Brad; Fehling, Heather; Kumar, Leena; Vail, David; Henson, Michael; Childress, Michael; Kitchell, Barbara; Kingsley, Christopher; Kim, Seungchan; Neff, Mark; Davis, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed) now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting. Methodology A proof-of-concept study was conducted by the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC) to determine if tumor collection, prospective molecular profiling, and PMed report generation within 1 week was feasible in dogs. Thirty-one dogs with cancers of varying histologies were enrolled. Twenty-four of 31 samples (77%) successfully met all predefined QA/QC criteria and were analyzed via Affymetrix gene expression profiling. A subsequent bioinformatics workflow transformed genomic data into a personalized drug report. Average turnaround from biopsy to report generation was 116 hours (4.8 days). Unsupervised clustering of canine tumor expression data clustered by cancer type, but supervised clustering of tumors based on the personalized drug report clustered by drug class rather than cancer type. Conclusions Collection and turnaround of high quality canine tumor samples, centralized pathology, analyte generation, array hybridization, and bioinformatic analyses matching gene expression to therapeutic options is achievable in a practical clinical window (<1 week). Clustering data show robust signatures by cancer type but also showed patient-to-patient heterogeneity in drug predictions. This lends further support to the inclusion of a heterogeneous population of dogs with cancer

  9. Herbal medicine (Shaofu Zhuyu decoction) for treating primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Choi, Tae-Young; Myung, Chang-Seon; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-04-01

    Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZY) or Sobokchugeo-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. We searched four English, seven Korean, three Chinese, and one Japanese database from inception through January 2016 without a language restriction. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SFZY or modified SFZY (MSFZY) were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 51 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 9 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Seven RCTs tested the effects of SFZY or modified SFZY in treating dysmenorrhea. Three RCTs showed superior effects of (M)SFZY on the response rate, while the other three RCTs failed to do so (n=531, RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.26, P<0.0001, I(2)=0%). Three RCTs showed favorable effects of MSFZY for pain reduction compared with conventional drugs (n=340, SMD: -1.39, 95% CI: -2.23 to -0.55, P=0.01). Two RCTs examined the effects of modified SFZY plus conventional drugs and conventional drugs alone. The meta-analysis showed favorable effects of MSFZY (n=206; RR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36; P=0.0009, I(2)=0%). Our systemic review and meta-analysis provide suggestive evidence of the superiority of SFZY over conventional drugs for treating primary dysmenorrhea. However, the level of evidence is low because of a high risk of bias. PMID:26921931

  10. Randomised clinical trial of snus versus medicinal nicotine among smokers interested in product switching

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Severson, Herbert; Anderson, Amanda; Vogel, Rachael Isaksson; Jensen, Joni; Broadbent, Berry; Murphy, Sharon E; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Background An essential component of evaluating potential modified risk tobacco products is to determine how consumers use the product and resulting effects on biomarkers of toxicant exposure. Study design Cigarette smokers (n=391) recruited in Minnesota and Oregon were randomised to either snus or 4 mg nicotine gum for 12 weeks. Participants were instructed to completely switch from cigarettes to these products. Urine samples were collected to analyse for carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolites (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and N′-nitrosonornicotine and their glucuronides) and nicotine metabolites (total cotinine and nicotine equivalents) levels. Results Of the 391 participants randomised, 52.9% were male, the mean±SD age was 43.9±12.5 years, baseline number of cigarettes/day was 18.0±6.5 and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 5.1±2.0. The mean±SD number of snus pouches used/week at week 6 prior to tapering was 39.1±24.0 and nicotine gum pieces used was 37.6±26.3. Dual use of cigarettes and these products were observed in 52.9% and 58.2% of those assigned to snus and nicotine gum, respectively, at week 12. The end of treatment biochemically verified (carbon monoxide, CO <6 ppm) 7-day avoidance of cigarettes was 21.9% in the snus group and 24.6% in the nicotine gum group. Toxicant exposure in the nicotine gum group was significantly less when compared to snus. Conclusions Snus performed similarly to nicotine gum in cigarette smokers who were interested in completely switching to these products, but was associated with less satisfaction and greater toxicant exposure than nicotine gum. Trial registration number NCT: 00710034. PMID:25991608

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Myelosuppression Induced by Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Youji; Du, Huihui; Yao, Min; Cui, Xuejun; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yongjun; Yang, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Background. Myelosuppression is one of the major side effects of chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients and there are no effective interventions to prevent it currently. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) may be helpful due to its multidrug targets. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of CHM on preventing patients from experiencing myelosuppression by chemo- or radiotherapy. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven different databases from the date of database creation to April 2014. We assessed all included studies using Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and performed statistical analysis using RevMan 5.2.1. Results. Eight RCTs were included (818 patients). Pooled data showed that increase of white blood cells (WBCs) is higher with CHM plus chemotherapy/radiotherapy than with chemotherapy/radiotherapy only. Both CHM compared to placebo and CHM combined with chemotherapy/radiotherapy compared to chemotherapy/radiotherapy lacked significant differences in the peripheral platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), and hemoglobin changes. Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that CHM significantly protected peripheral blood WBCs from a decrease caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. There were no significant protective effects on peripheral RBCs, hemoglobin, or platelets, which may be related to low quality and small sample of included studies. PMID:25802542

  12. Trials of large group teaching in Malaysian private universities: a cross sectional study of teaching medicine and other disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a pilot cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approach towards tutors teaching large classes in private universities in the Klang Valley (comprising Kuala Lumpur, its suburbs, adjoining towns in the State of Selangor) and the State of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to determine the difficulties faced by tutors when teaching large group of students and to outline appropriate recommendations in overcoming them. Findings Thirty-two academics from six private universities from different faculties such as Medical Sciences, Business, Information Technology, and Engineering disciplines participated in this study. SPSS software was used to analyse the data. The results in general indicate that the conventional instructor-student approach has its shortcoming and requires changes. Interestingly, tutors from Medicine and IT less often faced difficulties and had positive experience in teaching large group of students. Conclusion However several suggestions were proposed to overcome these difficulties ranging from breaking into smaller classes, adopting innovative teaching, use of interactive learning methods incorporating interactive assessment and creative technology which enhanced students learning. Furthermore the study provides insights on the trials of large group teaching which are clearly identified to help tutors realise its impact on teaching. The suggestions to overcome these difficulties and to maximize student learning can serve as a guideline for tutors who face these challenges. PMID:21902839

  13. Fifth FLTSATCOM to be launched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Launch of the FLTSATOOM-E, into an elliptical orbit by the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle is announced. The launch and relevant launch operations are described. A chart of the launch sequence for FLTSATCOM-E communication satellite is given.

  14. Protocol for the New Medicine Service Study: a randomized controlled trial and economic evaluation with qualitative appraisal comparing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the New Medicine Service in community pharmacies in England

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence is considered an important cause of morbidity and mortality in primary care. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and acceptability of a complex intervention delivered by community pharmacists, the New Medicine Service (NMS), compared with current practice in reducing non-adherence to, and problems with, newly prescribed medicines for chronic conditions. Methods/design Research subject group: patients aged 14 years and above presenting in a community pharmacy for a newly prescribed medicine for asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); hypertension; type 2 diabetes or anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents in two geographical regions in England. Design: parallel group patient-level pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Interventions: patients randomized to either: (i) current practice; or (ii) NMS intervention comprising pharmacist-delivered support for a newly prescribed medicine. Primary outcomes: proportion of adherent patients at six, ten and 26 weeks from the date of presenting their prescriptions at the pharmacy; cost effectiveness of the intervention versus current practice at 10 weeks and 26 weeks; in-depth qualitative understanding of the operationalization of NMS in pharmacies. Secondary outcomes: impact of NMS on: patients’ understanding of their medicines, pharmacovigilance, interprofessional and patient-professional relationships and experiences of service users and stakeholders. Economic analysis: Trial-based economic analysis (cost per extra adherent patient) and long-term modeling of costs and health effects (cost per quality-adjusted-life-year) will be conducted from the perspective of National Health Service (NHS) England, comparing NMS with current practice. Qualitative analysis: a qualitative study of NMS implementation in different community settings, how organizational influences affect NMS delivery, patterns of NMS consultations and experiences of professionals and

  15. Use of electronic healthcare records in large-scale simple randomized trials at the point of care for the documentation of value-based medicine.

    PubMed

    van Staa, T-P; Klungel, O; Smeeth, L

    2014-06-01

    A solid foundation of evidence of the effects of an intervention is a prerequisite of evidence-based medicine. The best source of such evidence is considered to be randomized trials, which are able to avoid confounding. However, they may not always estimate effectiveness in clinical practice. Databases that collate anonymized electronic health records (EHRs) from different clinical centres have been widely used for many years in observational studies. Randomized point-of-care trials have been initiated recently to recruit and follow patients using the data from EHR databases. In this review, we describe how EHR databases can be used for conducting large-scale simple trials and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of their use.

  16. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  17. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  18. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  19. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Qin; Sun, Qi; Fan, Fang-fang; Guo, Xue-rui; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Background After the publication of the CONSORT 2010 statement, few studies have been conducted to assess the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on treatment of diabetes mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) published in Chinese journals. Objective To investigate the current situation of the reporting quality of RCTs in leading medical journals in China with the CONSORT 2010 statement as criteria. Methods The China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) electronic database was searched for RCTs on the treatment of diabetes mellitus with TCM published in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine, and the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica from January to December 2011. We excluded trials reported as “animal studies”, “in vitro studies”, “case studies”, or “systematic reviews”. The CONSORT checklist was applied by two independent raters to evaluate the reporting quality of all eligible trials after discussing and comprehending the items thoroughly. Each item in the checklist was graded as either “yes” or “no” depending on whether it had been reported by the authors. Results We identified 27 RCTs. According to the 37 items in the CONSORT checklist, the average reporting percentage was 45.0%, in which the average reporting percentage for the “title and abstract”, the “introduction”, the “methods”, the “results”, the “discussion” and the “other information” was 33.3%, 88.9%, 36.4%, 54.4%, 71.6% and 14.8%, respectively. In the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine, and the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica the average reporting percentage was 42.2%, 56.8%, and 46.0%, respectively. Conclusions The reporting quality of RCTs in these three journals was insufficient to allow readers to assess the validity of the trials. We recommend that editors require

  20. Rehabilitation for the management of knee osteoarthritis using comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine in community health centers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is becoming increasingly necessary for community health centers to make rehabilitation services available to patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, for a number of reasons, including a lack of expertise, the small size of community health centers and the availability of only simple medical equipment, conventional rehabilitation therapy has not been widely used in China. Consequently, most patients with knee osteoarthritis seek treatment in high-grade hospitals. However, many patients cannot manage the techniques that they were taught in the hospital. Methods such as acupuncture, tuina, Chinese medical herb fumigation-washing and t’ai chi are easy to do and have been reported to have curative effects in those with knee osteoarthritis. To date, there have been no randomized controlled trials validating comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine for the rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis in a community health center. Furthermore, there is no standard rehabilitation protocol using traditional Chinese medicine for knee osteoarthritis. The aim of the current study is to develop a comprehensive rehabilitation protocol using traditional Chinese medicine for the management of knee osteoarthritis in a community health center. Method/design This will be a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment. There will be a 4-week intervention utilizing rehabilitation protocols from traditional Chinese medicine and conventional therapy. Follow-up will be conducted for a period of 12 weeks. A total of 722 participants with knee osteoarthritis will be recruited. Participants will be randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. Primary outcomes will include range of motion, girth measurement, the visual analogue scale, and results from the manual muscle, six-minute walking and stair-climbing tests. Secondary outcomes will include average daily consumption of pain medication, ability to perform daily tasks and health

  1. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  2. Chinese Medicinal Herbs in the Treatment of Upper Airway Cough Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized, Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongli; Liu, Wei; Li, Guanhong; Fan, Tao; Mao, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Context • Upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), previously called postnasal drip syndrome (PNDS), has been considered universally to be one of the most common causes of chronic cough. As an important part of complementary and alternative therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has found an exact curative therapy for chronic cough through clinical practice for thousands of years. Objective • The aim of the current review was to investigate systematically the beneficial and adverse effects of Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) in the treatment of UACS. Design • The research team performed searches in 11 main databases from respective inception to October 31, 2015, supplemented with manual retrieval of other data. Only randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effectiveness of CMH in patients with UACS were included. Descriptive and quantitative data on the studies' designs, population demographics, interventions, outcomes, and methodological quality were extracted and tabulated. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias system and the quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Participants • The reviewed studies included 1355 participants-720 in the CMH groups and 635 in the control groups-of both genders, from various professional and ethnic groups, and with a wide range of ages. They all had a duration of cough symptoms of longer than 8 wk and a clinical diagnosis of chronic cough induced by UACS that was supported by appropriate physical findings. Outcome Measures • The primary outcomes included (1) TCM recovery rate and (2) TCM cough symptom score. TCM's curative effect was calculated as the cumulative percentage of the symptom-score reduction (PSSR), estimated between baseline and postintervention. The cough symptom scores were graded according to the Chinese Criteria Guiding Principle of Clinical Research on New Drugs of TCM, with

  3. Launch Summary for 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

  4. Semi-individualised Chinese medicine treatment as an adjuvant management for diabetic nephropathy: a pilot add-on, randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label pragmatic clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kam Wa; Ip, Tai Pang; Kwong, Alfred Siu Kei; Lui, Sing Leung; Chan, Gary Chi Wang; Cowling, Benjamin John; Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson Wai Leong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Yibin; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Chan, Loretta Yuk Yee; Leung, Joseph Chi Kam; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are prevalent and costly to manage. DN is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. Conventional therapy blocking the renin–angiotensin system has only achieved limited effect in preserving renal function. Recent observational data show that the use of Chinese medicine (CM), a major form of traditional medicine used extensively in Asia, could reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease. However, existing clinical practice guidelines are weakly evidence-based and the effect of CM remains unclear. This trial explores the effect of an existing integrative Chinese–Western medicine protocol for the management of DN. Objective To optimise parameters and assess the feasibility for a subsequent phase III randomised controlled trial through preliminary evaluation on the effect of an adjuvant semi-individualised CM treatment protocol on patients with type 2 diabetes with stages 2–3 chronic kidney disease and macroalbuminuria. Methods and analysis This is an assessor-blind, add-on, randomised, controlled, parallel, multicentre, open-label pilot pragmatic clinical trial. 148 patients diagnosed with DN will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to a 48-week additional semi-individualised CM treatment programme or standard medical care. Primary end points are the changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio between baseline and treatment end point. Secondary end points include fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide, fasting insulin, C peptide, fibroblast growth factor 23, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cystatin C, nephrin, transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Adverse events are monitored through self-completed questionnaire and clinical visits. Outcomes will be analysed by regression models. Enrolment started in July 2015. Ethics and registration This protocol is approved by the Institutional

  5. Launch summary for 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

  6. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  7. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  8. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Placebo-controlled Randomized Trials on the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes With Traditional Chinese Medicine in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiyan; Zhen, Zhong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Tianyu; Ye, Ru; Guo, Yu; Chen, Hongdong; Lian, Fengmei; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Placebo-controlled randomized trials are often used to evaluate the absolute effect of new treatments and are considered gold standard for clinical trials. No studies, however, have yet been conducted evaluating the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials. The current study aims to assess the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in Mainland China and to provide recommendations for improvements. China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang database, China Biology Medicine database, and VIP database were searched for placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with TCM. Review, animal experiment, and randomized controlled trials without placebo control were excluded. According to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 checklists items, each item was given a yes or no depending on whether it was reported or not. A total of 68 articles were included. The reporting percentage in each article ranged from 24.3% to 73%, and 30.9% articles reported more than 50% of the items. Seven of the 37 items were reported more than 90% of the items, whereas 7 items were not mentioned at all. The average reporting for “title and abstract,” “introduction,” “methods,” “results,” “discussion,” and “other information” was 43.4%, 78.7%, 40.1%, 49.9%, 71.1%, and 17.2%, respectively. The percentage of each section had increased after 2010. In addition, the reporting of multiple study centers, funding, placebo species, informed consent forms, and ethical approvals were 14.7%, 50%, 36.85%, 33.8%, and 4.4%, respectively. Although a scoring system was created according to the CONSORT 2010 checklist, it was not designed as an assessment tool. According to CONSORT 2010, the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on the treatment of diabetes with TCM improved after 2010. Future improvements

  9. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = −1.01; 95% CI −1.72, −0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  10. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Jie; Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Guo, Yu; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = -1.01; 95% CI -1.72, -0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  11. China's Launch Vehicle Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jingwu

    2002-01-01

    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science

  12. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  13. 66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Auxiliary Therapy for Childhood Cough Variant Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 20 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Song, Ping; Zeng, Lingfeng; Liang, Zhaohui; Wang, Qi; Ou, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine auxiliary therapy (CHMAT) in treating childhood cough variant asthma (CVA). A systematic literature review was conducted on RCTs that compared CHMAT, i.e., Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus pharmacotherapy (PT), versus the same PT alone in the treatment of CVA. All included trials were assessed for quality and risk bias and analyzed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook based on the Review Manager 5.3 software program. Twenty studies were identified and the CHMAT group had a positive effect on the total effective rate and a lower recurrence rate compared with the control group. CHMAT may have positive effects on CVA, leading to better improvement in disorders of cough and asthma and less adverse effects. However, the methodology and reporting quality of current studies are generally low. Further studies should include larger sample sizes with a strict design to confirm these findings. PMID:27522988

  15. Collaborative Care for Older Adults with low back pain by family medicine physicians and doctors of chiropractic (COCOA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition that affects the health and quality of life of older adults. Older people often consult primary care physicians about back pain, with many also receiving concurrent care from complementary and alternative medicine providers, most commonly doctors of chiropractic. However, a collaborative model of treatment coordination between these two provider groups has yet to be tested. The primary aim of the Collaborative Care for Older Adults Clinical Trial is to develop and evaluate the clinical effectiveness and feasibility of a patient-centered, collaborative care model with family medicine physicians and doctors of chiropractic for the treatment of low back pain in older adults. Methods/design This pragmatic, pilot randomized controlled trial will enroll 120 participants, age 65 years or older with subacute or chronic low back pain lasting at least one month, from a community-based sample in the Quad-Cities, Iowa/Illinois, USA. Eligible participants are allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 12 weeks of medical care, concurrent medical and chiropractic care, or collaborative medical and chiropractic care. Primary outcomes are self-rated back pain and disability. Secondary outcomes include general and functional health status, symptom bothersomeness, expectations for treatment effectiveness and improvement, fear avoidance behaviors, depression, anxiety, satisfaction, medication use and health care utilization. Treatment safety and adverse events also are monitored. Participant-rated outcome measures are collected via self-reported questionnaires and computer-assisted telephone interviews at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 52 weeks post-randomization. Provider-rated expectations for treatment effectiveness and participant improvement also are evaluated. Process outcomes are assessed through qualitative interviews with study participants and research clinicians, chart audits of progress notes and content

  16. GPM: Waiting for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory is poised for launch from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Tanegashima Space Center, scheduled for the afternoon of Feb. 27, ...

  17. Expedition 28 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new Expedition 28 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa -- launch from the Baikonur...

  18. Kestrel balloon launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    Kestrel is a high-altitude, Helium-gas-filled-balloon system used to launch scientific payloads in winds up to 20 knots, from small platforms or ships, anywhere over land or water, with a minimal crew and be able to hold in standby conditions. Its major components consist of two balloons (a tow balloon and a main balloon), the main deployment system, helium measurement system, a parachute recovery unit, and the scientific payload package. The main scope of the launch system was to eliminate the problems of being dependent of launching on long airfield runways, low wind conditions, and long launch preparation time. These objectives were clearly met with Kestrel 3.

  19. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  20. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2012-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

  2. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  3. Arianespace streamlines launch procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.

    1992-06-01

    Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.

  4. Launch Pad Tour Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Launch Pad tour stop at the Mississippi I-10 Welcome Center in Hancock County, Miss., is the point of origin for all tours of Stennis Space Center and StenniSphere. At the Launch Pad, visitors waiting to catch the shuttle buses are provided information and can see videos on StenniSphere exhibits and on the missions and programs of Stennis Space Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, and buses depart from the Launch Pad to StenniSphere every 15 to 20 minutes.

  5. Expedition 27 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Ron Garan and Russian cosmonauts Andrey Borisenko and Alexander Samokutyaev launch in their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 4, 2011 (April...

  6. NASA Now: Glory Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, Dr. Hal Maring joins us to explain why the upcoming launch of the Glory satellite is so important to further our understanding of climate change. He also will speak on ...

  7. Launch of Juno!

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and dec...

  8. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  9. Hi-C Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX two-stage rocket from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico July 11, 2012. The experiment reached a maximum velocit...

  10. GPM Launch Coverage

    NASA Video Gallery

    A Japanese H-IIA rocket with the NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory aboard, launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan o...

  11. IRVE 3 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment, or IRVE-3, launched on July 23, 2012, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of the IRVE-3 test was to show that a space capsule can use an infl...

  12. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) To develop a safe, reliable, inexpensive, and minimum operation launch assist system for sending payloads into orbit using ground powered, magnetic suspension and propulsion technologies; (2) Improve safety, reliability, operability for third generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV); (3) Reduce vehicle weight and increase payload capacity; and (4) Support operational testing of Rocket Based Combine Cycle (RBCC) engines.

  13. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Passing through some of the trailer clouds of an overcast sky which temporarily postponed its launch, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th Earth orbital flight. Several kilometers away, astronaut John H. Casper, Jr., who took this picture, was piloting the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) from which the launch and landing area weather was being monitored. Onboard Discovery were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Mark C. Lee, Carl J. Meade, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger.

  14. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or

  15. Electromagnetic Launch to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, I. R.

    Many advances in electromagnetic (EM) propulsion technology have occurred in recent years. Linear motor technology for low-velocity and high-mass applications is being developed for naval catapults. Such technology could serve as the basis for a first-stage booster launch--as suggested by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Maglifter concept. Using railguns, laboratory experiments have demonstrated launch velocities of 2-3 km/s and muzzle energies > 8 MJ. The extension of this technology to the muzzle velocities ( 7500 m/s) and energies ( 10 GJ) needed for the direct launch of payloads into orbit is very challenging but may not be impossible. For launch to orbit, even long launchers (> 1000 m) would need to operate at accelerations > 1000 G to reach the required velocities, so it would only be possible to launch rugged payloads, such as fuel, water, and materiel. Interest is being shown in such concepts by US, European, Russian, and Chinese researchers. An intermediate step proposed in France could be to launch payloads to sounding rocket altitudes for ionospheric research.

  16. An embedded longitudinal multi-faceted qualitative evaluation of a complex cluster randomized controlled trial aiming to reduce clinically important errors in medicines management in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to shed light on the pathways through which complex interventions mediate their effects in order to enable critical reflection on their transferability. We sought to explore and understand key stakeholder accounts of the acceptability, likely impact and strategies for optimizing and rolling-out a successful pharmacist-led information technology-enabled (PINCER) intervention, which substantially reduced the risk of clinically important errors in medicines management in primary care. Methods Data were collected at two geographical locations in central England through a combination of one-to-one longitudinal semi-structured telephone interviews (one at the beginning of the trial and another when the trial was well underway), relevant documents, and focus group discussions following delivery of the PINCER intervention. Participants included PINCER pharmacists, general practice staff, researchers involved in the running of the trial, and primary care trust staff. PINCER pharmacists were interviewed at three different time-points during the delivery of the PINCER intervention. Analysis was thematic with diffusion of innovation theory providing a theoretical framework. Results We conducted 52 semi-structured telephone interviews and six focus group discussions with 30 additional participants. In addition, documentary data were collected from six pharmacist diaries, along with notes from four meetings of the PINCER pharmacists and feedback meetings from 34 practices. Key findings that helped to explain the success of the PINCER intervention included the perceived importance of focusing on prescribing errors to all stakeholders, and the credibility and appropriateness of a pharmacist-led intervention to address these shortcomings. Central to this was the face-to-face contact and relationship building between pharmacists and a range of practice staff, and pharmacists’ explicitly designated role as a change agent. However, important concerns were

  17. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  18. Evaluating the evidence for evidence-based medicine: are randomized clinical trials less flawed than other forms of peer-reviewed medical research?

    PubMed

    Steen, R Grant; Dager, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine considers randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to be the strongest form of evidence for clinical decision making. To test the hypothesis that RCTs have fewer methodological flaws than non-RCTs, limitations of 17,591 RCTs and 39,029 non-RCTs were characterized. Panels of experts assembled to write meta-analyses evaluated this literature to determine which articles should be included in 316 meta-analytic reviews. Overall, 38.7% of RCTs evaluated were excluded from review for an identified flaw. Commonly identified flaws in RCTs were as follows: insufficient data provided to evaluate the study (9.6% of 17,591 RCTs); inadequate randomization (9.0%); inadequate blinding (4.9%); and duplicative publication (4.4%). Overall, 20.2% of all published medical research has an identified methodological flaw, with RCTs having as many limitations as non-RCTs.

  19. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yi, Yongxin; Wang, Shihan; Qiu, Zonglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP) to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P < 0.00001), PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P < 0.00001), and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P = 0.43). There were also improvements in lowering patients' BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P < 0.00001), SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P < 0.00001), 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P < 0.00001), UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P < 0.00001), and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P < 0.00001). Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results. PMID:26997962

  20. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yi, Yongxin; Wang, Shihan; Qiu, Zonglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP) to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD: -0.36 [-0.46, -0.25], P < 0.00001), PBG (MD: -1.10 [-1.35, -0.85], P < 0.00001), and HbA1c (MD: -0.14 [-0.49, 0.21], P = 0.43). There were also improvements in lowering patients' BUN (MD: -0.67 [-0.89, -0.45], P < 0.00001), SCr (MD: -0.96 [-1.53, -0.39], P < 0.00001), 24 h UTP (SMD: -1.26 [-2.38, -0.15], P < 0.00001), UAER (MD: -26.18 [-27.51, -24.85], P < 0.00001), and UmAlb (SMD: -1.72 [-2.67, -0.77], P < 0.00001). Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results.

  1. Performance of research ethics committees in Spain. A prospective study of 100 applications for clinical trial protocols on medicines.

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Ré, R; Espada, J; Ortega, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics and performance of research ethics committees in Spain in the evaluation of multicentre clinical trial drug protocols. DESIGN: A prospective study of 100 applications. SETTING: Forty-one committees reviewing clinical trial protocols, involving 50 hospitals in 25 cities. MAIN MEASURES: Protocol-related features, characteristics of research ethics committees and evaluation dynamics. RESULTS: The 100 applications involved 15 protocols (of which 12 were multinational) with 12 drugs. Committees met monthly (except one). They had a mean number of 12 members, requested a mean of six complete dossiers and nine additional copies of the protocol with a mean deadline of 14 days before the meeting. All applications were approved except three (two of the three were open-label long-term safety trials rejected by the same committee), which were approved by the other committees involved. The mean time from submission to approval was 64 days. The mean time from submission to arrival of the approval document at our offices was 85 days. Twenty-five committees raised queries for 38 of the 97 finally approved applications. Impact of evaluation fee, number of members, queries raised and experience of committees on timings were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Obtaining ethical approval is time-consuming. There is much diversity in the research ethics committees' performance. A remarkable delay (> 20 days) exists between the decision and the arrival of the written approval, suggesting administrative or organisational problems. PMID:10390685

  2. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Wen, Tao; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7-10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0-25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0-24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0-16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  3. Comparison between Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhui; Zhang, Xi; Ding, Jianbo; Xu, Yi; Wei, Dan; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jihan; Li, Shuangjie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was made to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines, Reduning injection, and a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) granule, in patients with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial. Methods. 355 severe HFMD patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional therapy alone, Reduning injection plus conventional therapy, or TCM enema plus conventional therapy for 7–10 days. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major complications between the groups. Median time to fever clearance was 20 hours (95% CI: 6.0–25.0) for conventional therapy recipients, 18 hours (95% CI: 4.0–24.0) for Reduning combination-treated patients, and 6 hours (95% CI: 4.0–16.0) for TCM combination-treated patients. Only the difference in time to fever clearance between TCM combination group and conventional group reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Reduning combination group showed a significant reduction in sedative administration compared with conventional therapy group (P = 0.008). No HFMD-related death and no important adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Reduning injection plus conventional therapy significantly reduced the concomitant use of sedatives, which may help decrease HFMD-related neurologic complications in children. TCM effectively reduced time to fever clearance and may become a complementary therapy for relieving the symptoms of severe HFMD. PMID:24719639

  4. Chinese Medicines as an Adjuvant Therapy for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma during Transarterial Chemoembolization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuanbin; Yuen, Man-Fung; Ziea, Tat-chi; Tong, Yao; Wong, Vivian Taam; Feng, Yibin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To conduct a comprehensive PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines (CMs) as an adjuvant therapy for unresectable HCC during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods. Main databases were searched up to October 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of CMs plus TACE on unresectable HCC compared with TACE alone. References of relevant reviews and eligible studies were also assessed. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals and mean difference were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were examined. Results. Sixty-seven trials (N = 5,211) were included in the meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis and random-effects model were performed for assessing significant heterogeneity. CMs plus TACE showed beneficial effects on tumor response, survival at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, quality of life, and TACE toxicity reduction compared with TACE alone. Conclusion. The results show that the use of CMs may increase the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of TACE in treating patients with unresectable HCC. These findings suggest that CMs could be considered as an adjuvant therapy for unresectable HCC patients during TACE. Larger-scale RCTs using standard methods and long-term follow-up are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23956773

  5. The challenge to bring personalized cancer medicine from clinical trials into routine clinical practice: the case of the Institut Gustave Roussy.

    PubMed

    Arnedos, Monica; André, Fabrice; Farace, Françoise; Lacroix, Ludovic; Besse, Benjamin; Robert, Caroline; Soria, Jean Charles; Eggermont, Alexander M M

    2012-04-01

    Research with high throughput technologies has propitiated the segmentation of different types of tumors into very small subgroups characterized by the presence of very rare molecular alterations. The identification of these subgroups and the apparition of new agents targeting these infrequent alterations are already affecting the way in which clinical trials are being conducted with an increased need to identify those patients harboring specific molecular alterations. In this review we describe some of the currently ongoing and future studies at the Institut Gustave Roussy that aim for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for cancer patients with the incorporation of high throughput technologies into daily practice including aCGH, next generation sequencing and the creation of a software that allows for target identification specific for each tumor. The initial intention is to enrich clinical trials with cancer patients carrying certain molecular alterations in order to increase the possibility of demonstrating benefit from a targeted agent. Mid and long term aims are to facilitate and speed up the process of drug development as well as to implement the concept of personalized medicine. PMID:22483534

  6. Drug delivery trends in clinical trials and translational medicine: growth in biologic molecule development and impact on rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and colitis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rodney J Y; Chien, Jenny Y

    2012-08-01

    There are 94,709 clinical trials across 179 countries. Approximately half (47,467) are related to the three categories within the scope of the free online resource "Drug Delivery Trends in Clinical Trials and Translational Medicine," which are (1) drug delivery technology and systems, (2) biological molecule platforms, and (3) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. In this commentary, trends in biological molecule platforms and their impacts are discussed. The sales of top 15 biologic drugs have reached over $63 billion in 2010. In the past 10 years, major pharmaceutical companies have acquired biological molecule platforms and have become integrated biopharmaceutical companies, highlighting the role of biotechnology in driving new therapeutic product development. The top three products--Remicade, Enbrel, and Humira--indicated for arthritis and colitis and targeted to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), each generated over $6 billion in annual sales. In addition to TNF-α, biologic candidates targeted to other inflammatory molecules are in clinical development, partly driven by commercial interests and medical need. Although clinical experience indicates that all the anti-TNF-α molecular platforms are effective for rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and colitis, whether the new agents can provide additional relief or cures remains to be seen.

  7. Effectiveness of an additional individualized multi-component complementary medicine treatment on health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: a pragmatic randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Außerer, Oskar; Baier, Susanne; Heidegger, Herbert; Icke, Katja; Mayr, Oswald; Mitterer, Manfred; Roll, Stephanie; Spizzo, Gilbert; Scherer, Arthur; Thuile, Christian; Wieser, Anton; Schützler, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an additional, individualized, multi-component complementary medicine treatment offered to breast cancer patients at the Merano Hospital (South Tyrol) on health-related quality of life compared to patients receiving usual care only. A randomized pragmatic trial with two parallel arms was performed. Women with confirmed diagnoses of breast cancer were randomized (stratified by usual care treatment) to receive individualized complementary medicine (CM group) or usual care alone (usual care group). Both groups were allowed to use conventional treatment for breast cancer. Primary endpoint was the breast cancer-related quality of life FACT-B score at 6 months. For statistical analysis, we used analysis of covariance (with factors treatment, stratum, and baseline FACT-B score) and imputed missing FACT-B scores at 6 months with regression-based multiple imputation. A total of 275 patients were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012 to the CM group (n = 136, 56.3 ± 10.9 years of age) or the usual care group (n = 139, 56.0 ± 11.0). After 6 months from randomization, adjusted means for health-related quality of life were higher in the CM group (FACT-B score 107.9; 95 % CI 104.1-111.7) compared to the usual care group (102.2; 98.5-105.9) with an adjusted FACT-B score difference between groups of 5.7 (2.6-8.7, p < 0.001). Thus, an additional individualized and complex complementary medicine intervention improved quality of life of breast cancer patients compared to usual care alone. Further studies evaluating specific effects of treatment components should follow to optimize the treatment of breast cancer patients.

  8. Zvezda Launch Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the Proton Rocket (containing the Zvezda module) ready for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Russia. The interior and exterior of Zvezda are seen during construction. Computerized simulations show the solar arrays deploying on Zvezda in space, the maneuvers of the module as it approaches and connects with the International Space Station (ISS), the installation of the Z1 truss on the ISS and its solar arrays deploying, and the installations of the Destiny Laboratory, Remote Manipulator System, and Kibo Experiment Module. Live footage then shows the successful launch of the Proton Rocket.

  9. STS-56 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The second try works like a charm as the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B on Mission STS-56 at 1:29:00 a.m., EDT, April 8. First attempt to launch Discovery on its 16th space voyage was halted at T-11 seconds on April 6. Aboard for the second Space Shuttle mission of 1993 are a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical makeup, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  10. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  11. Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To study the association of depressive symptoms or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 5,1...

  12. Will the EU Clinical Trials Regulation Support the Innovative Industry in Bringing New Medicines Faster to Patients?

    PubMed

    Atzor, Sabine; Gokhale, Surendra; Doherty, Michael

    2013-04-01

    A perspective from the innovative industry is provided in this article about the long awaited legal proposal for a Clinical Trial Regulation ("Proposal"), adopted in July 2012. With this Proposal, the European Commission reacted to a call by all stakeholders for more harmonization and streamlining of the provisions for conducting clinical trials in the EU. Discrepant approaches between Member States, a failure to respect legal timelines, and a lack of formal coordination mechanisms within and between Member States have resulted in an increased workload for the industry and contributed to a decline in Europe's attractiveness as a place to carry out research and development. The Proposal introduces a concept whereby the sponsor makes a single submission of the clinical trial application dossier to an EU portal, which is followed by a single assessment based on cooperation between Member States. A possibility for the sponsor to choose a 'reporting Member State' to take the lead on key aspects of the assessment is expected to support excellence building and work sharing of Competent Authorities in the EU. The Proposal respects the fact that certain aspects need to be reviewed nationally. The new process aims to lead to a single decision per clinical trial per concerned Member State. The rules are built on the principle of strict adherence to timelines for authorization. The timelines are ambitious but at the same time competitive, as the process builds in mechanisms that strengthen compliance. The rules have been designed to encourage sponsors to file complete submission packages, since any substantial modification to a trial would lead to delays in its commencement. Sponsors need to streamline their internal processes accordingly. In the end, streamlining is an effort that needs to be accepted by all parties involved. The Proposal does not detail how Member States organize the involvement of different bodies, such as Competent Authorities and Ethics Committees

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Quality-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for

  14. NASA Launch Services Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has need to procure a variety of launch vehicles and services for its unmanned spacecraft. The Launch Services Program (LSP) provides the Agency with a single focus for the acquisition and management of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launch services. This presentation will provide an overview of the LSP and its organization, approach, and activities.

  15. A cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinically integrated RHL evidence -based medicine course

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Evidence-based health care requires clinicians to engage with use of evidence in decision-making at the workplace. A learner-centred, problem-based course that integrates e-learning in the clinical setting has been developed for application in obstetrics and gynaecology units. The course content uses the WHO reproductive health library (RHL) as the resource for systematic reviews. This project aims to evaluate a clinically integrated teaching programme for incorporation of evidence provided through the WHO RHL. The hypothesis is that the RHL-EBM (clinically integrated e-learning) course will improve participants' knowledge, skills and attitudes, as well as institutional practice and educational environment, as compared to the use of standard postgraduate educational resources for EBM teaching that are not clinically integrated. Methods The study will be a multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial, carried out in seven countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand), involving 50-60 obstetrics and gynaecology teaching units. The trial will be carried out on postgraduate trainees in the first two years of their training. In the intervention group, trainees will receive the RHL-EBM course. The course consists of five modules, each comprising self-directed e-learning components and clinically related activities, assignments and assessments, coordinated between the facilitator and the postgraduate trainee. The course will take about 12 weeks, with assessments taking place pre-course and 4 weeks post-course. In the control group, trainees will receive electronic, self-directed EBM-teaching materials. All data collection will be online. The primary outcome measures are gain in EBM knowledge, change in attitudes towards EBM and competencies in EBM measured by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and a skills-assessing questionniare administered eletronically. These questions have been

  16. Clinical trials of medicines in neonates: the influence of ethical and practical issues on design and conduct

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, there has been a perception that ethical and practical problems limit the opportunities for research in neonates. This perception is no longer appropriate. It is now clear that research about the medicines used in neonates is an ethical requirement. It is possible to conduct high quality research in neonates if the research team adapt to the characteristics of this population. Good practice involves respecting the specific needs of newborn babies and their families by adopting relevant approaches to study design, recruitment, pharmacokinetic studies and safety assessment. Neonatal units have a unique culture that requires careful development in a research setting. Clinical investigators need to recognize the clinical and ethical imperative to conduct rigorous research. Industry needs to engage with neonatal networks early in the process of drug development, preferably before contacting regulatory agencies. Follow-up over 3–5 years is essential for the evaluation of medicines in neonates and explicit funding for this is required for the assessment of the benefit and risk of treatments given to sick newborn babies. The views of parents must be central to the development of studies and the research agenda. Ethical and practical problems are no longer barriers to research in neonates. The current challenges are to disseminate good practice and maximize capacity in order to meet the need for research among newborn babies. PMID:25041601

  17. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  18. The Personnel Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stone, Howard W.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has begun to study candidate vehicles for manned access to space in support of the Space Station or other future missions requiring on-demand transportation of people to and from earth orbit. One such system, which would be used to complement the present Shuttle or an upgraded version, is the Personnel Launch System (PLS), which is envisioned as a reusable priority vehicle to place people and small payloads into orbit using an experimental launch vehicle. The design of the PLS is based on a Space Station crew changeout requirement whereby eight passengers and two crew members are flown to the station and a like number are returned within a 72 hour mission duration. Experimental and computational aerothermodynamic heating studies have been conducted using a new two-color thermographic technique that involved coating the model with a phosphor that radiates at varying color intensities as a function of temperature when illuminated with UV light. A full-scale model, the HL-20, has been produced and will be used for man-machine research. Three launch vehicle concepts are being considered, a Titan IV, the Advanced Launch System, and a Shuttle equipped with liquid rocket boosters.

  19. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  20. GMP facilities for manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products for clinical trials: an overview for clinical researchers.

    PubMed

    Alici, Evren; Blomberg, Pontus

    2010-12-01

    To be able to produce advanced therapy medicinal products, compliance with regulatory standards while maintaining flexibility is mandatory. For this purpose, careful planning is vital in the design or upgrade of a facility. Similarly, extensive foresight is elemental to anticipate upcoming needs and requirements. Failing this may lead to the facility's in-ability to meet the demands. In this chapter we aimed to outline the current issues with regards to the European Union Directives (EUD) and the proposal for Advanced Therapies, which are of importance to cellular and gene therapy facilities in Europe. This chapter is an attempt to elucidate what the minimum requirements for GMP facilities for cell and gene therapy products are and what is considered necessary to comply with the regulations in Europe.

  1. NCI and the Precision Medicine Initiative®

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's activities related to precision medicine focuses on new and expanded precision medicine clinical trials; mechanisms to overcome drug resistance to cancer treatments; and developing a shared digital repository of precision medicine trials data.

  2. THE BIG PICTURE ON SMALL MEDICINE: THE STATE OF NANOMEDICINE PRODUCTS APPROVED FOR USE OR IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Michael L.; Campbell, Stephen A.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine’s unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that literature is flush with articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or take a very forward looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web, yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including: FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the large number of nanomedicine products already in human use, this study indentifies some interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine. PMID:22684017

  3. Partnering With Patients in the Development and Lifecycle of Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James; Boutin, Marc; Dewulf, Lode; Geissler, Jan; Johnston, Graeme; Joos, Angelika; Metcalf, Marilyn; Regnante, Jeanne; Sargeant, Ifeanyi; Schneider, Roslyn F.; Todaro, Veronica; Tougas, Gervais

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medicines is to improve patients' lives. Stakeholders involved in the development and lifecycle management of medicines agree that more effective patient involvement is needed to ensure that patient needs and priorities are identified and met. Despite the increasing number and scope of patient involvement initiatives, there is no accepted master framework for systematic patient involvement in industry-led medicines research and development, regulatory review, or market access decisions. Patient engagement is very productive in some indications, but inconsistent and fragmentary on a broader level. This often results in inefficient drug development, increasing evidence requirements, lack of patient-centered outcomes that address unmet medical needs and facilitate adherence, and consequently, lack of required therapeutic options and high costs to society and involved parties. Improved patient involvement can drive the development of innovative medicines that deliver more relevant and impactful patient outcomes and make medicine development faster, more efficient, and more productive. It can lead to better prioritization of early research; improved resource allocation; improved trial protocol designs that better reflect patient needs; and, by addressing potential barriers to patient participation, enhanced recruitment and retention. It may also improve trial conduct and lead to more focused, economically viable clinical trials. At launch and beyond, systematic patient involvement can also improve the ongoing benefit-risk assessment, ensure that public funds prioritize medicines of value to patients, and further the development of the medicine. Progress toward a universal framework for patient involvement requires a joint, precompetitive, and international approach by all stakeholders, working in true partnership to consolidate outputs from existing initiatives, identify gaps, and develop a comprehensive framework. It is essential that all stakeholders

  4. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  5. Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

  6. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  7. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  8. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  9. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  10. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  11. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  12. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  13. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  14. 73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SOUTH WALL OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ON WALL IN BACKGROUND: COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET AND FOOT PEDAL IN FORGROUND. ACCIDENT REPORTING EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM TELEPHONE, ATLAS H FUEL COUNTER, AND DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Placebo-controlled Randomized Trials on the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes With Traditional Chinese Medicine in Mainland China: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiyan; Zhen, Zhong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Tianyu; Ye, Ru; Guo, Yu; Chen, Hongdong; Lian, Fengmei; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Placebo-controlled randomized trials are often used to evaluate the absolute effect of new treatments and are considered gold standard for clinical trials. No studies, however, have yet been conducted evaluating the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials. The current study aims to assess the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in Mainland China and to provide recommendations for improvements.China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang database, China Biology Medicine database, and VIP database were searched for placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with TCM. Review, animal experiment, and randomized controlled trials without placebo control were excluded. According to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 checklists items, each item was given a yes or no depending on whether it was reported or not.A total of 68 articles were included. The reporting percentage in each article ranged from 24.3% to 73%, and 30.9% articles reported more than 50% of the items. Seven of the 37 items were reported more than 90% of the items, whereas 7 items were not mentioned at all. The average reporting for "title and abstract," "introduction," "methods," "results," "discussion," and "other information" was 43.4%, 78.7%, 40.1%, 49.9%, 71.1%, and 17.2%, respectively. The percentage of each section had increased after 2010. In addition, the reporting of multiple study centers, funding, placebo species, informed consent forms, and ethical approvals were 14.7%, 50%, 36.85%, 33.8%, and 4.4%, respectively.Although a scoring system was created according to the CONSORT 2010 checklist, it was not designed as an assessment tool. According to CONSORT 2010, the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on the treatment of diabetes with TCM improved after 2010. Future improvements, however, are still needed, particularly

  16. Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Krisadaphong, Panvipa; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2004-06-01

    Oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (makaen), widely used essential oils for dental caries or flavoring of food in Thailand, were prepared as 10 experimental repellent products in gel or cream form against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles dirus under laboratory conditions, using the human-arm-in-cage method. Two products that gave the longest-lasting complete protection were selected to examine their repellency against a variety of mosquito species under field conditions. In laboratory tests, 0.1 g of each product was applied to 3x10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm, while in field trials, 1.0 g was applied to each volunteer's leg (from knee to ankle). In the laboratory, the gel dosage form contained 20% clove oil (Gel B) or 10% clove plus 10% makaen oil mixture (Gel E) were promising plant-based repellents against three mosquito species and gave significantly longer complete protection times of 4-5 hours than all other developing products. Therefore, their efficacy in the field was evaluated. Under field conditions, Gel E showed complete protection for 4 hours and gave 95.7% repellency after 5 hours application, whereas Gel B and 20% deet (di-methyl benzamide) provided only 86.8 and 82.7% repellency after treatment, respectively against Ae. aegypti, daytime-biting mosquitos. For nighttime-biting, the 3 repellents under development yielded equally excellent (average 97.1%) repellency for 5 hours against the predominant Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis, but they gave 89.0% repellency against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. This finding demonstrated the effectiveness of Gel B and Gel E products for possible use by low-income rural communities against various mosquito species. PMID:15691131

  17. Medicinal clays improve the endurance of loaded inspiratory muscles in COPD: a randomized clinical trial of nonpharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Simonetta; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Bruschi, Claudio; Caldara, Fabrizio; Maestri, Roberto; Dacosto, Elena; Rezzani, Antonella; Popovich, Ermanno; Bellinzona, Ezio; Crotti, Paola; Montemartini, Silvia; Fracchia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background Inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB) challenges affect respiratory muscle endurance in healthy individuals, which is considered to be an interleukin 6 (IL-6)–dependent mechanism. Whether nonpharmacological thermal therapies promote the endurance of loaded inspiratory muscles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two thermal interventions on endurance time (ET) and plasma IL-6 concentration following an IRB challenge. Methods This study was a randomized, parallel-group, unblinded clinical trial in a single-center setting. Forty-two patients (aged 42–76 years) suffering from mild to severe COPD participated in this study. Both groups completed 12 sessions of the mud bath therapy (MBT) (n=22) or leisure thermal activity (LTA) (n=19) in a thermal spa center in Italy. Pre- and postintervention spirometry, maximum inspiratory pressure, and plasma mediators were obtained and ET and endurance oxygen expenditure (VO2Endur) were measured following IRB challenge at 40% of maximum inspiratory pressure. Results There was no difference in ΔIL-6 between the intervention groups. But, IRB challenge increased cytokine IL-6 plasma levels systematically. The effect size was small. A statistically significant treatment by IRB challenge effect existed in ET, which significantly increased in the MBT group (P=0.003). In analysis of covariance treatment by IRB challenge analysis with LnVO2Endur as the dependent variable, ΔIL-6 after intervention predicted LnVO2Endur in the MBT group, but not in the LTA group. Adverse events occurred in two individuals in the MBT group, but they were mainly transient. One patient in the LTA group dropped out. Conclusion MBT model improves ET upon a moderate IRB challenge, indicating the occurrence of a training effect. The LnVO2Endur/ΔIL-6 suggests a physiologic adaptive mechanism in respiratory muscles of COPD patients allocated to treatment. Both thermal

  18. SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

  19. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  20. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  1. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  2. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula (RCM-104) in the Management of Simple Obesity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenon, George Binh; Li, Kang Xiao; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Angela Weihong; Da Costa, Clifford; Li, Chun Guang; Cohen, Marc; Mann, Neil; Xue, Charlie C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM-104) for the management of simple obesity. Method. Obese subjects aged between 18 and 60 years were selected for 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to take 4 capsules of either the RCM-104 formula (n = 59) or placebo (n = 58), 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Measures of BW, BMI and WC, HC, WHR and BF composition were assessed at baseline and once every four weeks during the 12 week treatment period. Results. Of the 117 subjects randomised, 92 were included in the ITT analysis. The weight, BMI and BF in RCM-104 group were reduced by 1.5 kg, 0.6 kg/m2 and 0.9% and those in the placebo group were increased by 0.5 kg, 0.2 kg/m2 and 0.1% respectively. There were significant differences in BW and BMI (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Eleven items of the WLQOQ were significantly improved in the RCM-104 group while only 2 items were significantly improved in the placebo group. Adverse events were minor in both groups. Conclusion. RCM-104 treatment appears to be well tolerated and beneficial in reducing BW and BMI in obese subjects. PMID:22550541

  4. Additive Effect of Qidan Dihuang Grain, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Albuminuria Levels in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Xiaomin; Bi, Jianlu; Cui, Lijuan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is characteristic of early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). The conventional treatments with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are unable to prevent the development of albuminuria in normotensive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ARB combined with a Chinese formula Qidan Dihuang grain (QDDHG) in improving albuminuria and Traditional Chinese Medicine Symptom (TCMS) scores in normotensive individuals with T2DM. Methods. Eligible patients were randomized to the treatment group and the control group. Results. Compared with baseline (week 0), both treatment and control groups markedly improved the 24-hour albuminuria, total proteinuria (TPU), and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (A/C) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Between treatment and the control group, the levels of albuminuria in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment group markedly decreased the scores of TCMS after treatment. Conclusion. This trial suggests that QDDHG combined with ARB administration decreases the levels of albuminuria and the scores for TCMS in normotensive individuals with T2DM. PMID:27375762

  5. Clinical trials in children

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Pathma D; Craig, Jonathan C; Caldwell, Patrina HY

    2015-01-01

    Safety and efficacy data on many medicines used in children are surprisingly scarce. As a result children are sometimes given ineffective medicines or medicines with unknown harmful side effects. Better and more relevant clinical trials in children are needed to increase our knowledge of the effects of medicines and to prevent the delayed or non-use of beneficial therapies. Clinical trials provide reliable evidence of treatment effects by rigorous controlled testing of interventions on human subjects. Paediatric trials are more challenging to conduct than trials in adults because of the paucity of funding, uniqueness of children and particular ethical concerns. Although current regulations and initiatives are improving the scope, quantity and quality of trials in children, there are still deficiencies that need to be addressed to accelerate radically equitable access to evidence-based therapies in children. PMID:24325152

  6. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  7. Launch team training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the training, certification, recertification, and proficiency maintenance of the Shuttle launch team is proposed. Previous training approaches are first reviewed. Short term program goals include expanding current training methods, improving the existing simulation capability, and scheduling training exercises with the same priority as hardware tests. Long-term goals include developing user requirements which would take advantage of state-of-the-art tools and techniques. Training requirements for the different groups of people to be trained are identified, and future goals are outlined.

  8. STS-39 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The crew included seven astronauts: Michael L. Coats, commander; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; and Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  9. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  10. WIND Spacecraft Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An international effort to learn more about the complex interaction between the Earth and Sun took another step forward with the launch of WIND spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). WIND spacecraft is studded with eight scientific instruments - six US, one French, and one - the first Russian instrument to fly on a US spacecraft - that collected data about the influence of the solar wind on the Earth and its atmosphere. WIND is part of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative, the US contribution to NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.

  11. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    With the ever-increasing cost of getting to space and the need for safe, reliable, and inexpensive ways to access space, NASA is taking a look at technologies that will get us there. One of these technologies is Magnetic Launch Assist (MagLev). This is the concept of using both magnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion to provide an initial velocity by using electrical power from ground sources. The use of ground based power can significantly reduce operational costs over the consumables necessary to attain the same velocity. The technologies to accomplish this are both old and new. The concept of MagLev has been around for a long time and several MagLev Trains have already been made. Where NASA's MagLev diverges from the traditional train is in the immense power required to propel this vehicle to 600 feet per second in less than 10 seconds. New technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies will need to be investigated in areas of energy storage and power switching. Plus the separation of a very large mass (the space vehicle) and the aerodynamics of that vehicle while on the carrier are also of great concern and require considerable study and testing. NASA's plan is to mature these technologies in the next 10 years to achieve our goal of launching a full sized space vehicle off a MagLev rail.

  12. STS-86 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on Sept. 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34:19 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six-minute, 45- second launch window. The 10-day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid-May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  13. STS-86 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on September 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six minute, 45 second launch window. The 10 day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about 3.5 tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  14. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  15. Launch vehicle selection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  16. eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

  17. STS-87 Columbia Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia soars from Launch Pad 39B at 2:46:00 p.m. EST, November 19, on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201 satellite. The crew members include Mission Commander Kevin Kregel.; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., Winston Scott, and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 16-day STS-87 mission, the crew will oversee experiments in microgravity; deploy and retrieve a solar satellite; and test a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Dr. Doi and Scott also will perform a spacewalk to practice International Space Station maneuvers.

  18. STS-92 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  19. LAUNCH_BLTMS.DLL

    2005-12-14

    Postprocessor for the integration of the BLT-MS (Breach Leach Transport-Multi Species) code with GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark} model file. The code executes BTLMS.EXE using a standard BLT-MS input file and allocated parameters to memory for subsequent input of BLTMS.EXE output dat to a GoldSim{trademark} model file. This DLL is used for performing Monte Carlomore » analyses. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of BLTMS.EXE, GoldSim{trademark}, Read_BLT.DLL and Launch_BLTMS.DLL. The modeling package is used to run Monte Crlo analyses for performance assessment of Low level Radioactive Waste Repositories.« less

  20. The Launch of an Atlas/Centaur Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is shown in this photograph. The Atlas/Centaur, launched on November 13, 1978, carried the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 into the required orbit. The second observatory, the HEAO-2 (nicknamed the Einstein Observatory in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein) carried the first telescope capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects.

  1. KSC Vertical Launch Site Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Lynne V.

    2007-01-01

    RS&H was tasked to evaluate the potential available launch sites for a combined two user launch pad. The Launch sites were to be contained entirely within current Kennedy Space Center property lines. The user launch vehicles to be used for evaluation are in the one million pounds of first stage thrust range. Additionally a second evaluation criterion was added early on in the study. A single user launch site was to be evaluated for a two million pound first stage thrust vehicle. Both scenarios were to be included in the report. To provide fidelity to the study criteria, a specific launch vehicle in the one million pound thrust range was chosen as a guide post or straw-man launch vehicle. The RpK K-1 vehicle is a current Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS), contract awardee along with the SpaceX Falcon 9 vehicle. SpaceX, at the time of writing, is planning to launch COTS and possibly other payloads from Cx-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station property. RpK has yet to declare a specific launch site as their east coast US launch location. As such it was deemed appropriate that RpK's vehicle requirements be used as conceptual criteria. For the purposes of this study those criteria were marginally generalized to make them less specifiC.

  2. Technology development for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Michael J.; Leonard, Bruce G.

    1990-10-01

    A program to develop technology for launch vehicles is now under way in the U.S. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program was initiated by NASA and the USAF to develop a highly reliable heavy lift launch system that would deliver payloads to orbit at a cost of $300 per lb, as mandated by the U.S. Congress. The system development is proceeding in concert wth a technology development program, now called the Advanced Launch Development Program, described in this paper. A secondary objective of ALS is to transfer the technologies to other launch vehicles. Projects are under way in the following areas: propulsion, avionics, structures/materials/manufacturing, aerothermodynamics, recovery, operations, and subsystems. Brief overviews of each area are presented. In addition, a more detailed discussion of one of the projects, regarding expendable composite launch vehicle structures, is presented as an example.

  3. Advanced small launch vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reins, G. E.; Alvis, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to determine the most economical (lowest cost/launch) approach for the development of an advanced small launch vehicle (ASLV) for use over the next decade. The ASLV design objective was to place a 340 kg (750 lb) payload into a 556 km (300 n.mi.) circular orbit when launched due east from Wallops Island, Virginia. The investigation encompassed improvements to the current Scout launch vehicle; use of existing military and NASA launch vehicle stages; and new, optionally staged vehicles. Staging analyses included use of liquid, solid, and hybrid propellants. Improvements in guidance, controls, interstages, telemetry, and payload shroud were also considered. It was concluded that the most economical approach is to progressively improve the Scout launch vehicle in three phased steps which are discussed.

  4. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder - an experimental medicine blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms of action for selective serotonin re-uptake in-hibitors (SSRI) in depressed patients remain widely unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. Further, the serotonergic neurotransmitter system seems closely linked to personality and cognition. It is not known if SSRIs have a direct effect on the HPA system, personality or cognition that is independent of their effect on depression. Thus, healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects these potential biomarkers. SSRIs may affect these potential biomarkers in depressed patients, but it is unclear if the effect is directly on the biomarkers or is secondary to the effect of SSRIs on depressive symptoms. It has newer been tested whether an intervention with a SSRI has a beneficial effect on these potential biomarkers in healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression. The aim of the thesis was by an experimental medicine blinded controlled trial, to investigate if long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo decreases cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Further, to test the hypothesis that a SSRI may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Finally, to test whether SSRI enhance cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomised to receive escitalopram 10 mg versus matching pla-cebo daily for four weeks in a blinded trial. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes

  5. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  6. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  7. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This wide lux image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station shows the base of the launch pad as well as the orbiter just clearing the gantry. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  8. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 70mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  9. Clevidipine (the Medicines Company).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei

    2002-10-01

    The Medicines Company (under license from AstraZeneca) is developing clevidipine, a short-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, for the potential treatment of peri-operative hypertension. By 1997, the compound was undergoing phase II clinical evaluation by the original developer, AstraZeneca. By March 2002, The Medicines Company was conducting phase III clinical trials.

  10. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  11. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  18. 7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH AREA, WHEN VIEWED WITH NEGATIVE NO. CA-57-8(BELOW), LOOKING NORTH. BASKETBALL COURT IN BACKGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  20. Launch Support Video Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a website that displays video, countdown clock, and event times to customers during launches, without needing to be connected to the internal operations network. The requirements of this project are to also minimize the delay in the clock and events to be less than two seconds. The two parts of this are the webpage, which will display the data and videos to the user, and a server to send clock and event data to the webpage. The webpage is written in HTML with CSS and JavaScript. The JavaScript is responsible for connecting to the server, receiving new clock data, and updating the webpage. JavaScript is used for this because it can send custom HTTP requests from the webpage, and provides the ability to update parts of the webpage without having to refresh the entire page. The server application will act as a relay between the operations network, and the open internet. On the operations network side, the application receives multicast packets that contain countdown clock and events data. It will then parse the data into current countdown times and events, and create a packet with that information that can be sent to webpages. The other part will accept HTTP requests from the webpage, and respond to them with current data. The server is written in C# with some C++ files used to define the structure of data packets. The videos for the webpage will be shown in an embedded player from UStream.

  1. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  2. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    begins in 2008. Comprehensive reviews of engineering data and business assessments by both internal and independent reviewers serve as decision gates to ensure that systems can fully meet customer and stakeholder requirements. This paper provides the current CLV and CaLV configuration designs and gives examples of the progress being made during the first year of this significant effort. Safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation systems are a foundational piece of America s future in space and the next step in realizing the plan for revitalizing lunar capabilities on the passageway to the human exploration of Mars. While building on legacy knowledge and heritage hardware for risk reduction, NASA will apply lessons learned from developing these new launch vehicles to the growth path for future missions. The elements for mission success and continued U.S. leadership in space have been assembled over the past year. As NASA designs and develops these two new systems over the next dozen years, visible progress, such as that reported in this paper, may sustain the national will to stay the course across political administrations and weather the inevitable trials that will be experienced during this challenging endeavor.

  3. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  4. Launch systems operations cost modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the launch systems operations modeling portion of a larger model development effort, NASA's Space Operations Cost Model (SOCM), led by NASA HQ. The SOCM study team, which includes cost and technical experts from each NASA Field Center and various contractors, has been tasked to model operations costs for all future NASA mission concepts including planetary and Earth orbiting science missions, space facilities, and launch systems. The launch systems operations modeling effort has near term significance for assessing affordability of our next generation launch vehicles and directing technology investments, although it provides only a part of the necessary inputs to assess life cycle costs for all elements that determine affordability for a launch system. Presented here is a methodology to estimate requirements associated with a launch facility infrastructure, or Spaceport, from start-up/initialization into steady-state operation. Included are descriptions of the reference data used, the unique estimating methodology that combines cost lookup tables, parametric relationships, and constructively-developed correlations of cost driver input values to collected reference data, and the output categories that can be used by economic and market models. Also, future plans to improve integration of launch vehicle development cost models, reliability and maintainability models, economic and market models, and this operations model to facilitate overall launch system life cycle performance simulations will be presented.

  5. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  6. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  7. Soviet launch vehicles - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. S.

    1982-02-01

    The different families of Soviet launch vehicles are described, along with a history of applications. The Sapwood family, which was used to launch the Moniya spacecraft, is the most often-used launch vehicle in the world. Like the Sapwood, the Sandal, Skean, and Scarp vehicles are all modifications of military rockets. Specific impulses, launch records, payloads, fuels, mass, length, and diameters are provided for launches in the period 1975-1981. The Proton series is the largest currently operational vehicle in the Soviet space program, although exact dimensions are not available. Manned space missions, space stations, and heavy satellites have been delegated to the Proton booster, which has also been used for the Luna 24 and Veneras 11 and 12 probes.

  8. No Launch Before Its Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Aura is an Earth-observing satellite developed to help us study the quality of the air we breathe. It will look at the state of the ozone and the atmospheric composition in regards to the Earth's changing climate. I headed to California on July 5, 2004. The plan was that the satellite would launch on the tenth, but we had a few problems getting it off. This was the fifty-ninth launch of my career, and it was also a little different than most of my previous launches. Most of the time it's weather that postpones a launch; there aren't usually that many technical issues this late in the game. This time. however, we had several problems, equally split between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft. I remember a member of the crew asking me, 'Is this normal?' And in my experience, it wasn't.

  9. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  10. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  11. [Osteopathic medicine].

    PubMed

    Klein, P; Lepers, Y; Salem, W

    2011-09-01

    Osteopathy is originated in the 19th century in the United States. Andrew Taylor Still seek for an alternative medical system to the orthodox medicine largely empirical and advocating bloodletting, calomel, etc., all of which was resumed with terms like" heroic medicine". Osteopathy as other alternative medical practices (homeopathy, eclecticism, etc.) based on rational and metaphysical postulates as vitalism or the fact that man is a divinely ordained machine. Still's approach was essentially manual and based on manipulation of the joints. Today osteopaths challenge these dogmas and seek to agree their practice within scientific biomedical standards. Even if strong randomized clinical trials are lacking, several surveys report how osteopathy gained public notoriety. Several recent meta-analyses pinpoint the benefit of the spinal manipulative treatment and even if there is no evidence that such an approach is superior to other advocated therapies there is no evidence that these therapies are more effective than the first one. The major indications for such a treatment are cervical and low back pain, either chronic or acute. The quality of the relationship between the practitioner and patient together with the placebo effect are important components of a treatment effect. Osteopathic education is an important aspect and only higher education institutions, i.e. universities can achieve and maintain adequate standards. Materia medica and surgery represent the two major therapeutic mainstreams in medicine; osteopathy considered as manual medicine could be the third one. PMID:22034767

  12. STS-29: Pre-Launch Preparations/Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-29, Commander Michael L. Coats, Pilot John E. Blaha, and Mission Specialists James P. Bagian, James F. Buchli, and Robert C. Springer, seated in the White Room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, and walk out to the Astro-van. This early morning launch shows countdown, main engine start, liftoff, booster separation, and various isolated footage of the launch from different cameras. Also presented are footage of the approach, gear touchdown, rollout at Edwards Air Force Base, and various isolated views of the landing.

  13. Launch Order, Launch Separation, and Loiter in the Constellation 1 1/2-Launch Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant; Cirillo, William

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program (CxP) is developing a two-element Earth-to-Orbit launch system to enable human exploration of the Moon. The first element, Ares I, is a human-rated system that consists of a first stage based on the Space Shuttle Program's solid rocket booster (SRB) and an upper stage that consists of a four-crew Orion capsule, a service module, and a Launch Escape System. The second element, Ares V, is a Saturn V-plus category launch system that consists of the core stage with a cluster of six RS-68B engines and augmented with two 5.5-segment SRBs, a Saturn-derived J-2X engine powering an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and the lunar-lander vehicle payload, Altair. Initial plans called for the Ares V to be launched first, followed the next day by the Ares I. After the EDS performs the final portion of ascent and subsequent orbit circularization, the Orion spacecraft then performs a rendezvous and docks with the EDS and its Altair payload. Following checkout, the integrated stack loiters in low Earth orbit (LEO) until the appropriate Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) window opportunity opens, at which time the EDS propels the integrated Orion Altair to the Moon. Successful completion of this 1 1/2-launch solution carries risks related to both the orbital lifetime of the assets and the probability of achieving the launch of the second vehicle within the orbital lifetime of the first. These risks, which are significant in terms of overall system design choices and probability of mission success, dictated a thorough reevaluation of the launch strategy, including the order of vehicle launch and the planned time period between launches. The goal of the effort described in this paper was to select a launch strategy that would result in the greatest possible expected system performance, while accounting for launch risks and the cost of increased orbital lifetime. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model of the launch strategies was created to determine the probability

  14. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  15. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The expression “adoptive cell transfer” (ACT) is commonly employed to indicate an immunotherapeutic regimen involving the isolation of autologous blood-borne or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, their selection/expansion/activation ex vivo, and their reinfusion into the patient, most often in the context of lymphodepleting pre-conditioning and in combination with immunostimulatory treatments. Optionally, the cellular material for ACT is genetically manipulated before expansion to (1) target specific tumor-associated antigens; (2) endogenously express immunostimulatory molecules; and/or (3) persist for long periods upon reinfusion. Consistent efforts have been dedicated at the amelioration of this immunotherapeutic regimen throughout the past decade, resulting in the establishment of ever more efficient and safer ACT protocols. Accordingly, the number of clinical trials testing ACT in oncological indications does not cease to increase. In this Trial Watch, we summarize recent developments in this exciting area of research, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 12 months and clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to evaluate the safety and therapeutic potential of ACT in cancer patients. PMID:25050207

  16. Launch vehicles for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    After giving brief development histories of the Delta and the Atlas Centaur launch vehicles, attention is given to the operational characteristics of the ascent, parking orbit, transfer orbit, and orbital insertion phases of the delivery of a communications satellite to a geostationary orbit by means of a Delta launch vehicle. NASA plans to employ Delta vehicles for as long as they are needed during the transition period to the Space Shuttle. NASA planning for Atlas Centaur includes launches through 1985 for INTELSAT-VA, and through 1986 for FLTSATCOM satellites.

  17. Japan's launch vehicle program update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadakawa, Tsuguo

    1987-06-01

    NASDA is actively engaged in the development of H-I and H-II launch vehicle performance capabilities in anticipation of future mission requirements. The H-I has both two-stage and three-stage versions for medium-altitude and geosynchronous orbits, respectively; the restart capability of the second stage affords considerable mission planning flexibility. The H-II vehicle is a two-stage liquid rocket primary propulsion design employing two solid rocket boosters for secondary power; it is capable of launching two-ton satellites into geosynchronous orbit, and reduces manufacture and launch costs by extensively employing off-the-shelf technology.

  18. Mars Pathfinder Status at Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, A. J.; Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Flight System is in final test, assembly and launch preparations at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Launch is scheduled for 2 Dec. 1996. The Flight System development, in particular the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system, was a major team effort involving JPL, other NASA centers and industry. This paper provides a summary Mars Pathfinder description and status at launch. In addition, a section by NASA's Langley Research Center, a key EDL contributor, is provided on their support to Mars Pathfinder. This section is included as an example of the work performed by Pathfinder team members outside JPL.

  19. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  20. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control.

  1. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  2. STS-135 Fused Launch Video

    NASA Video Gallery

    Imaging experts funded by the Space Shuttle Program and located at NASA's Ames Research Center prepared this video of the STS-135 launch by merging images taken by a set of six cameras capturing fi...

  3. Lighting the Sky: ATREX Launches

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA successfully launched five suborbital sounding rockets early March 27, 2012 from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia as part of a study of the upper level jet stream. The first rocket was ...

  4. Re-entry Experiment Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 10, 2009, NASA successfully launched the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) and proved that spacecraft can use inflatable heat shields to reduce speed and provide protection du...

  5. The Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

  6. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  7. Closed end launch tube (CELT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.

    2001-02-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off-the-shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg vehicle to 270 ms-1. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (Generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle. .

  8. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off the shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg. demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg. vehicle to 270 meters per second. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle.

  9. BARREL Team Launching 20 Balloons

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie made by the NASA-Funded Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, or BARREL, team on their work launching 20 balloons in Antarctica during the Dec. 2013/Jan. 2014 campa...

  10. Robonaut 2 Readied for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is being prepared for its history making launch to the International Space Station on STS-133. The robot, known as R2, will be the first humanoid machine to work in orbit. With a upper t...

  11. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  12. Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Bruce D.; Hines, John W.; Agasid, Elwood F.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of small spacecraft based on the University cubesat standard is becoming evident as more and more agencies and organizations are launching or planning to include nanosatellites in their mission portfolios. Cubesats are typically launched as secondary spacecraft in enclosed, containerized deployers such as the CalPoly Poly Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) system. The P-POD allows for ease of integration and significantly reduces the risk exposure to the primary spacecraft and mission. NASA/ARC and the Operationally Responsive Space office are collaborating to develop a Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS), which can accommodate multiple cubesat or cubesat-derived spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. NLAS is composed of the adapter structure, P-POD or similar spacecraft dispensers, and a sequencer/deployer system. This paper describes the NLAS system and it s future capabilities, and also provides status on the system s development and potential first use in space.

  13. Environmentally-Preferable Launch Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion protecting coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment (GSE). The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. The project compares coating performance of the selected alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  14. Space Launch System: Future Frontier

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring NASA Marshall’s Foundations of Influence, Relationships, Success & Teamwork (FIRST) employees and student interns, "Future Frontier" discusses the new Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-li...

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  17. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  18. STS-53 Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

  19. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this close-up image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  20. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  1. SLI Artist `s Launch Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle during launch. For SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  2. Mercury-Atlas Test Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A NASA Project Mercury spacecraft was test launched at 11:15 AM EST on April 25, 1961 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in a test designed to qualify the Mercury Spacecraft and all systems, which must function during orbit and reentry from orbit. The Mercury-Atlas vehicle was destroyed by Range Safety Officer about 40 seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft was recovered and appeared to be in good condition. Atlas was designed to launch payloads into low Earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. NASA first launched Atlas as a space launch vehicle in 1958. Project SCORE, the first communications satellite that transmitted President Eisenhower's pre-recorded Christmas speech around the world, was launched on an Atlas. For all three robotic lunar exploration programs, Atlas was used. Atlas/ Centaur vehicles launched both Mariner and Pioneer planetary probes. The current operational Atlas II family has a 100% mission success rating. For more information about Atlas, please see Chapter 2 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  3. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  4. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the notion that cancer would merely constitute a cell-intrinsic disease has gradually been complemented by a model postulating that the immune system plays a relevant role during all stages of oncogenesis and tumor progression. Along with this conceptual shift, several strategies have been devised to stimulate tumor-specific immune responses, including relatively unselective approaches such as the systemic administration of adjuvants or immunomodulatory cytokines. One year ago, in the July issue of OncoImmunology, we described the main biological features of this large group of proteins and discussed the progress of ongoing clinical studies evaluating their safety and therapeutic potential in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate which cytokines can be employed as safe and efficient immunostimulatory interventions against cancer. PMID:24073369

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  6. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. Objective The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Methods Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. Results The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers’ expectations. Conclusion ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest

  7. Launch site integration for mixed fleet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Launch site impacts and integration planning issues are presented to support launch operations for a mixed vehicle fleet (manned and cargo). Proposed ground systems and launch site configurations are described. Prelaunch processing scenarios and schedules are developed for candidate launch vehicles. Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle architectures are presented to meet future launch requirements, including the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. The significance of operational designs for future launch vehicles is shown to be a critical factor in planning for mixed fleet launch site operations.

  8. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  9. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-10

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  10. Training family physicians and residents in family medicine in shared decision making to improve clinical decisions regarding the use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections: protocol for a clustered randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore ways to reduce the overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs), we conducted a pilot clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate DECISION+, a training program in shared decision making (SDM) for family physicians (FPs). This pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a large clustered RCT and showed that DECISION+ reduced the proportion of patients who decided to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Consequently, the objective of this study is to evaluate, in patients consulting for ARIs, if exposure of physicians to a modified version of DECISION+, DECISION+2, would reduce the proportion of patients who decide to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Methods/design The study is a multi-center, two-arm, parallel clustered RCT. The 12 family practice teaching units (FPTUs) in the network of the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine of Université Laval will be randomized to a DECISION+2 intervention group (experimental group) or to a no-intervention control group. These FPTUs will recruit patients consulting family physicians and residents in family medicine enrolled in the study. There will be two data collection periods: pre-intervention (baseline) including 175 patients with ARIs in each study arm, and post-intervention including 175 patients with ARIs in each study arm (total n = 700). The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients reporting a decision to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Secondary outcome measures include: 1) physicians and patients' decisional conflict; 2) the agreement between the parties' decisional conflict scores; and 3) perception of patients and physicians that SDM occurred. Also in patients, at 2 weeks follow-up, adherence to the decision, consultation for the same reason, decisional regret, and quality of life will be assessed. Finally, in both patients and physicians

  11. Precision cancer medicine: the future is now, only better.

    PubMed

    Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Schilsky, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine for cancer is already being realized with the recent introduction of many targeted therapies, some with companion diagnostic tests that identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The utility of molecular profiling of cancer to identify actionable aberrations has been suggested by several small clinical trials conducted in patients with advanced cancer and by many anecdotes but is yet to be proven in well-designed, prospective, randomized trials. Several trials that will definitively test this strategy are now underway or soon to be launched. Melanoma, a disease once largely untreatable when metastatic, may be a paradigm for understanding how the molecular drivers of a disease can lead to highly effective targeted therapies, as well as for realizing the enormous therapeutic potential of unleashing the immune system against cancer to produce long-term disease control. Looking to the future, advanced omics technologies and computational techniques will enable assessment of not only genomic variants, as performed today, but also of pathway and network aberrations that will greatly facilitate selection of drug combinations likely to benefit specific patients. As our deepening understanding of tumor biology converges with rapid advances in measurement science and technology and computational analysis, we have an enormous opportunity to create a future for precision medicine in oncology that provides for highly specific, minimally toxic, and dramatically effective treatment for each patient.

  12. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  13. The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

    1991-06-01

    The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

  14. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer’s test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer’s test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  15. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  16. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exert antineoplastic effects by eliciting a novel or reinstating a pre-existing antitumor immune response. Most often, immunostimulatory mAbs activate T lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells by inhibiting immunosuppressive receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1), or by engaging co-stimulatory receptors, like CD40, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, best known as OX40) or TNFRSF18 (best known as GITR). The CTLA4-targeting mAb ipilimumab has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma in 2011. The therapeutic profile of ipilimumab other CTLA4-blocking mAbs, such as tremelimumab, is currently being assessed in subjects affected by a large panel of solid neoplasms. In the last few years, promising clinical results have also been obtained with nivolumab, a PD-1-targeting mAb formerly known as BMS-936558. Accordingly, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and other PD-1-blocking molecules are being actively investigated. Finally, various clinical trials are underway to test the therapeutic potential of OX40- and GITR-activating mAbs. Here, we summarize recent findings on the therapeutic profile of immunostimulatory mAbs and discuss clinical trials that have been launched in the last 14 months to assess the therapeutic profile of these immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:24701370

  17. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, for the first time in history, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), i.e., the chimeric anti-CD20 molecule rituximab, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in cancer patients. Since then, the panel of mAbs that are approved by international regulatory agencies for the treatment of hematopoietic and solid malignancies has not stopped to expand, nowadays encompassing a stunning amount of 15 distinct molecules. This therapeutic armamentarium includes mAbs that target tumor-associated antigens, as well as molecules that interfere with tumor-stroma interactions or exert direct immunostimulatory effects. These three classes of mAbs exert antineoplastic activity via distinct mechanisms, which may or may not involve immune effectors other than the mAbs themselves. In previous issues of OncoImmunology, we provided a brief scientific background to the use of mAbs, all types confounded, in cancer therapy, and discussed the results of recent clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach. Here, we focus on mAbs that primarily target malignant cells or their interactions with stromal components, as opposed to mAbs that mediate antineoplastic effects by activating the immune system. In particular, we discuss relevant clinical findings that have been published during the last 13 months as well as clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of hitherto investigational tumor-targeting mAbs. PMID:24605265

  18. Personnel Launch System (PLS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is currently studying a personnel launch system (PLS) approach to help satisfy the crew rotation requirements for the Space Station Freedom. Several concepts from low L/D capsules to lifting body vehicles are being examined in a series of studies as a potential augmentation to the Space Shuttle launch system. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to NASA, analyzed a lifting body concept to determine whether the lifting body class of vehicles is appropriate for the PLS function. The results of the study are given.

  19. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Launch tradeoff study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A goal of the Phase B study is to define the launch system interfaces for the reusable reentry satellite (RRS) program. The focus of the launch tradeoff study, documented in this report, is to determine which expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) are best suited for the RRS application by understanding the impact of all viable launch systems on RRS design and operation.

  20. Intelsat communications satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    To be placed into a highly elliptical transfer orbit by the Atlas Centaur (AC-61) launch vehicle, the INTELSAT V-F satellite has 12,000 voice circuits and 2 color television channels and incorporates a maritime communication system for ship to shore communications. The stages of the launch vehicle and the launch operations are described. A table shows the launch sequence.

  1. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  2. Nutrition Intervention Trials in Linxian, China

    Cancer.gov

    Randomized controlled trials were launched in 1985 to test the effects of multiple vitamin and mineral interventions on total mortality and total and cause-specific cancer mortality in a rural Chinese population

  3. Chinese Medicine Shensongyangxin Is Effective for Patients with Bradycardia: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunfang; Li, Ning; Jia, Zhenhua; Lu, Feng; Pu, Jielin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Shensong Yangxin (SSYX) in patients with bradycardia arrhythmias, a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study was conducted. Patients with bradycardia were randomly assigned to receive either SSYX (trial group, n = 115) or placebo (control group, n = 104) for 4 weeks. ECG, 24-hour continuous ECG recording, echocardiography, and hepatic and renal function were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. Results showed that the average heart rate, the fastest heart rate, and the lowest heart rate in the trial group were all significantly higher than those in the control group at the end of treatment (P < 0.05 or 0.01, resp.). Compared with pretreatment, the average heart rate, the fastest heart rate, and the lowest heart rate in the trial group all increased significantly after treatment (P < 0.05 or 0.01, resp.). Both the efficacy and the symptom scores in the trial group were significantly better than those in the control group after treatment (both having P < 0.01). No severe adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, SSYX treatment significantly increased the heart rate in patients with bradycardia without severe side effects. The exact mechanisms remain to be further explored. PMID:24527049

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Simulation-Based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Medicine: A Pilot Study among Clinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…

  5. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  6. Nighttime Launch at NASA Wallops

    NASA Video Gallery

    A U.S. Air Force Minotaur 1 rocket carrying the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space office’s ORS-1 satellite was successfully launched at 11:09 p.m. EDT, June 29, 2011, from NASA...

  7. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  8. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  9. Starfire 1 Consort III Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Consort 3 is a commercial suborbital rocket that carried 12 microgravity experiments. It was launched on a Starfire rocket on May 16, 1990, from the Naval Ordnance Missile Test Station facilities at the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. The videotape opens with approximately 2 minutes of a man speaking into a microphone but there is no sound. This is followed by a brief summary of the payload, and the expected trajectory, a view of the launch vehicle, the countdown and the launch. The videotape then shows a film clip from the University of Alabama, with Dr. Francis Wessling, project manager for the Consort 3 project, speaking about the mission goals in the materials sciences experimentation. The video shows footage of the payload being assembled. The next section is a discussion by Dr. Roy Hammustedt, of Pennsylvania State University, who reviews the Penn State Bio Module,and the goal of learning about the effects of gravity on physiology. This is followed by George Maybee, from McDonald Douglas, who spoke about the payload integration process while the video shows some of the construction. The last section of the videotape shows a press conference at the launch site. Ana Villamil answers questions from the press about the flight.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Shen-Mai San, in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the major health issues worldwide. An increasing number of cancer patients are offered treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most common complementary therapies offered to cancer patients in Taiwan. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of TCM in patients with cancer. Methods/design In this study, inclusion criteria are postoperative patients with histologically confirmed cancer within 3 years who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, more than 18 years old, have given signed informed consent, have the ability to read Chinese, and the ability for oral intake. Exclusion criteria include being pregnant, breast feeding, having completed chemotherapy or radiotherapy, brain metastasis with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of two to four, delusion or hallucinations, acute infection, and have received medications under other clinical trials. The patients were separated into an intervention group (Shen-Mai-San, SMS) and a placebo group for four weeks using a randomized, double-blind procedure. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life questionnaire (QOL-C30) was used to evaluate the quality of life. General data, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), TCM diagnosis data and heart rate variability (HRV) were also recorded. These data were collected at baseline, two weeks and four weeks after receiving medication. The patients were prescribed granules which contained therapeutic medicines or placebo. Paired-T test was used for statistical analysis. Discussion Shen-Mai-San is composed of processed Ginseng radis, Liriope spicata, and Schizandrae fructus. It was found to be effective for treating cancer

  12. 14 CFR 417.17 - Launch reporting requirements and launch specific updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system test schedule. For each launch of a launch vehicle flown with a flight safety system, a launch operator must file an updated flight safety system test schedule and points of contact no later than six...) Flight termination system qualification test reports. For the launch of a launch vehicle flown with...

  13. 14 CFR 417.17 - Launch reporting requirements and launch specific updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system test schedule. For each launch of a launch vehicle flown with a flight safety system, a launch operator must file an updated flight safety system test schedule and points of contact no later than six...) Flight termination system qualification test reports. For the launch of a launch vehicle flown with...

  14. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  15. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  16. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  17. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, R.J.; Loughin, S.

    1997-01-01

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Confirmatory Trials in the Evaluation of Anticancer Medicinal Products in Man—PFS2: A Measure of Therapeutic Action-At-A-Distance

    PubMed Central

    Oronsky, Bryan; Carter, Corey A.; Reid, Tony R.; Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Arnold; Lybeck, Michelle; Caroen, Scott; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Neil; Langecker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Overall survival (OS) has emerged as the definitive regulatory “be-all, end-all” for the demonstration of benefit in cancer clinical trials. The reason and the rationale for why this is so are easily appreciated: literally a “test of time,” OS is a seemingly unambiguous, agenda-free end point, independent of bias-prone variables such as the frequency and methods of assessment, clinical evaluation, and the definition of progression. However, by general consensus, OS is an imperfect end point for several reasons: First, it may often be impractical because of the length, cost, and the size of clinical trials. Second, OS captures the impact of subsequent therapies, both beneficial (i.e., active) and detrimental, on survival but it does not take into account the contribution of subsequent therapies by treatment arm; the postprogression period is treated as an unknown black box (no information about the potential influence of next-line therapies on the outcome) under the implicit assumption that the clinical trial treatment is the only clinical variable that matters: what OS explicitly measures is the destination, that is, the elapsed time between the date of randomization (or intention to treat) and the date of death, not the journey, that is, what transpires in-between. In long-term maintenance strategies, patients receive treatment in temporally separated but mutually interdependent and causally linked sequences that exert a “field of influence” akin to action-at-a-distance forces like gravity, electricity, and magnetism on both the tumor and each other. Hence, in this setting, a new end point, PFS2, is required to measure this field of influence. This article reviews the definition and use in clinical trials of PFS2 and makes the case for its potential applicability as a preferred end point to measure the mutual influence of individual regimens in long-term maintenance strategies with resensitizing agents in particular. PMID:26476079

  19. Confirmatory Trials in the Evaluation of Anticancer Medicinal Products in Man--PFS2: A Measure of Therapeutic Action-At-A-Distance.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Carter, Corey A; Reid, Tony R; Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Arnold; Lybeck, Michelle; Caroen, Scott; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Neil; Langecker, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Overall survival (OS) has emerged as the definitive regulatory "be-all, end-all" for the demonstration of benefit in cancer clinical trials. The reason and the rationale for why this is so are easily appreciated: literally a "test of time," OS is a seemingly unambiguous, agenda-free end point, independent of bias-prone variables such as the frequency and methods of assessment, clinical evaluation, and the definition of progression. However, by general consensus, OS is an imperfect end point for several reasons: First, it may often be impractical because of the length, cost, and the size of clinical trials. Second, OS captures the impact of subsequent therapies, both beneficial (i.e., active) and detrimental, on survival but it does not take into account the contribution of subsequent therapies by treatment arm; the postprogression period is treated as an unknown black box (no information about the potential influence of next-line therapies on the outcome) under the implicit assumption that the clinical trial treatment is the only clinical variable that matters: what OS explicitly measures is the destination, that is, the elapsed time between the date of randomization (or intention to treat) and the date of death, not the journey, that is, what transpires in-between. In long-term maintenance strategies, patients receive treatment in temporally separated but mutually interdependent and causally linked sequences that exert a "field of influence" akin to action-at-a-distance forces like gravity, electricity, and magnetism on both the tumor and each other. Hence, in this setting, a new end point, PFS2, is required to measure this field of influence. This article reviews the definition and use in clinical trials of PFS2 and makes the case for its potential applicability as a preferred end point to measure the mutual influence of individual regimens in long-term maintenance strategies with resensitizing agents in particular. PMID:26476079

  20. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  1. Dynamic Tow Maneuver Orbital Launch Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An orbital launch system and its method of operation use a maneuver to improve the launch condition of a booster rocket and payload. A towed launch aircraft, to which the booster rocket is mounted, is towed to a predetermined elevation and airspeed. The towed launch aircraft begins the maneuver by increasing its lift, thereby increasing the flight path angle, which increases the tension on the towline connecting the towed launch aircraft to a towing aircraft. The increased tension accelerates the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket, while decreasing the speed (and thus the kinetic energy) of the towing aircraft, while increasing kinetic energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket by transferring energy from the towing aircraft. The potential energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket is also increased, due to the increased lift. The booster rocket is released and ignited, completing the launch.

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight

  4. Community-applied research of a traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation scheme on Broca’s aphasia after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aphasia is a common and severely disabling complication in stroke patients. It usually brings about lower rates of functional recovery, longer rehabilitation length of stay (LOS), and significantly poorer LOS efficiency (LOS-Eff), resulting in higher rehabilitation costs compared to patients without aphasia. It also decreases the quality of life and increases the mortality of stroke patients. The evidence currently available suggests that the effect of acupuncture combined with language training for apoplectic aphasia is statistically better than speech and language therapy (SLT) alone, but there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture combined with language training is relatively low-cost and especially suitable for community-based rehabilitation for aphasia patients after stroke, taking its medical and health facilities which are always deficient in manpower and material resources into account. The aim of the present study is to develop an effective standard therapeutic program for apoplectic aphasia in communities. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled clinical trial with blinded assessment, 290 eligible patients with aphasia due to stroke will be randomly allocated into a control group or an experimental group. The course of this trial will comprise a 4-week intervention and a 12-week follow-up period. Five assessment points, including baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, 6 and 12 weeks after follow-up, are set to dynamically observe the changes of curative effects. Primary outcome measures are the differences in the score on both the China rehabilitation research center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) and Boston diagnostic aphasia examination - Chinese version (BDAE-C) after intervention and follow-up. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and results of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) examination are considered as the

  5. Transforming healthcare through regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Zita M; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Francis, Wendy R; Whitaker, Iain S

    2016-08-10

    Regenerative medicine therapies, underpinned by the core principles of rejuvenation, regeneration and replacement, are shifting the paradigm in healthcare from symptomatic treatment in the 20th century to curative treatment in the 21st century. By addressing the reasons behind the rapid expansion of regenerative medicine research and presenting an overview of current clinical trials, we explore the potential of regenerative medicine to reshape modern healthcare.

  6. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  7. TDRS is ready for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the early morning hours on Launch Pad 36A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the tower rolls back from NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H) before liftoff atop an Atlas IIA/Centaur rocket. One of three satellites (labeled H, I and J) being built by the Hughes Space and Communications Company, the latest TDRS uses an innovative springback antenna design. A pair of 15-foot- diameter, flexible mesh antenna reflectors fold up for launch, then spring back into their original cupped circular shape on orbit. The new satellites will augment the TDRS system's existing S- and Ku-band frequencies by adding Ka-band capability. TDRS will serve as the sole means of continuous, high-data-rate communication with the Space Shuttle, with the International Space Station upon its completion, and with dozens of unmanned scientific satellites in low earth orbit.

  8. Aqua 10 Years After Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

  9. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  10. Hermes rescue strategies during launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cledassou, Rodelphe

    Safety and rescue strategies during the launch of Hermes space plane by Ariane 5 are discussed. Before solid booster separation, the pilots must be ejected by seats which are later recovered. After solid booster separation it becomes possible to extract the plane, which can perform a reentry leading to an available landing site or to sea recovery. When there is no useful landing site, the plane can be injected on a downgraded orbit.

  11. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  12. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; Mcmillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  13. Large payload launch vehicles examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahney, J. H.

    1985-04-01

    Several Shuttle-derived vehicle (SDV) designs have been envisioned for near-term NASA and DOD heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) missions into the 21st century. Studies performed at the Marshall Center have included SRB-X, side mount and in-line boostered configurations, each an evolutive concept incorporating STS features to deliver 144,000-195,000 lb payloads into LEO or 10,000 lb into GEO. A three-stage multitank design sporting a cluster of eight 1.757 Mlb thrust engines on the first stage is emerging as a favored HLLV. The second stage would be lofted by four 481,000 lb thrust SSME derivative engines and the third stage would have two of the derivatives. All stages would be drogue-parachuted to water touchdown for reuse. The technology requiring the greatest advances to realize the design is a reusable, long-life liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon fueled booster. The 5-6 yr development span would require associated selections of launch sites and the construction of launch facilities which would not interfere with STS operations.

  14. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  15. Positive growth responses of the medicinal plants Spilanthes calva and Withania somnifera to inoculation by Piriformospora indica in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Rai, M; Acharya, D; Singh, A; Varma, A

    2001-08-01

    The medicinal plants Spilanthes calva and Withania somnifera were inoculated with Piriformospora indica, a plant growth-promoting root endophyte, in nurseries and subsequently transferred to the field. A significant increase in growth and yield of both plant species was recorded relative to uninoculated controls. Shoot and root length, biomass, basal stem, leaf area, overall size, number of inflorescences and flowers and seed production were all enhanced in the presence of the fungus. Net primary productivity was also higher than in control plants. The results clearly indicate the commercial potential of P. indica for large-scale cultivation of S. calva and W. somnifera. PMID:24595431

  16. NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The US. Vision for Space Exploration, announced January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. These include: 1) Flying the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. Following the confirmation of the new NASA Administrator in April 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts from government and industry to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which provided in-depth information for selecting the follow-on launch vehicle designs to enable these goals, The ESAS team analyzed a number of potential launch systems, with a focus on: (1) a human-rated launch vehicle for crew transport and (2) a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) to carry cargo. After several months of intense study utilizing technical performance, budget, and schedule objectives, the results showed that the optimum architecture to meet the challenge of safe, reliable crew transport is a two-stage variant of the Space Shuttle propulsion system - utilizing the reusable Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as the first stage, along with a new upper stage that uses a derivative of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine to deliver 25 metric tons to low-Earth orbit. The CEV that this new Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space

  17. [Enlightenment of drug application and evaluation procedures of medicines registered (listed) in Australia on studies of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2014-11-01

    Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.

  18. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  19. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Vitale, Ilio; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fučíková, Jitka; Cremer, Isabelle; Galon, Jérôme; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) occupy a privileged position at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, orchestrating a large panel of responses to both physiological and pathological cues. In particular, whereas the presentation of antigens by immature DCs generally results in the development of immunological tolerance, mature DCs are capable of priming robust, and hence therapeutically relevant, adaptive immune responses. In line with this notion, functional defects in the DC compartment have been shown to etiologically contribute to pathological conditions including (but perhaps not limited to) infectious diseases, allergic and autoimmune disorders, graft rejection and cancer. Thus, the possibility of harnessing the elevated immunological potential of DCs for anticancer therapy has attracted considerable interest from both researchers and clinicians over the last decade. Alongside, several methods have been developed not only to isolate DCs from cancer patients, expand them, load them with tumor-associated antigens and hence generate highly immunogenic clinical grade infusion products, but also to directly target DCs in vivo. This intense experimental effort has culminated in 2010 with the approval by the US FDA of a DC-based preparation (sipuleucel-T, Provenge®) for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer. As an update to the latest Trial Watch dealing with this exciting field of research (October 2012), here we summarize recent advances in DC-based anticancer regimens, covering both high-impact studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials that have been launched in the same period to assess the antineoplastic potential of this variant of cellular immunotherapy. PMID:24286020

  20. An Air-Launched Low-Cost Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    2005-02-01

    The QuickReach concept is a responsive, mobile, air-launched, two-stage liquid pressure-fed rocket that is capable of placing nearly 2,000 pounds into low earth orbit. The rocket is extracted from a transport aircraft using gravity and a small drogue parachute for orientation stabilization. The design of the container holding the rocket allows the use of existing transport aircraft without any modification. Propulsion is LOX and propane using the Vapak concept for tank pressurization. Structures make use of advanced composites.

  1. Effectivity of atmospheric electricity on launch availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Thunderstorm days at KSC; percentage of frequency of thunderstorms (1957-1989); effect of lightning advisory on ground operations; Shuttle launch history; Shuttle launch weather history; applied meteorology unit; and goals/operational benefits. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  2. Expedition 30 Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 19, the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft and its booster were moved to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for final preparations before launch to the International Space Statio...

  3. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  4. NASA's Space Launch System: Powering Forward

    NASA Video Gallery

    One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in ...

  5. Trajectory optimization for a National Launch System vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Eugene S.; Boelitz, Frederick W.; Sullivan, Jeanne M.

    1993-01-01

    A trajectory design process is presented for a proposed National Launch System (NLS) vehicle configuration. A software trajectory planner was developed to generate near optimal pitch plane trajectories for variable mission plans, variable launch site selections, and last minute wind conditions at the time of launch. In addition, the trajectory planner performs in-flight near optimal trajectory redesign in the event of an engine-out or unexpected wind dispersions. The trajectory planner iteratively simulates trial trajectories defined by variables corresponding to a parameterized trajectory shape. The trajectory planner optimizes these trajectory parameters according to the fuel used to realize the trajectories. For prelaunch scenarios, the trajectory planner generated near optimal trajectories of consistent fuel performance irrespective of the winds encountered at the launch site. In-flight trajectory redesigns were also shown to be effective in fulfilling the mission plan and preserving the structural integrity of the vehicle. The in-flight redesign results indicate that closed-loop guidance in the early stages of ascent is highly effective in accommodating engine failures or wind dispersions. All trajectory designs were verified using a 6DOF simulation with flight controllers.

  6. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  7. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  8. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, dozens—if not hundreds—of monoclonal antibodies have been developed and characterized for their capacity to mediate antineoplastic effects, either as they activate/enhance tumor-specific immune responses, either as they interrupt cancer cell-intrinsic signal transduction cascades, either as they specifically delivery toxins to malignant cells or as they block the tumor-stroma interaction. Such an intense research effort has lead to the approval by FDA of no less than 14 distinct molecules for use in humans affected by hematological or solid malignancies. In the inaugural issue of OncoImmunology, we briefly described the scientific rationale behind the use of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy and discussed recent, ongoing clinical studies investigating the safety and efficacy of this approach in patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of clinical research, focusing on high impact studies that have been published during the last 15 months and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the therapeutic profile of promising, yet hitherto investigational, monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23482847

  9. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Galon, Jérôme; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have long been known for their ability to initiate innate immune responses upon exposure to conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA. More recently, this family of pattern recognition receptors has been attributed a critical role in the elicitation of anticancer immune responses, raising interest in the development of immunochemotherapeutic regimens based on natural or synthetic TLR agonists. In spite of such an intense wave of preclinical and clinical investigation, only three TLR agonists are currently licensed by FDA for use in cancer patients: bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis that operates as a mixed TLR2/TLR4 agonist; monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of Salmonella minnesota that functions as a potent agonist of TLR4; and imiquimod, a synthetic imidazoquinoline that activates TLR7. One year ago, in the August and September issues of OncoImmunology, we described the main biological features of TLRs and discussed the progress of clinical studies evaluating the safety and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in cancer patients. Here, we summarize the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on preclinical studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to investigate the antineoplastic activity of TLR agonists. PMID:24083080

  10. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Hervé Fridman, Wolf; Cremer, Isabelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the possibility that preparations capable of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses would mediate robust therapeutic effects in cancer patients has received renovated interest. In this context, several approaches to vaccinate cancer patients against their own malignancies have been conceived, including the administration of DNA constructs coding for one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Such DNA-based vaccines conceptually differ from other types of gene therapy in that they are not devised to directly kill cancer cells or sensitize them to the cytotoxic activity of a drug, but rather to elicit a tumor-specific immune response. In spite of an intense wave of preclinical development, the introduction of this immunotherapeutic paradigm into the clinical practice is facing difficulties. Indeed, while most DNA-based anticancer vaccines are well tolerated by cancer patients, they often fail to generate therapeutically relevant clinical responses. In this Trial Watch, we discuss the latest advances on the use of DNA-based vaccines in cancer therapy, discussing the literature that has been produced around this topic during the last 13 months as well as clinical studies that have been launched in the same time frame to assess the actual therapeutic potential of this intervention. PMID:24800178

  11. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The last mission of the Shuttle-Mir program begins as the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2. A torrent of water is seen flowing onto the mobile launcher platform (MLP) from numerous large quench nozzles, or 'rainbirds,' mounted on its surface. This water, part of the Sound Suppression System, helps protect the orbiter and its payloads from damage by acoustical energy and rocket exhaust reflected from the flame trench and MLP during launch. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as an STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  12. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  13. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  14. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  15. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  16. 14 CFR 415.109 - Launch description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.109 Launch description. An applicant's safety review document must... hazardous material; and (v) For an unguided suborbital launch vehicle, the location of the rocket's center... predicted impact point and dispersion of each spent stage. (f) Vehicle performance graphs. An applicant...

  17. APOLLO 12: A heartstopping launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: A heartstopping launch as the rocket is struck by lightning. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  18. Saturn I SA-2 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The second flight of the Saturn I vehicle, the SA-2, was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on April 15, 1962. This vehicle had a secondary mission. After the first stage shutoff, at a 65-mile altitude, the water-filled upper stage was exploded, dumping 95 tons of water in the upper atmosphere. The resulting massive ice cloud rose to a height of 90 miles. The experiment, called Project Highwater, was intended to investigate the effects on the ionosphere of the sudden release of such a great volume of water.

  19. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  20. STS-26: Preparations for Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Preparations for launch of STS-26 are shown. They include: (1) VAB to OPF high bay rollover; (2) Main engine unpacking and installation; (3) OMS pod installation; (4) Crew hatch removal; (5) Modified crew hatch installation; (6) Nose cap installation; (7) 17 inch disconnect work; (8) Ku-band antenna stow and deploy; (9) Tile work; (10) Oasis payload installation; (11) Solid rocket boosters arrival, preps and stacking; (13) Modified SRB segments: Arrival via train at KSC RPSF; (14) AFT segment rotation to vertical in RPSF; (15) AFT skirt to AFT segment mating; (16) SRB grain inspection; (17) Lift AFT segment; and (18) Lift and mate external tank.

  1. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2004-02-01

    A small-scale test apparatus has been built and tested for the CELT pneumatic launch assist concept presented at STAIF 2001. The 7.5 cm (3-inch) diameter × 305 M (1000 feet) long system accelerates and pneumatically brakes a 6.35 cm diameter projectile with variable weight (1.5 - 5 Kg). The acceleration and braking tube has been instrumented with optical sensors and pressure transducers at 14 stations to take data throughout the runs. Velocity and pressure profiles for runs with various accelerator pressures and projectile weights are given. This test apparatus can serve as an important experimental tool for verifying this concept.

  2. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  3. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  4. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  5. 14 CFR 417.25 - Post launch report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post launch report. 417.25 Section 417.25... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY General and License Terms and Conditions § 417.25 Post launch report. (a) For a launch operator launching from a Federal launch range, a launch operator must file a post...

  6. 14 CFR 417.25 - Post launch report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post launch report. 417.25 Section 417.25... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY General and License Terms and Conditions § 417.25 Post launch report. (a) For a launch operator launching from a Federal launch range, a launch operator must file a post...

  7. 14 CFR 417.25 - Post launch report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post launch report. 417.25 Section 417.25... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY General and License Terms and Conditions § 417.25 Post launch report. (a) For a launch operator launching from a Federal launch range, a launch operator must file a post...

  8. Launch system development in the Pacific Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Several Western Pacific Rim nations are beginning to challenge the domination of the United States, Europe, and the former Soviet Union in the international market for commercial launch sevices. This paper examines the current development of launch systems in China, Japan, and Australia. China began commercial launch services with their Long March-3 in April 1990, and is making enhancements to vehicles in this family. Japan is developing the H-2 rocket which will be marketed on a commercial basis. In Australia, British Aerospace Ltd. is leading a team conducting a project definition study for an Australian Launch Vehicle, aimed at launching the new generation of satellites into low Earth orbit.

  9. Plans for West Coast STS launch capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. P.; Marshall, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The layout and scope of operations of the Vandenberg AFB West Coast Launch Site for the Space Shuttle are examined. The launch site intended for the first West Coast launch in December 1983 is being constructed by the United States Air Force. Topic discussed include site/selection/management/concepts, Shuttle hardware flow and related facilities, launch pad operations, orbiter erection at SLC-6 VAFB, solid rocket booster operations, and payload ground processing. In conclusion it is noted that NASA and DOD personnel are working together to ensure that the launch site is completed on schedule at minimum cost.

  10. KSC Launch Pad Flame Trench Environment Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes conditions in the Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) flame trenches during a Space Shuttle Launch, as they have been measured to date. Instrumentation of the flame trench has been carried out by NASA and United Space Alliance for four Shuttle launches. Measurements in the flame trench are planned to continue for the duration of the Shuttle Program. The assessment of the launch environment is intended to provide guidance in selecting appropriate test methods for refractory materials used in the flame trench and to provide data used to improve models of the launch environment in the flame trench.

  11. On the launch vehicle payload interface response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Wada, B. K.; Garba, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which an estimate of the launch vehicle/payload interface response is derived from the interface responses obtained from missions with the identical launch vehicle but different payloads. This method requires knowledge of the launch vehicle eigenvalues, interface modal displacements, and the dynamic characteristics of the payloads. No other launch vehicle information is required. The organization responsible for the payload is able to perform loads and responses analysis resulting from a payload change without interfacing with the launch vehicle organization.

  12. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  13. Design of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rollo, David; Machado, Sanjay; Ceschin, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Clinical trial design for nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging radiopharmaceuticals must include a design for preclinical safety studies. These studies should establish that the investigational product (IP) does not have a toxic effect. As a further requirement, radiopharmaceutical clinical trials include a human study (phase 1) that provides biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and radiation dosimetry information. These studies demonstrate to the Food and Drug Administration that the IP either meets or exceeds the toxicology and radiation exposure safety limits. Satisfying this requirement can result in the Food and Drug Administration approving the performance of late-phase (phase 2/3) clinical trials that are designed to validate the clinical efficacy of the diagnostic imaging agent in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis for the intended application. Emphasis is placed on the most typical trial design for diagnostic imaging agents that use a comparator to demonstrate that the new IP is similar in efficacy to an established standard comparator. Such trials are called equivalence, or noninferiority, trials that attempt to show that the new IP is not less effective than the comparator by more than a statistically defined amount. Importantly, the trial design must not inappropriately favor one diagnostic imaging agent over the other. Bias is avoided by the use of a core laboratory with expert physicians who are not involved in the trial for interpreting and objectively scoring the image sets obtained at the clinical trial sites. Clinical trial design must also follow Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines. GCP stipulates the clinical trial process, including protocol and Case Report Form design, analyses planning, as well as analyzing and preparing interim and final clinical trial/study reports.

  14. Design of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rollo, David; Machado, Sanjay; Ceschin, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Clinical trial design for nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging radiopharmaceuticals must include a design for preclinical safety studies. These studies should establish that the investigational product (IP) does not have a toxic effect. As a further requirement, radiopharmaceutical clinical trials include a human study (phase 1) that provides biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and radiation dosimetry information. These studies demonstrate to the Food and Drug Administration that the IP either meets or exceeds the toxicology and radiation exposure safety limits. Satisfying this requirement can result in the Food and Drug Administration approving the performance of late-phase (phase 2/3) clinical trials that are designed to validate the clinical efficacy of the diagnostic imaging agent in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis for the intended application. Emphasis is placed on the most typical trial design for diagnostic imaging agents that use a comparator to demonstrate that the new IP is similar in efficacy to an established standard comparator. Such trials are called equivalence, or noninferiority, trials that attempt to show that the new IP is not less effective than the comparator by more than a statistically defined amount. Importantly, the trial design must not inappropriately favor one diagnostic imaging agent over the other. Bias is avoided by the use of a core laboratory with expert physicians who are not involved in the trial for interpreting and objectively scoring the image sets obtained at the clinical trial sites. Clinical trial design must also follow Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines. GCP stipulates the clinical trial process, including protocol and Case Report Form design, analyses planning, as well as analyzing and preparing interim and final clinical trial/study reports. PMID:20674592

  15. Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  16. The competitive effects of launch vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dupnick, E.; Hopkins, C.

    1996-03-01

    We performed a study to evaluate the economics of advanced technology incorporation in selected expendable launch vehicles, the Ariane, the Atlas, and the Delta. The competitive merits of these launch vehicles were assessed against a reference mission{emdash}the delivery of a telecommunications satellite to geostationary orbit. We provide estimates of the cost of the launch services for the competing missions; the GE PRICE models were used to provide cost estimates for the three launch vehicles. Using publicly available data, a comparison of cost with price for the launch was utilized to examine the issue of potential profit earned and/or subsidization of the cost. Other factors such as the location of the launch site, transportation costs, exchange rates, the availability of financing at competitive rates and communication problems was also considered in evaluating the competitive launch vehicle systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts To Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-28

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases to prevent tumor metastasis and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics.

  18. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use.

  19. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. PMID:27020147

  20. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  1. TDRS is launched from CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Leaving billowing clouds of steam and smoke behind, NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H) shoots into the blue sky aboard an Atlas IIA/Centaur rocket from Pad 36A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Liftoff occurred at 8:56 a.m. EDT. One of three satellites (labeled H, I and J) being built by the Hughes Space and Communications Company, the latest TDRS uses an innovative springback antenna design. A pair of 15-foot-diameter, flexible mesh antenna reflectors fold up for launch, then spring back into their original cupped circular shape on orbit. The new satellites will augment the TDRS system's existing S- and Ku-band frequencies by adding Ka-band capability. TDRS will serve as the sole means of continuous, high-data-rate communication with the space shuttle, with the International Space Station upon its completion, and with dozens of unmanned scientific satellites in low earth orbit.

  2. TDRS is launched from CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H) shoots into the blue sky aboard an Atlas IIA/Centaur rocket from Pad 36A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Liftoff occurred at 8:56 a.m. EDT. One of three satellites (labeled H, I and J) being built by the Hughes Space and Communications Company, the latest TDRS uses an innovative springback antenna design. A pair of 15-foot-diameter, flexible mesh antenna reflectors fold up for launch, then spring back into their original cupped circular shape on orbit. The new satellites will augment the TDRS system's existing S- and Ku-band frequencies by adding Ka-band capability. TDRS will serve as the sole means of continuous, high-data-rate communication with the space shuttle, with the International Space Station upon its completion, and with dozens of unmanned scientific satellites in low earth orbit.

  3. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  4. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan S; Symonds, Catherine; Birch, Rolfe

    2004-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and baseline pain score of four or more on an 11-point ordinate scale participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period crossover study. All patients had intractable symptoms regardless of current analgesic therapy. Patients entered a baseline period of 2 weeks, followed by three, 2-week treatment periods during each of which they received one of three oromucosal spray preparations. These were placebo and two whole plant extracts of Cannabis sativa L.: GW-1000-02 (Sativex), containing Delta(9)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) in an approximate 1:1 ratio and GW-2000-02, containing primarily THC. The primary outcome measure was the mean pain severity score during the last 7 days of treatment. Secondary outcome measures included pain related quality of life assessments. The primary outcome measure failed to fall by the two points defined in our hypothesis. However, both this measure and measures of sleep showed statistically significant improvements. The study medications were generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events, including intoxication type reactions, being mild to moderate in severity and resolving spontaneously. Studies of longer duration in neuropathic pain are required to confirm a clinically relevant, improvement in the treatment of this condition. PMID:15561385

  5. The value of herbal medicines in the treatment of acute non-purulent rhinosinusitis. Results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tesche, Stefan; Metternich, Frank; Sonnemann, Uwe; Engelke, Jan-Christian; Dethlefsen, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective, randomised, double-blinded controlled study, we compared the efficacy and safety of two different treatment options with the herbal medicines cineole and a combination of five different components for acute viral rhinosinusitis. One hundred and fifty patients with acute and viral rhinosinusitis (75 patients in each treatment group) were enrolled. The diagnosis rhinosinusitis was made according to a defined symptoms-sum-score which was based on rhinoscopic and clinical signs which are characteristic for rhinosinusitis. The primary endpoint was the amelioration of the symptoms-sum-score, which includes all relevant characteristics for rhinosinusitis as headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, rhino-secretion, secretion quantity, secretion viscosity and fever in a treatment period of 7 days. The mean reduction of the symptoms-sum-score after 4 days was 6.7 (+/-3.4) and after 7 days 11.0 (+/-3.3) in the cineole group and 3.6 (+/-2.8) after 4 days and 8.0 (+/-3.0) after 7 days in the control group. The differences between both groups were clinically relevant and statistically significant after 4 and 7 days (P < 0.0001). This result is validated by the amelioration of the secondary endpoints headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction and rhino-secretion. These findings correlate with the statistically significant difference of the estimation of B-scan ultrasonography. It is safe to use both medications for 7 days in patients with acute viral rhinosinusitis. Treatment with cineole is clinically relevant and statistically significant, more effective in comparison to the alternative herbal preparation with five different components. PMID:18437408

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. high-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated in to increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31 % increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  8. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  9. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2 percent of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20 percent increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2 percent of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31 percent increase in payload (for 5-kilometer launch altitude) to 122 percent additional payload (for 25-kilometer launch altitude).

  10. Sustainable development of a GCP-compliant clinical trials platform in Africa: the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance (MCTA), a programme of INDEPTH network of demographic surveillance centres, was launched in 2006 with two broad objectives: to facilitate the timely development of a network of centres in Africa with the capacity to conduct clinical trials of malaria vaccines and drugs under conditions of good clinical practice (GCP); and to support, strengthen and mentor the centres in the network to facilitate their progression towards self-sustaining clinical research centres. Case description Sixteen research centres in 10 African malaria-endemic countries were selected that were already working with the Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) or the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV). All centres were visited to assess their requirements for research capacity development through infrastructure strengthening and training. Support provided by MCTA included: laboratory and facility refurbishment; workshops on GCP, malaria diagnosis, strategic management and media training; and training to support staff to undertake accreditation examinations of the Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP). Short attachments to other network centres were also supported to facilitate sharing practices within the Alliance. MCTA also played a key role in the creation of the African Media & Malaria Research Network (AMMREN), which aims to promote interaction between researchers and the media for appropriate publicity and media reporting of research and developments on malaria, including drug and vaccine trials. Conclusion In three years, MCTA strengthened 13 centres to perform GCP-compliant drug and vaccine trials, including 11 centres that form the backbone of a large phase III malaria vaccine trial. MCTA activities have demonstrated that centres can be brought up to GCP compliance on this time scale, but the costs are substantial and there is a need for further support of other centres to meet the growing demand for clinical trial capacity. The

  11. Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B; Adamski, Paweł; Stefański, Grzegorz; Mikołajczyk-Cichońska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. Patients and methods The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4–6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag®, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Results Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH (P<0.05) and Nugent score (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV (P<0.05). Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at visit III, and 47.5% at visit IV. There was no serious adverse event related to inVag administration during the study. Conclusion The probiotic inVag is safe for administration to sustainably restore the healthy vaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota. PMID:26451088

  12. Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Tursi, Francesco; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Lecchi, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Cough is a frequent symptom associated to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and, although being self-limiting, it might deeply affect the quality of life. Homeopathic products are often employed by patients to treat cough, but the evidence on their efficacy is scarce. Thus, we tested the efficacy of a homeopathic syrup in treating cough arising from URTIs with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with either the homeopathic syrup or a placebo for a week, and recorded cough severity in a diary by means of a verbal category-descriptive score for two weeks. Sputum viscosity was assessed with a viscosimeter before and after 4 days of treatment; patients were also asked to provide a subjective evaluation of viscosity. Eighty patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 40) or the homeopathic syrup (n = 40). All patients completed the study. In each group cough scores decreased over time, however, after 4 and 7 days of treatment, cough severity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group than in the placebo one (p < 0.001 and p = 0.023, respectively). Sputum was collected from 53 patients: in both groups its viscosity significantly decreased after 4 days of treatment (p < 0.001); however, viscosity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group (p = 0.018). Instead, the subjective evaluation did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.059). No adverse events related to any treatment were reported. We concluded that the homeopathic syrup employed in the study was able to effectively reduce cough severity and sputum viscosity, thereby representing a valid remedy for the management of acute cough induced by URTIs. PMID:23714686

  13. A Comparative Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Children with Sleep Disorders and Restlessness

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Miek C.; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Verwer, Cynthia; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 in children with sleep disorders for ≥ one month compared to glycine. Children ≤ six years old received either ZinCyp-3-02 (N = 89) or comparator glycine (N = 90). After treatment for 28 days, total sleep-disorder-associated complaints severity scores decreased in both groups from median 7.0 (out of maximum 11.0) points to 2.0 (ZinCyp-3-02) and 4.0 (glycine) points, respectively, with overall higher odds of showing improvement for ZinCyp-3-02 (odds ratio: 4.45 (95% CI: 2.77–7.14), p < 0.0001, POM overall treatment related effect). Absence of individual complaints (time to sleep onset, difficulties maintaining sleep, sleep duration, troubled sleep (somniloquism), physical inactivity after awakening, restlessness for unknown reason, and sleep disorders frequency) at study end were significantly higher with ZinCyp-3-02 (all p values < 0.05). More children with ZinCyp-3-02 were totally free of complaints (p = 0.0258). Treatment effectiveness (p < 0.0001) and satisfaction assessments (p < 0.0001) were more favorable for ZinCyp-3-02. Few nonserious adverse drug reactions were reported (ZinCyp-3-02: N = 2, glycine: N = 1) and both treatments were well tolerated. Treatment with the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 was found to be safe and superior to the comparator glycine in the treatment of sleep disorders in children. PMID:27242915

  14. Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Tursi, Francesco; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Lecchi, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Cough is a frequent symptom associated to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and, although being self-limiting, it might deeply affect the quality of life. Homeopathic products are often employed by patients to treat cough, but the evidence on their efficacy is scarce. Thus, we tested the efficacy of a homeopathic syrup in treating cough arising from URTIs with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with either the homeopathic syrup or a placebo for a week, and recorded cough severity in a diary by means of a verbal category-descriptive score for two weeks. Sputum viscosity was assessed with a viscosimeter before and after 4 days of treatment; patients were also asked to provide a subjective evaluation of viscosity. Eighty patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 40) or the homeopathic syrup (n = 40). All patients completed the study. In each group cough scores decreased over time, however, after 4 and 7 days of treatment, cough severity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group than in the placebo one (p < 0.001 and p = 0.023, respectively). Sputum was collected from 53 patients: in both groups its viscosity significantly decreased after 4 days of treatment (p < 0.001); however, viscosity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group (p = 0.018). Instead, the subjective evaluation did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.059). No adverse events related to any treatment were reported. We concluded that the homeopathic syrup employed in the study was able to effectively reduce cough severity and sputum viscosity, thereby representing a valid remedy for the management of acute cough induced by URTIs.

  15. A Comparative Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Children with Sleep Disorders and Restlessness.

    PubMed

    Jong, Miek C; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Verwer, Cynthia; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 in children with sleep disorders for ≥ one month compared to glycine. Children ≤ six years old received either ZinCyp-3-02 (N = 89) or comparator glycine (N = 90). After treatment for 28 days, total sleep-disorder-associated complaints severity scores decreased in both groups from median 7.0 (out of maximum 11.0) points to 2.0 (ZinCyp-3-02) and 4.0 (glycine) points, respectively, with overall higher odds of showing improvement for ZinCyp-3-02 (odds ratio: 4.45 (95% CI: 2.77-7.14), p < 0.0001, POM overall treatment related effect). Absence of individual complaints (time to sleep onset, difficulties maintaining sleep, sleep duration, troubled sleep (somniloquism), physical inactivity after awakening, restlessness for unknown reason, and sleep disorders frequency) at study end were significantly higher with ZinCyp-3-02 (all p values < 0.05). More children with ZinCyp-3-02 were totally free of complaints (p = 0.0258). Treatment effectiveness (p < 0.0001) and satisfaction assessments (p < 0.0001) were more favorable for ZinCyp-3-02. Few nonserious adverse drug reactions were reported (ZinCyp-3-02: N = 2, glycine: N = 1) and both treatments were well tolerated. Treatment with the homeopathic product ZinCyp-3-02 was found to be safe and superior to the comparator glycine in the treatment of sleep disorders in children.

  16. Mobile phone text messaging intervention to improve alertness and reduce sleepiness and fatigue during shiftwork among emergency medicine clinicians: study protocol for the SleepTrackTXT pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental and physical fatigue while at work is common among emergency medical services (EMS) shift workers. Extended shifts (for example 24 hours) and excessive amounts of overtime work increase the likelihood of negative safety outcomes and pose a challenge for EMS fatigue-risk management. Text message-based interventions are a potentially high-impact, low-cost platform for sleep and fatigue assessment and distributing information to workers at risk of negative safety outcomes related to sleep behaviors and fatigue. Methods/Design We will conduct a pilot randomized trial with a convenience sample of adult EMS workers recruited from across the United States using a single study website. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms for a 90-day study period. The intervention arm will involve text message assessments of sleepiness, fatigue, and difficulty with concentration at the beginning, during, and end of scheduled shifts. Intervention subjects reporting high levels of sleepiness or fatigue will receive one of four randomly selected intervention messages promoting behavior change during shiftwork. Control subjects will receive assessment only text messages. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a text messaging tool for the delivery of a sleep and fatigue intervention. We seek to determine if a text messaging program with tailored intervention messages is effective at reducing perceived sleepiness and/or fatigue among emergency medicine clinician shift workers. Additional aims include testing whether a theory-based behavioral intervention, delivered by text message, changes ‘alertness behaviors’. Discussion The SleepTrackTXT pilot trial could provide evidence of compliance and effectiveness that would support rapid widespread expansion in one of two forms: 1) a stand-alone program in the form of a tailored/individualized sleep monitoring and fatigue reduction support service for EMS workers; or 2) an add-on to a multi

  17. [Application of evidence-based medicine in Chinese medicine: debate and strategy].

    PubMed

    Shea, Jeanne L

    2010-03-01

    Drawing on recent publications in English and Chinese, this article explores reactions to the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to evaluate Chinese medicine. Some authors contend that RCTs should not be used to evaluate Chinese medicine, but a far greater number of authors advocate their use. This paper describes the position of the RCT detractors and points out how their arguments contain oversimplified representations of Chinese medicine, biomedicine, EBM, and RCTs. In describing the position of the RCT proponents, the article discusses how challenges of standardization and control in Chinese medicine research have been met with important innovations in clinical trial design. Overall, the article argues that not only Chinese medicine is modified in meeting the demands of RCTs and EBM, but clinical trial design is being transformed through the innovations of Chinese medicine researchers.

  18. NASA to launch second SATCOM in RCA series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The RCA-SATCOM-11 satellite, scheduled to be launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. on March 25, 1976, using a Delta launch vehicle, was discussed. The following subjects were described: satellite itself, launch vehicle, launch operations, key personnel.

  19. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, M F; Bartelink, M E L; Zuithoff, N P A; van der Heijden, G J M G; de Wit, N J; Hoes, A W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules. However, these studies have neither been performed in GP nor assessed EBM behaviour of former trainees in daily clinical practice. Setting GP specialty training in the Netherlands. Participants All 82 third year GP trainees who started their final third year in 2011 were approached for inclusion, of whom 79 (96%) participated: 39 in the intervention group and 40 in the control group. Intervention Integrated EBM training, in which EBM is embedded closely within the clinical context by joint assignments for the trainee and supervisor in daily practice, and teaching sessions based on dilemmas from actual patient consultations. Comparison Stand-alone EBM training at the institute only. Primary and secondary outcomes Our primary outcome was EBM behaviour, assessed by measuring guideline adherence (incorporating rational, motivated deviation) and information-seeking behaviour. Our secondary outcomes were EBM attitude and EBM knowledge. Data were acquired using logbooks and questionnaires, respectively. Analyses were performed using mixed models. Results Logbook data were available from 76 (96%) of the participating trainees at baseline (7614 consultations), 60 (76%) at the end of the third year (T1, 4973 consultations) and 53 (67%) 1 year after graduation (T2, 3307 consultations). We found no significant differences in outcomes between the 2 groups, with relative risks for guideline adherence varying between 0.96 and 0.99 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.11) at T1, and 0.99 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.25) at T2, and for information-seeking behaviour between 0.97 and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.91) and 0.90 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.32), respectively. Conclusions Integrated EBM training compared with stand-alone EBM training does not improve EBM behaviour, attitude

  20. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Numata, Takehiro; Gunfan, Shen; Takayama, Shin; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ≥ 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients.

  1. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional Japanese herbal medicine saikokeishikankyoto: a randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial in survivors of the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Numata, Takehiro; Gunfan, Shen; Takayama, Shin; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kaneko, Soichiro; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ≥ 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634

  2. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Using the Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial in Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    GunFan, Shen; Takahashi, Satomi; Monma, Yasutake; Kuroda, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Junichi; Nara, Masayuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishii, Tadashi; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Koh

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan. Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) in the treatment of PTSD among survivors of this disaster. Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score ≥ 25 were randomized into SKK (n = 21) and control (n = 22) groups. The primary endpoint was the change in IES-R scores from baseline till after 2 weeks of treatment. Intergroup statistical comparisons were performed. The magnitude of changes in total IES-R scores differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that the total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group from 49.6 ± 11.9 to 25.5 ± 17.0 (P < 0.001). Subscale scores improved significantly in the SKK group (avoidance, P = 0.003; hyperarousal, P < 0.001; intrusion, P < 0.001). Two-week treatment with SKK significantly improved IES-R scores among PTSD patients. This traditional medicine may be a valid choice for the treatment of psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:24790634

  3. Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    cancer, dystonias, cerebral vascular accident and spina bifida, as well as for the relief of pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and also pain relief in brachial plexus injury. The UK Government stated that it would be willing to amend the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 to permit the introduction of a cannabis-based medicine. GW stated in its 2002 Annual Report that it was currently conducting five phase III trials of its cannabis derivatives, including a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sublingual spray containing High THC in more than 100 patients with cancer pain in the UK. Also included is a phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) being conducted in patients with severe pain due to brachial plexus injury, as are two more phase III trials of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) targeting spasticity and bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Another phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in patients with spinal cord injury is also being conducted. Results from the trials are expected during 2003. Three additional trials are also in the early stages of planning. These trials include a phase I trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, a phase I trial of High CBD in patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and a preclinical trial of High CBD in various CNS disorders (including epilepsy, stroke and head injury). GW Pharmaceuticals submitted an application for approval of cannabis-based medicines to UK regulatory authorities in March 2003. Originally GW hoped to market cannabis-based prescription medicines by 2004, but is now planning for a launch in the UK towards the end of 2003. Several trials for GW's cannabis derivatives have also been completed, including four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trials conducted in the UK. The trials were initiated by GW in April 2002, to investigate the use of a sublingual spray containing THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in the following medical

  4. Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  5. Launch, Jupiter-C, Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  6. Trends in the commercial launch services industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ethan E.

    2001-02-01

    The market for space launch services has undergone significant development in the last two decades and is poised to change even further. With the introduction of new players in the market, and the development of new vehicles by existing providers, competition has increased. At the same time, customer payloads have been changing as satellites grow in size and capability. Amidst these changes, launch delays have become a concern in the industry, and launch service providers have developed different solutions to avoid delays and satisfy customer needs. This analysis discusses these trends in the launch services market and their drivers. Focus is given to the market for medium, intermediate, and heavy launch services which generally includes launches of GEO communication satellites, large government payloads, and NGSO constellations. .

  7. Trial Watch

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the past 3 decades, along with the recognition that the immune system not only influences oncogenesis and tumor progression, but also determines how established neoplastic lesions respond therapy, renovated enthusiasm has gathered around the possibility of using vaccines as anticancer agents. Such an enthusiasm quickly tempered when it became clear that anticancer vaccines would have to be devised as therapeutic, rather than prophylactic, measures, and that malignant cells often fail to elicit (or actively suppress) innate and adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence indicates that a variety of anticancer vaccines, including cell-based, DNA-based, and purified component-based preparations, are capable of circumventing the poorly immunogenic and highly immunosuppressive nature of most tumors and elicit (at least under some circumstances) therapeutically relevant immune responses. Great efforts are currently being devoted to the identification of strategies that may provide anticancer vaccines with the capacity of breaking immunological tolerance and eliciting tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity in a majority of patients. In this sense, promising results have been obtained by combining anticancer vaccines with a relatively varied panels of adjuvants, including multiple immunostimulatory cytokines, Toll-like receptor agonists as well as inhibitors of immune checkpoints. One year ago, in the December issue of OncoImmunology, we discussed the biological mechanisms that underlie the antineoplastic effects of peptide-based vaccines and presented an abundant literature demonstrating the prominent clinical potential of such an approach. Here, we review the latest developments in this exciting area of research, focusing on high-profile studies that have been published during the last 13 mo and clinical trials launched in the same period to evaluate purified peptides or full-length proteins as therapeutic anticancer agents. PMID:24498550

  8. ISS Service Module Pre-Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Various shots show Discovery at the launch pad during the final 30-minute countdown. The prelaunch conditions are described and information is given on the upcoming launch and the orbiter's docking with the International Space Station (ISS). A brief collage of rollout and launch footage of STS-92 Endeavour commemorates the 100th Space Shuttle mission and the 100th anniversary of the Philadelphia Orchestra (also seen). The music of '2001: A Space Odyssey) is played by the orchestra.

  9. The development of China's launching vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongzeng

    1987-06-01

    A development history is presented for the Chinese space program, with attention to the Long March series of launch vehicles. The design and performance specifications of both currently available and planned Chinese launch vehicles are presented with a view to stimulating interest in foreign commercial and governmental use of these resources for satellite launch services. The circumstances of joint marketing ventures for such launch services with U.S. and/or West European companies are explored. Low earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit, high earth orbit, and multiple satellite orbit insertion missions are discussed.

  10. Overcoming Scalability Challenges for Tool Daemon Launching

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H; Arnold, D C; de Supinski, B R; Lee, G L; Miller, B P; Schulz, M

    2008-02-15

    Many tools that target parallel and distributed environments must co-locate a set of daemons with the distributed processes of the target application. However, efficient and portable deployment of these daemons on large scale systems is an unsolved problem. We overcome this gap with LaunchMON, a scalable, robust, portable, secure, and general purpose infrastructure for launching tool daemons. Its API allows tool builders to identify all processes of a target job, launch daemons on the relevant nodes and control daemon interaction. Our results show that Launch-MON scales to very large daemon counts and substantially enhances performance over existing ad hoc mechanisms.

  11. Ten-year space launch technology plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the response to the National Space Policy Directive-4 (NSPD-4), signed by the President on 10 Jul. 1991. Directive NSPD-4 calls upon the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to coordinate national space launch technology efforts and to jointly prepare a 10-year space launch technology plan. The nation's future in space rests on the strength of its national launch technology program. This plan documents our current launch technology efforts, plans for future initiatives in this arena, and the overarching philosophy that links these activities into an integrated national technology program.

  12. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  13. 14 CFR 415.133 - Safety at end of launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.133 Safety at end of launch. An applicant must demonstrate compliance with § 417.129 of this chapter, for any proposed launch of a launch vehicle with a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety at end of launch. 415.133...

  14. 14 CFR 415.133 - Safety at end of launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.133 Safety at end of launch. An applicant must demonstrate compliance with § 417.129 of this chapter, for any proposed launch of a launch vehicle with a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety at end of launch. 415.133...

  15. 14 CFR 415.133 - Safety at end of launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.133 Safety at end of launch. An applicant must demonstrate compliance with § 417.129 of this chapter, for any proposed launch of a launch vehicle with a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety at end of launch. 415.133...

  16. 14 CFR 415.111 - Launch operator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.111 Launch operator organization. An applicant's...-related goods or services for the launch of the launch vehicle. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch operator organization....

  17. 14 CFR 415.133 - Safety at end of launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.133 Safety at end of launch. An applicant must demonstrate compliance with § 417.129 of this chapter, for any proposed launch of a launch vehicle with a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety at end of launch. 415.133...

  18. 14 CFR 415.111 - Launch operator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.111 Launch operator organization. An applicant's...-related goods or services for the launch of the launch vehicle. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch operator organization....

  19. 14 CFR 415.111 - Launch operator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.111 Launch operator organization. An applicant's...-related goods or services for the launch of the launch vehicle. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch operator organization....

  20. 14 CFR 415.111 - Launch operator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.111 Launch operator organization. An applicant's...-related goods or services for the launch of the launch vehicle. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch operator organization....

  1. Launch pad lightning protection effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahmann, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.

  2. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  3. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  4. Strypi VII R launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Strypi VII R is a three-stage solid propellant launch vehicle designed to boost payloads ranging from 50 to 300 pounds to re-entry environment conditions. The first stage, a fin-stabilized ballistic rocket boosts the final two stages into an exoatmospheric trajectory where an attitude control system (ACS) precesses the spinning stages into the re-entry attitude. The ACS section is then jettisoned, and ignition of the spin-stabilized upper stages is initiated at a time determined to provide a zero angle-of-attack at beginning of re-entry. Four vehicles have been flown carrying three different re-entry test vehicles. Originally designed for use with a Castor II motor, the highly aluminized propellant in the first stage spinning environment contributed to a case rupture resulting in failure of the second flight. The last two flights were flown successfully using Castor I motors. Typically, the Strypi VII R can boost a 100 lbm RV to a speed of 19,500 fps on a flight path of -30 degrees at 300,000 feet altitude.

  5. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  6. Cytomics in regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

    2008-02-01

    Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

  7. Fuzzy logic and its applications in medicine.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N H; Kreinovich, V

    2001-07-01

    Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in medicine for tasks such as the interpretation of sets of medical findings, syndrome differentiation in Eastern medicine, diagnosis of diseases in Western medicine, mixed diagnosis of integrated Western and Eastern medicine, the optimal selection of medical treatments integrating Western and Eastern medicine, and for real-time monitoring of patient data. This was verified by trials with the following systems that were developed by our group in Vietnam: a fuzzy Expert System for Syndromes Differentiation in Oriental Traditional Medicine, an Expert System for Lung Diseases using fuzzy logic, Case Based Reasoning for Medical Diagnosis using fuzzy set theory, a diagnostic system combining disease diagnosis of Western Medicine with syndrome differentiation of Oriental Traditional Medicine, a fuzzy system for classification of Western and Eastern medicaments and finally, a fuzzy system for diagnosis and treatment of integrated Western and Eastern Medicine. PMID:11470619

  8. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  9. Medicine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

    Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

  10. Saturn V - Design Considerations and Launch Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Understand some of the design considerations that went into creating the Saturn V launch vehicle; b) Gain an appreciation for some of the manufacturing issues concerning the Saturn V; and c) Review three major problems that affected Saturn V launches.

  11. Launching into the Podcast/Vodcast Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, the Orange County Library System (OCLS), located in the Orlando metropolitan area of Florida, launched a mission to explore podcasting. This article, written in the form of a "captain's log," prepares the reader for their own journey into the universe of successfully launching podcasts and a vodcast (video podcast). This…

  12. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 35mm camera was used to record the image, which includes much of the base of the launch site as well as the launch itself.

  13. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 70mm camera was used to record the image. Note the vegetation and the reflection of the launch in the water across from the launch pad.

  14. Launch of STS-67 Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven and a complement of astronomic experiments, the Space Shuttle Endeavour embarks on NASA's longest shuttle flight to date. Endeavour's liftoff from Launch Pad 39A occurred at 1:38:13 a.m. (EST), March 2, 1995. In this view the fence line near the launch pad is evident in the foreground.

  15. Pigeons' Discrimination of Michotte's Launching Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael E.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    We trained four pigeons to discriminate a Michotte launching animation from three other animations using a go/no-go task. The pigeons received food for pecking at one of the animations, but not for pecking at the others. The four animations featured two types of interactions among objects: causal (direct launching) and noncausal (delayed, distal,…

  16. 14 CFR 1214.117 - Launch and orbit parameters for a standard launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Launch and orbit parameters for a standard launch. 1214.117 Section 1214.117 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.117 Launch...

  17. 14 CFR 1214.117 - Launch and orbit parameters for a standard launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch and orbit parameters for a standard launch. 1214.117 Section 1214.117 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.117 Launch...

  18. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Medium Medium large Type of suborbital launch vehicle Large Guided Unguided 7300 9300 10600 13000 8000... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the... largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  19. 14 CFR 420.30 - Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles. 420.30 Section 420.30 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for...

  20. 14 CFR 420.29 - Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles. 420.29 Section 420.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining...

  1. 14 CFR 420.29 - Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles. 420.29 Section 420.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining...

  2. 14 CFR 420.29 - Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles. 420.29 Section 420.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining...

  3. 14 CFR 420.30 - Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles. 420.30 Section 420.30 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for...

  4. 14 CFR 420.30 - Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles. 420.30 Section 420.30 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for...

  5. 14 CFR 420.30 - Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles. 420.30 Section 420.30 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for...

  6. 14 CFR 420.29 - Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles. 420.29 Section 420.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining...

  7. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.

    2010-01-01

    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  8. Program Computes Sound Pressures at Rocket Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogg, Gary; Heyman, Roy; White, Michael; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Launch Vehicle External Sound Pressure is a computer program that predicts the ignition overpressure and the acoustic pressure on the surfaces and in the vicinity of a rocket and launch pad during launch. The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) that gathers input data from the user. These data include the critical dimensions of the rocket and of any launch-pad structures that may act as acoustic reflectors, the size and shape of the exhaust duct or flame deflector, and geometrical and operational parameters of the rocket engine. For the ignition-overpressure calculations, histories of the chamber pressure and mass flow rate also are required. Once the GUI has gathered the input data, it feeds them to ignition-overpressure and launch-acoustics routines, which are based on several approximate mathematical models of distributed sources, transmission, and reflection of acoustic waves. The output of the program includes ignition overpressures and acoustic pressures at specified locations.

  9. Solid rocket motor space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, A. J.; Trudeau, H. D.

    Space launch vehicles based on solid rocket motors are more cost effective than liquid rocket engine boosters. When stringent performance and dimension (length and diameter) constraints can be relaxed, design and manufacturing margins can be increased. Designing and manufacturing quality into the product, increases solid rocket motor reliability and substantially reduces cost. Since propulsion is a major component of recurring launch cost, such improvements result in reliability and a lower launch service cost. Higher reliability has implications for insurance costs as well as weighing the merits of self insurance against buying insurance. The inherent simplicity of solid rocket motor based space launch vehicles reduces assembly, checkout, and launch cycle times thus also reducing costs.

  10. Solid rocket motor space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, A. J.; Trudeau, H. D.

    1992-08-01

    Space launch vehicles based on solid rocket motors are more cost effective than liquid rocket engine boosters. When stringent performance and dimension (length and diameter) constraints can be relaxed, design and manufacturing margins can be increased. Designing and manufacturing quality into the product, increases solid rocket motor reliability and substantially reduces cost. Since propulsion is a major component of recurring launch cost, such improvements result in reability and a lower launch service cost. Higher reliability has implications for insurance costs as well as weighing the merits of self insurance against buying insurance. The inherent simplicity of solid rocket motor based space launch vehicles reduces assembly, checkout, and launch cycle times thus also reducing costs.

  11. Environmental noise assessment STS-1 Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnicki, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    An environmental noise assessement of the initial launch of the Space Transportation System, STS-1 Columbia was conducted. The principal objective of the environmental noise assessment was to measure the noise generated during the initial launch of the space shuttle to ascertain the validity of the levels predicted in the 1979 environmental impact statement. In the 1979 study information obtained for expendable launch vehicles, Titan, Saturn and Atlas was used to predict the noise levels that would be generated by the simultaneous firing of the two solid rocket boosters and the three space shuttle main engines. Fifteen monitoring sites were established in accessable areas located from 4,953 to 23,640 meters from the launch pad. Precision sound level meters were used to capture the peak level during the launch. Data obtained was compared to the predicted levels and were also compared to the identified levels, standards and criteria established by the federal agencies with noise abatement and control responsibilities.

  12. Launching the Future... Constellation Program at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    With the Constellation Program, NASA is entering a new age of space exploration that will take us back to the Moon, to Mars, and beyond, and NASA is developing the new technology and vehicles to take us there. At the forefront are the Orion spacecraft and the Ares I launch vehicle. As NASA's gateway to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will process and launch the new vehicles. This will require new systems and extensive changes to existing infrastructure. KSC is designing a new mobile launcher, a new launch control system, and new ground support equipment; modifying the Vehicle Assembly Building, one of the launch pads, and other facilities; and launching the Ares I-X flight test. It is an exciting and challenging time to be an engineer at KSC.

  13. Recommended Screening Practices for Launch Collision Aviodance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, Brian A.; Hametz, Mark E.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine C.; Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to assess the value of launch collision avoidance (COLA) practices and provide recommendations regarding its implementation for NASA robotic missions. The scope of this effort is limited to launch COLA screens against catalog objects that are either spacecraft or debris. No modifications to manned safety COLA practices are considered in this effort. An assessment of the value of launch COLA can be broken down into two fundamental questions: 1) Does collision during launch represent a significant risk to either the payload being launched or the space environment? 2) Can launch collision mitigation be performed in a manner that provides meaningful risk reduction at an acceptable level of operational impact? While it has been possible to piece together partial answers to these questions for some time, the first attempt to comprehensively address them is documented in reference (a), Launch COLA Operations: an Examination of Data Products, Procedures, and Thresholds, Revision A. This report is the product of an extensive study that addressed fundamental technical questions surrounding launch collision avoidance analysis and practice. The results provided in reference (a) will be cited throughout this document as these two questions are addressed. The premise of this assessment is that in order to conclude that launch COLA is a value-added activity, the answer to both of these questions must be affirmative. A "no" answer to either of these questions points toward the conclusion that launch COLA provides little or no risk mitigation benefit. The remainder of this assessment will focus on addressing these two questions.

  14. Powering Exploration: The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. The Ares Projects continue to make progress toward design, component testing, and early flight testing of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, as well as early design work for Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and Ares V will form the core space launch capabilities the United States needs to continue its pioneering tradition as a spacefaring nation. This paper will discuss programmatic, design, fabrication, and testing progress toward building these new launch vehicles.

  15. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-12-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  16. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  17. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  18. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Al Hassan, Mohammad; Hark, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk, and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results, and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods, such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty, are rendered obsolete, since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods. This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper describes how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.

  19. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Hark, Frank; Al Hassan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty are rendered obsolete since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods.This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper shows how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.

  20. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  1. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  2. Launch system design for access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Corbin

    1994-01-01

    Here, a hybrid launch system is developed. The hybrid launch system combines the lower operating cost advantage of an non-man-rated SSTO (Single Stage to Orbit) MLV (Medium Launch Vehicle) with the crew survivability advantage of a ballistic escape pod. Ultimately, it was found that a non-man-made MLV is configured the same as a man-rated MLV and offers no significant savings in operational cost. However, addition of the proposed escape system would increase the crew survivability rate of the SSTO while incurring only a small cost per pound payload penalty.

  3. Viking Mars launch set for August 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1975-01-01

    The 1975-1976 Viking Mars Mission is described in detail, from launch phase through landing and communications relay phase. The mission's scientific goals are outlined and the various Martian investigations are discussed. These investigations include: geological photomapping and seismology; high-resolution, stereoscopic horizon scanning; water vapor and thermal mapping; entry science; meteorology; atmospheric composition and atmospheric density; and, search for biological products. The configurations of the Titan 3/Centaur combined launch vehicles, the Viking orbiters, and the Viking landers are described; their subsystems and performance characteristics are discussed. Preflight operations, launch window, mission control, and the deep space tracking network are also presented.

  4. [A review of international clinical trial registration].

    PubMed

    Yu, He; Liu, Jian-ping

    2007-05-01

    Clinical trials play a critical role in medical research. However, only a few clinical trials conducted at present have been registered at various clinical trial registries. Clinical trial registration can prevent bias in these registered trials effectively and avoid unnecessary waste of resources due to meaningless repeats. Moreover, it will benefit the development of evidence-based medicine, and promote human welfare. Great attention has been paid to the importance and necessity of clinical trial registration. This review briefly introduced the definition, justification, contents, history, current status of clinical trial registration, and introduced the information regarding important international clinical trial registries in detail. Clinical trial registration should be developed toward a transparent, compulsory and comprehensive stage. PMID:17498477

  5. Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  6. 14 CFR 417.25 - Post launch report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operator must file a post launch report with the FAA no later than 90 days after the launch. (c) The post... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post launch report. 417.25 Section 417.25... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY General and License Terms and Conditions § 417.25 Post launch report....

  7. 14 CFR 415.113 - Launch personnel certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch personnel certification program. 415... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.113 Launch personnel certification program. (a... demonstrates how the launch operator implements the personnel certification program. (c) An applicant's...

  8. 14 CFR 415.113 - Launch personnel certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch personnel certification program. 415... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.113 Launch personnel certification program. (a... demonstrates how the launch operator implements the personnel certification program. (c) An applicant's...

  9. 14 CFR 415.113 - Launch personnel certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch personnel certification program. 415... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.113 Launch personnel certification program. (a... demonstrates how the launch operator implements the personnel certification program. (c) An applicant's...

  10. 14 CFR 415.113 - Launch personnel certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Launch personnel certification program. 415... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.113 Launch personnel certification program. (a... demonstrates how the launch operator implements the personnel certification program. (c) An applicant's...

  11. 14 CFR 415.113 - Launch personnel certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch personnel certification program. 415... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.113 Launch personnel certification program. (a... demonstrates how the launch operator implements the personnel certification program. (c) An applicant's...

  12. 14 CFR 415.3 - Types of launch licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Types of launch licenses. 415.3 Section 415.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.3 Types of launch licenses. (a) Launch-specific license. A launch-specific...

  13. 14 CFR 415.3 - Types of launch licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of launch licenses. 415.3 Section 415.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.3 Types of launch licenses. (a) Launch-specific license. A launch-specific...

  14. 14 CFR 415.3 - Types of launch licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Types of launch licenses. 415.3 Section 415.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.3 Types of launch licenses. (a) Launch-specific license. A launch-specific...

  15. 14 CFR 415.3 - Types of launch licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of launch licenses. 415.3 Section 415.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.3 Types of launch licenses. (a) Launch-specific license. A launch-specific...

  16. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process. PMID:27544982

  17. New date awaited for SMART-1 launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Credits: ESA SMART-1 being mated to launch adapter August, 2003 - Kourou - SMART-1 is ready to fly following hyrazine loading and final tests. The spacecraft is now mated to its launch adapter and ready to be moved to the assembly building where it will join the other cargo being launched. ESA officials stated that the Ariane-5 launcher and the SMART-1 spacecraft are in perfect shape, ready for the new launch date. ESA's SMART-1 spacecraft, Europe’s first probe to the Moon, will take around 16 months to reach its destination where it is expected to carry out a number of unprecedented studies of the Moon, and demonstrate innovate and key technologies for future deep space science missions.

  18. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director of Shuttle Processing; and 1st Lieutenant Mindy Chavez, Launch Weather Officer-United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron are in attendance for this STS-114 Discovery launch readiness press conference. The discussion begins with Wayne Hale bringing to the table a low level sensor device for everyone to view. He talks in detail about all of the extensive tests that were performed on these sensors and the completion of these ambient tests. Chavez presents her weather forecast for the launch day of July 26th 2005. Michael Griffin and Wayne Hale answer questions from the news media pertaining to the sensors and launch readiness. The video ends with footage of Pilot Jim Kelly and Commander Eileen Collins conducting test flights in a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that simulates Space Shuttle landing.

  19. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  20. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  1. Launch of the MR-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launching of the Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-3) spacecraft from Cape Canaveral on a suborbital mission. Onboard the craft was Ham, a 37-pound chimpanzee. Despite an over-acceleration factor, the flight was considered to be successful.

  2. Second Venus spacecraft set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe spacecraft and cruise phases of both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Multiprobe spacecraft are covered. Material pertinent to the Venus encounter is included.

  3. NASA's Space Launch System Building Orion Adapter

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is hard at work designing the nation's next flagship rocket, a heavy-lift launch vehicle that will carry explorers deeper into space than ever before. While the first full-configuration won't ...

  4. New Research Site to Launch in June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Thirteen science and technology societies will launch a new Web site (http://www.scitopia.org) in June that will enable users to search more than three million journal articles, conference proceedings, and patents at once.

  5. STS-134 Launch Composite Video Comparison

    NASA Video Gallery

    A side-by-side comparison video shows a one-camera view of the STS-134 launch (left) with the six-camera composited view (right). Imaging experts funded by the Space Shuttle Program and located at ...

  6. Expedition 34 Crew Prepares for Soyuz Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Tom Marshburn of NASA, Roman Romanenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency and Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency prepare for their Dec. 19 launch...

  7. NATO-3C/Delta launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  8. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  9. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  10. New Expedition 32 Trio Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft at 10:40 p.m. EDT Saturday (8:40 a.m. Kazakhstan time on Sunday) from Bai...

  11. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  12. Expedition 31 Crew Trains for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew - astronaut Joe Acaba and cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Revin -- trains at Star City, Russia, for its upcoming launch to the International Space Station. Their backup...

  13. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  14. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo craft (ATV-4) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana at 5:52 p.m. EDT on Wednesday to begin a 10-day t...

  15. NASA Manned Launch Vehicle Lightning Protection Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle

  16. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  17. Atmospheric environment for ASTP (SA-210) launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near ASTP/SA-210 launch time on July 15, 1975, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), density, index of refraction, and wind/wind shear aloft are included. A final meteorological data tape for the ASTP launch, consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, has been constructed.

  18. 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Launch Period Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission, set to launch in the fall of 2011, has the primary objective of landing the most advanced rover to date to the surface of Mars to assess whether Mars ever was, or still is today, able to sustain carbon-based life. Arriving at Mars in August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory will also demonstrate the ability to deliver large payloads to the surface of Mars, land more accurately (than previous missions) in a 20-km by 25-km ellipse, and traverse up to 20 km. Following guided entry and parachute deployment, the spacecraft will descend on a parachute and a Powered Descent Vehicle to safely land the rover on the surface of Mars. The launch/arrival strategy is driven by several key requirements, which include: launch vehicle capability, atmosphere-relative entry speed, communications coverage during Entry, Descent and Landing, latitude accessibility, and dust storm season avoidance. Notable among these requirements is maintaining a telecommunications link from atmospheric entry to landing plus one minute, via a Direct-To-Earth X-band link and via orbital assets using an UHF link, to ensure that any failure during Entry, Descent and Landing can be reconstructed in case of a mission anomaly. Due to concerns related to the lifetime of the relay orbiters, two additional launch/arrival strategies have been developed to improve Entry, Descent, and Landing communications. This paper discusses the final launch/arrival strategy selected prior to the launch period down-selection that is scheduled to occur in August 2011. It is also important to note that this paper is an update to Ref. 1 in that it includes two new Type 1 launch periods and drops the Type 2 launch period that is no longer considered.

  19. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  20. Launching to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles, and includes information about both vehicles. It includes a film that explains the details of the two vehicles, and explains the differences and similarities they have to each other and to other launch vehicles. The presentation also reviews the progress made on the Ares I, and the test of the Ares I-X.