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Sample records for medicine tuhuai extract

  1. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  2. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2008-08-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.

  3. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  4. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6 mg mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5 mg mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3 mg mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08 mg mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  5. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

  6. Antiviral activities in extracts of Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Lee, M K; Sener, B; Erdemoglu, N

    2000-01-01

    A total of 16 ethanol extracts of Turkish medicinal plants were evaluated for antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV). Extracts of Galanthus elwesii and Rheum ribes showed the most potent anti-HSV activities, while six other extracts had weaker activities. Galanthus elwesii and Leucojum aestivum were the most potent anti-SINV extracts with four others showing weaker activities. In total, five extracts were active against both viruses, three were selective for HSV and one was selective for SINV. Evidence for an antiviral photosensitizer was obtained in two anti-HSV extracts, in which activity was either completely dependent on light, or was con-siderably enhanced by light. Thus, several Turkish medicinal plants appear to be promising sources of antiviral activities.

  7. Antiviral activity of south Brazilian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Simões, C M; Falkenberg, M; Mentz, L A; Schenkel, E P; Amoros, M; Girre, L

    1999-07-01

    Brazilian plants are potential sources of useful edible and medicinal plants. Hydromethanolic extracts prepared from 54 medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat infections were screened for antiviral properties against five different viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, poliovirus type 2, adenovirus type 2 and VSV). Fifty-two percent of the plant extracts exhibited antiviral against one or more tested viruses. More specifically, 42.6% showed activity against HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), 42.6% against HSV-2 (herpes simplex virus type 2), 26% against poliovirus and 24% against VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus). None of the extracts was active against adenovirus. Trixis praestans (Vell.) Cabr. and Cunila spicata Benth. extracts were further characterized for antiviral activity.

  8. Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationally, in the food supply, or elsewhere. PMID:10585909

  9. Antiviral activity of some Nigerian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kudi, A C; Myint, S H

    1999-12-15

    Plants from Northern Nigeria with a history of use in both human and veterinary traditional medicine have been investigated for their antiviral activity and their cytotoxicity determined. Extracts were tested against poliovirus, astrovirus, herpes simplex viruses and parvovirus, using the microtitre plate inhibition tests. Most of the extracts have activity against more than one virus at a dose rate of between 100 and 400 microg/100 microl.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  11. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Rabia; Asmawi, Mohammad Zaini Bin; Dewa, Aidiahmad; Sadikun, Amirin; Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham

    2013-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa. PMID:23922460

  12. Extracts and molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Thompson, Kenneth D; Gambari, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  14. [Study of using shattering extraction with solvent to extract ingredient of three kinds of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-ru; Song, Wen-hui; Lian, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Pen; Zuo, Yan; Zhao, Bo

    2008-06-01

    To prove if it is possible for using the shattering extraction with solvent to extract ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. The shattering extraction with solvent, the refluxing extraction and the ultrasonic extraction were used to extract paeoniflorin from Radix Paeoniae rubra, and to extract baicalein from Radix Scutellariae, and to extract chlorogenic acid from Flos lonicerae japonicae respectively, using ingredient content and extract yield as the measuring indexes. The content of each every ingredient obviously higher by using shattering extraction with solvent than using refluxing extraction or the ultrasonic extraction. The shattering extraction with solvent is a high efficiency, simple and quick extraction. It may be used to extract the ingredient of three kinds of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  16. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-04-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Functional Beverage Concentrates Containing Herbal Medicine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates. PMID:28401083

  18. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3.

  19. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives.

  20. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mohammad Hossein Feiz; Mahbodfar, Hamidreza; Zamani, Zahra; Ramazani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25). Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively. The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  1. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Mohammad Hossein Feiz; Mahbodfar, Hamidreza; Zamani, Zahra; Ramazani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. Results: According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25). Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively. The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. Conclusion: This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action. PMID:28804611

  2. Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Youns, Mahmoud; Voukeng, Igor; Fankam, Aimé G; Tankeo, Simplice; Lacmata, Stephen; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-04-12

    Several medicinal plants and spices are used traditionally to treat cancers in Cameroon. Methanol extracts from thirty-four spices and plants, with related ethnobotanical use were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and their multidrug resistant (MDR) subline CEM/ADR5000, and the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition the anti-angiogenic properties of the most active extracts were investigated. The MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay was used for cytotoxic studies and the CAM-assay (chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay) for anti-angiogenesis test. The results of the cytotoxicity tests indicated that, when tested at 20 μg/ml, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Dorstenia psilirus and Piper capense were able to inhibit more that 50% the proliferation of the three tested cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2, CEM/ADR5000 CCRF-CEM). The lowest IC(50) values of 6.86 μg/ml on MiaPaCa-2 and 3.91 μg/ml on CCRF-CEM cells were obtained with X. aethiopica, while the corresponding value of 6.56 μg/ml was obtained with P. capense on CEM/ADR5000 cells. Against leukemia cells, no cross-resistance was observed with I. cylindrica, P. capense and Zinziber officinalis. Extracts from D. psilirus and E. giganteus were able to inhibit angiogenesis by more than 50% in quail embryo. The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some Cameroonian plants for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-12-01

    Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Significant antibacterial effect against E. faecalis was observed with chlorhexidine followed by neem extract and tulsi extract. Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate.

  5. [Rapid extraction of DNA from Chinese medicinal products by alkaline lysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Li, Rao-Rao; Chen, Kang; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    The study is aimed to explore a rapid method to extract DNA from fried Chinese medicinal products. The alkaline lysis buffer was made of sodium hydroxide, 1% PVP and 1% TritonX-100 and Tris-HCl solution was neutralized, through heat cracking and neutralization two step to extract DNA from processed and prepared products of traditional Chinese medicine. Then universal primes were used to amplify PCR products for fired Chinese medicinal materials. The results indicated the optimized alkaline lysis method for extracting DNA is quick and easy. Extracting of the different processed Sophora japonica of DNA concentration was (420.61 ± 123.91) g x L(-1). Using 5% Chelex-100 resin purification can improve the DNA concentration. Our results showed that the optimized alkaline lysis method is suitable for Chinese medicinal materials for quickly DNA extraction.

  6. Tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction of chemical constituents in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Chen, Cheng; So, Kwok-Fai; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2014-07-01

    Sample extraction is the first challenge in analysis of herbal medicines (HMs). Numerous methods have been developed to improve extraction efficiency, use less solvent and short time. In this work, a tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction (TSURE) method has been proposed through the designed particle crushing, drastic stir, and dynamic molecular permeation at normal temperature. Factors in TSURE like extraction time, volts, and solvents were optimized for extraction efficiency of salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA from Salvia miltiorrhiza. The TSURE method was validated in terms of repeatability (RSD<2.2%) and extraction recoveries (93-106% with RSD<5.0%). TSURE showed a comparable extraction efficiency to conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE) and better than ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE). The extraction time was about 2.0-3.0 min for TSURE, 60 times faster than the performance of HRE and 20 times faster than UAE. Microscopic analysis showed that the Krummbein diameter of plant particles after extraction were about 600-1200 μm for HRE and UAE, and decreased to 50-80 μm for TSURE. Subsequently, the developed TSURE was applied to high-throughput extraction of 19 S. miltiorrhiza samples collected in different regions of China. Besides, application of TSURE to other herbal medicines was also investigated, including Panax quinquefolius and Lonicera japonica. TSURE method provided an ultra-rapid and promising alternation for extraction of ingredients in herbal medicines, and can be extended to pharmaceutics, foods and cosmetics.

  7. Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L; Saez, J; Granados, H; Salazar, A; Ossa, J

    1999-01-01

    Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction May Not Be a Better Alternative Approach than Conventional Boiling for Extracting Polysaccharides from Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ka-Man; Xu, Jun; Tong, Wing-Sum; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2016-11-18

    In clinical practice polysaccharides from herbal medicines are conventionally prepared by boiling water extraction (BWE), while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has often been used instead employed in laboratory research due to its strong extraction ability and efficiency. However, if and how the polysaccharides obtained by UAE and BWE are comparable, and hence whether the UAE-based research is instructive for the actual usage of herbal polysaccharides still requires further evaluation. To address this issue, here we chemically analyzed and compared the UAE- and BWE-obtained polysaccharides from three herbal medicines, i.e., Ginseng Radix, Astragali Radix and Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis. Then, the spike recovery of two series of standard dextran and pullulan by UAE and BWE was tested. The results showed that the polysaccharides from the herbal medicines by UAE were quantitatively and qualitatively different with those by BWE. The powerful extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation caused by ultrasound collectively contributed to these differences. It was then revealed that not only the UAE conditions but also the polysaccharide structures could affect the extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation. Given these, we highly recommended that the effects of UAE on polysaccharides from herbal medicines should be first carefully considered before employing it in relevant chemical and pharmacological analysis.

  9. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants. PMID:28067795

  10. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  11. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2011-03-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50) = 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India.

  12. Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extracts of four ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Farrukh; Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2008-09-01

    Methanolic extracts of Acorus calamus (Rhizome), Hemidesmus indicus (Stem), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Bark) and Plumbago zeylanica (Root), were tested for their antimutagenic potential. These extracts, at tested concentrations, showed no sign of mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. The extracts of the plants exhibited varying level of antimutagenicity. At a dose of 100 microg/plate, the extracts exhibited the inhibition of His+ revertants from 18.51% to 82.66% against direct acting mutagens, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella tester strains TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104. However, at lower concentrations (25 and 50 mcirog/plate) of the plant extracts, a decrease in antimutagenic activity was recorded. Dose dependent antimutagenic activity of the extracts is also evident from linear regression analysis of the data. The over all antimutagenic potential of above four extracts was found to be in order of A. calamus > H. indicus > H. antidysenterica > P. zeylanica. Further, total phenolic content of these extracts did not correlate with its antimutagenic activity in A. calamus and P. zeylanica.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of translational medicine based on scientometric analysis and information extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Diao, Tianxi; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Designed to advance the two-way translational process between basic research and clinical practice, translational medicine has become one of the most important areas in biomedicine. The quantitative evaluation of translational medicine is valuable for the decision making of global translational medical research and funding. Using the scientometric analysis and information extraction techniques, this study quantitatively analyzed the scientific articles on translational medicine. The results showed that translational medicine had significant scientific output and impact, specific core field and institute, and outstanding academic status and benefit. While it is not considered in this study, the patent data are another important indicators that should be integrated in the relevant research in the future.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  15. Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) extracts in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bizimenyera, S E; Swan, G E; Chikoto, H; Eloff, J N

    2005-06-01

    Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC) of the extracts with 0.2% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and total antibacterial activity (TAA) were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8% in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root) to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf). The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth) was 1263 ml/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 ml/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/ml for S. aureus and 0.16 mg

  16. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    PubMed

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  17. [Anti-HIV activities of extracts from Chinese medicinal fromula Liangcha].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Qing; Li, Lei-Ke; Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Peng, Tao; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2010-09-01

    To screen and evaluate the anti-HIV activities of extracts from Chinese medicinal formula Liangcha. The anti-HIV-1 activities of extracts from Chinese medicinal formula Liangcha were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay,syncytium reduction assay, protection for HIV-1 induced lytic assay, and ELISA assay for HIV-1 p24 antigen expression. The primary mechanisms were investigated by fusion inhibition assay, inhibition of viral replication in HIV-1 chronically infected H9 cell and inhibition assay of HIV-1 RT activity. The extracts from Chinese medicinal formula Liangcha exhibited potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity on different HIV-1 strains with EC50 range 12.74 -116.87 microg/mL, but weakly inhibited HIV-2 replication. Meantime, it was not significantly cytotoxic in several T lymphocytes cell lines with CC50 range 564.79 - 1699.22 microg/mL. The activity of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited by extracts from Chinese medicinal formula Liangcha, inhibition rate more than 50% at the concentration of 5.3 microg/mL. It also weakly inhibited the cell-to-cell fusion in co-culture with EC50 of 101.94 microg/mL. The extracts from Chinese medicinal formula Liangcha exhibited potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity on different HIV-1 strains in vitro. Its anti-HIV-1 mechanism might be inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and cell entry.

  18. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  19. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  20. Ginkgo biloba leave extract: biological, medicinal, and toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Chan, Po-Chuen; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leave extract is among the most widely sold herbal dietary supplements in the United States. Its purported biological effects include: scavenging free radical; lowering oxidative stress; reducing neural damages, reducing platelets aggregation; anti-inflammation; anti-tumor activities; and anti-aging. Clinically, it has been prescribed to treat CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and cognitive deficits. It exerts allergy and changes in bleeding time. While its mutagenicity or carcinogenic activity has not been reported, its components, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin have been shown to be genotoxic. There are no standards or guidelines regulating the constituent components of Ginkgo biloba leave extract nor are exposure limits imposed. Safety evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leave extract is being conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program.

  1. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Mexican Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. L.; Baltazar, C.; Torres, M.; Ruız, A.; Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Agastache mexicana and Tecoma stans was carried out. The AgNO3 concentration and extract concentration was varied to evaluate their influence on the nanoparticles characteristics such as size and shape. Several characterization techniques were employed. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the surface plasmon resonance in the range of 400-500 nm. The X-Ray diffraction results showed that the nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure. SEM results confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles with spherical morphologies. Finally, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Escherichia coli bacteria.

  2. Information extraction in the life sciences: perspectives for medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Marc; Fluck, Juliane; Thi, Le Thuy Bui; Kolárik, Corinna; Kumpf, Kai; Hofmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Information extraction approaches have been successfully applied to mine the scientific literature in biology and medicine. So far, the main focus of research and development in this domain was on the recognition and extraction of gene and protein names in the context of molecular biology and genome research and on disease names and other medical terms in the context of clinical research. Similar to biology and medical sciences, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology are descriptive sciences. However, information extraction approaches in these disciplines encounter a number of problems that are specific to the fact that these scientific areas are essentially centred at chemical compounds and their structures. In this review, we will give a short overview on general information extraction strategies in the life sciences and we will introduce new approaches to apply information extraction to the domain of pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and toxicology. Finally, we will emphasize on how information extraction approaches will support public and commercial research in medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology by linking information on chemical structures to biological information.

  3. Cytotoxic Properties of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts from Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689

  4. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of eastern North American hardwood trees and relation to traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Omar, S; Lemonnier, B; Jones, N; Ficker, C; Smith, M L; Neema, C; Towers, G H; Goel, K; Arnason, J T

    2000-11-01

    Wood and bark extracts of 14 eastern North American hardwood tree species which were used traditionally as medicine by First Nation's people were screened for antimicrobial activities with eight strains of bacteria and six strains of fungi. Eighty-six percent of the bark extracts were active against methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; 71% against Bacillus subtilus and 79% against Mycobacterium phlei. The bark extract of Juglans cinerea was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 187, Salmonella typhiumurium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The wood extracts were less active: 72% were active against S. aureus (methicillin-sensitive), 36% against B. subtilus and 43% against M. phlei. Results from antifungal tests indicated that 36% of the extracts were active against at least one fungal strain and that bark extracts were more active than wood extracts. The bark extract from Juglans cinerea had the broadest spectrum of activities against Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Aspergillus fumigatus. In general, the extracts were more active against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacteria and against filamentous fungi than yeast-like fungi. The study also demonstrated a correlation between frequency of traditional medicinal use by the First Nations people and antimicrobial activity of extracts indicating that the traditional knowledge encompasses an understanding of aspects of chemical ecology.

  6. Pain management in mice using the aqueous and ethanol extracts of four medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Debella, A; Makonnen, E; Abebe, D; Teka, F; Kidanemariam, A T

    2003-08-01

    There are many traditionally used analgesic plants in Ethiopia. They, however, have not been subject to scientific investigation for their efficacy and safety. To evaluate both prophylactic and relieving effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of four traditionally used medicinal plants in Ethiopia. An experimental design in which five group of albino mice weighing 30-35 grams representing positive and negative control, and extract treated groups respectively. The extracts, standard drugs and normal saline were administered into GIT by gavage to evaluate the analgesic effect. Department of Drug Research at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute and Department of Pharmacology at Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa university. Analgesic effects of water and ethanol extracts of four plants were evaluated against distilled water and standard analgesics (morphine and acetylsalicylic acid) with acetic acid induced writhing tests in mice. The four plants used for this screening were Ocimum sauve, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia adoensis and Ajuga remota. All extracts of the four plant materials were observed to possess both inhibiting and treatment activities against acetic acid induced pain. Dose related analgesic effect was also observed with all extracts of all plants with different potencies. Ethanol extracts of all the four plant materials were more potent than their water extracts at all dose levels except O. sauve, and L. adoensis whose water extracts seem to be a bit more potent at low dose. The analgesic potencies of both extracts of all the four plants were shown to be less than those of the standard analgesics. Of all the extracts, the ethanol extract of O. lamiifolium was found to be the most potent, while its water extract was the least. Acetic acid induced writhing was relieved with medium dose of both extracts in most cases and with low dose in few. Hundred percent relief was achieved with both standard analgesics at a very low dose. The present study

  7. [Pharmaceutical analysis and clinical efficacy of Kampo medicine, maoto, extract suppository against pediatric febrile symptoms].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Nobuhiro; Doi, Norio; Uemura, Tomochika; Taketani, Takeshi; Hayashi, George; Kasai, Takeshi; Kanai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Naora, Kohji

    2009-06-01

    A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Kampo medicine, maoto, has been widely used in the treatment of febrile symptoms caused by viral infection. This herbal extract granule for oral use, however, is not well accepted by infants or young children due to its unpleasant taste and odor. Therefore, we prepared Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository and investigated the pharmaceutical and clinical efficacy of the suppository. Kampo medicine, maoto, granules were micro-pulverized and homogeneously dispersed into Hosco-H15 to prepare suppositories containing 0.25 to 1.0 g herbal extract by the conventional fusion method. Content of l-ephedrine, an index compound of Kampo medicine, maoto, in the extract granules and suppositories was determined by using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Physicochemical experiments revealed that the suppository containing 0.5 g herbal extract had the most suitable melting point of 34 degrees C. Contents of l-ephedrine in the suppository were constant, 93-96% of those in the same amount of the extract granules in different three lots. Upper and lower portions of the suppository had the same content of l-ephedrine. The suppository maintained more than 95% of l-ephedrine content through 6 months at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 40 degrees C, although maldistribution of the extract constituent was observed after storage at 40 degrees C. The suppository was administered to 21 pediatric febrile patients at a dose of 1/3 to 2 full pieces depending on their body weight and physical status. Significant reduction (p<0.001) of body temperature from 39.5 to 37.5 degrees C without serious adverse effects was observed in 17 patients who were monitored the clinical effects on the febrile symptoms. In conclusion, Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository was found to satisfy the physicochemical quality and quantity standards as well as to be clinically applicable to neonates, infants and children with viral febrile symptoms without any adverse

  8. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

  9. [Choleretic effects of methanol extracts obtained from various Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Ohta, S; Kamogawa, A; Shinoda, M

    1989-07-01

    Choleretic effects of 60 kinds of Chinese traditional medicine frequently used in clinical practice were investigated. Consequently, significant effects of choleretics were found in the methanol extracts of Ko-so-san, Intinko-to, Saiko-seikan-to, Hange-koboku-to, Antyu-san, Syo-kankyo-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-timo-to, Senkan-meimoku-to, Bohu-tusyo-san, Juzen-taiho-to, Jumi-haidoku-to Kami-syoyo-san and Hange-syasin-to. Water extracts of these Chinese traditional medicine had no such effect. Alteration of excretion of various biliary components after administration of the methanol extracts with the choleretic effect was examined, and with all medicines, bile acid excretion decreased and sodium and potassium excretions increased. Therefore, a medicine inducing choleresis involves some selective increases in the bile acid-independent fraction of bile flow. And after administration of methanol extracts of Keisi-syakuyaku-timo-to and Bohu-tusyo-san, lithogenic index, an index of saturation level of cholesterol, decreased significantly. Therefore, with these medicines, a dissolving effect on cholesterol gallstone is expected.

  10. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  11. Ultrasonication-assisted extraction and preconcentration of medicinal products from herb by ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-07-15

    Ionic liquid-based extraction of medicinal or useful compounds from plants was investigated as an alternative to supercritical fluid, cloud point and conventional organic solvent extractions. The method integrated extraction and preconcentration. Medicinal products were first extracted by an ionic liquid solution, part of which was then converted to a hydrophobic form by anion metathesis for preconcentration. The remaining soluble ionic liquid acted as a dispersive agent to enhance the efficiency of preconcentration. Protein in the extract was precipitated spontaneously without addition of further solvents. Ultrasonication assisted this method for extraction and preconcentration of cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II A from Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge. 0.233 mg g(-1), 0.695 mg g(-1) and 0.682 mg g(-1) of each, respectively, were extracted using [OMIM][Cl], and preconcentrated in a [OMIM][PF(6)] phase at respective concentrations of 148.1, 507.1 and 486.1 μg mL(-1). The method exhibited potential applicability with other medicinal products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while most had no effect on α-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  13. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC50=10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC50=14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC50=31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC50=35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC50=66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC50=71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC50=73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC50=99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC50=101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua, C. epigeus, A. figarianum, A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential. PMID:28672977

  14. Genomic DNA extraction from medicinal plants available in Malaysia using a TriOmic(TM) improved extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Hairul, A R; Sade, A B; Yiap, B C; Raha, A R

    2011-11-08

    DNA extraction was carried out on 32 medicinal plant samples available in Malaysia using the TriOmic(TM) extraction kit. Amounts of 0.1 g flowers or young leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen, lysed at 65°C in RY1(plus) buffer and followed by RNAse treatment. Then, RY2 buffer was added to the samples and mixed completely by vortexing before removal of cell debris by centrifugation. Supernatants were transferred to fresh microcentrifuge tubes and 0.1 volume RY3 buffer was added to each of the transferred supernatant. The mixtures were applied to spin columns followed by a centrifugation step to remove buffers and other residues. Washing step was carried out twice by applying 70% ethanol to the spin columns. Genomic DNA of the samples was recovered by applying 50 μL TE buffer to the membrane of each spin column, followed by a centrifugation step at room temperature. A modification of the TriOmic(TM) extraction procedure was carried out by adding chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps in the extraction procedure. The genomic DNA extracted from most of the 32 samples showed an increase of total yield when chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps were applied in the TriOmicTM extraction procedure. This preliminary study is very important for molecular studies of medicinal plants available in Malaysia since the DNA extraction can be completed in a shorter period of time (within 1 h) compared to manual extraction, which entails applying phenol, chloroform and ethanol precipitation, and requires 1-2 days to complete.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species (Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum. The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  16. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol

  17. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: Criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-11-01

    Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. However, as complex mixtures of different groups of plant secondary metabolites, retention of overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Authenticity and homogeneity of the herbs and strict regimes of physical processing and extract manufacturing are critical factors to maintain phytochemical consistency in commercial products. To ensure both safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, implementation of and adherence to good agricultural and collection practice (GACP), good plant authentication and identification practice (GPAIP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) before and during the manufacturing process, and good laboratory practice (GLP) in analysis are necessary. Establishment and application of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods and transparency in the supply (value) chain through vendor audits are additional requirements in quality assurance. In this article, we outline steps of a comprehensive quality assurance paradigm aimed at achieving and maintaining safety, consistent phytochemical composition, and clinical efficacy of ingredients of herbal medicines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Botanicals for Epilepsy.

  18. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used.

  19. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  20. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.

  1. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Djè, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  2. Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H

    1997-02-01

    A traditional Chinese medicine, Shimotsu-to, consisting of four herbs: Japanese angelica root, cnidium rhizome, peony root and rehmannia root, has been reported to improve spatial working memory in rats. The present results indicate that Paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) extracted from peony root and cnidium rhizome, respectively, are candidates for cognitive enhancer.

  3. Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinal plant extracts either alone or alongside conventional anticancer agents in the treatment of this cancer have shown promising results. This work aims to investigate the therapeutic properties of a library of medicinal plants from Bangladesh. Methods 56 extracts of 44 unique medicinal plants were studied. The extracts were screened for cytotoxicity against the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1, using a label-free biosensor assay. The top cytotoxic extracts identified in this screen were tested on two additional pancreatic cancer cell lines (Mia-Paca2 and Capan-1) and a fibroblast cell line (Hs68) using an MTT proliferation assay. Finally, one of the most promising extracts was studied using a caspase-3 colorimetric assay to identify induction of apoptosis. Results Crude extracts of Petunia punctata, Alternanthera sessilis, and Amoora chittagonga showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 20.3 - 31.4 μg/mL, 13.08 - 34.9 μg/mL, and 42.8 - 49.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of Panc-1 cells with Petunia punctata was shown to increase caspase-3 activity, indicating that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via apoptosis. Only Amoora chittagonga showed low cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells with an IC50 value > 100 μg/mL. Conclusion Based upon the initial screening work reported here, further studies aimed at the identification of active components of these three extracts and the elucidation of their mechanisms as cancer therapeutics are warranted. PMID:20849608

  4. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    PubMed

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  5. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine. PMID:26617977

  6. An in vitro evaluation of extracts from some medicinal plants in Kenya against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Kofi-Tsekpo, M W; Rukunga, G M; Kurokawa, M; Kageyama, S; Mungai, G M; Muli, J M; Tolo, F M; Kibaya, R M; Muthaura, C N; Kanyara, J N; Tukei, P M; Shiraki, K

    2001-01-01

    The extracts from 21 medicinal plants commonly used in traditional remedies in Kenya were screened for antiviral activity against wild type 7401H strain herpes simplex virus type 1. The plant extracts exhibited antiviral activity against the virus in the plaque and yield reduction assays. The results reveal that twelve plants may contain constituents that could be exploited for the management of HSV infections. Although the extracts used in these experiments contain a complex matrix of a large number of compounds the results indicate that useful compounds can be isolated for further exploitation.

  7. [Study on the Tibetan medicine Swertia mussotii Franch and its extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Xia; Ma, Fang; Du, Yu-Zhi; Sun, Su-Qin; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to research the herb of Swertia mussotii Franch and its different extracts by tristep infrared spectroscopy. The main constitute of Swertia mussotii Franch-gentiamarin, which is also the higher content constitute, was selected as the control components to analyze the infrared spectroscopy and second derivative infrared spectroscopy of different extracts of Swertia mussotii Franch, at the same time, the different concentration of ethanol extracts were also analyzed by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The results indicated that the intensity of 1 611 and 1 075 cm(-1) of gentiamarin, which are its two main absorptions in the infrared spectra, has the positive correlation with the content change in different extracts. The infrared spectroscopy of extracts are similar if the polarity of extract solvents is close; with the decreases in solution polarity, the intensity of 2 853, 1 733, 1 464, 1 277 and 1 161 cm(-1) in infrared spectroscopy of different extracts is increased, the content of esters and the extraction percentage terpenoid compounds are also increased; the different concentration of ethanol extracts has obviously difference when they are analyzed by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The positive correlation between the intensity of absorptions and the content of the gentiamarin indicates that the infrared spectroscopy can reflect the content change in constitute; the similar and the change trend of the different concentrations of ethanol extract infrared spectroscopy approve the scientificalness of decoction of traditional medicine; infrared spectroscopy that used in the research can be used as an accurate, rapid and effective method in the pharmacological activity tests of transitional herbal Swertia mussotii F. and it's different extracts, even in the research on the tibetan medicine.

  8. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-06-15

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  9. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  11. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol Extracts from 8 Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-Geun; Hah, Dae-Sik; Kim, Chung-Hui; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    The methanol extract of 12 medicinal plants were evaluated for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (5 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (10 strains) by assay for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) . The antibacterial activity was determined by an agar dilution method (according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) . All the compounds (12 extracts) of the 8 medicinal plants (leaf or root) were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative showed a more potent action than Gram positive bacteria. The MIC concentrations were various ranged from 0.6 μg/ml to 5000 μg/ml. The lowest MIC (0.6 μg/ml) and MBC (1.22 μg/ml) values were obtained with extract on 4 and 3 of the 15 microorganisms tested, respectively. PMID:24278548

  12. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Séron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 μg/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 μg/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 μg/mL and P. capitata up to 800 μg/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  13. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  14. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  15. A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

  16. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-06-10

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of a total of 46 extracts from dietary spices and medicinal herbs were investigated by agar-well diffusion method against five foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. Many herb and spice extracts contained high levels of phenolics and exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. S. aureus was the most sensitive, while E. coli was the most resistant. There were highly positive relationships (R(2)=0.73-0.93) between antibacterial activities and phenolic content of the tested extracts against each bacterium. This suggested that the antibacterial activity of the tested extracts was closely associated with their phenolic constituents.

  17. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  18. Antibacterial activity of native California medicinal plant extracts isolated from Rhamnus californica and Umbellularia californica.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Maria G; Sevigny, Mary B; Banerjee, Debashree; Fox-Cubley, Lacie

    2015-05-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health. Medicinal plants have long been used as remedies for infectious diseases by native cultures around the world and have the potential for providing effective treatments for antibiotic-resistant infections. Rhamnus californica (Rhamnaceae) and Umbellularia californica (Lauraceae) are two indigenous California plant species historically used by Native Americans to treat skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This study aimed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of leaves and bark of R. and U. californica against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts of leaves and bark of R. and U. californica were prepared by soxhlet extraction and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Chemical profiling of the extracts was performed using standard methods. All extracts inhibited the growth of MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria with MICs of 3.3-6.0 mg/ml. Gram-negative organisms were unaffected by these extracts. U. californica extracts (leaves and bark) had the lowest MIC values. Chemical profiling detected the presence of quinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardenolides, tannins and saponins in these extracts. Our study is the first to report the antimicrobial properties of R. and U. californica and illustrates their promising anti-MRSA potential. Our results give scientific credence to the traditional medicinal uses of these plants by the indigenous peoples of California. Further investigation of the secondary metabolites responsible for the antimicrobial activity of these extracts against MRSA is warranted.

  19. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  20. From classical taxonomy to genome and metabolome: towards comprehensive quality standards for medicinal herb raw materials and extracts.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to herbal medicine quality is the use of 'authentic' medicinal herb species. Species, however, 'represent more or less arbitrary and subjective man-made units'. Against this background, we discuss, with illustrative examples, the importance of defining species boundaries by accommodating both the fixed (shared) diagnostic and varying (within-species) traits in medicinal herb populations. We emphasize the role of taxonomy, floristic information and genomic profiling in authenticating medicinal herb species, in addition to the need to include within species phytochemical profile variations while developing herbal extract identification protocols. We outline the application of species-specific genomic and phytochemical markers, chemoprofiling and chemometrics as additional tools to develop qualifying herbal extract references. We list the diagnostic traits available subsequent to each step during the medicinal herb extract manufacturing process and delineate limits to qualification of extract references. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Sittie, A; Yahaya, E S; Gyan, B; Adjei, S; Addo, P; Wiredu, E K; Adjei, D N; Nyarko, A K

    2012-01-13

    Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract. The extract was administered as a single dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg to laboratory rats by gavage, accompanied by negative (0.9% saline) and positive (10 mg/mL N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) controls that were injected intramuscularly 48 h after extract administration. The ratio of polychromatic (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) from femur bone marrow was scored for genotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was determined using descending concentrations (0.2-0.0125 g/mL) of the extract incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release from damaged cells was determined and the CC(50) calculated. Subchronic administration of the extract at 30 or 300 mg/kg was done for 90 days to determine general toxicity. PCE:NCE (%) for the extract and negative control was 63, compared to 168 (positive control). The CC(50) was 26.3 mg/mL and hepato-renal toxicity after subchronic extract administration was nil. We conclude that ethanol extract of P. niruri is not cytotoxic or genotoxic, and is generally non-toxic on subchronic administration.

  2. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  3. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Germanò, M P; D'angelo, V; Marino, A; Cannatelli, M A

    2000-05-01

    A comparative study on the antimicrobial properties of extracts from medicinal plants obtained by two different methods was carried out. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of extracts from six plants was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive, -negative and fungal organisms. The most active extracts (inhibition diameter >/=12 mm) were assayed for the minimum inhibitory concentration and submitted to phytochemical screening by thin-layer chromatography and bioautography. The results obtained indicate that the diethyl ether extracts were the most efficient antimicrobial compounds. The activity was more pronounced against Gram-positive and fungal organisms than against Gram-negative bacteria. Bioautography showed that the antimicrobial activity was probably due to flavonoids and terpenes.

  4. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nondo, Ramadhani S.O.; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J.; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J.; Kidukuli, Abdul W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 107 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria. PMID:27144154

  5. Evaluation of three medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum and selected microganisms.

    PubMed

    Falodun, Abiodun; Imieje, Vincent; Erharuyi, Osayewenre; Ahomafor, Joy; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    A great revival of scientific interests in drug discovery has been witnessed in recent years from medicinal plants for health maintenance. The aim of this work was to investigate three Nigerian medicinal plants collected in Nigeria for their in vitro antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities. Extracts obtained from parts of Persea americana, Jatropha podagrica and Picralima nitida and their fractions were evaluated for in vitro antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity. The methanol extract of P. nitida demonstrated activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum clones with IC50 values of 6.3 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. Methanol and chloroform extracts of P. americana seed showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans IC50 less than 8 and 8.211 µg/mL respectively. Finally, the petroleum ether extract of P. americana had activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with an IC50 value of 8.7 µg/mL. The study revealed the antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities of the plants extracts at the tested concentrations.

  6. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9 g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots).

  7. Use of Moroccan medicinal plant extracts as botanical fungicide against citrus blue mould.

    PubMed

    Askarne, L; Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Msanda, F; Saadi, B; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find an alternative to chemical fungicides currently used in the control of postharvest citrus fruit diseases. In this study, we screened eight Moroccan medicinal and aromatic plants extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol for their anti-fungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the causal agent of citrus blue mould. The anti-fungal activity of these extracts was tested based on the disc diffusion method. Petroleum ether extracts of Inula viscosa, Asteriscus graveolens, Bubonium odorum and Thymus leptobotrys and chloroformic extract of Anvillea radiata revealed the highest significant anti-fungal activity with inhibition zones that ranged between 25·83 and 28·33 mm in diameter. In the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) study, we observed that petroleum ether extract of I. viscosa was the most effective extract with both the significantly largest halo (27·50 mm) and the lowest MIC (1 mg ml(-1)). The most active plant extracts in in vitro studies were tested in vivo, and results indicated that solvent extracts of the selected plant species significantly decreased the incidence and severity of blue mould, after 7 and 10 days of storage at 20°C. In addition, Halimium umbellatum methanol extract and T. leptobotrys petroleum ether extract completely inhibited the development of P. italicum under both storage periods, and no phytotoxic effects were recorded on citrus fruit. This study demonstrates that plant extracts have a high potential to control blue mould of citrus and will provide a starting point for discovering new compounds with better activity than chemical fungicides currently available. Such natural products therefore represent a sustainable alternative to the use of chemical fungicides. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Retnaningtyas, Yuni; Nuri; Lukman, Hilmia

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). In this study, the calibration of NIR model that showed best calibration with R2 and RMSEC value was 0.9916499 and 2.1521897, respectively, while the accuracy of all classification models (LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) was 100%. R2 and RMSEC of calibration of FTIR model were 0.8653689 and 8.8958149, respectively, while the accuracy of LDA, SIMCA, and SVM was 86.0%, 91.2%, and 77.3%, respectively. PLS and LDA of NIR models were further used to predict unknown flavonoid content in commercial samples. Using these models, the significance of flavonoid content that has been measured by NIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry was evaluated with paired samples t-test. The flavonoid content that has been measured with both methods gave no significant difference. PMID:27529051

  9. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  12. Medicinal potential of Passiflora foetida L. plant extracts: biological and pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Asadujjaman, Md; Mishuk, Ahmed Ullah; Hossain, Md Aslam; Karmakar, Utpal Kumar

    2014-03-01

    To investigate analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae) by three experimental methods. Analgesic activity of the ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida L. (EEPF) acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition in mice. The method of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice was utilized to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity. The cytotoxic activity of EEPF was explored with a brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The extract showed 68.75% and 30.00% inhibition of writhe at the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract increased the mean latent period prior to diarrhoeal onset to about 1.55 h and 1.17 h, and decreased the mean number of stools to 4.4 and 5.6 at the doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also demonstrated cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay, and the median lethal concentration for brine shrimp nauplii was 80 μg/mL. The results suggest that the plant extract has analgesic and antidiarrhoeal activities, supporting its uses in traditional medicine. The results also demonstrate that the plant extract possesses cytotoxic activities.

  13. Medicinal plant extracts variously modulate susceptibility of Escherichia coli to different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of green and black tea and extracts of medicinal plants and their ability to modulate antibiotic susceptibility in Escherichia coli were studied. Among a number of extracts tested the maximal capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and chelate iron in chemical tests was found in green and black tea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. These extracts contained high level of polyphenols and in aerobic conditions exhibited prooxidant features, producing H2O2 and inducing expression of the katG gene encoding catalase HPI in E. coli cells. A good correlation between the polyphenol content and the ability of extracts to protect bacteria against peroxide stress was observed (r = 0.88). Polyphenol-rich extracts and iron chelators demonstrated the highest modulating effect on the antibiotic susceptibility by changing the time period before lysis started and by influencing the colony-forming ability of bacteria. The direction of the modulating effect was dependent on nature of antibiotic applied: under treatment with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin the extracts predominantly provided protective effects, while under treatment with kanamycin a bactericidal action was enhanced. Mechanism of modulating action of extracts on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility probably involves antioxidant, preferentially iron-chelating, or prooxidant properties of polyphenols.

  14. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity.

  15. Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

    2012-08-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 μg/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 μg/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 μg/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 μg/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 μg/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 μg/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 μg/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (μg/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and

  16. Adjuvant Cancer Biotherapy by Viscum Album Extract Isorel: Overview of Evidence Based Medicine Findings.

    PubMed

    Sunjic, Suzana Borovic; Gasparovic, Ana Cipak; Vukovic, Tea; Weiss, Thomas; Weiss, Elisabeth Sussman; Soldo, Ivo; Djakovic, Nikola; Zarkovic, Tomislav; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-09-01

    Within the integrative medicine one of the most frequently used adjuvant cancer biotherapies is based on aqueous mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts. Tumor growth inhibition, stimulation of host immune response and improvement of the quality of life are the positive effects of mistletoe therapy described in several preclinical and clinical studies. However, cumulative results of the evidence based medicine findings on such treatments are rarely given. Therefore, this paper evaluates the evidence based findings describing effects of the Viscum album extract Isorel in cancer therapy with respect to the type of therapy, stage and type of illness. This study presents cumulated data for 74 patients with different types and stages of cancer treated by Viscum album extract as adjuvant treatment to different conventional therapies, mostly combined surgery and radiotherapy. The biotherapy effectiveness was evaluated according to the outcome as (1) no major therapeutic improvement (15% of patients), (2) prevention of tumor recurrence (47% of patients) and (3) regression of cancer (38% of patients). Notably, there was no obvious health worsening during the follow up period at all. Thus, the results obtained for conventional anticancer therapies combined with adjuvant biotherapy based on Viscum album extract seem to be beneficial for the majority of cancer patients (85%) without serious side effects.

  17. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; Arteaga, L; Román, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected.

  19. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, María; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:22754307

  20. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  1. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Ugandan medicinal plants used for oral care.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Ann-Karin; Gustafsson, Anders; Obua, Celestino

    2014-08-08

    Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of oral/dental diseases in Uganda. To investigate antibacterial activities of 16 commonly used medicinal plants on microorganisms associated with periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC). Pulp juice and solvent extracts (hexane, methanol and water) from the plants were tested against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia associated with PD and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus associated with DC. Tests were done using agar well-diffusion (pulp juice) and agar-dilution (Solvent extracts) assays. Pulp juice from Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Euclea latidens showed activity against all the bacteria, Zanthoxylum chalybeum being most active. Hexane extract from aerial part of Helichrysum odoratissimum was most active (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml). Methanol extract from leaves of Lantana trifolia showed activity against all bacteria (MIC: 0.25-1 mg/ml). Several of the tested plants showed antibacterial activities against bacteria associated with PD and DC, meriting further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by natural extracts used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J

    2009-02-01

    Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions.

  3. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Elbatrawy, Eman Nasr; Ghonimy, Eglal AbdAllah; Alassar, Mahomud Mohammed; Wu, Fang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Many species of edible mushrooms are known to contain a wide array of compounds with high nutritional and medicinal values. However, these values vary widely among mushroom species because of the wide diversity of compounds with different solubilities to solvents used in extraction. We report here the comparison of antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against cancer cells in extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Agaricus campestris, and A. bisporus from 7 different solvents, including water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, hexane, and petroleum ether. The extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activities using the % DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate) scavenging activity method. Our results revealed that the water extracts exhibited the highest % DPPH scavenging activity in comparison to all other solvent extracts. The highest value was obtained from the water extract of P. sajor-caju (78.1%), and the lowest one was from the hexane extract of A. bisporus (0.8%). In general, extracts from nonpolar solvents exhibited much lower antioxidant activities than those from polar solvents. The cytotoxic effects of these extracts were evaluated using 2 cancer cell lines of larynx carcinoma (HEp-2) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7). When added into Hep-2 cells, the hexane extracts from P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, A. bisporus, and A. campestris yielded the highest IC50 values of 1.7 ± 1.56, 2.1 ± 2.82, 4.4 ± 1.71, and 2.2 ± 1.34 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison to all other solvent extracts. Similar IC50 values were obtained when the MCF-2 cancer cells were tested, suggesting that hexane is the preferred solvent to extract the anticancer compounds from these mushrooms. Our results also indicated that extracts from solvents with nonpolar or intermediate polarity were more potent than those with high polarity in their cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and extracts from different mushrooms by the same solvent possessed varied degrees of

  5. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some Vietnamese medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Dung, Pham Phuong; Nhi, Nguyen Vang Thi Yen; Hoang, Nguyen van Minh; Hieu, Tran Trung

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 - 0.97 (2.5 - 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 - 1.94 (7.5 - 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

  6. [The progress of the concentration technology of extract of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yan; Yu, Gen; Wang, Hong

    2006-02-01

    The concentration of extract of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the important unit operations that affect the quality of the pharmaceutical products. However, there are some problems to be solved. The concentration process has the shortages of relatively high temperature, relatively long time or low efficient, some losses of active and volatile ingredients, more operation steps, easy fouling and emission of waste water. In order to solve these problems, many new technologies and installations have been developed in the past thirty years, including suspension freeze-concentration, progressive freeze-concentration, single- or multi-effect evaporation with an external natural circulating flow, on-line preventing fouling evaporation with vapor-liquid-solid flow, reverse osmosis concentration, membrane distillation, osmotic distillation, macro-porous resin adsorption etc. The system of the extract of TCM is very complex. The extract includes water and alcohol extracts. The composition of TCM is made of active and inactive ingredients. Hence, it is necessary to master the features of every concentration technologies and installations, including their merits and demerits, flexibilities, degree of maturations of techniques and so on to get a wise choice for the industry applications. New concentration technologies and installations of the extract of TCM developed recently are reviewed in this paper. The characteristics of each method are analyzed and discussed in order to guide the industry applications. At the same time, the further research directions of concentration techniques of extract of TCM are also given.

  7. Medicinal plant extracts modulate respiratory burst and proliferation activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Bulfon, Chiara; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Lavandula officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Panax ginseng, and Rheum officinale extracts on leukocytes purified from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney. The cells were cultured in a medium containing increasing doses of extracts; afterwards, they were tested for reactive oxygen species production after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and proliferation in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). After a 2-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, O. vulgare, and R. officinale strongly reduced the oxidative burst activity of PMA-stimulated leukocytes, in a dose-dependent manner (P ≤ 0.05). A. vera, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng extracts reduced this response with lower efficacy and especially at lower concentrations. On the contrary, the highest concentration of ginseng extract stimulated the respiratory burst of leukocytes compared to untreated control cells. After a 72-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, R. officinale, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng had a clear dose-dependent stimulatory effect on leukocyte proliferation (P ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that these medicinal plants can be considered as reliable sources of new antioxidants or immunostimulants to be used in aquaculture.

  8. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  9. [Study on the inhibit mechanism primarily of extracts from Coptis on clinical resistant the medicine of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Tan, Pin-Xin; Liu, Xiang-Xin; Li, Jun-Chao; He, Jian-Hua

    2011-10-01

    To discuss the inhibit mechanism primarily of extracts from Coptis on clinical resistant the medicine of Staphylococcus aureus. Used SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, spectrophotometry and semiautomatic biochemistry analysis to detect the accumulated concentration of norfloxacin, membranin electrophoretogram and the enzymatic activity in extracellular fluid before and after Coptis extract disposition. The accumulated concentration of medicine norfloxacin within the experiment strains which treated with Coptis extract was clear higher than that of the blank space (P < 0.01); some proteins which molecular weights were in 35 - 38 kDa rebound expressed after Coptis extract treated; The extracellular fluid enzymic activities of resistant Staphylococcus aureus had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The inhibit mechanism primarily of extracts from Coptis on clinical resistant the medicine of Staphylococcus aureus is the results of the combined action of various chemical composition and multi-target interaction, and the exact molecular mechanism remains to be further researched.

  10. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations.

  11. Antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities of leaf extracts from medicinal ferns.

    PubMed

    Lai, How Yee; Lim, Yau Yan; Tan, Shiau Pin

    2009-06-01

    Leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns, Acrostichum aureum L. (Pteridaceae), Asplenium nidus L. (Aspleniaceae), Blechnum orientale L. (Blechnaceae), Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. (Cyatheaceae) and Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) underwood var. linearis (Gleicheniaceae), were investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities. The antioxidative activity was measured by assays for radical scavenging against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power (FRP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC). The results revealed B. orientale to possess the highest amount of total polyphenols and strongest potential as a natural antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial agent as demonstrated by its strong activities in all related bioassays. The other ferns with antioxidative potential were C. barometz and D. linearis. Except for A. aureum, all ferns showed antibacterial activity which may justify their usage in traditional medicines.

  12. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  13. [Effects of ethanol extracts of herbal medicines on dermatitis in an atopic dermatitis mouse model].

    PubMed

    Takano, Norikazu; Inokuchi, Yuki; Kurachi, Michio

    2011-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by highly pruritic, eczematous skin lesions. Our previous study elucidated that nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin lesions and inhibition of the physiological effects of NGF can moderate skin lesions in atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of herbal medicines on neuritic outgrowth induced by NGF. Four herbal extracts (Geranium thunbergii, Humulus lupulus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis L.) inhibited NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC12 cells. We also investigated the effects of each herbal extract on dermatitis in NC/Nga, an atopic dermatitis mouse model. The skin lesions of the NC/Nga mice were significantly inhibited by repeated applications of each herbal extract. These results suggested that the four herbal extracts can prevent and moderate the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and these effects might be appeared by inhibiting the effect of NGF on neuritic outgrowth in lesional skin.

  14. Phenol content, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts derived from four Jordanian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Fawzi I; Tarawneh, Khalid A; Jacob, Jacob H; Alshdefat, Aisha M

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts derived from aerial parts of four Jordanian medicinal plants (Artemisia sieberi, Peganum harmala, Rosmarinus officinalis (Green-Flowered) and Sarcopterium spinosium). The possible relationship between these biological properties and the total phenolic concentrations of these extracts were also be determined. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic concentrations were assessed by the ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The amount of the extract required to scavenge 50% of ABTS (IC50) was also measured. Broth dilution and disc diffusion assays were performed to measure the antibacterial activity of these extracts against available bacterial strains. Variations were observed among the examined plants in antioxidant and antibacterial activities as well as in their phenol contents. According to ABTS assay and IC50 value, the highest free radical scavenging potential was found in Sarcopterium spinosium, followed by Rosmarinus officinalis, Peganum harmala and Artemisia sieberi, respectively. Similarly, the results of antibacterial assays showed that Sarcopterium spinosium exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains as compared to Rosmarinus officinalis, Peganum harmala and Artemisia sieberi. Moreover, Sarcopterium spinosium contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds followed by, Rosmarinus officinalis, Artemisia sieberi and Peganum harmala, respectively. In conclusion, these plants are not only interesting sources for antimicrobial agents but also have a considerable amount of antioxidants. In addition, these findings revealed that the antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of these plant extracts do not necessary be attributed to their total phenolic concentrations.

  15. Antifungal properties of crude extracts of five Egyptian medicinal plants against dermatophytes and emerging fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Antifungal properties of the crude extracts of five medicinal plants (Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, and Teucrium polium) were tested against dermatophytes and emerging fungi. Ethanol extract of Ballota undulate was the most effective against all tested fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ballota undulate ethanol extract against C. albicans, P. lilacinus, and P. variotii was 25 mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed that Ballota undulate ethanol extract contains 35 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon along with some other essential oils, which could be involved in antifungal activity. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have proved that Ballota undulate ethanol extract exhibits fungicidal effect on P. lilacinus through alterations in hyphal structures including budding of hyphal tip, anomalous structure, such as swelling, decrease in cytoplasmic content, with clear separation of cytoplasm from cell wall in hyphae. SEM clearly showed distorted mycelium, squashed and flattened conidiophores bearing damaged metullae. Eventually, the mycelia became papillated, flattened, and empty. Puncturing and squashing of hyphae as well as complete cell wall disruption were clear signs of complete death of hyphae.

  16. Micellar liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Thogchai, W; Liawruangrath, B

    2013-06-01

    A simple micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) procedure for simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products was proposed. This method was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions were also optimized. All analyses were performed at room temperature in an isocratic mode, using a mixture of 1% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.006 mol L⁻¹ Brij 35 (pH 6.0) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL min⁻¹. The analytical column was a 150 × 3.9 mm Nova-Pak C-18 column. The effluent from the analytical column was monitored by UV detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum conditions, arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined within a concentration range of 2-50 μg mL⁻¹ of arbutin, and hydroquinone was obtained with the regression equations; y = 0.045x + 0.042 (r² = 0.9923) and y = 0.091x + 0.050 (r² = 0.9930) respectively. The limits of detection were found to be 0.51 μg mL⁻¹ and 0.37 μg mL⁻¹ for arbutin and hydroquinone respectively. The proposed MLC method was applied for the determination of arbutin and hydroquinone contents in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products. This proposed MLC method is thus suitable for routine analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in the pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products and raw medicinal plant extracts. ICS © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Screening of Thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Ichino, C; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Chuakul, W; Kiyohara, H; Ishiyama, A; Sekiguchi, H; Namatame, M; Otoguro, K; Omura, S; Yamada, H

    2006-04-01

    To discover antimalarial substances from plants cultivated in Thailand 80%-EtOH extracts from selected plants were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against the drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In total, 86 Thai medicinal plant samples representing 48 species from 35 genera in 16 families were screened and two species (Polyalthia viridis and Goniothalamus marcanii) were found to show notable antimalarial activity (IC50: 10.0 and 6.3 microg/mL). Marcanine A and 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide were identified as the respective major active constituents in P. viridis and G. marcanii, respectively.

  18. Medicinal plant extracts and plant-derived polyphenols with anthelmintic activity against intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, V; Liebau, E; Hensel, A

    2017-06-07

    Covering: 2001 up to the end of 2016Polyphenols comprise a structurally diverse class of natural products. As the development of new anthelmintic drugs against soil-transmitted helminthiases is an urgent need and polyphenols are widely used in the treatment of nematode infections in traditional medicine and modern science, we summarize the state of knowledge in the period of mainly 2001 up to the end of 2016 on plant extracts with known polyphenolic composition and of defined polyphenols, mainly from the classes of condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids. The diverse biological activity against different helminths and the underlying mechanisms are reviewed.

  19. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    PubMed

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  20. Antiherpes virus activity of extracts from the medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L.

    PubMed

    Serkedjieva, J; Ivancheva, S

    1999-01-01

    The herpes virus inhibitory effect of five extracts from the Bulgarian medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L. (Geraniaceae) was investigated. The water extract (WE) from the aerial roots of the plant was the least toxic for cell cultures and inhibited significantly the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (EC50 = 3.6-6.2 microg/ml) as shown by the reduction of virus induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and the protection of cells in MTT assay. The inhibition was dose-related, strain-specific and depended on virus inoculum. In higher concentrations (MIC90 = 120 microg/ml) the preparation exhibited strong extracellular virus inactivating activity. The presence of WE throughout the whole replicative cycle was necessary for the full expression of the antiviral effect. In a preliminary experiment in albino guinea pigs the extract delayed the development of herpetic vesicles following primary infection with HSV-1, strain Kupka. Phytochemical investigation of the plant preparation revealed the presence of flavonoids, catechins, a polyphenolic acid and condensed tannins. The inhibitory effect of the extract on herpes simplex virus replication is related to the rich content of polyphenol compounds.

  1. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of crude water extracts of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Yoosook, C; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Boonyakiat, Y; Kantasuk, C

    2000-01-01

    A number of Thai medicinal plants, recommended as remedies for herpesvirus infection and have been used in primary health care were investigated for their intracellular activities against herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Centella asiatica L., Maclura cochinchinensis Cornor, and Mangifera indica L. contained both anti-HSV-1 and -2 activities, as determined by plaque inhibition assay. An inhibition of the production of infectious HSV-2 virions from infected Vero cells could also be demonstrated. Combinations of each of these reconstituted extracts with 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanosine (acyclovir; ACV) resulted either in subadditive, additive, or synergistic interaction, against HSV-2, depending on the dose of ACV used; mixture of C. asiatica and M. indica exerted an additive effect in a similar assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these plant extracts were also substantiated by flow cytometric analysis of virus-specific antigens in the infected cells. The active constituent present in C. asiatica extract was determined to be asiaticoside while in M. indica was mangiferin. Thus, these data suggest therapeutic potential of these plant extracts.

  2. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  3. Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ana Paula Oliveira; Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. Genotoxicity analysis showed that the extract produced no marked genotoxic effects at concentrations of 2.5 or 5 µg/ml in either cell type; however, at concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher significant DNA damage was detected. The micronucleus test also demonstrated that concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher produced clastogenic/aneugenic responses. In the Ames test, the extract induced mutagenic effects in TA98 strain of S. typhimurium with metabolic activation at all tested concentrations (2.5 to 500 µg/ml). Data indicate that, under certain experimental conditions, the fruit extract of C. oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in cultured human cells, and with metabolism mutagenicity occurs in bacteria cells.

  4. Screening of selected food and medicinal plant extracts for pancreatic lipase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slanc, Petra; Doljak, Bojan; Kreft, Samo; Lunder, Mojca; Janes, Damjan; Strukelj, Borut

    2009-06-01

    Lipids are important components in human nutrition; however, their increased intake contributes to the development of obesity and can lead to multiple long-term complications. Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) is a key enzyme for the absorption of dietary triglycerides. Interference with fat hydrolysis results in the reduced utilization of ingested lipids, therefore inhibition of lipases decreases fat absorption. Extracts from 106 species of medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits were screened for potential lipase inhibitory activity. p-Nitrophenylpalmitate and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxylpalmitate were used as substrates in an in vitro test with crude porcine pancreatic lipase. Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), garden pea (Pisum sativum), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) extracts were the most active. Additionally, the activity of selected extracts with removed polyphenols was measured. Extracts of bearberry, garden pea and large-leaved lime are a promising source for developing functional foods or isolating active compounds. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  6. Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Paweł; Wesołowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes.

  7. Extracting relations from traditional Chinese medicine literature via heterogeneous entity networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huaiyu; Moens, Marie-Francine; Luyten, Walter; Zhou, Xuezhong; Mei, Qiaozhu; Liu, Lu; Tang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a unique and complex medical system that has developed over thousands of years. This article studies the problem of automatically extracting meaningful relations of entities from TCM literature, for the purposes of assisting clinical treatment or poly-pharmacology research and promoting the understanding of TCM in Western countries. Instead of separately extracting each relation from a single sentence or document, we propose to collectively and globally extract multiple types of relations (eg, herb-syndrome, herb-disease, formula-syndrome, formula-disease, and syndrome-disease relations) from the entire corpus of TCM literature, from the perspective of network mining. In our analysis, we first constructed heterogeneous entity networks from the TCM literature, in which each edge is a candidate relation, then used a heterogeneous factor graph model (HFGM) to simultaneously infer the existence of all the edges. We also employed a semi-supervised learning algorithm estimate the model's parameters. We performed our method to extract relations from a large dataset consisting of more than 100,000 TCM article abstracts. Our results show that the performance of the HFGM at extracting all types of relations from TCM literature was significantly better than a traditional support vector machine (SVM) classifier (increasing the average precision by 11.09%, the recall by 13.83%, and the F1-measure by 12.47% for different types of relations, compared with a traditional SVM classifier). This study exploits the power of collective inference and proposes an HFGM based on heterogeneous entity networks, which significantly improved our ability to extract relations from TCM literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fahad; Islam, Ariful; Bulbul, Latifa; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Salim

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. PMID:25538351

  9. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  10. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-aging activities of extracts from Tunisian medicinal halophytes and their aromatic constituents.

    PubMed

    Jdey, A; Falleh, H; Ben Jannet, S; Mkadmini Hammi, K; Dauvergne, X; Magné, C; Ksouri, R

    2017-01-01

    Six medicinal halophytes widely represented in North Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine were screened for pharmacological properties to set out new promising sources of natural ingredients for cosmetic or nutraceutical applications. Thus, Citrullus colocynthis, Cleome arabica, Daemia cordata, Haloxylon articulatum, Pituranthos scoparius and Scorzonera undulata were examined for their in vitro antioxidant (DPPH scavenging and superoxide anion-scavenging, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and iron-reducing tests), antibacterial (microdilution method, against four human pathogenic bacteria) and anti-tyrosinase activities. Besides, their aromatic composition was determined by RP-HPLC. H. articulatum shoot extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity and inhibited efficiently the growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. P. scoparius and C. arabica inhibited slightly monophenolase, whereas H. articulatum was the most efficient inhibitor of diphenolase activity. Furthermore, H. articulatum exhibited the highest aromatic content (3.4 % DW), with dopamine as the major compound. These observations suggest that shoot extract of H. articulatum, and to a lesser extent of C. arabica, could be used as antioxidant, antibiotic as well as new natural skin lightening agents. Also, possible implication of aromatic compounds in anti-tyrosinase activity is discussed.

  12. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are

  13. Quantification of procyanidins in oral herbal medicinal products containing extracts of Crataegus species.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Jörg; Leipolz, Ingrid; Graefe, Eva Ulrike; Jaki, Birgit; Treutter, Dieter; Veit, Markus

    2002-01-01

    According to the European Pharmacopeia a photometric assay is used for the estimation of procyanidins in Crataegi fructus. This assay is also most commonly used for procyanidin analysis in herbal medicinal products (HMPs) containing extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus species). In order to find an appropriate method for the determination of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins by analysing various preparations containing extracts of Crataegus, the Ph. Eur.-method was compared to an HPLC-method with chemical reaction detection (HPLC-CRD-method) and another conventional photometric assay using 4-dimethylamino-cinnamic-aldehyde (DMACA). Total procyanidins estimates obtained with the pharmacopeial method were, depending on the reference standard used, at least more than 50% higher than those obtained with the DMACA-assay. The determination of individual procyanidins could only be achieved by HPLC-CRD. Monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric procyanidins could be separated and detected individually, whereas no HPLC separation was possible for higher polymeric compounds. However, these compounds could be analysed as co-eluting groups. Using the DMACA method for the estimation of total oligomeric procyanidins and the HPLC-CRD method for quantification of the mono- up to trimeric procyanidins, some market leading herbal medicinal products from Germany containing extracts Crataegus species (C. monogyna Jacq., C. laevigata D.C., C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit., C. nigra Waldst. et Kit, C. azarolus L.) were analysed. Procyanidin B2 (epicatechin-(4 beta-->8)-epicatechin) was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum fruit shells as reference standard for calibration purposes. The structure elucidation was carried out by by means of MS and 1H-NMR. Quantitative 1H-NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) was applied for purity assessment.

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  15. Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. Methods In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Results The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 – 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 – 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 – 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 μgmL-1 respectively. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii. PMID:23829770

  16. Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-07-08

    Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 - 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 - 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 - 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 μgmL-1 respectively. The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii.

  17. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  18. Evaluation of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Halleria lucida.

    PubMed

    Adedapo, A A; Jimoh, F O; Koduru, S; Masika, P J; Afolayan, A J

    2008-07-01

    The medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Halleria lucida (Scrophulariaceae) were evaluated by assessing their antibacterial and antioxidant properties in vitro using standard procedures. The antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the leaves as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, proanthocyanidins and total flavonoids were higher than that of the stem. On the other hand, the total phenols, the flavonoids and the FRAP contents of the stem were higher than that of the leaves. The extracts however showed poor activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The methanol extract of the stem showed activities against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at MIC of 1.0 mg/ml. The methanol extract of the leaves did not show activity against any of the organisms used in this study. This study has to some extent validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and stems of H. lucida.

  19. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and ethanol extracts on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Ko, Yun-Fei; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2016-10-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. Previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. We show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (Agaricus blazei Murrill, Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum and Hirsutella sinensis) produce opposite effects on NK cells. Water extracts enhance NK cell cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit cytotoxicity. Water extracts stimulate the expression and production of cytolytic proteins (perforin and granulysin) and NKG2D/NCR cell surface receptors, and activate intracellular signaling kinases (ERK, JNK and p38). In contrast, ethanol extracts inhibit expression of cytolytic and cell surface receptors. Our results suggest that the mode of extraction of medicinal mushrooms may determine the nature of the immunomodulatory effects produced on immune cells, presumably owing to the differential solubility of stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. These findings have important implications for the preparation of medicinal mushrooms to prevent and treat human diseases.

  20. [Application of regular expression in extracting key information from Chinese medicine literatures about re-evaluation of post-marketing surveillance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    Computerizing extracting information from Chinese medicine literature seems more convenient than hand searching, which could simplify searching process and improve the accuracy. However, many computerized auto-extracting methods are increasingly used, regular expression is so special that could be efficient for extracting useful information in research. This article focused on regular expression applying in extracting information from Chinese medicine literature. Two practical examples were reported in this article about regular expression to extract "case number (non-terminology)" and "efficacy rate (subgroups for related information identification)", which explored how to extract information in Chinese medicine literature by means of some special research method.

  1. Cooperative antiproliferative and differentiation-enhancing activity of medicinal plant extracts in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhamanbayeva, Gulzhan T; Aralbayeva, Araylim N; Murzakhmetova, Maira K; Tuleukhanov, Sultan T; Danilenko, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries, dog rose (Rosa canina) rosehips, and garden sage (Salvia officinalis) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) aerial parts are widely used in traditional medicine and exhibit antitumor effects in preclinical models. However, these plants remain scarcely tested for antileukemic activity. Here, we show that their water-ethanol leaf extracts reduced the growth and viability of AML cells and, at non-cytotoxic doses, potentiated cell differentiation induced by a low concentration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonal form of vitamin D, in a cell type-dependent manner. The latter effect was accompanied by upregulation of the vitamin D receptor protein components and its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, at minimally effective doses the extracts cooperated with one another to produce marked cytostatic effects associated with a partial S-phase arrest and a modest induction of apoptosis. In contrast, these combinations only slightly affected the growth and viability of proliferating normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, the extracts strongly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation and protected normal erythrocytes against hypoosmotic shock. Our results suggest that further exploration of the enhanced antileukemic effects of the combinations tested here may lead to the development of alternative therapeutic and preventive approaches against AML. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  3. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of extracts and isolated components from selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young Chul

    2010-06-01

    We determined the ability of extracts and active components isolated from nine medicinal plants, Poncirus trifoliata, Astragalus membranaceus, Magnolia obovata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Angelica dahurica, Cornus officinalis, Cnidium officinale, Pueraria lobata and Ostericum koreanum, to neutralize peroxyl radicals using the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Peroxyl radicals were generated from thermal homolysis of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, which oxidize alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid to yield ethylene, and the TOSC of the substances tested is quantified from their ability to inhibit ethylene formation. Extracts from S. miltiorrhiza, M. obovata and P. lobata were determined to be potent peroxyl radical scavenging agents with a specific TOSC (sTOSC) being at least threefold greater than that of glutathione. Major constituents of the three plants, tanshinone, cryptotanshinone, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone, syringin, honokiol, magnolol, daidzein, puerarin and genistein, were examined for the antioxidant potential toward peroxyl radical. Puerarin and genistein were shown to have microM sTOSCs at least ten-fold greater than sTOSC of glutathione. Daidzein, syringin and honokiol demonstrated the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity comparable to that of glutathione. The implication of peroxyl radical in lipid peroxidation and other cellular damage suggests a possible protective role for the extracts and isolated components in oxidative stress caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  4. Protective effect of medicinal fungus Xylaria nigripes mycelia extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Divate, Rupesh D; Wang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Chiun-Chuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2017-03-01

    Xylaria nigripes ( XN) is a medicinal fungus that was used traditionally as a diuretic, nerve tonic, and for treating insomnia and trauma. In this study, we elucidated possible mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of XN mycelia extracts. XN mycelia were produced by fermentation. Hot water extract and 70% ethanol extract of XN mycelia were evaluated on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line. Both XN extracts effectively protected PC12 cells against H2O2-induced cell damage by inhibiting release of lactate dehydrogenase, decreasing DNA damage, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, and arresting abnormal apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax and caspase 3. Compared to water extract, ethanol extract showed not only greater neuroprotective effects but also a higher antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. High phenolic content and antioxidant activity may provide the neuroprotective properties of XN ethanol extract.

  5. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  6. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  7. Cytoprotective properties of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts in hydrogen peroxide challenged human U373 astroglia cells.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactivity of natural medicinal preparations contained extracts from peat mud available in retail trade used externally.

    PubMed

    Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Raciborska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Milewska, Anna; Mnich, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg(-1). Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg(-1) while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg(-1). The doses obtained during therapy were within the range of 11 nSv-13 μSv depending on extracts of medicinal preparations from peat mud. The probability that such a small dose would stimulate biological effects is low. However, some clinicians believe that one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of rheumatoid disorders is the induction of immune response by ionising radiation.

  9. Extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the active principles from selected Chinese herbs and other medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosuo; Kapoor, Vimal; Smythe, George A

    2003-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a long history of use in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and a substantial body of evidence has, over recent decades, demonstrated a range of important pharmacological properties. Western biomedical researchers are examining not only the efficacy of the traditional herbal products but, through the use of a range of bioassays and analytical techniques, are developing improved methods to isolate and characterize active components. This review briefly describes the different extraction methodologies used in the preparation of herbal extracts and reviews the utility of chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of their active components. In particular, applications of gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the isolation and characterization of active components of ginseng are critically assessed. The analysis of toxic substances from herb extracts with mass spectrometric techniques is also discussed along with the potential for mass spectrometric methods to investigate the proteomics of herbal extracts.

  10. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  11. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Extracts from Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gushiken, Lucas F.; Beserra, Fernando P.; Rozza, Ariane L.; Bérgamo, Patrícia L.; Bérgamo, Danilo A.; Pellizzon, Claudia H.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease. When evaluated pharmacologically, most of the plants employed as antidiabetic substances have been shown to exhibit hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities, and to contain chemical constituents that may be used as new antidiabetic agents. There are many substances extracted from plants that offer antidiabetic potential, whereas others may result in hypoglycemia as a side effect due to their toxicity, particularly their hepatotoxicity. In this article we present an updated overview of the studies on extracts from medicinal plants, relating the mechanisms of action by which these substances act and the natural principles of antidiabetic activity. PMID:28012277

  12. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  13. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  14. New flavonoids from bioactive extract of Algerian medicinal plant Launeae arborescens.

    PubMed

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from Launeae arboescens. The compounds were isolated by liquid chromatographic methods and their structures were identified by using spectroscopic analysis. THE ISOLATED COMPOUNDS WERE IDENTIFIED AS: 7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl 4',5,6-Trihydroxy flavone 1,4',5'-Di-Methoxy 7-(5″-Me Hexan)1-oyl flavanone 2, 3″-isopropyl pyrano [1″:7,4″:6] 3',4',5',5-Tetrahydroxy flavanone 3,5,4',5'-Tri-Hydroxy 7-(3″-Me butan) -yl flavanone 4, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2',4',5' -trimethoxy-isoflavanone 5,5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavonol 6,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl]- 4',5,7-tri-hydroxy-flavanone 7,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl] 3',5-Dihydroxy 4'-Methoxy flavanone 8. The presence of different types of bioactive flavonoids in Launeae arboescens extract can explain the large ethnopharmacological uses and the potential activity of this medicinal plant.

  15. New flavonoids from bioactive extract of Algerian medicinal plant Launeae arborescens

    PubMed Central

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Belboukhari, Nasser; Cheriti, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from Launeae arboescens. Methods The compounds were isolated by liquid chromatographic methods and their structures were identified by using spectroscopic analysis. Results The isolated compounds were identified as: 7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl 4′,5,6-Trihydroxy flavone 1,4′,5′-Di-Methoxy 7-(5″-Me Hexan)1-oyl flavanone 2, 3″-isopropyl pyrano [1″:7,4″:6] 3′,4′,5′,5-Tetrahydroxy flavanone 3,5,4′,5′-Tri-Hydroxy 7-(3″-Me butan) -yl flavanone 4, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2′,4′,5′ –trimethoxy-isoflavanone 5,5,6,7,4′-tetrahydroxy flavonol 6,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl]- 4′,5,7-tri-hydroxy-flavanone 7,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl] 3′,5-Dihydroxy 4′-Methoxy flavanone 8. Conclusions The presence of different types of bioactive flavonoids in Launeae arboescens extract can explain the large ethnopharmacological uses and the potential activity of this medicinal plant. PMID:25182549

  16. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  17. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  19. Investigation into the Toxicity of Traditional Uyghur Medicine Quercus Infectoria Galls Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iminjan, Mubarak; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Li, Xiao-Hui; Upur, Halmurat; Ahmat, Dilnur; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Quercus infectoria galls (QIG) is being widely used in Traditional Uyghur Medicine. To gather preclinical safety information for the aqueous extract of QIG, a toxicity study was performed. Methods Subject animals were randomized, and devided into exposure and control groups. In the acute toxicity phase, three different doses—5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, respectively—were administered via enema to imprinting control region (ICR) mice. An experiment using the maximum tolerance dose (MTD) i.e.10 g/kg was also performed. Data were gathered for 14 days, and study parameters were clinical signs, body weight, general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. At the day 14, major organs of the subjects were examined histologically. Chronic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats for over 180 consecutive days. The rats were divided into three groups with different doses of 0.2 g/kg, 0.8 g/kg, and 2 g/kg, QIG. Furthermore, observations were carried out in rabbits to investigate if there were signs of irritation. Results In comparison to control group, acute, chronic toxicity and mortality were not significantly increased in exposure group. Conclusion Study result suggests that the aqueous extract of QIG is unlikely to have significant toxicity and that clinical trials may proceed safely. PMID:24608135

  20. Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

    2008-06-01

    Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms.

  1. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. Conclusions The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota. PMID:23569897

  2. Bronchoscopic foreign body extraction in a pulmonary medicine department: a retrospective review of egyptian experience.

    PubMed

    Korraa, Emad; Madkour, Ashraf; Wagieh, Khaled; Nafae, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) removal in our hospital was almost exclusively performed by surgeons through a rigid bronchoscope until the pulmonologists started getting involved in FB extraction. This study aimed to retrospectively review the results of 2 years of experience with 120 patients who presented or were referred to the Pulmonary Medicine Department, Ain Shams University Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, with clinical suspicion of FB aspiration during the period between December 2006 and December 2008. FBs were removed by either rigid and/or flexible bronchoscopy using either general or topical anesthesia. There were 54 male and 66 female patients with an age range between 3 months and 70 years and 68.5% of the patients were under the age of 10 years. Ninety patients (75%) presented with a definite history of FB aspiration, with a time interval between aspiration and presentation ranging between less than 6 hours and 12 months. The FB was visible on the chest x-ray in 42 cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (53.2%). Seeds and scarf pins were the most common FB found, and were retrieved in 36 cases. Pulmonologists were successful in extracting 110 out of 111 (99.1%) bronchoscopically visualized FBs, and open thoracotomy was required in only 1 case for FB removal. In another 6 cases, only mucous plug was found to be the endogenous FB, whereas no FB could be found in 3 cases. No mortality or serious complications took place during or after the bronchoscopy. In conclusion, pulmonologists can extract FBs easily and safely either by using rigid and/or flexible bronchoscopes if they have the appropriate experience.

  3. Identification of potent anticancer activity in Ximenia americana aqueous extracts used by African traditional medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Erguel; Berger, Martin R. . E-mail: m.berger@dkfz.de

    2006-03-15

    The antineoplastic activity of a plant powder used in African traditional medicine for treating cancer was investigated by analyzing the activity of various extracts in vitro. The most active, aqueous extract was subsequently subjected to a detailed investigation in a panel of 17 tumor cell lines, showing an average IC{sub 5} of 49 mg raw powder/ml medium. The sensitivity of the cell lines varied by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 mg/ml in MCF7 breast cancer cells to 170 mg/ml in AR230 chronic-myeloid leukemia cells. Immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell lines showed a marginal sensitivity. In addition, kinetic and recovery experiments performed in MCF7 and U87-MG cells and a comparison with the antineoplastic activity of miltefosine, gemcitabine, and cisplatinum in MCF7, U87-MG, HEp2, and SAOS2 cells revealed no obvious similarity between the sensitivity profiles of the extract and the three standard agents, suggesting a different mechanism of cytotoxicity. The in vivo antitumor activity was determined in the CC531 colorectal cancer rat model. Significant anticancer activity was found following administration of equitoxic doses of 100 (perorally) and 5 (intraperitoneally) mg raw powder/kg, indicating a 95% reduced activity following intestinal absorption. By sequencing the mitochondrial gene for the large subunit of the ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase (rbcL) in DNA from the plant material, the source plant was identified as Ximenia americana. A physicochemical characterization showed that the active antineoplastic component(s) of the plant material are proteins with galactose affinity. Moreover, by mass spectrometry, one of these proteins was shown to contain a stretch of 11 amino acids identical to a tryptic peptide from the ribosome-inactivating protein ricin.

  4. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Rusak, Gordana; Likić, Saša; Berendika, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenolic phytochemicals in traditionally used medicinal plants act as powerful antioxidants, which aroused an increasing interest in their application in functional food development. The effect of extraction time (5 and 15 min) and hydrolysis on the qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of six traditionally used medicinal plants (Melissa officinalis L., Thymus serpyllum L., Lavandula officinalis Miller, Rubus fruticosus L., Urtica dioica L., and Olea europea L.) were investigated. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and tannins was determined using UV/Vis spectrophotometric methods, while individual phenolic acids, flavones and flavonols were separated and detected using HPLC analysis. Also, to obtain relevant data on the antioxidant capacity, two different assays, (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used. The extraction efficiency of phenolics, as well as the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts, was affected by both prolonged extraction and hydrolysis. The overall highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in hydrolyzed extract of blackberry leaves (2160 mg GAE/L), followed by the non-hydrolyzed extract of lemon balm obtained after 15 min of extraction (929.33 mg GAE/L). The above extracts also exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, while extracts of olive leaves were characterized with the lowest content of phenolic compounds, as well as the lowest antioxidant capacity. The highest content of rosmarinic acid, as the most abundant phenolic compound, was determined in non-hydrolyzed extract of lemon balm, obtained after 15 min of extraction. Although the hydrolysis provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds, longer extraction time (15 min) was more efficient to extract these bioactives than shorter extraction duration (5 min). The distribution of

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  6. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

  7. Determination of selenium content in aqueous extract of medicinal plants used as herbal supplement for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Afridi, H I; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q; Shah, F; Baig, J A; Sirajuddin

    2010-12-01

    The chemical constituents in medicinal plants (MPs), including elements, are partially responsible for their medicinal and nutritional properties as well as toxic effects. This research aimed to monitor selenium (Se) contents in aqueous extract of MPs used for treatment of cancer and different diseases. In present work the Se in MPs was extracted in aqueous media by microwave-assisted (ME) and conventional extraction (CE) methods. The total and residual Se in MPs were determined, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The Se in aqueous extracts and digests were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum extractable Se in MPs were obtained by ME and CE, required 2 and 40 min, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the methodologies were checked by standard addition method. The Se contents in aqueous extract of MPs were found in the range of 1.09-2.23 μg/g corresponding to 21-33% of total Se contents. The daily intake of Se from aqueous extract of MPs as recommended by herbalist (10 g of plant material) was found in the range of 20-40% of daily requirement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of antibacterial Australian medicinal plant extracts by investigation of the mechanism of action and the effect of interfering substances.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Steven; Palombo, Enzo A

    2005-01-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) uptake and salt tolerance assays were used to investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of an extract of the leaves of Eremophila duttonii, a traditional Australian medicinal plant previously shown to have potent bactericidal activity against Gram positive bacteria. The extract compromised the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane of Staphylococcus aureus , leading to increased membrane permeability (indicated by uptake of PI) and a decrease in ability to exclude NaCl. The bactericidal action of the E. duttonii extract was concluded to be due to its membrane-active properties. The effect of contaminants on the efficacy of this extract and other medicinal plant extracts was also investigated. Organic contaminants (bakers' yeast and skim milk powder) decreased the efficacy of all extracts investigated, while hard water had no effect. Greater understanding of the biocidal properties of the plant extracts investigated may determine if they have medical, industrial or environmental applications. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  9. Evaluation of the medicinal properties of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Elizalde, Karla Stephanie; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Flores, Cesar Mateo; Hernandez, Luis Barbo; Rosas-Lopez, Rocio; Duran-Diaz, Angel; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar J; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Canales-Martinez, Margarita

    2015-03-21

    The fruit of Cyrtocarpa procera is used to treat stomach diseases by people living in San Rafael, Coxcatlan, Puebla. This work investigated the antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of the fruit produced by this species. Methanol extract was obtained by maceration. After obtaining the methanol extract (MeOH1), methanol subextract (MeOH2) and hexane (H) were obtained. The antibacterial activities of MeOH1, MeOH2 and H were evaluated through disc-diffusion. The quenching of free radicals was evaluated by decolorizing a methanolic DPPH solution. The cytotoxic activity of MeOH2 was evaluated by in vitro assay system of growth inhibition of human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi). The IL-1β and TNF-α were determined through ELISA in the supernatants of the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The MeOH2 subextract was separated by column chromatography, seventy-three fractions were collected. The Gram-positive and -negative bacteria examined were sensitive to MeOH1 and MeOH2; the MeOH2 was bactericidal toward Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC = 4 mg/mL) and Vibrio cholera (MIC = 4 mg/mL). The MeOH2 inhibited the DPPH radical (SC50 = 69.7 μg/mL), but a cytotoxicity assay revealed that the extract is not toxic according to the National Cancer Institute (LD50 = 22.03 μg/mL). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL- 1β and TNF- α) by LPS- stimulated macrophages was reduced after the treatments. The methanol extract contained various organic acids, such as citric acid, palmitic acid and α- linoleic acid. The fruits of Cyrtocarpa procera are employed to treat ailments such as diarrhea, in this study were demonstrated some biological activities involved in a bacterial infection. This is the first research about of the medicinal properties of C. procera fruit.

  10. Solid-phase extraction of esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine by using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Guo; Li, Li; He, Xi-Wen

    2005-01-07

    A molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction method is used to extract esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine. Ratio of ethanol and water as washing solution were investigated. Data of accumulative adsorption on molecularly imprinted polymers from the continuous loading experiment suggests that there are two different kinds of recognition sites in molecularly imprinted polymers. By selecting the washing and eluting solution a scheme was designed to separate esculetin and its analogues including esculin, coumarin, 7-methoxylcoumarin and daphnetin. Finally, by applying the revised scheme esculetin was extracted from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine that was purchased from two big drugstores, respectively, with both molecularly imprinted polymers and non-molecularly imprinted polymers.

  11. Broad Spectrum Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Tannin-Rich Crude Extracts of Indian Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Varsha; Bhathena, Zarine

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms have been demonstrated to have significance in expression of pathogenicity in infectious bacteria. In Gram negative bacteria the autoinducer molecules that mediate QS are acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) and in Gram positive bacteria they are peptides called autoinducing peptides (AIP). A screening of tannin-rich medicinal plants was attempted to identify extracts that could interrupt the QS mechanisms in both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria over a wide range of concentrations and therefore potentially be potent agents that could act as broad spectrum QS inhibitors. Six out of the twelve Indian medicinal plant extracts that were analyzed exhibited anti-QS activity in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 and in S. aureus strain with agr:blaZ fusion over a broad range of subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that the extracts contain high concentration of molecules that can interfere with the QS mechanisms mediated by AHL as well as AIP.

  12. Broad Spectrum Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Tannin-Rich Crude Extracts of Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Varsha; Bhathena, Zarine

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms have been demonstrated to have significance in expression of pathogenicity in infectious bacteria. In Gram negative bacteria the autoinducer molecules that mediate QS are acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) and in Gram positive bacteria they are peptides called autoinducing peptides (AIP). A screening of tannin-rich medicinal plants was attempted to identify extracts that could interrupt the QS mechanisms in both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria over a wide range of concentrations and therefore potentially be potent agents that could act as broad spectrum QS inhibitors. Six out of the twelve Indian medicinal plant extracts that were analyzed exhibited anti-QS activity in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 and in S. aureus strain with agr:blaZ fusion over a broad range of subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that the extracts contain high concentration of molecules that can interfere with the QS mechanisms mediated by AHL as well as AIP. PMID:27190686

  13. Phenolic composition and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, the Oriental Herb Medicine, in human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Shin, Tai-Sun; Seo, Hye Kyoung; Je, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, which is widely used as a folk medicine in Korea, were determined. Phenolic composition profile revealed that the aqueous extract is rich in sinapic acid (13.14 mg/100 g extract), catechin (9.88 mg/100 g extract), neohesperidin (7.38 mg/100 g extract), and chlorogenic acid (3.64 mg/100 g extract). The aqueous extract effectively scavenged toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (90.63%), hydrogen peroxide (98.13%), and hydroxyl radical (59.62%) at 2.0 mg/mL, and also showed high reducing power. In cytotoxic evaluation, the aqueous extract exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in human fibroblast, and it also exhibited appreciable suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the aqueous extract upregulated the level of glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile could be considered as a potential natural source that may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  14. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  16. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  17. Evaluation of moisturizing effect of methanolic extract of five medicinal plants incorporated into cream bases using impedance and extensiometry methods.

    PubMed

    Khazaeli, Payam; Sharififar, Fariba; Amiri, Fahimeh; Heravi, Gioia; Heravi, Gioia

    2011-10-01

    Skin moisturizing is an important issue due to its impact on skin function. Adverse reactions to herbal extracts have been rarely reported and can be used in moisturizers. This study was conduct to evaluate moisturizing effect of a methanolic extract of five medicinal plants incorporated into cream bases. Methanolic extract of five medicinal plants including olive, burdock, licorice, mallow and marsh horsetail was prepared. The extracts were dissolved in distilled water completely and freeze-dried to a dry powder. These extracts were added separately to the cream based formulation that has been suggested to be appropriate for adding herbal extracts. Moisturizing effects of these creams with herbal extracts were assessed using the impedance method on 12 rats equally divided into six groups (one control and five cases), as well as the extensiometry method on 25 mice divided into five groups (in each group one cream with herbal extract and control cream were tested concurrently). Obtained results were compared with the control cream based. The maximum moisturizing effect was observed with the marsh horsetail. Other creams with herbal extracts, except the one with the licorice, also exerted significantly higher moisturizing effect compared to the controls (P<0.05). Regarding the force for skin tearing, the differences were statistically significant in all groups when compared to the control group (P<0.05) and the highest difference was seen in the marsh horsetail group (2.0832 ± 0.6811 kgN). The highest moisturizing activity was observed using marsh horsetail extract that can be explained by flavonoids content of marsh horsetail.

  18. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples. PMID:27642356

  19. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher D; Rai, Prem P; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R; Barrows, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  20. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  1. [Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive efficacy in females].

    PubMed

    Prakash, A O

    1985-04-01

    In a search for traditional medicinal plants having contraceptive efficacy, plants were identified and collected throughout India, generally by purchase from sellers of Ayurvedic remedies. The plants were air dried, cut, and processed using different organic solvents. The contraceptive properties of the plants were studied in rats, mice, and hamsters. Doses of 100-200 mg/kg of 137 plants were given orally to 5-6 animals for each plant. 27 appeared promising enough for further testing in which 2-3 extracts of each plant were administered to adult rats. The contraceptive action of 14 plants was confirmed. Significant contraceptive effects were seen after administration of Crotalaria juncea Linn, Verbena hybrida Linn, Verbena bonariensis Linn, and Pueraria tuberosa. Embelia ribes Burm and Artabotrys odoratissimus Linn were found to have interesting biologic properties but strong toxic effects. P. tuberosa had strong estrogenic and progestational effects but was not toxic in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 30 days in adult rats. A hormone study and trial with P. tuberosa should be undertaken with a view to eventual development of an oral contraceptive.

  2. Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts.

    PubMed

    Valadeau, Céline; Pabon, Adriana; Deharo, Eric; Albán-Castillo, Joaquina; Estevez, Yannick; Lores, Fransis Augusto; Rojas, Rosario; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sauvain, Michel; Castillo, Denis; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2009-06-25

    Ninety-four ethanolic extracts of plants used medicinally by the Yanesha, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, for affections related to leishmaniasis and malaria were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes and against a Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain. The viability of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote stages was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) while the impact on Plasmodium falciparum was determined by measuring the incorporation of radio-labelled hypoxanthine. Six plant species displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (IC(50) < 10 microg/ml): a Monimiaceae, Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pavon), A. DC., two Zingiberaceae, Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pavon) Poepp. & Endl. and Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.), two Piperaceae (Piper aduncum L. and Piper sp.) and the leaves of Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae). Eight species displayed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC50 < 10 microg/ml): Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Piper dennisii Trel (Piperaceae), Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae), Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Zingiberaceae, Lantana sp. (Verbenaceae), Hyptis lacustris A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Calea montana Klat. (Asteraceae). Most of them are used against skin affections by Yanesha people. Results are discussed herein, according to the traditional use of the plants and compared with data obtained from the literature.

  3. The good and the bad: alkaloid screening and brineshrimp bioassays of aqueous extracts of 31 medicinal plants of eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Coe, Felix G; Parikh, Dimpi M; Johnson, Caley A; Anderson, Gregory J

    2012-03-01

    Presence/absence tests for alkaloids of 31 medicinal vascular plant species from 31 genera and 26 families of eastern Nicaragua provided a baseline for bioactivity tests. To determine the bioactivity and cytoxicity of aqueous extracts of widely used medicinal species in eastern Nicaragua. Ethnomedicinal applications were obtained from interviews of traditional healers. We used Dragendorff's reagent to test alkaloids and brine shrimp for cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts. Twenty-nine of the 31 species tested positive for alkaloids. The median lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 h of contact with the extract (LC(50) was less than 1000 µg/mL for 4 (13%) species (the usual cytotoxic category), 1001-5000 µg/mL for 23 (74%) species, and between 5001-7500 µg/mL for the remaining 4 (13%) species. Twenty-five of the ethnomedicines contain alkaloids but are not cytotoxic. In contrast to first suppositions, we suggest that this is a good and desirable, and perhaps expected, outcome. Medicinal plants that are cytotoxic may obviously control or kill bacteria or other pathogens, but may also negatively affect the patient; some high alkaloid levels have been associated with carcinogens. Thus, perhaps the majority of effective medicinals should be expected to be noncytotoxic. We suggest that this is a new paradigm for consideration of the overall value and effectiveness of medicinals. Of course, medicinals also can be effective in numerous ways (e.g., organ stimulation or other physiological functions) other than simply as antimicrobials or antipathogens.

  4. Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Maznah; Bagalkotkar, Gururaj; Iqbal, Shahid; Adamu, Hadiza Altine

    2012-05-14

    Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC₅₀ 2.0 μg/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 μg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present.

  5. ILs-based microwave-assisted extraction coupled with aqueous two-phase for the extraction of useful compounds from Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Xiaojie; Huang, Songyun; Zeng, Qun

    2012-09-07

    Ionic liquids-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILs-MAE) of medicinal or useful compounds from plants was investigated as an alternative to conventional organic solvent extractions. The extraction and the preconcentration of aqueous two-phase (ATP) systems have been integrated. Various operating parameters were systematically considered by single-factor and L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) has been selected to extract Apocynum venetum. The extract was then converted to the top phase by [bmim][BF(4)]/NaH(2)PO(4) system which was suitable for the preconcentration. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of hyperin and isoquercitrin in Apocynum venetum. The optimal experiment approach could provide higher detection limit of hyperin and isoquercitrin which were 3.82 μg L(-1) and 3.00 μg L(-1) in Apocynum venetum. The recoveries of hyperin and isoquercitrin were 97.29% (RSD = 1.02%) and 99.40% (RSD = 1.13%), respectively, from aqueous samples of Apocynum venetum by the proposed method. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILs-MAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the herb before and after extraction were also investigated. The method exhibited potential applicability with other complicated samples.

  6. Hemopoietic effect of extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang on phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Hyojun; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), a kind of herbal medicines, has been used for the hemato-deficient disease for hundreds of years. In this work, investigate the anti-anemia activity of the H2O extracts from constituent herbal medicines of Samul-tang in an anemia model induced by intravenous infection of phenylhydrazine-HCL (PHZ) at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. After PHZ injection, female Sparague-Dawley rats were administrated extracts from constituent herbal medicines of SMT (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) daily for 1 week. Results showed that sever hemolysis was induced by PHZ. For Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) H2O extract treated groups, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells number increased much more significantly than PHZ-treated group. Moreover, Angelica gigas (AG), Angelica. acutiloba (AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) extract administration significantly improved serum erythropoietin concentration. The activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrates (ALDL) in liver homegenate was increased in Angelica gigas(AA), Paeonia lactiflora (PL2) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) treated group.

  7. Multivariate optimization of cloud point extraction procedure for zinc determination in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Shah, A Q; Shah, F

    2011-10-01

    Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinal plants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.25mL acidic ethyl alcohol. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables (pH, time temperature, ligands and surfactant concentrations). Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated by two level factorial designs. Student's t-test on the results of factorial design with 16 runs for Zn extraction, demonstrated that the factors, ligands concentrations, pH and temperature were statistically significant. The accuracy was assessed by analysis of certified reference materials, namely, BCR 101 (spruce needles), Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. Enhancement factor of 30 and 26 were achieved for the preconcentration of Zn by 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2), respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of Zn at 10μg/L level using 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2) were <4% and >5%, respectively.

  8. Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tepkeeva, I I; Aushev, V N; Zborovskaya, I B; Demushkin, V P

    2009-01-01

    Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/microl. The cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus. Peptide extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. in the same concentrations had no effects on proliferative activity and growth of tumor cells.

  9. Phytochemicals Analysis and Medicinal Potentials of Hydroalcoholic Extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC50 value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC50 values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases. PMID:22754358

  10. Phytochemicals analysis and medicinal potentials of hydroalcoholic extract from Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm Stem Bark.

    PubMed

    Oyedemi, Sunday Oyewole; Oyedemi, Blessing Ogochukwuamaka; Arowosegbe, Sunday; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    Curtisia dentata (CD) is a vulnerable medicinal plant used for the treatment of stomach ailments in South Africa. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was estimated using standard assay methods while its antibacterial activity was determined by the agar dilution method against selected bacteria. The antioxidant activity of the extract was done using ferric reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The cytotoxicity assay of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test with LC(50) value of 0.302 mg/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extract demonstrated an appreciable broad spectrum activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 5000 and 0.5 mg/L. Both phenol and flavonoid concentrations were 14.86 mg tannic acid equivalent/g and 13.64 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The percentage composition of saponins (13.26) was highest, followed by steroids (1.42), while alkaloids and tannins had the same value of 0.51. Similarly, IC(50) values of the extract against DPPH, ABTS, H(2)O(2), LPO and NO were 0.017, 0.018, 0.159, 0.06 and 0.052 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Our data suggest that the 70% ethanol extract from the CD extract has antibacterial and antioxidant properties due to the presence of bio-active compounds and thus support its folkloric use in the treatment of diseases.

  11. [Research on standardized preparation of traditional Chinese medicine (III): difference of extracting quantity of anthraquinones from mixed decoction of rhubarb with TCMs containing different ingredients].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingna; Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Pin; Zhao, Yanling; Li, Baocai; Liu, Feifei; Chu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2012-01-01

    To detect the influence of compatibility of rhubarb with different traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) on extracted quantities of AQs, and to provide scientific basis for the clinical code for rhubarb preparation. The influence of compatibility of rhubarb with different traditional Chinese medicines (saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids TCMs, animal medicines and mineral medicines) on decocting volume of anthraquinone substance was detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography. In comparable conditions, more AQs were extracted from mixed decoction of rhubarb and saponin medicinal materials (Astragali Radix, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma) than single decocting of rhubarb. The mixed decoction of rhubarb and alkaloid medicinal materials (Coptidis Rhizoma, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, Prepared Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Aconiti Lateralis Radix) caused a remarkable decrease in extracted quantities of AQs. And the mixed decoction of rhubarb and mineral medicines (Natrii Sulfas, Gypsum Fibrosum, Ostreae Concha, Alumen) also resulted in less extracted quantities of AQs to varying degrees. Besides, more rhubarb AQs were extracted from mixed decoction with Curcuma than single decoction. But less rhubarb AQs were observed in mixed decoction with Lonicerae Flos, Rehmanniae, Artemisiae Herb and Forsythiae Fructus than single decoction to varying degrees. In the study, the maximum extracted quantities of AQs is 2. 3-fold higher than the minimum, the largest difference existed in the extracted quantity of physcion which was 13.5 times. In compatibility between rhubarb and different TMCs, mixed decoction and single decoction show different influences on extracted quantity of rhubarb AQs. It is proved that more AQs may be extracted from mixed decoction between rhubarb and saponin medicinal materials, whereas less AQs may be observed in mixed decoction between rhubarb

  12. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely.

  13. Inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation by medicinal plant extracts correlates with phenolic metabolites and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Cory S; Beaulieu, Louis-Philippe; Fraser, Marie-Hélène; McIntyre, Kristina L; Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Cuerrier, Alain; Johns, Timothy; Haddad, Pierre S; Bennett, Steffany A L; Arnason, John T

    2011-01-01

    Nonenzymatic formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and contributes to the development of vascular complications. As such, inhibition of AGE formation represents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of 17 medicinal plants were assessed for inhibitory effects on in vitro AGE formation through fluorometric and immunochemical detection of fluorescent AGEs and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of albumin (CML-BSA), respectively. Most extracts inhibited fluorescent AGE formation with IC (50) values ranging from 0.4 to 38.6 µg/mL and all extracts reduced CML-BSA formation but to differing degrees. Results obtained through both methods were highly correlated. Antiglycation activities were positively correlated with total phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity and reduction in malonyldiadehyde levels following oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, but negatively correlated with lag time to formation of conjugated dienes. Together, these results provide evidence that antioxidant phenolic metabolites mediate the antiglycation activity of our medicinal plant collection, a relationship that likely extends to other medicinal and food plants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Exploration of Islamic medicine plant extracts as powerful antifungals for the prevention of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli growth in organic silage.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Salem, Mohammed F; El-Tras, Wael F; Brimer, Leon

    2011-09-01

    Feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major risk factor for animals and humans as several toxins can exist as residues in meat and milk products, giving rise to carry-over to consumers via ingestion of foods of animal origin. The starting point for prevention, in this chain, is to eliminate the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi in the animal forage. Ten plant extracts, recommended in Islamic medicine, were evaluated as antifungal agents against mycotoxigenic Aspergilli, i.e. Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, growth in organic maize silage. Most extracts had remarkable antifungal activities using both qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods. Cress (Lepidium sativum) seed extract was proven to be the most powerful among the plants examined. Blending of the most effective extracts (garden cress seed, pomegranate peel and olive leaf extracts), individually at their minimal fungicidal concentrations, with maize silage resulted in the reduction of inoculated A. flavus colony counts by 99.9, 99.6 and 98.7%, respectively, whereas silage blending with the combined extracts completely prohibited fungal growth for up to 30 days of incubation under aerobic conditions. Besides the health promoting effects, silage blending with the bioactive plant extracts examined could lead to the required protection from pathogenic and mycotoxigenic fungi. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of four acetophenones from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei Decne.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Liu, Zhengbo; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Saifei; Li, Baiqing; Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (2), baishouwubenzophenone (3) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (4) from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei was developed. Three kinds of aqueous l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anion and alkyl chain were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of acetophenones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the ILs concentration, solvent to solid ratio, power, particle size, temperature, and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6M [C(4)MIM]BF(4), solvent to solid ratio of 35:1, power of 175 W, particle size of 60-80 mesh, temperature of 25 ° C and time of 50 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of four acetophenones 286.15, 21.65, 632.58 and 205.38 μg/g, respectively. The proposed approach has been evaluated by comparison with the conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE) and regular UAE. The results indicated that ILUAE is an alternative method for extracting acetophenones from C. bungei. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Kabir O; Oladapo, Olukayode; Okwara, Chidi E; Ibe, Christopher C; Fasure, Kehinde A

    2005-01-01

    Background Six Nigerian medicinal plants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. Methods Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the shredded plants were obtained by standard methods. The Bacterial cultures used were strains of MRSA isolated from patients. MRSA was determined by the reference broth microdilution methods using the established National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards break points. Staphylococcus aureus NCIB 8588 was used as a standard strain. Susceptibility testing and phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were performed by standard procedures. Controls were maintained for each test batch. Results Both water and ethanol extracts of T. avicennioides, P. discoideus, O. gratissimum, and A. wilkesiana were effective on MRSA. The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the ethanol extracts of these plants range from 18.2 to 24.0 mcg/ml and 30.4 to 37.0 mcg/ml respectively. In contrast, MIC range of 30.6 to 43.0 mcg/ml and 55.4 to 71.0 mcg/ml were recorded for ethanol and water extracts of B. ferruginea, and A. conyzoides respectively. Higher MBC values were obtained for the two plants. These concentrations were too high to be considered active in this study. All the four active plants contained at least trace amount of anthraquinones. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of water and ethanol extracts of A. wilkesiana, O. gratissimum, T. avicennioides and P. discoideus against MRSA-associated diseases. However, B. ferruginea and A. conyzoides were ineffective in vitro in this study; we therefore suggest the

  17. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  18. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won; Lee, Jee Bum; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Li, Zhengri; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice.

  19. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Bum; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  20. Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W; Würfel, W

    2015-12-01

    On August 1, 2013, the German Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent for the "Non-embryo-destructive extraction of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, stem cells obtained by this process and their uses" (DE 10 2004 062 184 B4). The patent document describes a non-embryo-destructive process to harvest embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass (ICM) during the blastocyst development stage. The patent application was filed with the German Patent Office in Munich on December 23, 2004 and the patent claim was published in 2006. The patent was granted on August 1, 2013. Processing the patent application was a lengthy affair due to the fact that, for a long time, the prevailing opinion in Germany was that genetic screening of embryos (preimplantation genetic diagnosis) was prohibited under the German Embryo Protection Act (ESchG). A ruling by the German Federal Court in 2010 proved this opinion to be false. Animal studies have provided the evidence that the described procedure is technically feasible; healthy offspring were born after stem cells were harvested from the blastocyst and stored. We report here on a technique for the non-embryo-destructive extraction of pluripotent embryonic stem cells together with potential future applications for stem cells harvested in this manner.

  1. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  2. Antioxidant activity of Crataegus pentaegyna subsp. elburensis fruits extracts used in traditional medicine in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Bahramian, F

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of Crataegus pentaegyna subsp. elburensis (CP) were examined by various in vitro assay systems, i.e., DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power, linoleic acid and iron ion chelating power. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 341.29 +/- 1.29 for methanol and 269.31 +/- 2.11 microg mL(-1) for aqueous extract. Reducing powers of extracts also increased with the increase of their concentrations. Both extracts exhibited a weak reducing power at 25-800 microg mL(-1). Extracts exhibited weak nitric oxide radical scavenging and Fe2+ chelating ability. Methanol extract showed higher Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 = 1.84 +/- 0.01 mg mL(-1)). Both tested extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity. Extracts showed high total phenolic content.

  3. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Belemtougri, R.G.; Constantin, B.; Cognard, C.; Raymond, G.; Sawadogo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  4. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  5. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  6. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Bhatter, Purva D.; Gupta, Pooja D.; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome), Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf), Piper nigrum L. (seed), and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber) were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549) infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone) was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous) showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous) and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol) extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity. PMID:26941797

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts and alkaloid fractions of four Mexican medicinal plants of Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez A, Dora M; Bah, Moustapha; Garduño R, María L; Mendoza D, Sandra O; Serrano C, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts and alkaloid fractions of different parts of four plant species belonging to Solanaceae family and used in Mexican traditional medicine were investigated for their total phenolic contents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The total phenolic compounds of each extract was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the in vitro radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed using the DPPH and ABTS radicals. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the TPA-induced mouse ear edema model. The methanol extracts contained the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and also exhibited the best reducing power on the DPPH and ABTS radicals, in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-inflammatory activity did not follow the same trend, as some alkaloid fractions that showed low radical reducing power exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. The methanol extract obtained from the flowers of Nicotiana glauca presented the best overall performance with the largest amount of phenolic compounds (111 µg garlic acid equivalents/g of extract), the best antioxidant activity (94.80% inhibition of DPPH and 97.57% of ABTS) and the highest anti-inflammatory activity (81.93% inhibition of the inflammation).

  8. Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lipipun, Vimolmas; Kurokawa, Masahiko; Suttisri, Rutt; Taweechotipatr, Pagorn; Pramyothin, Pornpen; Hattori, Masao; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2003-11-01

    Twenty Thai medicinal plant extracts were evaluated for anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Eleven of them inhibited plaque formation of HSV-1 more than 50% at 100microg/ml in a plaque reduction assay. Aglaia odorata, Moringa oleifera, and Ventilago denticulata among the 11 were also effective against thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1 and phosphonoacetate-resistant HSV-1 strains. These therapeutic efficacies were characterized using a cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice. The extract of M. oleifera at a dose of 750mg/kg per day significantly delayed the development of skin lesions, prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of HSV-1 infected mice as compared with 2% DMSO in distilled water (P<0.05). The extracts of A. odorata and V. denticulata were also significantly effective in limiting the development of skin lesions (P<0.05). There were no significant difference between acyclovir and these three plant extracts in the delay of the development of skin lesions and no significant difference between acyclovir and M. oleifera in mean survival times. Toxicity of these plant extracts were not observed in treated mice. Thus, these three plant extracts may be possible candidates of anti-HSV-1 agents.

  9. LC-MS-based metabolite profiling of methanolic extracts from the medicinal and aromatic species Mentha pulegium and Origanum majorana.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez-Román, David; Abaza, Leila; Iswaldi, Ihsan; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest dedicated to the phenolic compounds with a view to their antioxidant and healthy properties. Recent studies have focused on plants from the Lamiaceae family with special interest in phenolic compounds antioxidant potential. The metabolite profile of methanolic extracts from two Lamiacea medicinal plants was investigated. Mentha pulegium and Origanum majorana methanolic extracts were analysed using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) detection in the negative ion mode. A total of 85 metabolites were characterised from different families, such as organic acids and derivatives, amino acids and derivatives, nucleosides, phenolic compounds as well as other polar metabolites, by using the MS and MS/MS information provided by the QTOF-MS. However, the total phenols and flavonoids were also quantified spectrophotometrically and they registered higher amounts in Mentha pulegium than in Origanum majorana extract. Gallocatechin was the major compound in M. pulegium extract whereas quercetin dimethyl ether, jaceidin and dihydrokaempferide were the major ones in O. majorana extract. The distribution of phenolic compounds in the methanolic extract showed a variation among studied plants. Mentha pulegium can be considered as a source of gallocatechin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy applied to analyzing and identifying the extracts of Baeckea frutescens medicinal materials.

    PubMed

    Adib, Adiana Mohamed; Jamaludin, Fadzureena; Kiong, Ling Sui; Hashim, Nuziah; Abdullah, Zunoliza

    2014-08-05

    Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal and nonmedicinal plant extracts to microbial and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gary M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  12. Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Elango, G; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-12-23

    The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Gloriosa superba L., Mukia maderaspatensis (L.) M.Roem, Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Phyllanthus emblica L. were exposed to different concentrations. All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24h of exposure; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf hexane extract of A. squamosa, methanol extracts of G. superba and P. emblica against H. bispinosa (LC(50)=145.39, 225.57 and 256.08ppm); methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica against P. cervi (LC(50)=77.61, 60.16, 59.61, and 60.60ppm); acetone, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, methanol extract of C. asiatica, acetone extracts of G. superba, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of P. daemia against A. subpictus (LC(50)=17.48, 18.60, 26.62, 18.43, 34.06, 13.63, and 50.39ppm); and chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, ethyl acetate extract of P. daemia, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica against C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50)=63.81, 60.01, 31.94, 69.09, and 54.82ppm), respectively. These results demonstrate that methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica extracts may serve as parasites control even in their crude form.

  13. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Akter, A; Neela, F A; Khan, M S I; Islam, M S; Alam, M F

    2010-05-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract.

  14. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

  15. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  16. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2013-08-01

    To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100% tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O. heterophyllum and ethanolic

  17. Identification of the traditional Tibetan medicine "Shaji" and their different extracts through tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Jingyi; Fan, Gang; Sun, Suqin; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Ya

    2016-11-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi, Hippophae gyantsensis (Rousi) Y. S. Lian, Hippophae neurocarpa S. W. Liu & T. N. He and Hippophae tibetana Schlechtendal are typically used under one name "Shaji", to treat cardiovascular diseases and lung disorders in Tibetan medicine (TM). A complete set of infrared (IR) macro-fingerprints of these four Hippophae species should be characterized and compared simply, accurately, and in detail for identification. In the present study, tri-step IR spectroscopy, which included Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivative IR (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-IR) spectroscopy, was employed to discriminate the four Hippophae species and their corresponding extracts using different solvents. The relevant spectra exhibited the holistic chemical compositions and variations. Flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were found to be the main chemical components. Characteristic peak positions, intensities and shapes derived from FT-IR, SD-IR and 2D-IR spectra provided valuable information for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral differences was performed to illustrate the objective identification. Results showed that the species and their extracts can be clearly distinguished. Thus, a quick, precise and effective tri-step IR spectroscopy combined with PCA can be applied to identify and discriminate medicinal materials and their extracts in TM research.

  18. HPLC determination of (+)-pseudoephedrine and (-)-ephedrine in Japanese herbal medicines containing Ephedra herb using solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Udayama, Manabu; Imamura, Kazuhiko; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Matsuura, Hiromichi

    2003-06-01

    We developed a rapid and simple HPLC method combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) for quantitative analysis of (+)-pseudoephedrine (PEP) and (-)-ephedrine (EP) in Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicines such as Kakkon-to, Sho-seiryu-to, Goshaku-san and Bofu-tsusho-san. SPE was performed on TOYOPAK IC-SP M containing propylsulfonic groups. Determination of PEP and EP was carried out using ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC with sodium dodecyl sulfate. N-Benzyldiethylamine was used as an internal standard. The analytical procedure was validated with regard to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. These data suggest that the analytical method developed in this study is useful for quantitative analysis of PEP and EP in various formulations of Kampo medicine containing Ephedra herb.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

  20. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ran

    2005-09-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy.

  1. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

    2013-08-29

    Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus.

  2. MiDas: automatic extraction of a common domain of discourse in sleep medicine for multi-center data integration.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI's Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry.

  3. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-06-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50) = 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90) = 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50) = 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90) = 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector.

  4. Cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Colombian medicinal plant extracts of the Euphorbia genus.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Morales, G E; Forero, J E; Roldan, J

    2002-06-01

    Forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) used by Colombian traditional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and the reduction of viability of infected or uninfected cell cultures, the end-point titration technique (EPTT) and the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used, respectively. The therapeutic index of the positive extracts for the antiviral activity was determined by calculating the ratio CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) over IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect). Five of the 47 extracts (11%) representing 3 out of 10 Euphorbia species (30%) exhibited antiherpetic action; the highest activity was found in the leaf/stem water-methanol extracts from E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli. The therapeutic indexes of these two plant species were > 7.1; these extracts exhibited no cytotoxicity. Six extracts (13%) representing 4 plant species (40%) showed cytotoxic activity. The highest cytotoxicity was found in the dichloromethane extract obtained from E. cotinifolia leaves and the CC50 values for the most susceptible cell lines, HEp-2 and CHO, were 35.1 and 18.1 microgram/ml, respectively.

  5. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  6. Further evaluation of Rwandan medicinal plant extracts for their antimicrobial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Cos, P; Hermans, N; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Vanden Berghe, D; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    A total of 45 Rwandan plant extracts, belonging to 37 different plant species out of 21 families, were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The plants were selected on the base of their ethnomedicinal use against infections and autoimmune diseases. From all the plant extracts tested, only Clematis hirsuta (leaves) showed a pronounced antifungal activity against Candida albicans and the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. Seven plant extracts showed a high antiviral activity against the DNA-virus Herpes simplex type 1, while five and three plant extracts were highly active against the RNA-viruses Coxsackie and Polio, respectively. Only Macaranga kilimandscharica (leaves) showed an interesting anti-measles activity, whereas Eriosema montanum (leaves) and Entada abyssinica (leaves) were highly active against Semliki forest virus. Some plant extracts showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium fortuitum, but none of them were active against the Gram-negative bacteria tested.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  8. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of leaf extracts of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. arg. var acuminatus: a folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, D; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, A B; Mandal, S C

    2002-12-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic potential of the methanol extract of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus leaf, a folk medicine of Onge tribes of Bay Islands, on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Wister albino rats. The leaf extract at oral doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1), p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner and the anti-pyretic effect was comparable to that of standard anti-pyretic agent paracetamol (150 mg kg(-1), p.o.). The effect also extended up to 5 hours after the drug administration.

  9. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of 10 Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Tchinda, Cedric F; Mambe, Flora T; Beng, Veronique P; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-08-02

    Cancer chemotherapy is still hampered by clinical failures due to multi-drug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells. In the present study, we have investigated the cytotoxicity of 20 methanol extracts from 10 medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. The most cytotoxic extracts were then further tested on a panel of 8 human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes. The cytotoxicity of the 20 methanol extracts from 10 Cameroonian medicinal plants was determined using a resazurin reduction assay. Meanwhile, flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the preliminary assay using CCRF-CEM cells, 12 extracts from five plants displayed IC50 values below 80 μg/mL, namely Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea cordifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, and Spathodea campanulata. the four best extracts were from two plants: Albizia adianthifolia roots (AAR) and bark (AAB) as well as Alchornea cordifolia leaves (ACL) and bark (ACB) had respective IC50 values of 0.98 μg/mL, 1.45 μg/mL, 8.02 μg/mL and 12.57 μg/mL in CCRF-CEM cells. They were further tested in 8 other cell lines as well as in normal AML12 hepatocytes. IC50 values ranging from 2.71 μg/mL (towards glioblastoma U87MG.ΔEGFR cells) to 10.30 μg/mL (towards breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231-BCRP cells) for AAB, from 3.43 μg/mL (towards U87MG cells) to 10.77 μg/mL (towards colon carcinoma HCT116 (p53 (-/-) ) cells) for AAR and from 0.11 μg/mL (towards CCRF-CEM cells) to 108 μg/mL (towards leukemia CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin (as control drug) were obtained. ACL and ACB extracts displayed selective activities. AAR and ACL extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells, through caspases activation and loss of MMP, while apoptotic cell death was mediated by MMP diruption and increase ROS production for ACL. Some of the tested plants namely Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea

  10. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of a Saudi medicinal plant: Rumex nervosus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdul Rahman K.; Siddiqui, Yunus M.; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Al-Buraidi, Ahmed; Al-Eid, A. S.; Horaib, Ghalib B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The antimicrobial effect of aerial part of Rumex nervosus obtained from the Southern region of Saudi Arabia was evaluated on bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and fungal strain Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The solvents used for the extraction were aqueous, hexane, and methanol. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion and disk diffusion methods and the confirmation of this activity was done by the enumeration of colony forming units (CFU). Results: The aqueous extract showed the growth inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria while the Gram-negative P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism as determined by the agar diffusion technique. Surprisingly, the extract showed little antibacterial activity on other Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) by this technique. Ethanolic extract was also found to be inhibitory to the growth of microorganisms. Hexane extract was relatively low in antimicrobial activity on Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while both the organic extracts were inhibitory to the growth of the fungus, C. albicans. Hexane gave no conclusive results with agar or disk diffusion methods, but showed the microbial growth inhibition in CFU enumeration. The antibacterial activity of active extracts was compared with vancomycin while antifungal activity of was compared with amphotericin B. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that R. nervosus showed a marked antimicrobial activity with the test organisms. PMID:26681888

  11. Anthelmintic activity of selected ethno-medicinal plant extracts on parasitic stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumarasingha, Rasika; Preston, Sarah; Yeo, Tiong-Chia; Lim, Diana S L; Tu, Chu-Lee; Palombo, Enzo A; Shaw, Jillian M; Gasser, Robin B; Boag, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future. Recently, we developed a screening assay to test natural, plant extracts with known inhibitory effects against the free-living worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using this assay, we assessed here the effects of the extracts on motility and development of parasitic larval stages of Haemonchus contortus, one of the most important nematodes of small ruminants worldwide. The study showed that two of five extracts from Picria fel-terrae Lour. have a significant inhibitory effect (at concentrations of 3-5 mg/ml) on the motility and development of H. contortus larvae. Although the two extracts originated from the same plant, they displayed different levels of inhibition on motility and development, which might relate to the presence of various active constituents in these extracts, or the same constituents at different concentrations in distinct parts of the plant. These results suggest that extracts from P. fel-terrae Lour. have promising anthelmintic activity and that more broadly, plant extracts are a potential rich source of anthelmintics to combat helminthic diseases.

  12. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  14. Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of extracts from three medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, A E; Adekunle, A A; Sowemimo, A A; Umebese, C E; Abiodun, O; Gbotosho, G O

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant to meet health-care needs has greatly increased worldwide in the recent times. The search for new plant-derived bioactive agents that can be explored for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria infection is urgently needed. Thus, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of three medicinal plants used in Nigerian folklore for the treatment of malaria infection. A modified Peter's 4-day suppressive test was used to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts in a mouse model of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Animals were treated with 250, 500, or 800 mg/kg of aqueous extract. It was observed that of all the three plants studied, Markhamia tomentosa showed the highest chemosuppression of parasites of 73 % followed by Polyalthia longifolia (53 %) at day 4. All the doses tested were well tolerated. Percentage suppression of parasite growth on day 4 post-infection ranged from 1 to 73 % in mice infected with P. berghei and treated with extracts when compared with chloroquine diphosphate, the standard reference drug which had a chemosuppression of 90 %. The percentage survival of mice that received extract ranged from 0 to 60 % (increased as the dose increases to 800 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and phenolic compounds in all the three plants tested.

  15. Antioxidant extracts of African medicinal plants induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Impei, Stefania; Di Marco, Gabriele; Kenzo, Maurice; Colizzi, Vittorio; Canini, Antonella

    2013-09-01

    African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in the present study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. We investigated the effects, on murine B16F10 melanoma cells, of plant extracts that were directly obtained by a Cameroon 'traditional healer'. After a preliminary study on the antioxidant functions of these compounds, already abundant in literature, Moringa oleifera Lam., Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum extracts were individually analyzed. We performed laboratory assessments on these medicinal preparations in order to clearly demonstrate their antineoplastic features. All the treatments caused in tumor cells a great reduction in growth and proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, increase of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 protein levels and induction of differentiation. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension of indigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for the individuation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrast cancer onset.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  17. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F; McGaw, Lyndy J; Coopoosamy, Roger M; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90-100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  19. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; McGaw, Lyndy J.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90–100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  20. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-06-19

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  1. [Study on directional separation of picroside II from extract of traditional Chinese medicine by molecularly imprinted technology].

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Na; Li, Ke-Qin; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Liu, Qing-Shan; Guo, Qing-Long

    2013-07-01

    Picroside II, separated from Chinese herbal medicine, is an active compound with neroprotective activity. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have high affinity toward template molecules synthesized by molecularly imprinted technology for its specific combined sites, which can overcome the shortcomings of traditional separation methods, such as complex operation and low efficiency. In this paper, MIPs were prepared by precipitation polymerization with picroside II as the template molecule, 1-vinylimidazole (1-Vinyl) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker. The morphology of MIPs was characterized by scanning electronmicroscope (SEM) and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the scatchard equation. The results showed that picroside II MIPs have spherical shape, and most of them are uniform in size. Furthermore, the maximum binding capacity (Q(max)) of MIPs is 3.02 mg x g(-1), higher than that of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). This result indicated that picroside II MIPs with good morphology and high targeted affinity toward the template molecules can be prepared by precipitation polymerization, which can be used to separate picroside II and its analogies from extract of Chinese herbal medicine. In addition, this method has the advantages of good environment and simple operation, which might offer a novel method for the efficient separation of picroside II in the traditional herbal medicines.

  2. Towards Evidence-based Precision Medicine: Extracting Population Information from Biomedical Text using Binary Classifiers and Syntactic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kalpana; Dasot, Naman; Goyal, Pawan; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for prevention and treatment of disease that considers individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. The dissemination of individualized evidence by automatically identifying population information in literature is a key for evidence-based precision medicine at the point-of-care. We propose a hybrid approach using natural language processing techniques to automatically extract the population information from biomedical literature. Our approach first implements a binary classifier to classify sentences with or without population information. A rule-based system based on syntactic-tree regular expressions is then applied to sentences containing population information to extract the population named entities. The proposed two-stage approach achieved an F-score of 0.81 using a MaxEnt classifier and the rule- based system, and an F-score of 0.87 using a Nai've-Bayes classifier and the rule-based system, and performed relatively well compared to many existing systems. The system and evaluation dataset is being released as open source. PMID:27570671

  3. Evaluation of extraction protocols for anti-diabetic phytochemical substances from medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila A; James, Dorcas B; Inuwa, Hajara M; Habila, James D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the efficacy of three extraction techniques: Soxhlet-extraction (SE), cold-maceration (CM) and microwave-assisted-extraction (MAE) using 80% methanol as solvent. METHODS The study was performed on each of 50 g of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Occimum gratissimum (OG) leaves respectively. The percentage yield, duration of extraction, volume of solvent used, qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents present was compared. The biological activities (hypoglycemic effect) were investigated using albino wistar rat model of diabetes mellitus (n = 36) with a combined dose (1:1) of the two plants leaf extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) from the three methods. The extracts were administered orally, once daily for 21 d. RESULTS In this report, the percentage VA extract yield from MAE was highest (20.9% ± 1.05%) within 39 min using 250 mL of solvent, when compared to the CM (14.35% ± 0.28%) within 4320 min using 900 mL of solvent and SE (15.75% ± 0.71%) within 265 min using 500 mL of solvent. The percentage differences in OG extract yield between: MAE vs SE was 41.05%; MAE vs CM was 46.81% and SE vs CM was 9.77%. The qualitative chemical analysis of the two plants showed no difference in the various phytoconstituents tested, but differs quantitatively in the amount of the individual phytoconstituents, as MAE had significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on phenolics, saponins and tannins. SE technique gave significantly high yield (P > 0.05) on alkaloid, while CM gave significant high yield on flavonoids. The extracts from CM exhibited a significantly (P > 0.05) better hypoglycemic activity within the first 14-d of treatment (43.3% ± 3.62%) when compared to MAE (36.5% ± 0.08%) and SE methods (33.3% ± 1.60%). However, the percentage hypoglycemic activity, 21 d post-treatment with 250 mg/kg b.w. extract from MAE was 72.6% ± 1.03% and it was more comparable to 10 mg/kg b.w. glibenclamide treated group (75.0% ± 0.73%), unlike the SE (69.5% ± 0.71%) and CM (69.1% ± 1

  4. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  5. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-03-09

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities.

  6. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mycelial Extracts from the Medicinal Fungus Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Imoulan, Abdessamad; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepialid, a fungus originating in the Tibetan Plateau, has been used as a substitute for Ophiocordyceps sinensis because the primary chemical compounds and pharmacological effects of P. hepialid are similar to those of O. sinensis. P. hepialid has been developed into a dietary supplement and pharmaceutical products. The antioxidant activity of extracts using 2 solvents (water and ethanol) from mycelia obtained from 2 cultivation modes (solid-state and submerged cultivation) were evaluated in this study. Four strains of P. hepialid obtained from Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces were included; the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of mycelial extracts were compared. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strains were found to be affected by the cultivation mode and extraction solvent. The ethanol extracts of solid-state cultivation of strain 2138, obtained from Sichuan Province, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The results showed that different strains might require different cultivation modes and extraction solvents for better antioxidant activity. However, solid-state cultivation and ethanol extraction are generally recommended based on the analyses conducted. Strain 2138 may be a good candidate for the purpose of producing functional foods. The results suggest that strain selection is important when P. hepialid is used to manufacture pharmaceutical products.

  7. Antioxidant Capacities of Hot Water Extracts and Endopolysaccharides of Selected Chinese Medicinal Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sang Chul; Tulasi, Ratna; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fruits are a rich source of antioxidants and traditional Chinese fruits have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against cancers and other diseases. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of eleven Chinese fruits extracts were determined. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by both the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride methods. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The phenols and flavonoids contents of the hot water extracts were in the range of 17.7 to 94.7 mg/g and 12.3 to 295.4 mg/g, whereas the endopolysaccharides lie in the range of 4.5 to 77.4 mg/g and 22.7 to 230.0 mg/g. Significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids were present in the majority of the fruit extracts and showed strong antioxidant activities. The antioxidant properties of the fruit extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida, Illicium verum, Ligustrum lucidum, Momordica grosvenori and Psoralea corylifolia as determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods, were significant compared to other fruit extracts. In the present study, we found that significant amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in these fruit extracts and may contribute to in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:27005663

  8. Anti-plasmodial activity of Norcaesalpin D and extracts of four medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Nondo, Ramadhani Selemani Omari; Moshi, Mainen Julius; Erasto, Paul; Masimba, Pax Jessey; Machumi, Francis; Kidukuli, Abdul Waziri; Heydenreich, Matthias; Zofou, Denis

    2017-03-24

    Malaria is an old life-threatening parasitic disease that is still affecting many people, mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of effective antimalarial drugs played a significant role in the treatment and control of malaria. However, recent information on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites resistant to one of the artemisinin-based combination therapies suggests the need for discovery of new drug molecules. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Tanzania. Dry powdered plant materials were extracted by cold macerations using different solvents. Norcaesalpin D was isolated by column chromatography from dichloromethane root extract of Caesalpinia bonducella and its structure was assigned based on the spectral data. Crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum (3D7), chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (Dd2, K1) and artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum (IPC 5202 Battambang, IPC 4912 Mondolkiri) strains using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results indicated that extracts of Erythrina schliebenii, Holarrhena pubescens, Dissotis melleri and C. bonducella exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Dd2 parasites. Ethanolic root extract of E. schliebenii had an IC50 of 1.87 μg/mL while methanolic and ethanolic root extracts of H. pubescens exhibited an IC50 = 2.05 μg/mL and IC50 = 2.43 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions from H. pubescens and C. bonducella roots were found to be highly active against K1, Dd2 and artemisinin-resistant parasites. Norcaesalpin D from C. bonducella root extract was active with IC50 of 0.98, 1.85 and 2.13 μg/mL against 3D7, Dd2 and IPC 4912-Mondolkiri parasites, respectively. Antiplasmodial activity of norcaesalpin D and extracts of E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, D

  9. Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, María Fernanda

    2014-06-01

    Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 μm id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of Lophocereus schottii: a Mexican medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Barocio, Arturo; Paniagua-Domínguez, Brenda Lizbeth; Benítez-Saldaña, Pedro Alberto; Flores-Torales, Edgardo; Velázquez-Magaña, Salvador; Nava, Hilda Julieta Arreola

    2013-01-01

    Lophocereus schottii is a Mexican cactus known as garambullo whose bark is used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, ulcers, sores, stomach disorders and tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of bark of L. Schottii. To assess these effects we established a flow of experiments in a model of BALB/c mice murine lymphoma. We value first survival of mice inoculated with 2 × 10(4) L5178Y murine lymphoma cells, orally treated with 10 mg/Kg of the extract for 10 consecutive days; the second assessment was to determine the influence of the immune system, we carry out studies of lymphoproliferation in mice with the same conditions of the previous study, only that the treatment was for 22 days before the completion cell cultures; the third study was to establish the cytotoxic effect of extract of L. schottii using different concentrations, by murine lymphoma cell cultures and splenocytes from healthy mice and finally we assessed the effect in vivo of extract of L. Schottii in a model of solid murine lymphoma inoculating 1 × 10(7) lymphoma cells in the gastrocnemius muscle observing the development of the tumor. We observed that oral treatment of 10 mg/kg of extract of L. schottii increased survival rate in treated mice; additionally, an intratumoral injection of 50 and 100 mg/kg in a solid murine lymphoma located in the gastrocnemius muscle, allowed a significantly slower tumor evolution. In vitro studies determined that extract inhibited 63% of lymphoma cell growth. With these evidences it is feasible to scientifically validate that ethanolic extract of L. schottii had an effect on L5178Y murine cells lymphoma and could have the same effect in human tumors.

  11. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  12. Surgical procedure of extracting teeth for obtaining dental pulp for regenerative medicine in swine.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, R; Matsumine, H; Watanabe, Y; Yamato, M; Ando, T

    2015-04-01

    Dental pulp is a potential source of cells that can be used in cell replacement therapy for various nerve disorders, including stroke, spinal cord injury, and peripheral nerve defect. However, the validation of an animal model closely related to humans is needed in translational research. The miniature pig is a suitable experimental model in maxillofacial surgery, because its anatomical structure and size are similar to those of humans. However, the swine tooth is extremely long. The routine closed extraction procedure for harvesting dental pulp tissue causes root fracture. This report describes the details of a surgical procedure for tooth extraction. Four healthy 7-8-month-old male NIBS miniature pigs were used. Two mandibular deciduous right incisors (Di1 and Di2) were extracted in order to obtain dental pulp tissue. Gingival envelope incision with vertical-releasing incision was performed, and a full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap was made. The buccal alveolar bone was exposed and removed by osteotomy. Di1 and Di2 were extracted. Dental pulp tissue was obtained from these extracted teeth by splitting hard tissue. In this procedure, 9.8 ± 2.5 × 10(5) cells were obtained from the mandibular Di1 and Di2 (n = 4). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase by extracts of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Patil, V; Bandivadekar, A; Debjani, D

    2012-06-01

    Lipases play an important role in pathogenesis of acne by hydrolysing sebum triglycerides and releasing irritating free fatty acids in the pilosebaceous follicles. Lipase is a strong chemotactic and proinflammatory antigen. Therefore, lipase has generated a high interest as a pharmacological target for antiacne drugs. The aim of this study was to identify inhibitory effects of plant extracts on the lipase activity of Propionibacterium acnes. Colorimetric microassay was used to determine lipase activity. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Embelia ribes showed lower IC(50) value (1 μg mL(-1) ) for lipase inhibition as compared to Vitex negundo and Picrorhiza kurroa (19 and 47 μg mL(-1) , respectively). The active component responsible for lipase inhibition was isolated. This study reports for the first time the novel antilipase activity of chebulagic acid (IC(50) : 60 μmol L(-1) ) with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 12.5 μg mL(-1) against P. acnes. The inhibitory potential of plant extracts was further confirmed by plate assay. The organism was grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of extracts from P. kurroa, V. negundo, T. chebula, E. ribes and antibiotics such as clindamycin and tetracycline. Extract from T. chebula showed significant inhibition of lipase activity and number of P. acnes.

  14. Cytotoxicity of blended versus single medicinal mushroom extracts on human cancer cell lines: contribution of polyphenol and polysaccharide content.

    PubMed

    Durgo, Ksenija; Koncar, Mladen; Komes, Drazenka; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Franekic, Jasna; Jakopovich, Ivan; Jakopovich, Neven; Jakopovich, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The use of mushrooms contributes to human nutrition by providing low lipid content of lipids and high dietary fiber content, as well as significant content of other biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenolic antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the content of polyphenols and polysaccharides, as well as the cytotoxic and antioxidative properties of several medicinal mushroom preparations. The content of total phenols and flavonoids of preparations of blended mushroom extracts (Lentifom, Super Polyporin, Agarikon, Agarikon Plus, Agarikon.1, and Mykoprotect.1) was evaluated quantitatively by using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant capacity of the preparations was evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides was determined using a specific gravimetric method, based on ethanol precipitation. To determine cytotoxic effects of single and blended mushroom extracts, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red assays were conducted using human small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colon cancer, and brain astrocytoma cancer cells. The obtained results suggest that due to the significant content of beneficial polyphenolic antioxidants and soluble polysaccharides, use of these mushroom preparations is beneficial in maintaining good health, as well as in the prevention and adjuvant biotherapy of various human pathological aberrations. These results reveal that these extracts exhibit different cytotoxic effects on tumor cells originating from different tissues. In addition, the comparison of investigated blended mushroom extracts with three well-known commercial mushroom products derived from single mushroom species or single mushroom compounds shows that blended mushroom extracts exhibit significantly stronger

  15. Medicinal herbs as a potential strategy to decrease methane production by rumen microbiota: a systematic evaluation with a focus on Perilla frutescens seed extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiakun; Liu, Mei; Wu, Yuelei; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jianxin; Jiang, Linshu; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-11-01

    Mitigation of the methane (CH4) emission from ruminants is needed to decrease the environmental impact of ruminant animal production. Different plant materials and chemicals have been tested, but few are both effective and practical. Medicinal herbs contain biological compounds and antimicrobials that may be effective in lowering the CH4 production. However, few studies have systematically evaluated medicinal herbs for their effect on CH4 production or on the rumen microbiota. In this study, extracts from 100 medicinal herbs were assessed for their ability to decrease CH4 production by rumen microbiota in vitro. The extracts of 12 herbs effectively lowered the CH4 production, with the extract of Perilla frutescens seeds being the most effective. The major components of P. frutescens seed extract were identified, and the effects of the extract on the fermentation characteristics and populations of rumen methanogens, fungi, protozoa, and select bacteria were also assessed. The decreased CH4 production induced by the P. frutescens seed extract was accompanied by an increased abundance of Ruminobacter, Selenomonas, Succinivibrio, Shuttleworthis, Pseudobutyrivbrio, Anaerovibrio, and Roseomonas and a decreased abundance of Methanobrevibacter millerae. The abundance of Pedobacter, Anaeroplasma, Paludibacter, Ruminococcus, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae was positively correlated with the CH4 production, with no effects on volatile fatty acids. This study suggests that medicinal herbs may be used to mitigate the CH4 emission from ruminants.

  16. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous petal extract of the medicinal plant Combretum indicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahuguna, Gaurav; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Neeraj K.; Kumar, Chitresh; Bahlwal, Aseema; Chaudhary, Pratibha; Singh, Rajeev

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, any type of plant extract from the medicinally important plant Combretum indicum has been used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The present investigation reports the synthesis and characterization of AgNPs using the flower petal extract of Combretum indicum. For monitoring the formation and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles, they were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy. Apart from this, the luminescence properties were also studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the formation of AgNPs and the surface morphology has been determined. The mean particle diameter using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique ranged from 50-120 nm depending upon the reaction time. The atomic percentage of Ag in synthesized NPs and the crystallinity were determined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. This green approach of synthesizing AgNPs, using a biologically important plant extract is found to be cost effective, economical, eco-friendly and convenient in synthesis.

  17. One-step extraction for gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of 18 organophosphorus pesticides in Chinese medicine health wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianzhen; Kong, Weijun; Qiu, Feng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Shihai; Zheng, Yuguo; Yang, Meihua

    2012-02-15

    An easy, rapid and selective gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was established for simultaneously determining 18 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in 80 Chinese medicine (CM) health wines. This method was based on a simple one-step extraction procedure using a little solvent without any further cleanup steps. The optimized extraction solvent for the pesticides is acetone:dichloromethane (1:1, V/V) with extraction recovery of 79.0-109.1% and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.36-12.68%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of the established GC-FPD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 1 to 15ngmL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 4 to 50ngmL(-1). Out of all 80 CM health wines, 18 OPPs were found in 8 samples at low concentrations of 8.2-37.9ngmL(-1). These pesticides were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. This is the first report of determining OPPs in CM health wines, providing references for monitoring the quality of CM health wine in routine analysis.

  18. Nondestructive prediction of oren extract powder, a herbal medicine, in suppositories by chemometric near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Ryutaro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sugama, Tadaaki; Ito, Kiyomi; Aburada, Masaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been utilized in predictions of natural medicine content without destroying samples. Suppositories (oren powdered extract content 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) were produced by mixing oren powdered extract with macrogol mixture consisting of 1 part macrogol 1500 and 2.5 parts macrogol 4000 at 54°C, and pouring the melt mixture into a plastic container. NIR spectra of the 10 prepared samples were recorded 10 times, and a total of 100 spectra were randomly divided into two data sets, one for calibration and the other for validation. The calibration model for the oren content of the suppository was calculated based on NIR spectra using a partial least-squares regression analysis after pre-treatment (smoothing and the multiplicative scatter correction). The relationship between the actual and predicted values for calibration and validation models had a straight line with correlation coefficients of 0.9936 and 0.9898, respectively. The regression vector result of the calibration model indicates that the peaks at 6945, 5747, and 5160 cm(-1) in the regression vector were consistent with those in oren powder extracts. NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics offers promise as a method of predicting the oren powder content in suppositories without destroying the samples.

  19. Extraction and purification of polysaccharides from pine medicinal mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake (higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction, purification, and characterization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake were carried out. On the basis of the results of a single-factor test, three independent and main variables, including extraction time (X1: 130-170 s), ultrasonic power (X2: 340-380 W), and ratio of water to raw material (X3: 45-55 mL/g) were studied by Box-Behnken design. The optimum extraction conditions are as follows: extraction time 160 s, ultrasonic power 365 W, and ratio of water to raw material 53.5 mL/g. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of T. matsutake polysaccharides (TMP) was 7.97±0.31%. The crude TMP was purified by DEAE-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography to afford two fractions, TMP-1 and TMP-2. The crude TMP contained 85.76% carbohydrates, 3.57% proteins, and 0.13% uronic acids. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, fucose, and glucuronic acid residues.

  20. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.

  1. Commercial Medicinal Plant Extraction in the Hills of Nepal: Local Management System and Ecological Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from Jumla District, Nepal, investigating local management systems and ecological sustainability of commercial collection of a medicinal plant, spikenard ( Nardostachys grandiflora DC, Valerianaceae), growing in alpine meadows. Interviews were undertaken with local collectors, traders, and district forest office staff, and the dynamics of people-plant interactions are analyzed using the Oakerson model. In all, 110 sample plots 1m square were laid out in three areas with differing collection and grazing pressures for recording of floristic composition and abundance of spikenard root biomass. Comparisons show significantly more root biomass in uncollected than collected areas with local management and the interpretation of differences in abundance is discussed. The combination of qualitative and quantitative investigations can provide a framework for the study of people-plant interactions, and this study can serve as first step in a compilation of cases to create a more detailed picture of local management systems of Nepali nontimber forest products in general and commercially collected medicinal and aromatic plants in particular.

  2. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  3. Orthogonal array design for optimizing extraction efficiency of active constituents from Jakyak-Gamcho Decoction, the complex formula of herbal medicines, Paeoniae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianyu; Cho, So Yean; Kang, Sam Sik; Lee, Seung-Ho; Baek, Hum-Young; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2007-09-05

    A complex formula composed of Paeonia lactiflora PALL. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., which is called as Jakyak-Gamcho Decoction (JGD), has been used for a pain-relieving function and muscle spasms due to blood deficiency in the traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of JGD was evaluated based on the quantitative determinations and the relative proportions of six major constituents in the decoction mixture extracted by orthogonal array methods. Our results suggest that the three parameters are all crucial factors. The optimized conditions for extraction were therefore established [solvent (water); pH value (4); extraction number (4)]. We also optimized the extraction conditions related to anti-inflammatory activity [solvent (70% EtOH); pH value (6); extraction number (4)]. So, we found that the bioactivity was responsible for mixed components but not individual one. It was proportionally associated with the amounts of some components in the extracts of herbal medicines. When the proportion of the active components was similar to each other, they had the similar functions. Furthermore, the results could establish a model system for the quality assurance of herbal preparations, and provided a new paradigm of active components-pharmacodynamics, which is used for illustrating the connections between the bioactivities and the proportion of active constituents in the extracts of herbal medicines.

  4. Chemical Composition of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Wild Mushrooms from Tanzania and Their Medicinal Potentials.

    PubMed

    Chelela, Baraka Luca; Chacha, Musa; Matemu, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of 5 edible and inedible wild mushrooms collected from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 75 chemical compounds were obtained, mainly fatty acids, carotenoids, alkaloids, phenols, terpernes, steroids, pyranoside, saccharides, and amino acids. Chemical compounds were identified from the ethanolic extract of Russula cellulata, R. kivuensis, Lactarius densifolius, L. gymnocarpoides, and Lactarius sp. In addition, mass spectra of 4 major groups of compounds were also determined. This study confirms the presence of some important bioactive compounds, such as essential fatty acids (oleic and linoleic), amino acids, and carotenoids. The reported chemical profiles give an insight into the use of wild mushrooms as a potential source of bioactive compounds for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sharififar, Fariba; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan; Dehghan-Nudehe, Gholamreza; Ameri, Alieh; Alishahi, Fahimeh; Pourhemati, Amin

    2009-07-01

    Four commonly used spices plants in Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effect using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay. Essential oils and various extracts of Heracleum persicum, Nigella arvensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Zingiber officinale were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. All of the tested fractions have exhibited more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Essential oils of H. persicum and C. zeylanicum have shown the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 0.007 and 0.03 microg/ml respectively. None of aqueous extracts showed significant cytotoxicity. The analysis of the essential oil of H. persicum showed the hexyl butyrate and octyl acetate as the main compounds. These results suggest some limitation for using of these spices in diet. Furthermore, these plants could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which might be studied in more details.

  6. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  7. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss. PMID:25737735

  8. Evaluation of adverse events reported in traditional Iranian medicine following administration of aqueous extract of herba portulacae oleraceae seed.

    PubMed

    Mirabzadeh, Mehran; Rahimi, Roja; Sahraee, Zahra

    2013-08-01

    To find scientific reasons for adverse events reported in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) following administration of aqueous extract of Herba Portulacae Oleraceae seed including itching and tingling of whole body, tachycardia, anxiety, dyspnea and severe nausea. Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched up to April 2013 to find papers focused on phytochemistry and biological activities of this plant. Among chemical constituents present in Herba Portulacae oleraceae, catecholamines, adenosine and niacin can cause adverse events similar to those reported in TIM. Because of the short duration of action of adenosine, catecholamines and niacin seems to be the major role in appearance of adverse events reported in TIM for Herba Portulacae Oleraceae seed. Mechanisms with consideration of receptor types and pharmacokinetics of catecholamine and niacin are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation.

  10. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Visintini Jaime, María F; Redko, Flavia; Muschietti, Liliana V; Campos, Rodolfo H; Martino, Virginia S; Cavallaro, Lucia V

    2013-07-27

    Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and > 117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50 = 3.1 μg/ml; SI = 37

  11. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50

  12. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by aqueous extracts of some potent antidiabetic medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Onal, Seçil; Timur, Suna; Okutucu, Burcu; Zihnioğlu, Figen

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalant diseases of adults. Agents with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity have been useful as oral hypoglycemic drugs for the control of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2; noninsulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Investigation of some medicinal herbs: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Viscum album, and Myrtus communis with alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity was conducted to identify a prophylactic effect for diabetes in vitro. All plants showed differing potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. However, Myrtus communis strongly inhibited the enzyme (IC50 = 38 microg/mL). The inhibitory effect of these plants and some common antidiabetic drugs against the enzyme source (baker's yeast, rabbit liver, and small intestine) were also searched. Approximately all inhibitors used in this study showed quite different inhibitory activities, according to alpha-glucosidase origins. Furthermore, subsequent separation of the active material from Myrtus communis by HPLC showed that only one fraction acted as an a-glucosidase inhibitor.

  13. [Feature extraction and recognition of traditional Chinese medicine pulse based on hemodynamic principles].

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Yi-qing; Yan, Hai-xia; Li, Fu-feng; Yan, Jian-jun; Xu, Zhao-xia; Liu, Guo-ping

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, factors contributing to the formation of pulse wave were analyzed based on hemodynamic principles. It is considered that formation of pulse wave was related to its propagation and reflection characteristics. Propagation of the pulse wave was characterized by pulse wave velocity, and reflection of the pulse wave was characterized by reflection coefficient. Pulse wave velocity and reflection coefficient were proposed as the eigenvectors of pulse wave in pulse diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine, and support vector machine (SVM) was used to recognize slippery pulse, stringy pulse and plain pulse. Pulse wave velocity and reflection coefficient of the slippery, stringy and plain pulses in healthy people were calculated in this study, and SVM with Gaussian radial basis function was used for classifying. Results showed that pulse wave velocity and reflection coefficient with physiological and pathological significance had advantages in distinguishing slippery pulse, stringy pulse and plain pulse, which offered a new idea for recognizing pulse condition.

  14. Anti-viral activity of the extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulis against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Tolo, Festus M; Rukunga, Geoffrey M; Muli, Faith W; Njagi, Eliud N M; Njue, Wilson; Kumon, Kazuko; Mungai, Geoffrey M; Muthaura, Charles N; Muli, Joseph M; Keter, Lucia K; Oishi, Esau; Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli W

    2006-03-08

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed persons. It is therefore a serious disease in high HIV/AIDS prevalence areas as in sub-Saharan Africa where infections due to HSV have risen significantly. The development of resistant strains of HSV to the available drugs for infection management, as is evident in the first drug of choice acyclovir, has further compounded this situation. There is therefore an urgent need to identify and develop new alternative agents for management of HSV infections, more so, for those due to resistant strains. We report here on an aqueous total extract preparation from the roots of Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), a medicinal plant locally growing in Kenya that has exhibited remarkable anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo for both wild type and resistant strains of HSV. The extract significantly inhibited formation of plaques in Vero E6 cells infected with 100PFU of wild type strains of HSV (7401H HSV-1 and Ito-1262 HSV-2) or resistant strains of HSV (TK(-) 7401H HSV-1 and AP(r) 7401H HSV-1) by 100% at 50 microg/ml in vitro with minimal cell cytotoxicity (CC(50)=480 microg/ml). When the extract was examined for in vivo efficacy in a murine model using Balb/C mice cutaneously infected with wild type or resistant strains of HSV, the extract at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg significantly delayed the onset of HSV infections by over 50%. It also increased the mean survival time of treated infected mice by between 28 and 35% relative to the infected untreated mice (p<0.05 versus control by Student's t-test). The mortality rate for mice treated with extract was also significantly reduced by between 70 and 90% as compared with the infected untreated mice that exhibited 100% mortality. No acute toxicity was observed in mice at the oral therapeutic dose of 250 mg/kg. These results suggest that this herbal extract has potent anti-viral agents against herpes simplex viruses that can be

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli.

  16. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies.

    PubMed

    Notcutt, William; Price, Mario; Miller, Roy; Newport, Samantha; Phillips, Cheryl; Simmons, Susan; Sansom, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Three Cannabis Based Medicinal Extracts (CBMEs) for sublingual use became available in 2000. A total of 34 'N of 1' studies were undertaken using this novel therapy for patients with chronic, mainly neuropathic, pain and associated symptoms to explore efficacy, tolerability, safety and dosages. Three CBMEs (Delta9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and a 1:1 mixture of them both) were given over a 12-week period. After an initial open-label period, the CBMEs were used in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Extracts which contained THC proved most effective in symptom control. Regimens for the use of the sublingual spray emerged and a wide range of dosing requirements was observed. Side-effects were common, reflecting a learning curve for both patient and study team. These were generally acceptable and little different to those seen when other psycho-active agents are used for chronic pain. These initial experiences with CBME open the way to more detailed and extensive studies.

  17. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 hours growth using an optical density (OD600nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 hours, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD570nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50 ≤32 μg/ml for biofilm inhibition: Lonicera alpigena, Castanea sativa, Juglans regia, Ballota nigra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Leopoldia comosa, Malva sylvestris, Cyclamen hederifolium, Rosa canina, and Rubus ulmifolius. Limited bacteriostatic activity was evident. The anti-biofilm activity of medicinal plants was significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications. PMID:18556162

  18. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426 mg/L and LC50 138.896 mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94 mg/L, LC50 13.51 mg/L, and LC50 20.22 mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  19. Study bioprospecting of medicinal plant extracts of the semiarid northeast: contribution to the control of oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Suênia P; Brandão, Deysiane O; Chaves, Thiago P; Formiga Filho, Amaro L N; Costa, Edja Maria M de B; Santos, Vanda L; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D

    2012-01-01

    Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides extracted from the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata (higher Basidiomycetes) in specific pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Ai-Rong; Qin, Dan; Zhao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Le; Huang, Fang; Kong, Chao; Yang, Song

    2014-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides extracted from mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture was studied in 100 specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 per group). For the treated group, each kilogram of SPF chickens was fed 5 mg of A. camphorata extract (ACE) for 35 consecutive days. Chickens were killed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, and lymphocytes were separated from the blood, spleen, thymus, bursa, kidney, and pancreas of the chickens. The results showed that, compared to the control group, the immune organ indices (except for the thymus) were higher after 14 days (P < 0.05), and the contents of globulin in blood were significantly increased on the 21st day (P < 0.05). The most of biochemical indices did not significantly changed within 35 days of treatment. Moreover, the response of proliferation and the rates of positive T lymphocytes in blood were higher than in the control group (P < 0.05).The results presented herein indicate that ACE could enhance the immune functions of the organs in SPF chickens and could be an attractive application of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Preparation of imprinted polymers at surface of magnetic nanoparticles for the selective extraction of tadalafil from medicines.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Ding, Mei-Juan; Wang, Shu; Wang, Ruo-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Li; Wen, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Li-Hua; Dai, Peng; Lin, Yu-Hui; Zhou, Xue-Min

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, highly selective core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) of tadalafil on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared. Three widely used functional monomers 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid (TFMAA), acrylic acid (AA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) were compared theoretically as the candidates for MIP preparation. MIP-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MIP-coated MNPs) showed large adsorption capacity, high recognition ability, and fast binding kinetics for tadalafil. Furthermore, because of the good magnetic properties, MIP-coated MNPs can achieve rapid and efficient separation with an external magnetic field simply. The resulting MIP-coated MNPs were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) materials coupled with HPLC-UV for the selective extraction and detection of tadalafil from medicines (herbal sexual health products). Encouraging results were obtained. The amounts of tadalafil that were detected from the herbal sexual health product was 43.46 nmol g(-1), and the recoveries were in the range of 87.36-90.93% with the RSD < 6.55%.

  2. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Pantuso, Traci; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-08-13

    One-third of botanical remedies from southern Italy are used to treat skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of SSTI, has generated increasing concern due to drug resistance. Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies for SSTI. Our aim was to investigate plants from different ethnobotanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilms in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three groups were assessed: plant remedies for SSTI, plant remedies not involving the skin, and plants with no ethnomedical application. We screened 168 extracts, representing 104 botanical species, for activity against MRSA (ATCC 33593). We employed broth dilution methods to determine the MIC after 18 h growth using an optical density (OD 600 nm) reading. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by growing biofilms for 40 h, then fixing and staining with crystal violet. After washing, 10% Tween 80 was added and OD 570 nm readings were taken. Extracts from 10 plants exhibited an IC50medicinal plants used for SSTI is significantly greater than plants without any ethnomedical applications.

  3. Study Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Semiarid Northeast: Contribution to the Control of Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Suênia P.; Brandão, Deysiane O.; Chaves, Thiago P.; Formiga Filho, Amaro L. N.; Costa, Edja Maria M. de B.; Santos, Vanda L.; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D.

    2012-01-01

    Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina. PMID:22719786

  4. What is Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761? An overview--from molecular biology to clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Christen, Yves; Maixent, Jean-Michel

    2002-09-01

    EGb 761 (extract of Ginkgo biloba 761) comes from a single type of tree, a living fossil, the only remaining representative of its phylum; it contains chemical substances unknown in other living things. The flavonoid fraction accounts for 24% of the extract and terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalide) for 6%. It acts in many different situations and organs, and exerts protective effect on neurodegenerative, sensory, and vascular diseases. In all of these different domains, it has been shown to act at all levels of the organization of life: molecules, cells, tissue, entire organisms, sometimes in particular situations (related to a particular pathology or to senescence) and in humans. Although many questions remain, what stands out in the literature is the overall consistency of the data. Particularly remarkable is that EGb 761 does not exert a specific unidirectional action (activating or inhibiting) in these various domains of physiology and pathology; rather it is regulatory, helping the organism to adapt to the circumstances in which it finds itself.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using medicinally important plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Rehana, Dilaveez; Mahendiran, D; Kumar, R Senthil; Rahiman, A Kalilur

    2017-03-10

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using different plant extracts obtained from the leaves of Azadirachta indica, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Murraya koenigii, Moringa oleifera and Tamarindus indica. In order to compare their efficiency, the same copper oxide nanoparticles was also synthesized by chemical method. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids. FT IR spectra confirmed the possible biomolecules responsible for the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance absorption band at 220-235nm in the UV-vis spectra also supports the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. XRD patterns revealed the monoclinic phase of the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. The average size, shape and the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles were determined by SEM, TEM and SAED analysis. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of elements in the synthesized nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different free radical scavenging assays. The cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles was evaluated against four cancer cell lines such as human breast (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa), epithelioma (Hep-2) and lung (A549), and one normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cell line. The morphological changes were evaluated using Hoechst 33258 staining assay. Copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by green method exhibited high antioxidant and cytotoxicity than that synthesized by chemical method.

  6. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

  7. [Determination of 5 heavy metals in Chinese traditional medicines and extraction liquid containing mineral materials].

    PubMed

    Bai, Guo-Yin; Wei, Chao; Ouyang, Li; Xie, Qingi; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Chinese traditional medicine (CTM) containing realgar may contain high levels of toxic metals, such as arsenic, etc. The monitoring of trace elements, especially the harmful elements, is closely related to the quality control of the CTM. Three kinds of CTM containing realgar were digested by microwave method and electric heating plate method, and As, Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES. In addition, this research determined the content of soluble heavy metals in the human gastrointestinal solution. The results showed that three kinds of CTM contained As of 24 350-68 627 mg x kg(-1); Hg of 0.26-122 313.6 mg x kg(-1); Cu of 2.04-6.95 mg x kg(-1); Cd of 0.02-1.46 mg x kg(-1); Pb of 0.42-40.60 mg x kg(-1). In comparison, the contents of soluble heavy metals in the human gastrointestinal solution are: As of 81-618 mg x L(-1); Hg of 0.34-216 mg x L(-1); Cu of 1.08-215 mg x L(-1), and Pb, Cd were not detected.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM.

  9. [Optimization of the solid-phase extraction procedure for the screening of the medicinal and narcotic substances in the blood by gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection].

    PubMed

    Kataev, S S; Dvorskaya, O N; Krokhin, I P

    2017-01-01

    This paper was designed to describe the application of the method for solid-phase extraction of the medicinal and narcotic substances having different physicochemical composition by gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the purpose of their screening in the blood. The solid-phase extraction technique was optimized by means of the Box-Behnken modeling with the evaluation of the influence on the effectiveness of extraction of various factors including pH of the buffer solution, eluent composition, the type and the volume of the solutions used to wash the sorbent.

  10. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations by Alstonia scholaris (a medicinal plant) extract.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Uma; Jahan, Swafiya; Chaudhary, Ranu; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2008-09-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of a hydro-alcoholic extracted material from the bark of Alstonia scholaris (ASE) was studied in mice against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations. Swiss albino mice were administered ASE (100 mg/kg body weight/d for 5 consecutive day) orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline (P<.001) in erythrocytes and hemoglobin until the third day, following a gradual recovery (ie, day 7), but these values did not reach normal values during the remainder of the animals' life span. Hematocrit percentage declined significantly (P<.001) until day 15. In contrast, ASE-pretreated irradiated animals had significantly higher erythrocyte, hematocrit, and hemoglobin values than the irradiated controls. Furthermore, a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation level over normal was recorded in gamma-irradiated mice, whereas this increase was considerably lower in ASE-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with ASE caused a significant increase in glutathione levels in serum as well as in liver in comparison to irradiated animals. This study showed that ASE protects against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

  11. Anti-mumps virus activity by extracts of Mimosa pudica, a unique Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Malayan, Jeevan; Selvaraj, Balaji; Warrier, Aparna; Shanmugam, Sambantham; Mathayan, Manikannan; Menon, Thangam

    2013-09-01

    Mumps is an acute and self-limiting disease characterized by parotitis, however in some cases it leads to aseptic meningitis, deafness, encephalitis and orchitis, which is a serious health concern. MMR vaccination was successful in eradicating the disease however, recent reports question the efficacy of MMR vaccine and countless outbreaks are observed in vaccinated populations throughout the world. Lack of specific treatment methods for mumps infection and inefficiency of MMR vaccine in vaccinated populations accentuates the need for the development of novel drugs to control mumps virus mediated serious infections. It was with this backdrop of information that the anti-mumps virus activity of Mimosa pudica was evaluated. Suspected mumps cases were collected to isolate a standard mumps virus by systematic laboratory testing which included IgM antibody assays, virus isolation, RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. The virus was quantified by TCID50 assay and anti-mumps virus property was evaluated by CPE reduction assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was measured by MTT assay and phytochemical analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The RT-PCR and phylogenetic tree analysis of the SH gene sequence of the clinical isolate showed it to be mumps virus genotype C. 150 μg/ml concentration of M. pudica completely inhibited mumps virus and the drug was found to be non-toxic up to 2 mg/ml. M. pudica was thus found to be a potent inhibitor of MuV.

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of a Plethora of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Hydrolates against Human Pathogens and Their Potential to Reverse Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Njimoh, Dieudonné Lemuh; Assob, Jules Clement N.; Mokake, Seraphine Ebenye; Nyhalah, Dinga Jerome; Yinda, Claude Kwe; Sandjon, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections till date remain a scourge of humanity due to lack of vaccine against some infections, emergence of drug resistant phenotypes, and the resurgence of infections amongst others. Continuous quest for novel therapeutic approaches remains imperative. Here we (i) assessed the effects of extracts/hydrolates of some medicinal plants on pathogenic microorganisms and (ii) evaluated the inhibitory potential of the most active ones in combination with antibiotics. Extract E03 had the highest DZI (25 mm). Extracts E05 and E06 were active against all microorganisms tested. The MICs and MBCs of the methanol extracts ranged from 16.667 × 103 μg/mL to 2 μg/mL and hydrolates from 0.028 to 333333 ppm. Extract E30 had the highest activity especially against S. saprophyticus (MIC of 6 ppm) and E. coli (MIC of 17 ppm). Combination with conventional antibiotics was shown to overcome resistance especially with E30. Analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids, phenols, and saponins. These results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine and the practice of supplementing decoctions/concoctions with conventional antibiotics. Nauclea pobeguinii (E30), the most active and synergistic of all these extracts, and some hydrolates with antimicrobial activity need further exploration for the development of novel antimicrobials. PMID:26180528

  13. Skin-mimetic chromatography for prediction of human percutaneous absorption of biologically active compounds occurring in medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Stepnik, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Irena

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to predict quantitatively human percutaneous absorption of chosen compounds commonly occurring in plants which can be used as medicinal extracts in the drug and beauty industries. The most important human percutaneous descriptors, i.e. logKp (logarithm of the water/skin partition coefficient) and logJmax (logarithm of the maximum flux of solutes penetrating the skin), of fatty acids and polyphenols were determined using both in vitro and in silico methods. For in vitro determination of human percutaneous absorption, micellar liquid chromatography based on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij35) was used. Human percutaneous absorption was characterized by entirely new QSAR/QRAR models based on retention, lipophilic, steric and electronic data as well as on the linear free energy relationship parameters. Many different correlations between human skin absorption and different physicochemical parameters were performed, e.g. the in silico estimated logKp value was correlated with the retention parameter logkw (logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water) from the systems imitating a cutaneous environment (R(2)  = 0.92). Moreover, the influence of lipophilicity on percutaneous absorption was examined. The obtained correlation was excellent (R(2)  = 0.95).

  14. The Extract of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Yeon; Chung, SaeYeon; Kim, Soon Re; Lee, Ji-Hye; Seo, Hye-Sook; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigated whether the extract of six herbal medicines (OB-1) has an inhibitory effect on obesity. High-fat diet-(HFD-) induced rats and controls were treated with 40 mg/100 g body weight of OB-1 or saline once a day for 5 weeks. After significant changes in body weight were induced, OB-1 and saline were administered to each subgroup of HFD and control groups for additional 5 weeks. No statistically significant decrease of body weight in OB-1-treated rats was found compared to controls. However, OB-1-treated rats were found to be more active in an open-field test and have a reduction in the size of adipocytes compared to controls. We observed no changes in the mRNA expressions of leptin and adiponectin from adipocytes between OB-1- and saline-treated rats with HFD-induced obesity group. However, OB-1 treatments were shown to be inversely correlated with accumulation of lipid droplets in liver tissue, suggesting that OB-1 could inhibit a lipid accumulation by blocking the pathway related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was significantly increased in OB-1-treated rats with HFD compared to controls. These results suggest that OB-1 has no direct antiobesity effect and, however, could be a regulator of cellular metabolism. PMID:23533517

  15. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  16. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture.

    PubMed

    Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  17. Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Iqbal, Zafar; Shahid, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin-P in groups administered P. ostreatus extracts compared with controls. Humoral immune investigation revealed higher immunoglobulin (total Ig, IgG, and IgM) titers against sheep red blood cells in treated groups compared with controls. However, nonsignificant (P > 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentage of protection against coccidiosis in groups administered P. ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with those in groups administered hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.

  18. Antiviral activity of the Indian medicinal plant extract Swertia chirata against herpes simplex viruses: a study by in-vitro and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Verma, H; Patil, P R; Kolhapure, R M; Gopalkrishna, V

    2008-01-01

    The antiviral activity of Indian Medicinal plant extract Swertia chirata was tested against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1, using multiple approaches both at cellular and molecular level. Cytotoxicity, plaque reduction, virus infectivity, antigen expression and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to test the antiviral activity of the plant extract. Swertia plant crude extract (1 gm/mL) at 1:64 dilution inhibited HSV-1, plaque formation at more than 70% level. HSV antigen expression and time kinetics experiments conducted by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) test, revealed a characteristic pattern of small foci of single fluorescent cells in Swertia extract treated HSV-1 infected cells at 4 hours post infection dose, suggested drug inhibited viral dissemination. Infected cell cultures treated with Swertia extract at various time intervals, tested by PCR, failed to show amplification at 12, 24-72 hours. HSV-1 infected cells treated with Acyclovir (antiviral drug) did not show any amplification by PCR. In this preliminary study, the Indian medicinal plant extract, Swertia chirata showed antiviral properties against Herpes simplex virus type-1.

  19. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  20. In vitro inhibitory activities of selected Australian medicinal plant extracts against protein glycation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes linked to type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Deo, Permal; Hewawasam, Erandi; Karakoulakis, Aris; Claudie, David J; Nelson, Robert; Simpson, Bradley S; Smith, Nicholas M; Semple, Susan J

    2016-11-04

    There is a need to develop potential new therapies for the management of diabetes and hypertension. Australian medicinal plants collected from the Kuuku I'yu (Northern Kaanju) homelands, Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential. Extracts were tested for inhibition of protein glycation and key enzymes relevant to the management of hyperglycaemia and hypertension. The inhibitory activities were further correlated with the antioxidant activities. Extracts of five selected plant species were investigated: Petalostigma pubescens, Petalostigma banksii, Memecylon pauciflorum, Millettia pinnata and Grewia mesomischa. Enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts was assessed against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Antiglycation activity was determined using glucose-induced protein glycation models and formation of protein-bound fluorescent advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and using the ferric reducing anti-oxidant potential assay (FRAP). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. Extracts of the leaves of Petalostigma banksii and P. pubescens showed the strongest inhibition of α-amylase with IC50 values of 166.50 ± 5.50 μg/mL and 160.20 ± 27.92 μg/mL, respectively. The P. pubescens leaf extract was also the strongest inhibitor of α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 167.83 ± 23.82 μg/mL. Testing for the antiglycation potential of the extracts, measured as inhibition of formation of protein-bound fluorescent AGEs, showed that P. banksii root and fruit extracts had IC50 values of 34.49 ± 4.31 μg/mL and 47.72 ± 1.65 μg/mL, respectively, which were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than other extracts. The inhibitory effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and the antiglycation potential of the

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  2. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  3. Determination of rutin and quercetin in Chinese herbal medicine by ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Chen, Meilan; Fan, Yunchang; Elsebaei, Fawzi; Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-15

    A novel ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction (IL-PLE) procedure coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem chemiluminescence (CL) detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of rutin and quercetin in four Chinese medicine plants including Flos sophorae Immaturus, Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge, Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Folium Mori was described in this paper. To avoid environmental pollution and toxicity to the operators, ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(n)mim][Cl]) aqueous solutions were used in the PLE procedure as extractants replacing traditional organic solvents. In addition, chemiluminescence detection was utilized for its minimal interference from endogenous components of complex matrix. Parameters affecting extraction and analysis were carefully optimized. Compared with the conventional ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the optimized method achieved the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time with the least solvent consumption. The applicability of the proposed method to real sample was confirmed. Under the optimized conditions, good reproducibility of extraction performance was obtained and good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9997 and 0.9999. The detection limits of rutin and quercetin (LOD, S/N=3) were 1.1×10(-2)mg/L and 3.8×10(-3)mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries of rutin and quercetin for real samples were 93.7-105% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5.7%. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first contribution to utilize a combination of IL-PLE with chemiluminescence detection. And the experimental results indicated that the proposed method shows a promising prospect in extraction and determination of rutin and quercetin in medicinal plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  5. In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.

    PubMed

    Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; β-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions.

  6. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  7. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  8. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  9. [Comparison between the post-column derivatization with bromine by HPLC and the fluorometric analysis for determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs and plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-hui; Chen, Jian-min

    2004-12-01

    To compare the post-column derivatization technique (IAC-PCD-HPLC) for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the rapid procedure with fluorometric analysis (SFB) for the determination of total aflatoxins. The method of post-column derivatization with bromine by HPLC consisted of extraction of the sample with MeOH-H2O (70:30) followed by clean-up of the extracts with immunoaffinity columns and finally, HPLC determination with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an on-line post-column derivatization system. In SFB method, samples were ground and extracted with methanol-water (70:30). A portion of the extract was cleaned up by passage through a immunoaffinity column, One mL of purified extract was derivatized with a bromine reagent, and fluorescence of the solution was immediately quantified with a calibrated fluorometer containing a broad wavelength pulsed xenon light source. In IAC-HPLC method, the overall average recoveries for three different medicinal herbs spiked at levels of 1.3 and 2.6 ng x g(-1) of total aflatoxins ranged from 93% to 97%. The detection limit was 0. 06 microg x kg(-1) for both G2 and B2 and 0.20 microg x kg(-1) for both G1 and B1, based on a signal/noise 3:1 and the precision (within-laboratory relative standard deviation) ranged from 0.8% to 1.4%. Each of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in 39 kind medicinal materials were determined by IAC-PCD-HPLC, and the total aflatoxins were determined by SFB. The SFB method is not the suitable method for the determination of total aflatoxins in medicinal herbs and plant extracts.

  10. Online solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of five tannins in traditional Chinese medicine injections.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lin, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Shaohua; Wang, Sicen

    2016-03-01

    A rapid analytical method based on online solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been established and applied to the determination of tannin compounds that may cause adverse effects in traditional Chinese medicine injections. Different solid-phase extraction sorbents have been compared and the elution buffer was optimized. The performance of the method was verified by evaluation of recovery (≥40%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6%), linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.993), and limit of quantification (≤0.35 μg/mL). Five tannin compounds, gallic acid, cianidanol, gallocatechin gallate, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloylglucose, were identified with concentrations ranging from 3.1-37.4 μg/mL in the analyzed traditional Chinese medicine injections.

  11. An effective high-speed countercurrent chromatographic method for preparative isolation and purification of mollugin directly from the ethanol extract of the Chinese medicinal plant Rubia cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanbin; Liu, Rui; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2007-06-01

    The medicinal plant Rubia cordifolia has been used widely in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for its antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, a preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method for isolation and purification of the bioactive component mollugin directly from the ethanol extract of R. cordifolia was successfully established by using light petroleum (bp 60-90 degrees C)/ethanol/diethyl ether/water as the two-phase solvent system. The upper phase of light petroleum/ethanol/diethyl ether/water (5:4:3:1 v/v) was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. Under the optimum conditions, 46 mg of mollugin at 98.5% purity, as determined by HPLC, could be yielded from 500 mg of the crude extract in a single HSCCC separation. The peak fraction of HSCCC was identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  12. First comprehensive study on total contents and hot water extractable fraction of selected elements in 19 medicinal plants from various locations in Nyamira County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, Volker; Mogwasi, Richard; Zor, Salim; Getenga, Zachary; Kariuki, David K; Günther, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya. The obtained comprehensive data set showed large variability and multivariate data analysis revealed that the differences in the elemental composition were stronger dependent on the plant species than on the sampling location. In addition, hot water extractions were performed to mimic the traditional preparation of medicine from the plants. It was found that the mean extraction efficiencies were below 20% except for B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo, Cd and Tl, which are mostly essential elements apart from Cd and Tl. Sequential (ultra)filtration of the extracts was applied as novel approach for molecular size-fractionation of the extracted elemental species. The results indicate more than 50% low molecular weight species (<3kDa) for Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn while predominantly larger size-fractions (>3kDa up to<5μm) were detected for V, Cu, Al and Fe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis.

  14. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From a Traditional Medicinal Plant to a Rational Drug: Understanding the Clinically Proven Wound Healing Efficacy of Birch Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Sandra; Naumann, Katrin; Pollok, Simone; Wardecki, Tina; Vidal-y-Sy, Sabine; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Boerries, Melanie; Schmidt, Gudula; Brandner, Johanna M.; Merfort, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract) as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. Methodology/Principal Findings We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM). Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently needs effective remedies

  16. Compound to Extract to Formulation: a knowledge-transmitting approach for metabolites identification of Gegen-Qinlian Decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Wang, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Miao, Wen-Juan; Li, Yan-Jiao; Xiang, Cheng; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2016-12-20

    Herbal medicines usually contain a large group of chemical components, which may be transformed into more complex metabolites in vivo. In this study, we proposed a knowledge-transmitting strategy for metabolites identification of compound formulas. Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD) is a classical formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is widely used to treat diarrhea and diabetes in clinical practice. However, only tens of metabolites could be detected using conventional approaches. To comprehensively identify the metabolites of GQD, a "compound to extract to formulation" strategy was established in this study. The metabolic pathways of single representative constituents in GQD were studied, and the metabolic rules were transmitted to chemically similar compounds in herbal extracts. After screening diversified metabolites from herb extracts, the knowledge was summarized to identify the metabolites of GQD. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)), fragment-based scan (NL, PRE), and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were employed to identify, screen, and monitor the metabolites, respectively. Using this strategy, we detected 131 GQD metabolites (85 were newly generated) in rats biofluids. Among them, 112 metabolites could be detected when GQD was orally administered at a clinical dosage (12.5 g/kg). This strategy could be used for systematic metabolites identification of complex Chinese medicine formulas.

  17. Compound to Extract to Formulation: a knowledge-transmitting approach for metabolites identification of Gegen-Qinlian Decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xue; Wang, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Miao, Wen-juan; Li, Yan-jiao; Xiang, Cheng; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines usually contain a large group of chemical components, which may be transformed into more complex metabolites in vivo. In this study, we proposed a knowledge-transmitting strategy for metabolites identification of compound formulas. Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD) is a classical formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is widely used to treat diarrhea and diabetes in clinical practice. However, only tens of metabolites could be detected using conventional approaches. To comprehensively identify the metabolites of GQD, a “compound to extract to formulation” strategy was established in this study. The metabolic pathways of single representative constituents in GQD were studied, and the metabolic rules were transmitted to chemically similar compounds in herbal extracts. After screening diversified metabolites from herb extracts, the knowledge was summarized to identify the metabolites of GQD. Tandem mass spectrometry (MSn), fragment-based scan (NL, PRE), and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were employed to identify, screen, and monitor the metabolites, respectively. Using this strategy, we detected 131 GQD metabolites (85 were newly generated) in rats biofluids. Among them, 112 metabolites could be detected when GQD was orally administered at a clinical dosage (12.5 g/kg). This strategy could be used for systematic metabolites identification of complex Chinese medicine formulas. PMID:27996040

  18. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications.

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Extracts of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Different Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Nabeel; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding Lahore, Pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. After studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a Soxhlet extractor. Different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The antimicrobial potential of 5 G. lucidum samples against 5 fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Alternaria alternata) was observed. The lowest biomass reduction (7%) was observed in 1% and 2% concentrations of a methanolic extract and 6% in the case of a water extract. Major inhibition was observed using higher concentrations of the methanolic extract (3% and 4%). These extracts significantly suppressed fungal biomass up to 38% and 56% in A. niger, 47% in A. flavus, 58% in ,i>Penicillium sp., 46% in A. alternaria, and 45% in F. oxysporum compared with the control. It was concluded from these studies that methanolic extracts of G. lucidum showed better activity against all plant fungal pathogens when compared with the water extracts.

  20. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract.

  1. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Dysosma

  2. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  3. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  4. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods.

  5. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity potentials of husk fiber extracts from Cocos nucifera, a medicinal plant used in Nigeria to treat human malaria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, J O; Santana, A E G; Krettli, A U

    2012-03-01

    Nigeria is an African country where transmission of malaria occurs all year round and where most inhabitants use plants as remedies against parasitic diseases, including malaria. Some of such medicinal plants have their antimalarial efficacies already demonstrated experimentally, active compounds isolated and the mechanism of drug action suggested. Decoction of Cocos nucifera husk is used in the middle belt region of Nigeria as an antimalarial remedy. In our current studies, we tested extracts from husks of four varieties of C. nucifera, all collected in Brazil, where the plant fruit is popularly named 'coco'. The husks of coco mestiço, amarelo, anão and gigante collected in the Northeast of Brazil were used to prepare extracts at the Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), which were then tested for their antiplasmodial activities, cytotoxicities and hemolytic activities in vitro. Only the hexane extract of coco mestiço was active against the blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite maintained in continuous culture. Most extracts presented selectivity indices of <10, while hexane extract of coco mestiço had a selectivity index of 35, meaning that the extract is not toxic. The isolation of the active compounds from coco mestiço husks has not yet been done.

  6. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity.

  7. Assessment of total phenolic compounds and in vitro free radical scavenging potentials of water extracts of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use in folkloric medicine.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Alafiatayo Akinola; Ahmad, Syahida; Maziah, Mahmood

    2016-05-01

    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.

  8. Preparation of a core-shell magnetic ion-imprinted polymer via a sol-gel process for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Xiao, Deli; He, Jia; Li, Hui; He, Hua; Dai, Hao; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-21

    A novel magnetic surface ion-imprinted polymer (c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP) was synthesized for the first time using magnetic CNTs/Fe3O4 composites (c-MMWCNTs) as the core, 3-ammonium propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and Cu(II) as the template. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP was evaluated for selective extraction of Cu(II) from herbal medicines via a magnetic solid phase extraction (M-SPE) procedure. One factor affecting the separation and preconcentration of the target heavy metal was pH. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity of c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP toward Cu(II) were estimated. The results indicated that the adsorption mechanism corresponds to a pseudo-second order adsorption process, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.985 and a maximum adsorption capacity of 42.2 mg g(-1). The relative selectivity factor (β) values of Cu(II)/Zn(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 38.5 and 34.5, respectively. c-MMWCNTs-SiO2-IIP, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, was successfully applied in the extraction and detection of Cu(II) in herbal medicine, with high recoveries ranging from 95.6% to 108.4%.

  9. Microwave-assisted one-step extraction-derivatization for rapid analysis of fatty acids profile in herbal medicine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Mou, Zhao-Li; Hao, Shuang-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2012-11-07

    A rapid and practical microwave-assisted one-step extraction-derivatization (MAED) method was developed for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acids profile in herbal medicine. Several critical experimental parameters for MAED, including reaction temperature, microwave power and the amount of derivatization reagent (methanol), were optimized with response surface methodology. The results showed that the chromatographic peak areas of total fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids content obtained with MAED were markedly higher than those obtained by the conventional Soxhlet or microwave extraction and then derivatization method. The investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of the derivatization reaction revealed that microwave assistance could reduce activation energy and increase the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor. The MAED method simplified the sample preparation procedure, shortened the reaction time, but improved the extraction and derivatization efficiency of lipids and reduced ingredient losses, especially for the oxidization and isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. The simplicity, speed and practicality of this method indicates great potential for high throughput analysis of fatty acids in natural medicinal samples.

  10. Application of cytoplasmic Ca2+ fluorescence imaging techniques to study the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine ginseng extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Heming; Liu, Songhao

    2009-11-01

    The exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine offers advantages including good efficiency and smaller side-effects, however, the exact mechanisms have not been classified. A lot of literatures indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations of skeletal muscle cells increased significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. This study is aimed to establish a rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue. We applied cytoplasmic Ca2+ fluorescence imaging techniques to study the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by Chinese medicine ginseng extract. In our research, the muscle tissues from the newborn 3 days rats were taken out and digested into cells. The cells were randomly divided into the ginseng extract group and the control group. The cells from the two groups were cultured in the medium respectively added 2mg/ml ginseng extract and 2mg/ml D-hanks solution. After differentiating into myotubes, the two groups of cells treated with a fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM were put on the confocal microscope and the fluorescence intensity of cells pre- and post- stimulation with dexamethasone were detected. It was found that cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of the two groups of cells both increased post-stimulation, however, the increasing amplitude of fluorescence intensity of the ginseng extract group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In conclusion, stimulating the cells with dexamethasone is a kind of workable cell models of exercise-induced fatigue, and the molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced fatigue eliminated by ginseng extract may be connected to regulatating cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations.

  11. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  12. Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 μg/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 μg/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics.

  13. The aqueous extract of Chinese medicinal herb Brucea javanica suppresses the growth of human liver cancer and the derived stem-like cells by apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-He; Kim, Seung-Hun; Fan, Po-Wei; Liu, Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Chang-Hung; Fang, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Being effective and relatively safe, the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Brucea javanica (BJ) has been valuable in curing patients in East Asia and its nearby regions for years. Recent reports suggested that the medicinal herb possesses broad antitumor activity against various cancer cells. This study evaluated whether low concentrations of BJ aqueous extract inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells. Experiments including flow cytometry and Western blot analysis established the development of apoptotic cell death after treatment. Further experiments evaluated the growth of the enriched spheroids. BJ not only reduced the expression of stem cell markers but also eliminated tumor spheroids by apoptotic death. The findings suggest BJ is a promising supplement to the current therapy regimen and highlight the opportunity of BJ as a practical avenue to suppress the growth of the stem cells in liver cancer. PMID:27382253

  14. Sequential extraction results in improved proteome profiling of medicinal plant Pinellia ternata tubers, which contain large amounts of high-abundance proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Erhui; An, Sufang; Gong, Fangping; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of the Oyster Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Identification of a New Antimicrobial Compound.

    PubMed

    Younis, Ahmed M; Wu, Fang-Sheng; El Shikh, Hussien H

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that also has high medicinal values. In this study, P. ostreatus was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria. The freeze-dried fruiting body, broth from submerged culture, and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus were extracted using alcohols and water as solvents. The extracts were then tested for their antimicrobial activity against the growth of fungi and bacteria. It was observed that the water extract from fruiting bodies had the strongest effect in inhibiting the growth of most fungi. The most sensitive test microfungi to the inhibition were Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicola, and Trichosporon cutaneum, and the most sensitive test bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli. Water extracts from culture broth or mycelial biomass were moderately inhibitive to the growth of fungi and bacteria. The alcohol-based solvents from all samples had much less antimicrobial activity against most test microorganisms. An antimicrobial compound was purified from the water extracts of fruiting bodies with Sephadex G 100 column chromatography and characterized by infrared absorption spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopic analysis. We have identified this compound to be 3-(2-aminopheny1thio)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid. This purified compound had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL against the growth of fungi and bacteria, respectively.

  16. An extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells to cytokine and chemokine production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Førland, D T; Johnson, E; Tryggestad, A M A; Lyberg, T; Hetland, G

    2010-03-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), which has been used in traditional medicine against a range of diseases and possess immunomodulating properties, probably due to its high content of beta-glucans. Others and we have demonstrated stimulatory effects of extracts of this mushroom on different immune cells. Dendritic cells are major directors of immune function. We wanted to examine the effect of AbM stimulation on signal substance release from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). After 6d incubation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, the cells were true MDDC. Then the cells were further incubated with up to 10% of the AbM-based extract, AndoSan, LPS (0.5 microg/ml) or PBS control. We found that the AbM extract promoted dose-dependent increased levels of IL-8, G-CSF, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and MIP-1beta, in that order. The synthesis of IL-2, IL-8 and IFNgamma were similar for the AbM extract and LPS. However, AndoSan induced a 10- to 2-fold higher production than did LPS of G-CSF, TNFalpha and IL-1beta, respectively. AbM did not induce increased synthesis of Th2 or anti-inflammatory cytokines or the Th1 cytokine IL-12. We conclude that stimulation of MDDC with an AbM-based extract resulted in increased production of proinflammatory, chemotactic and some Th1-type cytokines in vitro.

  17. Promotion of wound healing by Plantago major L. leaf extracts--ex-vivo experiments confirm experiences from traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Nybom, Hilde; Lindholm, Christina; Brandner, Johanna M; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    The wound-healing properties of Plantago major L. (plantain) were evaluated using an ex-vivo porcine wound-healing model. Ethanol- and water-based extracts were prepared from greenhouse-grown and freeze-dried leaves of P. major. Both types of extracts stimulated wound healing in porcine skin, but the ethanol-based extracts had a somewhat stronger effect. A concentration of 1.0 mg/mL (on dry weight basis) produced the best results for both types of extracts.

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Mathew; Naidoo, Vinasan; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-02-26

    Helminthiasis is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. Haemonchus contortus is the singular most important helminth responsible for major economic losses in small ruminants. The high cost of anthelmintics to small farmers, resistance to available anthelmintics and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicates matters. The use of plants and plant extracts as a possible source of new anthelmintics has received more interest in the last decade. Our aim was not to confirm the traditional use, but rather to determine activity of extracts.Based on our past experience acetone was used as extractant. Because it is cheaper and more reproducible to evaluate the activity of plant extracts, than doing animal studies, the activity of acetone leaf extracts of thirteen plant species used traditionally in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa were determined using the egg hatch assay and the larval development test. Cytotoxicity of these extracts was also evaluated using the MTT cellular assay. Extracts of three plant species i.e. Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea had EC50 values of 0.62 mg/ml, 0.72 mg/ml and 1.08 mg/ml respectively for the egg hatch assay. Clausena anisata; (1.08 mg/ml) and Clerodendrum glabrum; (1.48 mg/ml) extracts were also active. In the larval development assay the H. trifoliata extract was the most effective with an EC50 of 0.64 mg/ml followed by L. sericea (1.27 mg/ml). The activities in the larval development test were generally lower in most plant species than the egg hatch assay. Based on the cytotoxicity results C. anisata was the least toxic with an LC50 of 0.17 mg/ml, while Cyathea dregei was the most toxic plant with an LC50 of 0.003 mg/ml. The C. anisata extract had the best selectivity index with a value of 0.10 and 0.08 for the two assays, followed by H. trifoliata and L. sericea with values of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.05, 0.04. The C. dregei extract had the worst selectivity

  19. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Celso H; Moraes, Maria Elizabete A; Moraes, Manoel O; Bezerra, Fernando A F; Abib, Eduardo; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger; Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac. The present study investigated the chronic administration of 25 mL Catuama twice a day during 28 days for any toxic effect on healthy human volunteers of both sexes. No severe adverse reactions or haematological and biochemical changes were reported. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Estrogenic and progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of menopause and PMS.

    PubMed

    Locklear, Tracie D; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonists, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERbeta-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC(50) 4.8 microg/mL); bound to both ERalpha and ERbeta (IC(50) 50 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERbeta-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC(50) 22.8 microg/mL). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogenic and Progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of Menopause and PMS

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, Tracie D.; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J.; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. Study design The aerial parts of Justicia pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonist, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. Main outcome measures The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERβ-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. Results The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC50 4.8µg/ml); bound to both ERα and ERβ (IC50 50 µg/ml and 23.1µg/ml, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERβ-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC50 22.8 µg/ml). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 µg/ml. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Conclusions Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. PMID:20452152

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Laila Salim Al; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role. PMID:23570020

  3. Selected Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicines: Their Effect on NF-κB, PPARα and PPARγ and the Respective Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, E.; Atanasov, A. G.; Fakhrudin, N.; Singhuber, J.; Namduang, U.; Heiss, E. H.; Reznicek, G.; Huck, C. W.; Bonn, G. K.; Dirsch, V. M.; Kopp, B.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal (CHM) extracts from fourteen plants were investigated in cell-based in vitro assays for their effect on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a key regulator of inflammation, as well as on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) being key regulators of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 43% of the investigated CHMs showed NF-κB inhibitory and 50% PPARα and PPARγ activating effects. Apolar extracts from cortex and flos of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. and processed rhizomes of Arisaema sp. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. that effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and dose-dependently activated PPARα and PPARγ were further investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation and analysis by GC-MS led to the identification of fatty acids as PPAR agonists, including linoleic and palmitic acid. PMID:22675394

  4. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiysha; Meah, Dilruba; Ahmed, Nadia; Conniff-Jenkins, Rebecca; Chileshe, Emma; Phillips, Chris O; Claypole, Tim C; Forman, Dan W; Row, Paula E

    2013-11-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the

  5. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils

  6. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    PubMed

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of pulp and seed extract of Citrullus Colocynthis, as an antidaibetic medicinal herb, on hepatocytes glycogen stores in diabetic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shafaei, Hajar; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Delazar, Abbas; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal herbs such as Citrullus Colocynthis (C.C) have been used traditionally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However therapeutic applications and adverse effects of C.C and its natural variants are not determined well. The current work investigates the effects of pulp and seed extract of C.C on hepatocyte's glycogen stores. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male rabbits were divided into six groups (control and diabetic) randomly. Alloxan was used in order to induce diabetes mellitus in animals. Among 5 diabetic groups, one remained as control and the rest received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of either pulp or seed extract. One month later, animals were sacrificed and their liver specimen fixed in 10% Formalin was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS) for light microscopic scanning. Results: PAS staining of hepatocytes revealed large amounts of glycogen stores in diabetic animals treated with pulp and seed extracts of C.C, contrary with non-treated diabetic rabbits. Sites of glycogen deposition were also different in animals treated with seed extract (P < 0.0001). No hepatic congestion was seen in treated animals. Dose escalation has no effect on the obtained results. Conclusions: The anti-diabetic effects of C.C can be explained by its effects on accumulation of glycogen stores in hepatocytes. The importance of varied sites of glycogen deposition by the application of C.C needs to be determined. PMID:25625097

  8. Anti-influenza (H1N1) potential of leaf and stem bark extracts of selected medicinal plants of South India

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Maria John, K.M.; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Sekar, Thangavel; Jin, Ki-Joun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activities (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts was studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid contents as well as 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of S. nux-vomica and leaf extract of C. swietenia showed the highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5 μg/mL) and S. minor (22.4 μg/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time S. nux-vomica, C. swietenia and C. swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) was higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease. PMID:26288555

  9. Antiproliferative Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Tsai, Shu-Yao; Lai, Eric Yih-Cherng; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    Using anticancer agents to progress chemotherapy to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells is an effective means. Two medicinal mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea, exhibited various physiological effects, and the antiproliferation effect on HL-60, Hep 3B, and C6 cells was studied. The viability of different cancer cells was decreased significantly by hot water extracts from different forms of G. tsugae and A. cylindracea. The hot water extracts from the fruit body, mycelium, and filtrate of A. cylindracea were less effective in inhibiting the antiproliferation of C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells than were those from G. tsugae, as evidenced by their IC50 values. The IC50 values of G. tsugae on C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells were 1.13, 2.73, and 2.60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas those of baby G. tsugae were 1.87, 2.63, and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the filtrates of G. tsugae on C6 and Hep 3B cells were 2.81 and 2.80 mg/mL, respectively. The morphological transformation of 3 cancer cells was observed clearly, and the possible mechanism would be necrosis, apoptosis, or differentiation. Owing to the noticeable effect on antiproliferation of hot water extracts, especially those from G. tsugae, the extract could be of great potential to be used as an alternative cancer therapy.

  10. Modulatory effect of crude aqueous extract of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), on hematological and antioxidant indices in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Adebisi, Kayode E; Eidangbe, George O; Odutuga, Adewale A; Onyeneke, E Chukwu

    2014-01-01

    Hematological and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Extract was administered at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight by an intragastric tube once daily for 14 d starting from the fourth day after parasite inoculation. At the end of treatment period, mice in each group were sacrificed and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. A significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in serum malondialdehyde content with a corresponding significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the extract-treated groups compared to the infected but untreated group. The results obtained suggest that crude aqueous extract of G. lucidum fruiting bodies possesses potent antioxidant activity that protects hemoglobin against Plasmodium-induced oxidative damage. These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional African and Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent.

  11. Anti-influenza (H1N1) potential of leaf and stem bark extracts of selected medicinal plants of South India.

    PubMed

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Maria John, K M; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Sekar, Thangavel; Jin, Ki-Joun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activities (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts was studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid contents as well as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of S. nux-vomica and leaf extract of C. swietenia showed the highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5 μg/mL) and S. minor (22.4 μg/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time S. nux-vomica, C. swietenia and C. swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) was higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease.

  12. Activity of acetone and methanol extracts from thirty-one medicinal plant species against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Jaeger Greer, Mary R; Cates, Rex G; Johnson, F Brent; Lamnaouer, Driss; Ohai, Levon

    2010-09-01

    Thirty-one medicinal plant species from Hawaii, Morocco, and the Sonoran Desert, USA have been shown in past studies to be highly inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and certain cancer cell lines. However, none were tested for antiviral activity. Acetone and methanol extracts from these species were bio-assayed for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and for cytotoxicity to the Vero C1008 cell line. Extracts from these species were tested in vitro for antiviral activity using an immunoperoxidase mini-plaque reduction assay to detect viral structural protein synthesis. A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was computed. Sulforhodamine B and neutral red assays were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the cytotoxicity of extracts to C1008 cells, and to compute a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) using a dose response curve. Eight of the 31 plant species assayed showed significant antiviral activity against HSV 1 and HSV 2 viruses. The acetone extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers. (Crassulaceae) produced an IC(50) of 0.025 mg/mL and a CC(50) of 1.25 mg/mL yielding a therapeutic index of 50. Additionally, this extract reduced plaque numbers to zero or near zero at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL when added 30 min before or 30 min after virus infection. The mechanism of inhibition against HSV 1 and HSV 2 viruses is now being investigated, along with fractionation of the acetone extract in search of the active compound or compounds.

  13. Effects of crude extracts from medicinal herbs Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale on growth and proliferation of human brain cancer cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    Hitherto, limited clinical impact has been achieved in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBMs). Although phytochemicals found in medicinal herbs can provide mankind with new therapeutic remedies, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials. Therefore, combinations of several agents at once are gaining increasing attractiveness. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crude alkaloid (CAERS) and flavonoid (CFEZO) extracts prepared from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale, respectively, on the growth of human GBM cell line, U251. R. stricta and Z. officinale are traditionally used in folkloric medicine and have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Combination of CAERS and CFEZO treatments synergistically suppressed proliferation and colony formation and effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis in U251 cells. Apoptosis induction was mediated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, increased Bax : Bcl-2 ratio, enhanced activities of caspase-3 and -9, and PARP-1 cleavage. CAERS and CFEZO treatments decreased expression levels of nuclear NF-κBp65, survivin, XIAP, and cyclin D1 and increased expression level of p53, p21, and Noxa. These results suggest that combination of CAERS and CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of GBM.

  14. A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of triterpenoids in medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Gobo, Luciana Assis; Viana, Carine; Lameira, Osmar Alves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado

    2016-08-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry with toluene as a dopant was developed for the determination of triterpenes in medicinal plant extracts. The 12 compounds determined have been shown to exhibit biological activity, such as gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-tumor effects. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure photoionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 to 157.9 µg l(-1) and 1.3 to 526.4 µg l(-1) , respectively. The method was validated and applied to extracts of five medicinal plants species (Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry, Bauhinia variegata var variegata, Bauhinia variegata var alboflava, Cecropia obtuse Trécul and Cecropia palmate Willd) from the Amazonian region. The concentrations of the six triterpenes quantified in the samples ranged from 0.424 mg kg(-1) for ursolic acid to 371.96 mg kg(-1) for β-amyrin, which were quantified by using the standard addition method (n = 3). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Medicinal herb extracts ameliorate impaired growth performance and intestinal lesion of newborn piglets challenged with the virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Lee, Chul Young; Kim, Sung Jae; Han, Jeong Hee; Choi, Keum Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined use of extracts of medicinal herbs Taraxaumi mongolicum, Viola yedoensis Makino, Rhizoma coptidis, and Radix isatidis (MYCI) on porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Twenty-two 3-day-old piglets received an oral challenge with 3 × 10(3.5) TCID50 of the virulent PED virus (PEDV) in PBS or PBS only and daily oral administration of 60 mg of the MYCI mixture suspended in milk replacer or the vehicle for 7 days in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Average daily gain (ADG) increased (p < 0.05) in response to the MYCI treatment in the PEDV-challenged piglets (-18 vs. 7 g for the vehicle- vs. MYCI-administered group), but not in unchallenged animals (27 vs. 28 g). Diarrhea score and fecal PEDV shedding, however, were not influenced by the MYCI treatment. The PEDV challenge caused severe intestinal villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, both of which were alleviated by administration of the MYCI mixture as indicated by an increase in the villus height and a decrease in the crypt depth due to the treatment. Overall, medicinal herb extracts used in this study ameliorated impaired growth performance and intestinal lesion of newborn piglets challenged with the virulent PEDV. Therefore, our results suggest that the MYCI mixture could be used as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent against PED.

  16. Chloroform Extract of Rasagenthi Mezhugu, a Siddha Formulation, as an Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine for HPV-Positive Cervical Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S.; Paul, Preethy; Alshatwi, Ali A.; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Rasagenthi Mezhugu (RGM) is a herbomineral formulation in the Siddha system of traditional medicine and is prescribed in the southern parts of India as a remedy for all kinds of cancers. However, scientific evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in cervical cancer is lacking, and it contains heavy metals. To overcome these limitations, RGM was extracted, and the fractions were tested on HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, ME-180 and SiHa. The extracts, free from the toxic heavy metals, affected the viability of both the cells. The chloroform fraction (cRGM) induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was indicated. Though both the cells responded to the treatment, ME-180 was more responsive. Thus, this study brings up scientific evidence for the efficacy of RGM against the HPV-mediated cervical cancer cells and, if the toxic heavy metals are the limitation in its use, cRGM would be a suitable candidate as evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine for HPV-positive cervical cancers. PMID:22114617

  17. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomford, Nicholas E; Awortwe, Charles; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Dandara, Collet

    2016-02-16

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI) of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI) candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL), followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL), Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL), and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL). Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL) on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17) effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the extracts

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  20. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory.

  1. Inhibition of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice by herbal extracts from some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Shah, Kavita; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune human skin disorder that is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes, scaly plaques, severe inflammation and erythema. The pathophysiology of psoriasis involves interplay between epidermal keratinocytes, T lymphocytes, leukocytes and vascular endothelium. Increased leukocyte recruitment and elevated levels of cytokines, growth factors and genetic factors like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3), 15-lipoxygenase (LOX)-2, coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are the most critical factors governing the exacerbation of psoriasis. In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the preventive role of herbal extracts of four dermo-protective Ayurvedic plants, Tinospora cordifolia (TC), Curcuma longa (CL), Celastrus paniculatus (CP) and Aloe vera (AV), against psoriasis-like dermatitis. Parkes (P) strain mice were initially induced with psoriasis-like dermatitis using topical application of imiquimod (IMQ, 5 %), followed by subsequent treatment with the herbal extracts to examine their curative effect on the psoriasis-like dermatitis-induced mice. The extracts were orally/topically administered to mice according to their ED/LD50 doses. Phenotypical observations, histological examinations, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of the skin and blood samples of the control, IMQ-treated and herbal extract-treated psoriasis-like dermatitis-induced mice lead to the conclusion that the combination extract from all the plants was instrumental in downregulating the overexpressed cytokines, which was followed by the CL extract. Moreover, lesser yet positive response was evident from CP and TC extracts. The results suggest

  2. Analysis and identification of two similar traditional Chinese medicines by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy: Ligusticum chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis and their different extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Jingjuan; Zhang, Guijun; Rong, Lixin; Wu, Haozhong; Sun, Suqin; Guo, Yizhen; Yang, Yanfang; Lu, Lina; Qu, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Rhizoma Chuanxiong (CX) and Radix Angelica sinensis (DG) are very important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and usually used in clinic. They both are from the Umbelliferae family, and have almost similar chemical constituents with each other. It is complicated, time-consuming and laborious to discriminate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, to find a fast, applicable and effective identification method for two herbs is urged in quality research of TCM. In this paper, by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)), we analyzed and discriminated CX, DG and their different extracts (aqueous extract, alcoholic extract and petroleum ether extract). In FT-IR, all the CX and DG samples' spectra seemed similar, but they had their own unique macroscopic fingerprints to identify. Through comparing with the spectra of sucrose and the similarity calculation, we found the content of sucrose in DG raw materials was higher than in CX raw materials. The significant differences in alcoholic extract appeared that in CX alcoholic extract, the peaks at 1743 cm-1 was obviously stronger than the peak at same position in DG alcoholic extract. Besides in petroleum ether extract, we concluded CX contained much more ligustilide than DG by the similarity calculation. With the function of SD-IR, some tiny differences were amplified and overlapped peaks were also unfolded in FT-IR. In the range of 1100-1175 cm-1, there were six peaks in the SD-IR spectra of DG and the intensity, shape and location of those six peaks were similar to that of sucrose, while only two peaks could be observed in that of CX and those two peaks were totally different from sucrose in shape and relative intensity. This result was consistent with that of the

  3. Effect of Components in Water on the Extraction of Herbal Medicine
    —Advanced Approach Using Multivariate Analysis—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzaki, Yasushi

    Many kinds of water products have been offered commercially suggesting some strange efficacy beyond our scientific knowledge even now at which various advanced scientific and technological research have been highly promoted. However, it seems quite obvious that such a strange efficacy must be nonexistent. If such efficacy were really existing, it must be solved by some suitable scientific procedure. In this study, the extraction of paeoniflorin from paeoniae radix was examined by varying the kind of extracting water. Then, the result was analyzed using multivariate analysis where the effect on the extraction was assumed to be ascribed to the ionic species dissolved in each water examined. The dissolved species were analyzed by chemical and instrumental analyses. According to the multivariate analysis, the amount of extracted paeoniflorin (Y) was presented by the following regression equation. The result shows that pH, [Ca2+], and [HCO3 -] were significant parameters and the combination of Ca2+ and HCO3 - affected negatively on the extraction of paeoniflorin.
    Y=28.11-0.71 pH-0.0034[Ca2+]-0.93[HCO3 -]
    where [Ca2+] is the concentration of calcium ion and [HCO3 -] is that of bicarbonate ion.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of five Costa Rican medicinal plants in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Badilla, B; Mora, G; Poveda, L J

    1999-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (Loasaceae), Urtica leptuphylla and Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), and Chaptalia nutans (Asteracene) were studied using the carregeenan induced rat paw edema model. Aqueous extracts of each plant were made according to the ethnobotanical use. The hippocratic assay was made with female rats; the dose used was 500 mg/kg i.p. and the control group received 0.5 ml of n.s.s.. All the animals treated showed hypothermia, and those treated with the extracts of Chaptalia nutans, Urera baccifera and Urtica leptuphylla showed an increased colinergic activity. Acute toxicities of the aqueous extracts were studied in mice an the mean lethal doses ranged between 1.0226 and 1.2022 g/kg. The extracts of Urera baccifera, Chaptalia nutans, Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (500 mg/kg i.p.) showed an anti-inflammatory activity comparable with that of indomethacin. The extracts of U. baccifera and C. nutans, which showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity, did not show it when used orally (500 mg/kg p.o.).

  5. Sequential Extraction Results in Improved Proteome Profiling of Medicinal Plant Pinellia ternata Tubers, Which Contain Large Amounts of High-Abundance Proteins

    PubMed Central

    An, SuFang; Gong, FangPing; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae. PMID:23185632

  6. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. Results For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. Conclusion The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia . PMID:22883637

  7. Toxicity assessment and analgesic activity investigation of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f . and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), medicinal plants of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Konaté, Kiessoun; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Hilou, Adama; Aworet-Samseny, Raïssa R R; Souza, Alain; Barro, Nicolas; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Datté, Jacques Y; M'Batchi, Bertrand

    2012-08-11

    Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. For acute toxicity test, mice were injected different doses of each extract by intraperitoneal route and the LD50 values were determined. For the subchronic toxicity evaluation, Wistar albinos rats were treated by gavage during 28 days at different doses of aqueous acetone extracts and then haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice by the acetic-acid writhing test and by the formalin test. For the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of 3.2 g/kg and 3.4 g/kg respectively for S. acuta Burn f. and S. cordifolia L. were obtained. Concerning the haematological and biochemical parameters, data varied widely (increase or decrease) according to dose of extracts and weight of rats and did not show clinical correlations. The extracts have produced significant analgesic effects by the acetic acid writhing test and by the hot plate method (p <0.05) and a dose-dependent inhibition was observed. The overall results of this study may justify the traditional uses of S. acuta and S. cordifolia .

  8. The Useful Medicinal Properties of the Root-Bark Extract of Alstonia boonei (Apocynaceae) May Be Connected to Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Obiagwu, Miracle Oluebubechukwu; Ihekwereme, Chibueze Peter; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chinedu

    2014-01-01

    Folkloric use of root-bark extract of Alstonia boonei in the treatment and management of many disease conditions may be associated with free radical scavenging as part of its mechanisms of action. We therefore evaluated the ability of different solvent fractions of the methanol extract, crude precipitate from the extract, and isolated compound from the crude precipitate for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of useful phytocompounds. Ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity with IC50 of 54.25 μg/mL while acetone and methanol fractions have 121.79 and 141.67 μg/mL, respectively. The crude precipitate and isolated compound showed IC50 values of 364.39 and 354.94 μg/mL, respectively. The crude precipitate, fractions, and compound 1 showed antioxidant activity against DPPH radical although lower than that of ascorbic acid. PMID:24592332

  9. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  10. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  11. Aqueous and organic solvent-extracts of selected south African medicinal plants possess antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential.

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(50)) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC(50) values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  12. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

  13. Floral Biosynthesis of Mn3O4 and Fe2O3 Nanoparticles Using Chaenomeles sp. Flower Extracts for Efficient Medicinal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Dmitry, Arkhipov; Ishteev, Artur; Gusev, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    Manganese oxide (Mn3O4) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized with the flower extracts of Chaenomeles sp. This is the first ever approach to synthesize nanoparticles from Chaenomeles sp. flower extracts. The organic molecules present in the flower extracts actively converted the nitrate precursor into its corresponding nanoparticles. The organic molecules that are involved in the synthesis of nanoparticles are identified using different phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The identified components are glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, quinines, and steroids. The structural and chemical compositions of the synthesized powder were also analyzed. The x-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the particles show tetragonal and rhombohedral crystalline phases. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the functional groups that are involved in the reduction of nitrates into the corresponding nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the elements in the synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 30-100 nm. Antioxidant analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparticles had excellent antioxidant potential. The antibacterial study showed that they inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Thus, this study proposes a new eco-friendly and nontoxic method to synthesize nanoparticles for medicinal applications.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the genotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of the extracts of roots and leaves from the medicinal plant Coccoloba mollis (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsuboy, Marcela S; Marcarini, Juliana C; Luiz, Rodrigo C; Barros, Iuri B; Ferreira, Dalva T; Ribeiro, Lúcia R; Mantovani, Mário S

    2010-06-01

    Coccoloba mollis (Family Polygonaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in cases of memory loss, stress, insomnia, anemia, impaired vision, and sexual impotence, but the scientific literature, to date, lacks studies on the biological effects of this species, particularly with regard to cytotoxicity and induction of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro (in hepatic HTC cells) ethanolic extracts of the roots and leaves of C. mollis for cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and induction of apoptosis. For these evaluations the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay, comet assay, micronucleus test with cytokinesis block, and an in situ test for detection of apoptotic cells with acridine orange staining were used. The results showed that the extract obtained from the roots of C. mollis is more cytotoxic than that obtained from the leaves and that the reduction in cell viability observed in the MTT assay was a result, at least in part, from the induction of apoptosis. Both extracts induced DNA damage at a concentration of 20 microg/mL in the comet assay, but no genotoxicity was detected with any of the treatments carried out in the micronucleus test.

  15. Protection of rats from thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis by the extracts of a traditional Uighur medicine Cichorium glandulosum

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dongmei; Nie, Yaru; Wen, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To clarify the protective effects of Cichorium glandulosum (CG) extracts on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat hepatic fibrosis. Materials and Methods: The dry roots of CG were smashed and percolated with 95% ethanol, and the residual was prepared into petroleum ether extract (CG-V), ethyl acetate extract (CG-VI) and n-butyl alcohol extract (CG-VII). Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a CG-V group (15 mg/kg), a CG-VI group (3 mg/kg), a CG-VII group (6 mg/kg) and a positive drug group (silibinin capsule, 8 mg/kg). Organ indices and serum levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic and glutamic-pyruvic transaminases of intragastrically administered rats were obtained. Expressions of FN, Smad3, IGFBPrP1 and TGF-β1 genes were detected by Western Blot and immunohistochemical assays. Apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Results: Hepatic fibrosis of treatment groups was evidently mitigated. Expressions of FN, Smad3 and TGF-β1 in administration groups were higher than those in normal group, and moreover were significantly higher in CG-V and CG-VII groups than those of model group. Apoptotic index of model group was significantly higher than that of normal group, but indices of CG-V and CG-VII groups were significantly lower than that of model group. Significantly more FN, Smad3 and IGFBPrP1 were expressed in treatment groups than those in normal group. Conclusion: CG extracts may function by altering TGF-β/Smads signal transduction pathway. PMID:25691930

  16. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  17. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants in inhibition of growth, adherence, and cytotoxin production of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sandra L; Heredia, Norma; Contreras, Juan F; García, Santos

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. is recognized as one of the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Campylobacter infection causes campylobacteriosis, which can range from asymptomatic to dysentery-type illnesses with severe complications, such as Guillian-Barre syndrome. Epidemiological studies have revealed that consumption of poultry products is an important risk factor of this disease. Adherence and cytotoxic activity of the bacteria to host mucosal surfaces have been proposed to be critical steps in pathogenesis. Innovative tools for controlling Campylobacter, such as natural products from plants, represent good alternatives for use in foods or as therapeutic agents. In this study, 28 edible or medicinal plants species were analyzed for their bactericidal effects on the growth of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The extracts of Acacia farnesiana, Artemisia ludoviciana, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Cynara scolymus were the most effective against these microorganisms at minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 0.3, 0.5, 0.4, and 2.0 mg/mL, respectively. No effect on growth was detected with lower concentrations of extract (25%, 50%, or 75% of the MBC) added to the media. The effect of each extract (75% of the MBC) on adherence and cytotoxicity of C. jejuni and C. coli was evaluated in Vero cells. Adherence of Campylobacter to Vero cells was significantly affected by all the extracts. Cytotoxic activity of bacterial cultures was inhibited by A. farnesiana and A. ludoviciana. These plant extracts are potential candidates to be studied for controlling Campylobacter contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. Innovative tools for controlling Campylobacter, such as natural products from plants, represent good alternatives for use in foods or as therapeutic agents. The extracts of Acacia farnesiana, Artemisia ludoviciana, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Cynara scolymus

  18. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less.

    PubMed

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (-)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model.

  19. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  20. Toxicity of herbal extracts used in ethno-veterinary medicine and green-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti and microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Banumathi, Balan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are arboviral diseases mainly vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Presently, there is no treatment for these viral diseases and their prevention is still based on vector control measures. Nanopesticides fabricated using herbal extracts as reducing and capping agents currently represent an excellent platform for pest control. In this scenario, the present study assessed the acute toxicity of seven plants employed in ethno-veterinary medicine of southern India, as well as the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. Larvae were exposed to extracts of the seven plants obtained with solvents of different polarity (acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether, and water) for 24 h. Maximum efficacy was observed for Lobelia leschenaultiana leaf extracts prepared using all the four solvent extracts (LC50 = 22.83, 28.12, 32.61, and 36.85 mg/L, respectively). Therefore, this plant species was used for the synthesis and stabilization of ZnO nanoparticles based on its maximum efficacy against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. L. leschenaultiana-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles showed 100% mortality when tested at 10 mg/L, the LC50 was extremely low,  1.57 mg/L. Zinc acetate achieved only 65.33% when tested at 60 mg/L, with a LC50 of 51.62 mg/L. Additionally, ZnO nanoparticles inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and also inhibited biofilm formation on selected microbila pathogens, showing impact on EPS production and hydrophobicity. Overall, our results suggest that L. leschenaultiana-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles have a significant potential to control A. aegypti mosquitoes and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  1. Antioxidant compounds and activities of the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of the anti-smoking Thai medicinal plant: Vernonia cinerea Less

    PubMed Central

    Ketsuwan, Nitinet; Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Kothan, Suchart; Singhatong, Supawatchara

    2017-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea (VC) Less has been proposed as a medicinal plant with interesting activities, such as an aid for smoking cessation worldwide. Despite its previous clinical success in smoking cessation by exhibiting reduced oxidative stress, it has not been approved. The aim of this study was to investigate various antioxidant activity and active compounds that have not been approved, including the protective activity in human red blood cells (RBCs), from the stem, flower, and leaf extracts of VC Less in vitro. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their active compounds: total tannin, five catechin (C) compounds (epicatechin gallate [ECG], C, epicatechin [EC], epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and (−)-epigallocatechin [EGC]), flavonoid, nitrite, nitrate, caffeine, and nicotine. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated in 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-treated RBCs. The results showed that the flower and leaf of VC Less had higher activity than the stem in scavenging DPPH radicals. The tannin content in the flower and leaf was higher than that in the stem. The leaf had the highest content of the five catechins (C, EC, EGCG, ECG, and EGC), the same as in the flavonoid, when compared to the stem and flower. Furthermore, the leaf extract had higher nitrate and nitrite than the stem. Nicotine content was found to be higher in the leaf when compared to the flower. In addition, the leaf showed protective activity in glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, with a dose response in AAPH-oxidized RBCs, the same as in standard EGCG. Thus, this study concluded that radical scavenging and antioxidant compounds such as catechins, flavonoid, nitrate and nitrite, and nicotine are present in different VC Less parts and are included in the AAPH-oxidized RBC model. PMID

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  3. Effect of a phytopharmaceutical medicine, Ginko biloba extract 761, in an animal model of Parkinson's disease: therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Patricia; Montes, Pedro; Rojas, Carolina; Serrano-García, Norma; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2012-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract 761 (EGb 761) is a patented and well-defined mixture of active compounds extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves. This extract contains two main groups of active compounds, flavonoids (24%) and terpenoids (6%). EGb 761 is used clinically to treat dementia and vaso-occlusive and cochleovestibular disorders. This extract has neuroprotective effects, exerted probably by means of its antioxidant function. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2% of the population older than 60 y. It produces a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and depletion of dopamine (DA), leading to movement impairment. The production of reactive oxygen species, which act as mediators of oxidative damage, is linked to PD. This disease is routinely treated with the DA precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. However, this produces severe side effects, and its neurotoxic properties can be due to a free radical production. Thus, administration of antioxidant drugs might be used to prevent neuronal death produced by oxidative mechanisms. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased because of their suspected activity as carcinogenic promoters. We describe the studies related to the antioxidant effect of EGb 761 in an animal model of PD. It has been shown that EGb761 can provide a neuroprotective/neurorecovery effect against the damage to midbrain DA neurons in an animal model of PD. EGb 761 also has been found to lessen the impairment of locomotion, correlating with an increase of DA and other morphologic and biochemical parameters related to its antioxidant effect in an animal model of PD. These studies suggest it as an alternative in the future treatment of PD.

  4. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  5. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

    2002-06-01

    The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05). The WEE of P. peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analgesic effect of extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs Moutan cortex and Coicis semen on neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Shinichi; Mabuchi, Tamaki; Abe, Tetsuya; Xu, Li; Minami, Toshiaki; Ito, Seiji

    2004-11-11

    Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is a clinical disorder characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and tactile pain (allodynia), and remains a significant clinical problem since it is often poorly relieved by conventional analgesics. To seek an analgesic compound(s) in Chinese herbs, we examined the effect of seven Chinese herbs that are routinely prescribed for pain management in two neuropathic pain models: allodynia induced by intrathecal administration of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and by selective L5 spinal nerve transection. The extracts of Moutan cortex and Coicis semen dose-dependently alleviated the PGF2alpha-induced allodynia by oral administration 1 h before intrathecal injection of PGF2alpha. When orally administrated every day for 7 days, these extracts attenuated neuropathic pain in the ipsilateral side, but not in the contralateral side, day 7 after L5 spinal nerve transection. The increase in NADPH diaphorase activity in the spinal cord associated with neuropathic pain was also blocked by these extracts. These results suggest that Moutan cortex and Coicis semen contain substances effective in neuropathic pain.

  7. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  8. Nanocarriers for the delivery of active ingredients and fractions extracted from natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of sildenafil, vardenafil and their analogs from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Xie, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-10-15

    The successfully developed magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) toward six synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors were described. Sildenafil was used as template for the preparation of MMIPs using superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as supporter. The obtained MMIPs were characterized using transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) was used for the analysis of target analytes. The application of MMIPs as selective sorbent in the cleanup of herbal medicine samples prior to HPLC offered simple sample preparation. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of prepared MMIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated. The binding isotherms were obtained for sildenafil and fitted by Freundlich isotherm model. Structurally similar compound of sildenafil and a reference compound protocatechuic acid were used for investing the selective recognition of MMIPs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and biological characterisation of solvent extracts and essential oils from leaves and fruit of two Australian species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) used in aboriginal medicinal practice.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-02-13

    Although no known medicinal use for Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (Pittosporaceae) has been recorded, anecdotal evidence suggests that Australian Aboriginal people used Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd. topically for eczema, pruritis or to induce lactation in mothers following child-birth and internally for coughs, colds or cramps. Essential oil composition and bioactivity as well as differential solvent extract antimicrobial activity from Pittosporum angustifolium are investigated here first, to partially describe the composition of volatiles released in traditional applications of Pittosporum angustifolium for colds or as a lactagogue, and second to investigate antibacterial activity related to topical applications. Essential oils were also investigated from Pittosporum undulatum Vent., first to enhance essential oil data produced in previous studies, and second as a comparison to Pittosporum angustifolium. Essential oils were hydrodistilled from fruit and leaves of both species using a modified approach to lessen the negative (frothing) effect of saponins. This was achieved by floating pumice or pearlite obsidian over the mixture to crush the suds formed while boiling. Essential oil extracts were analysed using GC-MS, quantified using GC-FID then screened for antimicrobial activity using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay (MIC). Using dichloromethane, methanol, hexane and H(2)O as solvents, extracts were produced from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum angustifolium and screened for antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical character. Although the essential oil from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum undulatum demonstrated some component variation, the essential oil from fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium had major constituents that strongly varied according to the geographical location of collection, suggesting the existence of at least two chemotypes; one with high abundance of acetic acid decyl ester. This chemotype had high

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity properties of the crude extracts and fractions of Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer (Compositae): Kenyan traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Njeru, Sospeter Ngoci; Obonyo, Meshack Amos; Nyambati, Samwel Onsarigo; Ngari, Silas Mwaniki

    2015-08-25

    Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer also called "mukarakara" in Mbeere community of Kenya is used in the management of respiratory illness. In this study we investigated antituberculous, antifungal, antibacterial activities including cytotoxicity and phytochemical constituents of this plant. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by disc diffusion and micro dilution techniques. Antituberculous activity was investigated using BACTEC MGIT 960 system while cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay on Vero cells (Methanolic crude extract) and HEp-2 cells (fractions). Finally, phytochemicals were profiled using standard procedures. P. resinosa had high antituberculous activity with a MIC of <6.25 μg/ml in ethyl acetate fraction. The antibacterial activity was high and broad spectrum, inhibiting both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Dichloromethane fraction had the best antibacterial MIC of 31.25 μg/ml against Methicillin-resistant S. aureus while Ethyl acetate fraction had the highest zone of inhibition of 22.3±0.3 against S. aureus. Its effects on tested fungi were moderate with petro ether fraction giving an inhibition of 10.3±0.3 on C. albicans. The crude extract and two fractions (petro ether and methanol) were not within the acceptable toxicity limits, however dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions that exhibited higher activity were within the acceptable toxicity limit (CC50<90). The activity can to some extent be associated to alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthraquinones and phenols detected in this plant extracts. Our findings demonstrate that P. resinosa has high selective potential as a source of novel lead for antituberculous, antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Of particular relevance is high activity against MRSA, S. aureus, C. albicans and MTB which are great public health challenge due to drug resistance development and as major sources of community and hospital based infections.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2016-06-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-05

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  14. Graphene oxide adsorbent based dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with multi-pretreatment clean-up for analysis of trace aflatoxins in traditional proprietary Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Ran, Congcong; Chen, Dan; Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Ye

    2017-02-15

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) method combined with multi-step preparation has been proposed for the evaluation of trace aflatoxins in proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM). After being extracted by methanol, the sample was purified based on multi-step preparation, including dehydration with MgSO4/NaCl and cleanup with neutral alumina. Then GO was used as an adsorbent in D-SPE method for further preconcentration of aflatoxins prior to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The selected conditions were investigated. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize factors affecting adsorption procedure. Under the optimized conditions, good linear relationships had been achieved with the correlation coefficient (R(2)) varying from 0.9904 to 0.9990. The LODs and LOQs were ranging from 0.020 to 0.041ng/mL and 0.061 to 0.125ng/mL, respectively. The results of the recoveries were 74.0-102.7% for the four aflatoxins, while the precisions from 1.8% to 7.2% were obtained, which indicated that the method was suitable for the analysis of aflatoxins in PCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines from Zingiberaceae Family Using Feature Extraction and Cascade Classifier Based on Response Signals from E-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lian; Zou, Hui-Qin; Bauer, Rudolf; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Han, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) by human experience is often inaccurate because individual ability and external factors may influence the outcome. However, it might be promising to employ an electronic nose (E-nose) to identify them. This paper presents a rapid and reliable method for identification of ten different species of CHMs from Zingiberaceae family based on their response signals from E-nose. Ten Zingiberaceae CHMs were measured and their maximum response values were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Result shows that E Zhu (Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.) and Yi Zhi (Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.) could not be distinguished completely by PCA. Two solutions were proposed: (i) using BestFirst+CfsSubsetEval (BC) method to extract more discriminative features to select sensors with higher contribution rate and remove the redundant signals; (ii) employing a novel cascade classifier with two stages to enhance the distinguishing-positive rate (DPR). Based on these strategies, six features were extracted and used in different stages of the cascade classifier with higher DPRs. PMID:25114708

  16. Physico-Chemical Studies on the Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Herbal Extracts and Active Principles of Some Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Indira Priyadarsini, Kavirayani; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the efficacy and mechanism for the reaction of the biologically important radicals with natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is the first step towards the development of future therapeutic agents. The kinetic parameters e.g., formation and decay rate constants predict the efficacy of an antioxidant and its fate after reaction. These parameters also dictate the ease with which competing reactions would occur in a bio-environment. The spectroscopic parameters provide the clue to the site of free radical attack to these antioxidants. Here, in this article an attempt has been made to show the use of physico-chemical methods in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some important medicinal plants commonly used in India and the subcontinent. The systems chosen here for discussions are herbal extracts as such, curcumin from turmeric, methoxy phenols from Indian spices, dehydrogingerdione from ginger and bakuchiol from Psoralea corylifolia. All the examples shown in this article illustrate the potential of the pulse radiolysis coupled with kinetic spectroscopy and other physicochemical techniques for the study of antioxidants either in the form of mixture as in herbal extract or as an isolated compound. PMID:18398494

  17. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  18. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  19. Effects of Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes), Polysaccharide Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamac, Mustafa; Zeytinoglu, Melih; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Gungor; Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Oglakci, Aysegul; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the healing effects of a Phellinus linteus fruiting body hot water extract (PLE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. PLE was given before and after STZ. The preprotective, protective, and postprotective effects of PLE on STZ-induced oxidative stress were studied using biochemical (caspase 3 activity, cytosolic-to-lysosomal ratio of cathepsin B and L, DNA fragmentation levels), ordinary histological and immuno-histochemical investigation parameters. Following oral administration of PLE after STZ application, the serum glucose concentration significantly decreased up to 41.13% compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The hypoglycemic potential of the PLE was further supported by an increase of insulin secretion in the islets of Langerhans. In addition, the number of cells in Langerhans islets increased by 45.89% when PLE was given after STZ application. On the other hand, the use of PLE before oxidative stress could not prevent the onset of diabetes. This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the effect of application time of orally administered Ph. Linteus hot water extract on STZ-induced diabetes.

  20. Sequential Extraction as Novel Approach to Compare 12 Medicinal Plants From Kenya Regarding Their Potential to Release Chromium, Manganese, Copper, and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Mogwasi, R; Zor, S; Kariuki, D K; Getenga, M Z; Nischwitz, V

    2017-07-21

    This study is focusing on a novel approach to screen a large number of medicinal plants from Kenya regarding their contents and availability of selected metals potentially relevant for treatment of diabetes patients. For this purpose, total levels of zinc, chromium, manganese, and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as well as BCR sequential extraction to fractionate the elemental species in anti-diabetic medicinal plants collected from five natural locations in two sub counties in Nyamira County, Kenya. Solanum mauense had the highest zinc level of 123.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg while Warburgia ugandensis had the lowest level of 13.9 ± 0.4 mg/kg. The highest level of copper was in Bidens pilosa (29.0 ± 0.6 mg/kg) while the lowest was in Aloe vera (3.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg). Croton macrostachyus had the highest manganese level of 1630 ± 40 mg/kg while Clerodendrum myricoides had the lowest (80.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg). The highest level of chromium was in Solanum mauense (3.20 ± 0.06 mg/kg) while the lowest (0.04 ± 0.01 mg/kg) were in Clerodendrum myricoides and Warburgia ugandesis among the medicinal plants from Nyamira and Borabu, respectively. The levels of the elements were statistically different from that of other elements while the level of a given element was not statistically different in the medicinal plants from the different sub counties. Sequential extraction was performed to determine the solubility and thus estimate the bioavailability of the four investigated essential and potentially therapeutically relevant metals. The results showed that the easily bioavailable fraction (EBF) of chromium, manganese, zinc, and copper ranged from 6.7 to 13.8%, 4.1 to 10%, 2.4 to 10.2%, and 3.2 to 12.0% while the potentially bioavailable fraction (PBF) ranged from 50.1 to 67.6%, 32.2 to 48.7%, 23.0 to 41.1%, and 34.6 to 53.1%, respectively. Bidens pilosa, Croton macrostachyus, Ultrica dioica

  1. An analysis of oral biopsies extracted from 1995 to 2009, in an oral medicine and surgery unit in Galicia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Diniz-Freitas, Marco; Torreira-Lorenzo, Juan-Carlos; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an analysis of the frequency of oral lesions in biopsies over a 14-year period in the Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology Unit. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of biopsies removed from 1995-2009, recording data regarding age, sex, location of the lesions, biopsy types, anatomical and pathological diagnosis and definitive diagnosis. Results: Of the 562 patients studied, the average age was 51.8 years, with a standard deviation of 18.5 (range 5-96). The distribution by sex was 318 (56.6%) women and 244 (43.4%) men. The most common diagnostic category was mucosal pathologies in 37.9% of cases, followed by odontogenic cysts in 27.8%. Malignant tumors accounted for 3.9% of cases, oral squamous cell carcinomas were the most frequent malignancy, appearing in 22 cases. Bisphosphonate- related osteonecrosis of the jaws was the most common injury within the bone lesions group. Conclusion: Following the performance of 647 biopsies on 562 patients, we can say that the most common injury was radicular cysts (appearing in 108 cases), having found statistical differences in relation to the patients’ sex and age. Key words: Frequency, oral pathology, biopsy. PMID:21743423

  2. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  3. In vitro modulation of oxidative burst via release of reactive oxygen species from immune cells by extracts of selected tropical medicinal herbs and food plants.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, Fawzi; Mesaik, Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Subratty, Anwar H; Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate in vitro immunomodulating properties and potential cytotoxicity of six tropical medicinal herbs and food plants namely Antidesma madagascariense (Euphorbiaceae) (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (Erythroxylaceae) (EM), Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF), Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT). Initially, the crude water and methanol extracts were probed for their capacity to trigger immune cells' NADPH oxidase and MPO-dependent activities as measured by lucigenin- and luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, respectively; as compared to receptor-dependent (serum opsonised zymosan- OPZ) or receptor-independent phorbol myristerate acetate (PMA). Preliminary screening on whole human blood oxidative burst activity showed significant and concentration-dependent immunomodulating properties of three plants AM, FF and OT. Further investigations of the fractions on isolated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mice monocytes using two different pathways for activation of phagocytic oxidative burst showed that ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent extract. None of the active samples had cell-death effects on human PMNs, under the assay conditions as determined by the trypan-blue exclusion assay. Since PMA and OPZ NADPH oxidase complex is activated via different transduction pathways, these results suggest that AM, FF and OT does not affect a specific transductional pathway, but rather directly inhibit a final common biochemical target such as the NADPH oxidase enzyme and/or scavenges ROS. Our findings suggest that some of these plants extracts/fractions were able to modulate significantly immune response of phagocytes and monocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new natural alternative immunomodulatory agents. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Victor; Dzotam, Joachim K; Voukeng, Igor K; Fankam, Aimé G; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells rapidly acquire resistance leading to treatment failures. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of 17 methanol extracts from 11 Cameroonian medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and the best ones were further tested on a panel of 8 other human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes as well as against the normal AML12 hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay meanwhile flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species. In an initial screening using leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, ten extracts from five plants namely Alchornea floribunda, Annona muricata, Euphorbia prostata, Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis displayed IC50 values below 20 µg/mL. They were further tested in 8 other cell lines as well as in normal AML12 hepatocytes. All selected extracts were active against leukemia CEM/ADR5000 cells with IC50 value below 40 µg/mL. IC50 values ranging from 10.13 µg/mL (towards CEM/ADR5000 cells) to 72.01 µg/mL [towards resistant colon carcinoma HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells] for Pachypodanthium staudtii roots and from 0.11 µg/mL (towards CCRF-CEM cells) to 108 µg/mL (towards P-glycoprotein-over-expressing CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin were obtained in the eight other cancer cell lines studied. Extracts from Annona muricata leaves (AML) and seeds (AMS), and Passiflora edulis fruit (PEF) had IC50 values below 1 µg/mL against CCRF-CEM cells and below 10 µg/mL against its MDR subline CEM/ADR5000 cells. AML, AMS and PEF induced MMP-loss-mediated apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells. Results of the present study suggest that some of the tested plants namely Alchornea floribunda, Annona muricata, Euphorbia prostata, Pachypodanthium staudtii and Passiflora edulis represent a source of anticancer drugs. Annona muricata and Passiflora edulis are good cytotoxic plants that

  5. Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mun; Schumacher, H Ralph; Kim, Hocheol; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Pessler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Dried roots of the plants Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis are used in traditional oriental medicine and reportedly possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we investigated the efficacy and mode of action of an extract from these three plants in crystal-induced inflammation. Air pouches were raised on the backs of 8-week-old BALB/c mice. Mice were fed 100 mg/kg body weight of root extracts (A. senticosus:A. sinensis:S. baicalensis mixed in a ratio of 5:4:1 by weight) or vehicle only on days 3–6. Inflammation was elicited on day 6 by injecting 2 mg of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into the pouch. Neutrophil density and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels were determined in the pouch membrane, and the leukocyte count and IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) levels were determined in the pouch exudate. Treatment with the root extracts led to a reduction in all inflammatory parameters: the leukocyte count in the pouch exudate decreased by 82%; the neutrophil density in the pouch membrane decreased by 68%; IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels in the pouch membrane decreased by 100%; the IL-6 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 50%; and the PGE2 concentration in the pouch fluid decreased by 69%. Remarkably, the concentration of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2 rose 5.2-fold in the pouch exudate (p < 0.005), which led to a normalization of the PGD2:PGE2 ratio. A 3.7-fold rise in hematopoietic PGD synthase (h-PGDS) mRNA paralleled this rise in PGD2 (p = 0.01). Thus, the root extracts diminished MSU crystal-induced inflammation by reducing neutrophil recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory factors and increasing the level of the potentially anti-inflammatory PGD2. These results support a need for further studies of the efficacy of these extracts in the treatment of inflammatory arthropathies and suggest elevation of PGD2 levels as a novel mechanism for an anti

  6. Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of Danshen injection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

    2014-11-14

    The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency.

  7. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Siew Ling

    2016-01-01

    Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98 ± 1.04%), with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99 ± 0.80%) and stigmasterol (2.68 ± 0.38%). The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism. PMID:27872792

  8. Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes) Extracts Protect Against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Abnormality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Chin-Chu; Su, Chih-Chung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Phellinus linteus extracts (PLEs) against radiation damage in mice. First, BALB/c mice were irradiated once with γ-rays at 4, 5, 6, or 8 Gy and allowed to recover for 20 days. Results reveal that 8-Gy radiation caused death in 100% of mice on day 13, and 6-Gy radiation caused death in 86.7% of mice (13/15) at the end of the experiment, whereas 4- and 5-Gy radiation did not result in any death. We then used 5-Gy γ-ray radiation to examine the protective effects of PLEs. Mice were orally administered a PLE (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before radiation and for 6 weeks after radiation. γ-Ray radiation significantly decreased body weight starting from week 2 after radiation. Supplementation with a median and high dose of PLE significantly restored body weights starting at weeks 5 and 3, respectively. The radiation-protective agent WR2721 (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) restored body weights starting at week 4. White blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased by radiation, and PLEs (primarily at high doses) and WR2721 significantly prevented hematologic abnormality. These results suggest that PLE has potential as a radioprotective agent.

  9. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Enzo A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  10. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on expression of cytokines and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Førland, D T; Johnson, E; Saetre, L; Lyberg, T; Lygren, I; Hetland, G

    2011-01-01

    An immunomodulatory extract (AndoSan™) based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) has shown to reduce blood cytokine levels in healthy volunteers after 12 days' ingestion, pointing to an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim was to study whether AndoSan™ had similar effects on cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Calprotectin, a marker for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), was also measured. Patients with CD (n = 11) and with UC (n = 10) consumed 60 ml/day of AndoSan™. Patient blood plasma was harvested before and after 6 h LPS (1 ng/ml) stimulation ex vivo. Plasma and faecal calprotectin levels were analysed using ELISA and 17 cytokines [IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12 (Th1), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 (Th2), IL-7, IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, MIP-1β, MCP-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-10] by multiplex assay. After 12 days' ingestion of AndoSan™, baseline plasma cytokine levels in UC was reduced for MCP-1 (40%) and in LPS-stimulated blood for MIP-1β (78%), IL-6 (44%), IL-1β (41%), IL-8 (30%), G-CSF (29%), MCP-1 (18%) and GM-CSF (17%). There were corresponding reductions in CD: IL-2 (100%), IL-17 (55%) and IL-8 (29%) and for IL-1β (35%), MIP-1β (30%), MCP-1 (22%), IL-8 (18%), IL-17 (17%) and G-CSF (14%), respectively. Baseline concentrations for the 17 cytokines in the UC and CD patient groups were largely similar. Faecal calprotectin was reduced in the UC group. Ingestion of an AbM-based medicinal mushroom by patients with IBD resulted in interesting anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by declined levels of pathogenic cytokines in blood and calprotectin in faeces.

  11. The anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of Benjakul extract (a Thai traditional medicine), its constituent plants and its some pure constituents using in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Rattarom, Ruchilak; Itharat, Arunporn

    2017-03-10

    Benjakul (BJK), a Thai traditional medicine preparation, has long been used for balanced health, controlled abnormal of element in the body, carminative, and relief of flatulence. It is composed of five plants: Piper interruptum Opiz., Piper longum L., Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Plumbago indica L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The ethanolic extracts of BJK, its five individual plants, and pure constituents of BJK were investigated for their anti-allergic activity using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-sensitized β-hexosaminidase in the rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. The ethanolic extracts of BJK showed anti-allergic activity (IC50=12.69μg/ml) and exhibited potent NO inhibitory effect (IC50=16.60μg/ml), but inactive on TNF-α release. Moreover, 6-shogaol and plumbagin, two pure compounds from BJK, showed higher anti-allergic activity than the ethanolic BJK extract with IC50 values of 0.28 and 4.03μg/ml, respectively. These compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (CPM), standard drug, with IC50 value of 17.98μg/ml. Determination of the anti-inflammatory activity by measuring the inhibition of NO production presented that plumbagin and 6-shogaol exhibited higher than crude BJK extract with IC50 values of 0.002 and 0.92μg/ml, respectively. In particular, plumbagin also showed higher anti-inflammatory than prednisolone, positive control, with IC50 value of 0.59μg/ml. 6-Shogaol also showed inhibitory effect on TNF-α release (IC50=9.16μg/ml). These preliminary results may provide some scientific support for the use of BJK for the anti-allergic treatment and inflammatory disorders through the inhibition of NO production.

  12. TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

    2011-09-01

    Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant

  13. Efficient genomic DNA extraction protocol from medicinal rich Passiflora foetida containing high level of polysaccharide and polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Lade, Bipin Deochand; Patil, Anita Surendra; Paikrao, Hariprassad Madhukarrao

    2014-01-01

    In Present work, the main objective is to develop less time consuming protocol for genomic DNA isolation from leaves of Passiflora foetida. Optimized protocol is cost effective, as it avoided use of expensive liquid nitrogen. The important parameters of CTAB buffer composition such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP40000 (without PVP, 1%, 2%, 3.5%, 4.0%, 4.5%, 5.0%), CTAB (w, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%), water bath temperature (30°C to 70°C) and duration on water bath for half hr and one and half hr has been optimized. CTAB (2%), PVP (1%), water bath temperature (70%), duration on water bath (1 hr) has efficiently yielded DNA quality of 200-1782 μg/0.5gm from leaf, stem, root, tendril and flower. However, 168 μg - 1782 μg of DNA has been obtained from 0.5 g of leaf of Passiflora foetida. Polyphenol contamination has been overcome using 5M NaCl and PVP. Acetate has been used for obtaining double-stranded DNA in stabilized form. Current DNA extraction protocol takes maximum of four hours for completion, which is many time savings. RAPD-PCR reaction parameters such as DNA concentration (100ng), Primer concentration (2 μM), Dream Taq polymerase (2 U), annealing temperature (29°C) and number of cycles for amplification of DNA has been optimized. Primer fragment Akansha 7 shows high polymorphism of 7 fragments ranges from 200bp - 2500 bp. Current optimized protocol of DNA isolation is specifically for Passiflora foetida, which can be used for downstream molecular techniques.

  14. Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

    2013-01-01

    Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the

  15. A Metabolomic Approach Applied to a Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method (HPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS): Towards the Comprehensive Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Cannabis Medicinal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Citti, Cinzia; Battisti, Umberto Maria; Braghiroli, Daniela; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Schmid, Martin; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2017-09-15

    Cannabis sativa L. is a powerful medicinal plant and its use has recently increased for the treatment of several pathologies. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure. This study aims to highlight the main differences in the chemical composition of Bediol® extracts when the extraction is carried out with either ethyl alcohol or olive oil for various times (0, 60, 120 and 180 min for ethyl alcohol, and 0, 60, 90 and 120 min for olive oil). Cannabis medicinal extracts (CMEs) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using an untargeted metabolomics approach. The data sets were processed by unsupervised multivariate analysis. Our results suggested that the main difference lies in the ratio of acid to decarboxylated cannabinoids, which dramatically influences the pharmacological activity of CMEs. Minor cannabinoids, alkaloids, and amino acids contributing to this difference are also discussed. The main cannabinoids were quantified in each extract applying a recently validated LC-MS and LC-UV method. Notwithstanding the use of a standardised starting plant material, great changes are caused by different extraction procedures. The metabolomics approach is a useful tool for the evaluation of the chemical composition of cannabis extracts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing in the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum by an extract from fruiting bodies of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Liu, Wei; Tian, Baozhen; Liu, Huijun; Ning, Shoujiao

    2011-01-01

    Extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, inhibited quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. G. lucidum fruiting bodies were milled and extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was dissolved in an appropriate concentration of methanol, sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm membrane filter, and added to Ch. Violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used as an indicator to monitor quorum sensing inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. Methanol-soluble compounds extracted from G. lucidum significantly inhibited quorum sensing-controlled behavior in Ch. Violaceum in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that compounds in G. lucidum might be useful to control and handle detrimental infections caused by human, animal, and plant pathogens. Further studies are in progress in our lab to isolate the specific compounds from G. lucidum extract, evaluate them as quorum sensing inhibitors, and analyze their mechanism of action.

  17. Effects of an Enriched Extract of Paeoniflorin, a Monoterpene Glycoside used in Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Cholesterol Metabolism in a Hyperlipidemic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiming; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Su, Jie; Wu, Yajun; Zhu, Yanchen; Wang, Yin; Fang, Hui; Pang, Minxia; Li, Bo; Chen, Suhong; Lv, Guiyuan

    2017-07-14

    BACKGROUND Paeoniflorin is a monoterpene glycoside extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and is used in Chinese herbal medicine to treat hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an enriched extract of paeoniflorin on cholesterol levels, hemodynamics, and oxidative stress in a hyperlipidemic rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-cholesterol diets and treated with three different doses of paeoniflorin for 12 weeks. The effects of paeoniflorin treatment were assessed on cholesterol levels, cholesterol metabolism, red blood cell vascular flow using hemorheology, antioxidant enzymes, and expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). Rat liver histology and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α. Protein expression HMG-CoAR, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), PPAR-α and CYP7A1 was measured by Western blotting. Antioxidant activity in rat liver was determined by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Serum and hepatic cholesterol, hepatic steatosis and the products of cholesterol metabolism were reduced by paeoniflorin treatment, which also reduced the activity of HMG-CoAR and upregulated the expression of LDLR, PPAR-α, and CYP7A1 expression, increased SOD, decreased MDA, and upregulated Nrf2 expression. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study in a rat model of hyperlipidemia have shown that paeoniflorin regulates hepatic cholesterol synthesis and metabolism and may also protect the liver from oxidative stress.

  18. [Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Chebyshev, N V; Shcheglova, T A; Gasparian, É R; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the new agent was low toxic. The lethal doses of irillen were calculated: LD50 was 16377 +/- 457.5 mg/kg; LD16 = 12986.4 mg/kg; LD84 was 18976.6 mg/kg for albino mice; LD50 was 16998.0 +/- 535.4 mg/kg; LD16 = 12875.3 mg/ kg; LD84 = 18583.4 mg/kg for albino rats. The irillen prepared by the authors should be referred to as a low toxic and practically nontoxic agent (Toxicity Class IV and V). Irillen has a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. It is effective in treating toxocariasis in dogs, larval alveolar echinococcosis, ascaridiasis, and eimeriasis in chickens, and siphachiasis.

  19. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick T; Makela, Petra; Robson, Philip; House, Heather; Bateman, Cynthia

    2004-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild.

  20. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.

  1. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Xu, Yanying; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis. PMID:22454653

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) on α-amanitin-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Jinsong; Liao, Qiong; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2013-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum aqueous extracts (GLEs) on liver injury induced by α-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and to analyze the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms related to radical scavenging activity. Mice were treated with α-AMA prepared from Amanita exitialis and then administrated with GLE after the α-AMA injection. The hepatoprotective activity of the GLE was compared with the reference drug silibinin (SIL). α-AMA induced a significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and provoked a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and a significant increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. Treatment with GLE or SIL significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased MDA content in liver compared with the α-AMA control group. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that GLE induces hepatoprotective effects on acute liver injury induced by α-AMA; these protective effects may be related in part to the antioxidant properties of GLE.

  3. Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, Ayman I.; Abuzinadah, Osama A.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; Rahmy, Tarek R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale) on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4). On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas. PMID:22969274

  4. Ethanol extract from Artemisia vestita, a traditional Tibetan medicine, exerts anti-sepsis action through down-regulating the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Li, Yi-Hua; Wu, Xing-Xin; Zheng, Wei; Guo, Zong-Hui; Li, Yang; Chen, Ting; Hua, Zi-Chun; Xu, Qiang

    2006-05-01

    Artemisia vestita Wall., a traditional Tibetan medicine, has wide clinical application for inflammatory diseases. However, its molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism of the ethanol extract from Artemisia vestita (AV-ext) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. Pretreatment with AV-ext significantly decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in serum and liver and lung tissues, and improved the survival of mice with experimental sepsis. AV-ext also remarkably reduced the expression levels of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and dose dependently suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, pretreatment with AV-ext dose dependently inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), as well as the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results collectively reveal that AV-ext inhibits TNF-alpha release from macrophages by suppressing MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and suggest that AV-ext may be beneficial for the treatment of endotoxin shock or sepsis.

  5. Trace determination of five triazole fungicide residues in traditional Chinese medicine samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhao, Pengfei; Sun, Hong; Ye, Xiu; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-08-01

    A novel and reliable method for determination of five triazole fungicide residues (triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, and hexaconazol) in traditional Chinese medicine samples was developed using dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The clean up of the extract was conducted using dispersive solid-phase extraction by directly adding sorbents into the extraction solution, followed by shaking and centrifugation. After that, a mixture of 400 μL trichloromethane (extraction solvent) and 0.5 mL of the above supernatant was injected rapidly into water for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2.0-400 (tebuconazole, diniconazole, and hexaconazole) and 4.0-800 ng/g (triadimenol and flutriafol) with the regression coefficients higher than 0.9958. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the present method were 0.5-1.1 and 1.8-4.0 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 80.2 to 103.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of five triazole fungicides in traditional Chinese medicine samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. In vitro evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae) and Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Abena, Ange-Antoine; Nzoungani, August; Mombouli, Jean-Vivien; Ouamba, Jean-Maurille; Kun, Jürgen; Ntoumi, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts from two medicinal plants, Acanthospermum hispidum and Ficus thonningii, used in traditional medicine in Congo Brazzaville, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities against two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. ELISA HRP2 assay was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts alone or in combination with chloroquine. Cytotoxicity was assessed on human HeLa cell line and reflected by the selectivity index. Methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum exhibited a strong and a moderate inhibitory activity on the growth of Dd2 and 3D7 at 2.8 µg/ml and 9.2 µg/ml concentrations respectively with a selectivity index >10. The combination of the most active extract (methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum) with chloroquine showed a synergistic interaction on both strains. The good selectivity index of Acanthospermum hispidum on HeLa cells reflects the safety of this plant. Extracts from Ficus thonningii did not show any promising antiplasmodial activity on both 3D7 and Dd2. Except the methanolic extract which exhibited a slight antiplasmodial activity with inhibitory concentration and selectivity index corresponding to 9.61 µg/ml and 11.16 respectively. Methanolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum exhibited moderate to high inhibitory activity on 3D7 and Dd2 laboratory strains and a synergistic antimalarial effect when combined with chloroquine. Ficus thonningii seems to have no antimalarial activity. Phytochemical analysis, in vivo investigations using animal models and later clinical trials in collaboration with traditional practitioners are necessary to clarify the potential antimalarial activity of both plants.

  7. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan S; Symonds, Catherine; Birch, Rolfe

    2004-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and baseline pain score of four or more on an 11-point ordinate scale participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period crossover study. All patients had intractable symptoms regardless of current analgesic therapy. Patients entered a baseline period of 2 weeks, followed by three, 2-week treatment periods during each of which they received one of three oromucosal spray preparations. These were placebo and two whole plant extracts of Cannabis sativa L.: GW-1000-02 (Sativex), containing Delta(9)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) in an approximate 1:1 ratio and GW-2000-02, containing primarily THC. The primary outcome measure was the mean pain severity score during the last 7 days of treatment. Secondary outcome measures included pain related quality of life assessments. The primary outcome measure failed to fall by the two points defined in our hypothesis. However, both this measure and measures of sleep showed statistically significant improvements. The study medications were generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events, including intoxication type reactions, being mild to moderate in severity and resolving spontaneously. Studies of longer duration in neuropathic pain are required to confirm a clinically relevant, improvement in the treatment of this condition.

  8. Protective effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction, the water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, H; Gu, L Y; Shang, B Z; Xiong, Y; Wang, C

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in chemotherapy in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. However, the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate its mechanism, we investigated the effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially with regard to apoptosis in the intestinal mucosal epithelia. In the present study, mice were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + BZYQD. Mice in the 5-FU and 5-FU + BZYQD groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 6 days, and the mice in the latter group were given BZYQD (8 g/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning 4 days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. Loss in body weight and diarrhea during the 5-FU treatment were significantly attenuated by administration of BZYQD. The morphological signs of intestinal damage, including shortened villi height, crypt destruction, apoptosis, and necrosis, in intestinal mucosal epithelia were also reversed, accompanied by reduced neutrophil infiltration, nitrite levels, and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) and increased levels of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis, and this effect may be due to the reduction in apoptosis and necrosis in intestinal mucosal epithelia via the suppression of inflammatory cytokine upregulation. In conclusion, inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis or necrosis can be the molecular mechanism by which BZYQD reduces the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Reduction of interleukin-1β induced matrix metalloproteinase-3 release by extracts of six plants: inhibitory screening of 35 traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jehyeon; Chung, Joo-Ho; Lee, Heyjung; Kim, Jinju

    2011-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, leading to destruction of the cartilage. The objective of this study was to investigate and discuss the suitability of the 35 medicinal plants as therapeutic candidates to treat RA. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), derived from patients with RA, were adjusted to 2 × 10(6) cells/mL in a 24-well plate and pretreated with the distilled water extracts of the 35 plants (1, 10, and 100 µg/mL) for 1 h followed by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (1 ng/mL) for 24 h. The concentration of MMP-3 was then determined using a Duoset ELISA Kit. The six plants (Artemisiae Capillaris Herba, AC; Bambusae Caulis In Taeniam, BC; Cassiae Semen, CS; Corni Fructus, CF; Leonuri Herba, LH; Schizonepetae Spica, SS) showed no toxicity, including MMP-3. The MMP-3 level was increased by 3.38-fold (212.23 μg/mL) in IL-1β-stimulated FLSs. The IL-1β-induced MMP-3 level was significantly and dose-dependently reduced by >50% by the six plants (P < 0.01: at 100  μg/ mL of CS and LH, P < 0.001: at 10 μg/mL of all plants, and at 100 μg/mL of AC, BC, CF, and SS). This is the first study on the MMP-3 inhibitory effect of the examined plants in FLSs isolated from RA patients. From our original research, the six candidate plants were identified.

  10. Multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto to prevent bowel dysfunction after adult liver transplantation (DKB 14 Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Yamamoto, Michio; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will aim to determine the ability of an extract (TJ-100) of Daikenchuto (traditional Japanese herbal medicine; Kampo) to prevent bowel dysfunction in at least 110 patients after liver transplantation (LT). Methods and analysis The following co-primary end points will be evaluated on postoperative day 7: total oral and enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension and abdominal pain. The secondary end points will comprise sequential changes of total oral and enteral caloric intake after LT, sequential changes in numeric rating scales for abdominal distension and pain, elapsed time to the first postoperative passage of stool, quality of life assessment using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score (Japanese version), postoperative liver function, liver regeneration rate, incidence of bacteraemia and bacterial strain, trough level of immunosuppressants, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, discharge or not within 2 months after LT, sequential changes of portal venous flow to the graft and ascites discharge. The two arms of the study will comprise 55 patients per arm. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the CONSORT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1996. The findings will be disseminated through scientific and professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number The DKB 14 Study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN-CTR), Japan (registration number: UMIN000014326) during 2014. PMID:26419681

  11. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Methods Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer’s test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. Results OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer’s test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusions Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 71217488 PMID:26457673

  12. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer's test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007). The results of the Schirmer's test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035), however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study. Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. ISRCTN registry 71217488.

  13. Activity of crude cold-water extract of the culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) P.Kumm. (higher Basidiomycetes), and timolol maleate on induced ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ebigwai, Joseph Kayefor; Edu, Esther Aja; Itam, Edisua Hogan; Mofunanya, Ann Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous crude cold-water extract