Raveesh, Bevinahalli N.; Nayak, Ragavendra B.; Kumbar, Shivakumar F.
The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient–doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom “you learn from your mistakes” is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit. PMID:27891020
Raveesh, Bevinahalli N; Nayak, Ragavendra B; Kumbar, Shivakumar F
The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient-doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom "you learn from your mistakes" is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit.
Care homes in the UK are diverse. Some are small, stand alone homes while others are part of large groups. Some homes are in rural areas and some in towns. Staff working in care homes may be registered nurses or care assistants. Care home staff are more likely to work part time than staff working in the NHS. Keeping up to date with changes in practice is one of the challenges of working in a care home, especially a smaller home.
Minossi, José Guilherme
Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped
Morel, Kenneth R
In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings.
Venkatraman, Narayan T; Bhadranna, Abhishek; Shenoy, Sadhana; Mohanty, Leeky
Reading a slide and rendering a diagnosis is not only a science but also requires us to appreciate the constant artifact that is introduced in a controlled manner by tissue processing and obtaining a stained tissue section. There are a number of steps involved in getting the final stained tissue section and all these procedures if not performed properly have the potential to give rise to erroneous picture on the slide. Simple errors in judgments can lead to wrong diagnosis and unwarranted treatment. Such mistakes can put us at risk for Medico-Legal problems. The subject of Medico-Legal issues and practice of pathology has been neglected and amount of information available to the practicing professional in India is scarce. This paper focuses on standardized procedures for the various histopathology laboratory exercises. The paper highlights the importance of proper record maintenance with reporting protocols. A list of do's and don'ts for an Oral Pathologist is provided to help him/her in reducing the probable Medico-Legal issues. It does not in any way address the issue of individual competence and diagnostic abilities: That is an aspect for each individual to introspect upon and take remedial action.
Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne
"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…
Four hundred adult claimants underwent medico-legal assessment following upper limb injuries. Dynamometry was performed on each using the Jamar five handle-position test. Injury causes loss of power and there is a significant relationship between the percentage loss of power and the measured whole limb impairment. This paper presents a new approach for the analysis of the tests. The normal physiological length-tension pattern of muscle is maintained in the majority of claimants albeit with modifications due to the specific effects of injury on hand function. This paper provides normative data for the analysis of dynamometry in this population and makes recommendations for parameters that suggest that a test is a true reflection of capacity and thus useable in court.
Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day
The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…
Bergren, Martha Dewey
This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of…
Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto
A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929
The author, a psycho-sociologist and a professor in the department of sociology at l'Université de Montreal, looks back and reflects on his practice as an intervener in different types of groups. He returns to his first experiences with T-groups and to the analysis of them which he made at the beginning of his practice. Furthermore, this analysis touches on questions that remain very relevant. Thus the author explains why, for social reasons, he came to privilege work with "real groups" rather than that with spontaneous groups. On the basis of twenty years of experience and a view of many group approaches it can be asked whether the question of man in society as a change agent should not be posed to a greater extent within groups. 1) Dans Sociologie A Sociétés, vol. 9, no 2, d'octobre 1977, le lecteur trouvera un article de moi qui préserve une réflexion plus systématique mais sans référence immédiate à ma propre pratique. Oe numéro, entièrement consacré au thème "psychologie, sociologie, intervention" comprend également plusieurs textes qui ne sont pas étrangers à certains thèmes développés ici. On y trouvera aussi de nombreuses références bibliographiques.
In this paper I get clearer on the considerations that ought to inform the evaluation and development of medico-legal competency criteria-where this is taken to be a question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for a patient to be found competent in medico-legal contexts. In the "Decisional Competency in Medico-Legal Contexts" section I explore how the question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for decisional competence is to be interpreted. I begin by considering an interpretation that takes the question to be asking about the abilities needed to satisfy an idealized view of competent decision-making, according to which decisional competency is a matter of possessing those abilities or attributes that are needed to engage in good or effective or, perhaps, substantially autonomous or rational decision-making. The view has some plausibility-it accords with the way decisional competency is understood in a number of everyday contexts-but fails as an interpretation of the question regarding the abilities that should be needed for decisional competence in medico-legal contexts. Nevertheless, consideration of why it is mistaken suggests a more accurate interpretation and points the way in which the question regarding the evaluation of medico-legal competency criteria is to be answered. Building on other scholarly work in the area, I outline in the "Primary and Secondary Requirements" section several requirements that decisional competence criteria ought to satisfy. Then, in the "Applying the Framework" section, I say something about the extent to which medico-legal competency criteria, as well as some models of decisional competency proposed in the academic literature, fulfil those requirements.
Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…
The most likely cause of complaint with prosthodontics is a denture that in some way fails to be accepted. A denture that does not perform as the patient expects can give rise to great disappointment and anger. The problem is that acceptance of a denture is not just a technical issue. Success depends on the individual's ability to tolerate and adapt to the denture. It is therefore essential to make the right assessment for the patient from the outset. This includes discovering the patient's priorities and establishing realistic expectations. With the aim of assisting the dental profession in identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures, this article sets out a systematic, diagnostic and collaborative approach to complete and partial denture assessment and treatment.
Hill, Joan Buchanan
This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…
Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul
Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…
Vigoda, Michael M; Lubarsky, David A
Documentation should ideally occur in real time immediately after completion of a service. Although electronic records often do not print the time that documentation notes were entered on the medical record, automated anesthesia record keeping systems store an audit trail that time stamps events entered by all anesthesia providers. As more lawyers become aware of this fact and requisition audit trails, prospective charting of necessary documentation may undermine the integrity of an anesthesia care team accused of malpractice, with potentially significant medicolegal consequences. We changed existing documentation practices of a large academic practice via a three-step process. Educational sessions increased the percentage of cases with correct timing of emergence documentation from 25% to 60% over a 2-mo period. Automated email performance feedback further increased correct note timing to 70%. When combined with personal contact by a member of the billing office and email copy notification of the chair, the percentage increased to >99.5%. The behavioral change was seen in all individuals, as 95% of attendings had < or = 2 records/mo with untimely documentation at the end of the study period. Once the habits were ingrained, further input was rarely necessary over the next 9 mo. This suggests physician behavioral change related to work process flow, unlike that related to patient care, is easily sustained.
Gurl, Theresa J.; Fox, Ryan; Dabovic, Nikolina; Leavitt, Arielle Eager
The implementation of the Common Core's Standards for Mathematical Practice can pose a challenge to all teachers of mathematics but especially to preservice teachers. These standards require teaching in a way that often differs from what preservice teachers have experienced as learners. Standard 1--"Make sense of problems and persevere in…
Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis
One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology.
von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko
Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.
Weinstein, Yana; Nunes, Ludmila D; Karpicke, Jeffrey D
Retrieval practice improves retention of information on later tests. A question remains: When should retrieval occur during learning-interspersed throughout study or at the end of each study period? In a lab experiment, an online experiment, and a classroom study, we aimed to determine the ideal placement (interspersed vs. at-the-end) of retrieval practice questions. In the lab experiment, 64 subjects viewed slides about APA style and answered short-answer practice questions about the content or restudied the slides (restudy condition). The practice questions either appeared 1 every 1-2 slides (interspersed condition), or all at the end of the presentation (at-the-end condition). One week later, subjects returned and answered the same questions on a final test. In the online experiment, 175 subjects completed the same procedure. In the classroom study, 62 undergraduate students took quizzes as part of class lectures. Short-answer practice questions appeared either throughout the lectures (interspersed condition) or at the end of the lectures (at-the-end condition). Nineteen days after the last quiz, students were given a surprise final test. Results from the 3 experiments converge in demonstrating an advantage for interspersing practice questions on the initial tests, but an absence of this advantage on the final test.
Savickas, Mark L.
The innovative responses of vocational psychology and career counseling to the important questions raised by people living in information societies will continue the disciplines' tradition of helping individuals link their lives to the economic context. The questions pertaining to perspectives, paradigms, and practices arise mainly from the…
Jessee, William F
Answering probing questions in advance of a practice purchase can help hospital and health system leaders make informed decisions. The questions are intended to stimulate careful consideration before entering into a practice acquisition; no single piece of information or answer should be considered definitive in the final decision-making process. Success depends on having a clear game plan and spending time ensuring that all players-board, management, physician leaders, and the physicians who will be employees--understand and support the plan.
In this article, author John Baldacchino presents twenty reflections on art, doubt, and error. In the first five reflections, he produces a discussion of a number of unmediated narratives that tend to aggregate and span across the plural horizon of arts practice. In terms of the arts "as well as" education, these questions are approached…
This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate
Cammarano, Andrea; De Dominicis, Enrico; Marella, Gian Luca; Maurici, Massimo; Arcudi, Giovanni
This article aims to explore the regulatory and medicolegal aspects of experimental drug trials. Firstly, the authors provide definitions of drug according to WHO, the European Community and our official Pharmacopoeia, and that of experimental studies. They then explain the distinction between pure or basic research and drug trials and explain the various phases of the latter. Besides providing definitions, and exploring doctrinal, theoretical but also practical aspects of drug trials, the authors also discuss and analyze legislative aspects, with particular reference to the Italian legislative framework, and medicolegal issues, including informed consent, effects on humans, and professional responsibility.
A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…
Kedarnath, N S; Shruthi, R
An Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon at any time during the practice will encounter medicolegal cases (MLC). There are lacunae in the knowledge and understanding of the correct method of dealing with such cases. Many of the practitioners are apprehensive and anxious as they have to interact with individuals and systems outside the normal realm of practice. In today's arena, it is of utmost importance to be aware of legal system and law of the land. An OMF surgeon needs to have thorough understanding in recording and maintenance of the details of all MLCs and presenting the same in the court. Professional guidelines for expert witness are often not well recognised as those relating to the clinical practice. Surgeon has an obligation to conduct him/herself to highest ethical standards. This article provides insight into the details of registration of MLC, examination and recording of injuries, collecting medico-legal evidences and writing a medico legal report. Also discusses the court proceedings and possible questions that may be faced by the surgeon in the court.
Morgan, Daniel J.; Dhruva, Sanket S.; Wright, Scott M.; Korenstein, Deborah
Importance Overuse of medical care, consisting primarily of overdiagnosis and overtreatment, is a common clinical problem. Objective To identify and highlight articles published in 2014 that are most likely to impact overuse, organized into the categories of overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and methods to avoid overuse. These manuscripts were reviewed and interpreted for their importance to clinical medicine. Evidence Review A structured review of English-language articles on PubMed published in 2014 and review of tables of contents of relevant journals to identify potential articles that related to medical overuse in adults. Findings We reviewed 910 articles, of which 440 addressed overuse. Of these, 104 were deemed most relevant based on the presentation of original data, quality of methodology, magnitude of clinical impact, and the number of patients potentially affected. The 10 most influential articles were selected by author consensus using the same criteria. Findings included lack of benefit for screening pelvic examinations (positive predictive value <5%), carotid artery and thyroid ultrasounds. Harms of cancer screening included unnecessary surgery and complications. Head CT scans were an overused diagnostic test (4% with clinically significant findings) and overtreatment included acetaminophen for low back pain, prolonged opioid use after surgery (3% of patients on >90 days), perioperative aspirin, medications to increase HDL, and stenting for renal artery stenosis. Conclusions and Relevance Many common medical practices should be reconsidered. It is hoped that our review promotes reflection on these 10 articles and lead to questioning other non-evidence based practices. PMID:26551354
Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F
The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.
Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.
The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…
Piras, Mauro; Delbon, Paola; Conti, Adelaide; Capasso, Emanuele; Niola, Massimo; Bin, Paola
Abstract Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB) was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery. PMID:28352816
The new research and practice area of "adults and mathematics" is situated within the didactics of mathematics as it is structured and delimited by the concrete forms of practice and knowledge currently regarded as mathematics teaching, learning, and knowing. "Adults Learning Mathematics" (ALM) is a community of practice and research within the…
Farrell, Helen M
Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes.
Vilardi, Teresa, Ed.; Chang, Mary, Ed.
Written by the team at Bard College's Institute for Writing and Thinking, this book is designed to provide practical guidance regarding the challenges and potential of writing-based teaching, and suggestions for how to adapt the practices to particular classroom situations. The contributors share candid, first-hand accounts of what it is like to…
Countless studies have been conducted on questioning techniques in education. However, little research has been focused on the use of reflective practice in relation to teachers' questioning techniques in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education. Within this action research study of my own teaching, six lessons were taught, observed, and reflected upon. The main focus was on whether and how reflective practice influences questioning. Through the analysis of video footage, conversation transcriptions, reflective journal entries, pre-service teacher survey, and student work, the importance of different questioning techniques became apparent. They demonstrated that reflective practice has an impact on improving questioning skills and, thus, better engaging students in the learning process.
Robitaille, Yvette Jeannine Powell
Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Despite these positive associations, there is inconsistent implementation of these techniques across disciplines and grade levels, often resulting in a negative effect on student achievement. This collective case…
We present a reflection about the victim as the object of the medico-legal intervention, that opens perspectives not only to the evidence research (as a techno-scientific contribute to support Justice in what concerns bio-psycho-social questions), but also to the support of victims which, in a last analysis, is no more than another aspect of this the social contribution of this science to ensure the best interest of the victim. This reflection aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the victim in his/her various perspectives. Accordingly, during the exposition, we refer some contributes of Victimology towards the understanding of the victims' behaviour's. Afterwards, we focus on the problems related to the aetiologies (with a particular reference to trauma), levels and consequences (physical, psychological and socio-economical) of victimization, as well as the methodologies of victims approach, medico-legal evaluation and reparation. Considering victims as being not only those who suffer directly the consequences of the victimizing phenomena, but also those that suffer from it indirectly and even secondarily, we shall approach the topic regarding both perspectives. We highlight the importance of understanding the victim as a person, not just understanding him/her confined to the organic aspect (as it used to be until recently in certain fields of medico-legal intervention, and as it still happens due to some legal obligations, for instance in the Labour Law), but considering the person in a global way (body, capacities, life situations and subjectivity). In conclusion, we highlight the importance of this topic to the medico-legal mission, while taking part in various multidisciplinary interventions and being involved in strategies and measures which purpose is to prevent violence, promote safety, avoid secondary victimization and revictimization as well as guarantee the victims' protection and reintegration, in a work attitude that should happen, even more and
John, Leslie K; Loewenstein, George; Prelec, Drazen
Cases of clear scientific misconduct have received significant media attention recently, but less flagrantly questionable research practices may be more prevalent and, ultimately, more damaging to the academic enterprise. Using an anonymous elicitation format supplemented by incentives for honest reporting, we surveyed over 2,000 psychologists about their involvement in questionable research practices. The impact of truth-telling incentives on self-admissions of questionable research practices was positive, and this impact was greater for practices that respondents judged to be less defensible. Combining three different estimation methods, we found that the percentage of respondents who have engaged in questionable practices was surprisingly high. This finding suggests that some questionable practices may constitute the prevailing research norm.
Nelson, Nickola Wolf
Purpose: This article offers a critical response to Kamhi's (2011) essay regarding the need to balance certainty and uncertainty in evidence-based practice (EBP). Method: Points of concordance and discordance (counterpoints) between Kamhi's essay and the author's frames of reference were considered. Results: In agreement with Kamhi, a major role…
Ross, C S; Lockey, J E
The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.
characteristics of an absolutely certain diagnostic test and is recommendable in those conditions of obstetrical and medicolegal interest which cannot be solved unequivocally by means of the usual tests .
The use of p-value and statistical significance have been questioned since the early 80s in the last century until today. Much has been discussed about it in the field of statistics and its applications, especially in Epidemiology and Public Health. As a matter of fact, the p-value and its equivalent, statistical significance, are difficult concepts to grasp for the many health professionals some way involved in research applied to their work areas. However, its meaning should be clear in intuitive terms although it is based on theoretical concepts of the field of Statistics. This paper attempts to present the p-value as a concept that applies to everyday life and therefore intuitively simple but whose proper use cannot be separated from theoretical and methodological elements of inherent complexity. The reasons behind the criticism received by the p-value and its isolated use are intuitively explained, mainly the need to demarcate statistical significance from clinical significance and some of the recommended remedies for these problems are approached as well. It finally refers to the current trend to vindicate the p-value appealing to the convenience of its use in certain situations and the recent statement of the American Statistical Association in this regard.
Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D
Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:26304986
Mayer, D E; Purdue, T W
Since the inception of the Food and Drug Administration's Good Laboratory Practice Regulations and Environmental Protection Agency's Good Laboratory Practice Standards, many "questions and answer" documents have been produced. Our purpose in this presentation is to pull together some of these reference documents and provide a cross-reference index to sort through the many topics and questions. The combined reference resource and index provide the quality assurance professional a useful Good Laboratory Practice information tool.
Buttigieg, George G
Intra-partum (IP) surveillance of the unborn child by cardiotacography (CTG) monitoring is the commonest obstetric procedure in the developed world.(1) It is also the most medico-legally contested obstetric procedure in labour. In 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK National Health Service (NHS) litigation costs,(2) and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS paid out £3.1 billion for maternity medico-legal claims (the highest of any speciality), mostly involving cerebral palsy and CTG misinterpretation.(3) This article looks at a number of characteristics of IP CTG monitoring which argue for its questionable solidity of base in court proceedings.
Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Maria Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina
This paper focuses on the relationship between preferential teaching approach (PTA) and the concept of teachers' questioning practices (TQP), as part of a large-scale three-year project aimed at developing the scholarship of teaching and learning at one Portuguese university. In order to contribute to understandings of how teachers' questioning is…
Everyone comes into contact with health and social care services at some point in their lives, usually when they are at their most vulnerable. Anyone who has had experience of health and social care services will have vivid memories of the care that they received, whether good or bad. It is often the small things that result in patients perceiving that care is poor or good. For example, staff being too rushed to say hello to patients or greeting them with a welcoming smile.
Garrett, Dawne; Garrett, Rose
The term 'personalisation' has become increasingly common in the context of a movement that recognises the importance of people's individuality and their right to exercise choice in their daily lives. In the fields of health and social care, personalisation focuses on placing the individual at the centre of their care and an understanding that they know best what their needs are and how to meet them ( Carr 2008 ). Personalisation can be as significant as a direct payment or individual budget, or as small as supporting a resident in a care home to decide for themselves when they should go to bed.
Jennett, Penny A.; Lockyer, Jocelyn M.; Parboosingh, I. John P.; Maes, William R.
The importance of identifying true learning needs prior to planning and conducting educational programs is well documented. In this study a collection of 579 clinical questions forwarded by 87 family physicians in southern Alberta was reviewed and analysed to determine if the questions would cluster and, therefore, be useful as sources for planning continuing medical education (CME) conferences and newsletters. The nature of submitted questions was also examined to determine if particular groups of physicians, as identified by socio-demographic characteristics, significanly differed by type of questions submitted. The study findings indicate that the questions generated by the clinical practices of family practitioners did cluster into meaningful categories, and did vary significantly by identified physician groups. Questions relating to the genito-urinary system; adverse drug effects, interactions and contraindications; and nervous system and sense organs were most frequently submitted. The nature of questions generated differed significantly by gender, size of practice setting, and year and place of medical graduation. When highly relevant and specific clinical questions, as contrasted with broadly expressed needs, serve as sources of identified learning needs for CME planners, the daily clinical problems faced by practitioners are better addressed. The learning needs identified by this approach provide an optimum framework for planned CME to influence physician behaviour or practice patterns. PMID:21248985
Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Costello, John
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is increasingly being advocated as the preferred approach to practice in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The EBP process involves multiple steps. The asking of a well-built question is the first step in the quest for answers. At the same time it is also often the first stumbling block for…
Price, Christopher P; Christenson, Robert H
The purpose of laboratory medicine is to facilitate better decision making in clinical practice and healthcare delivery. Decision making implies an unresolved issue, problem or unmet need. The most important criterion for any investigation to be of value in clinical practice is that it addresses an unmet need. The different ways in which laboratory investigations are utilized in patient care can be represented in the form of questions. It is important that these questions are articulated to highlight the variables that will impact on the effectiveness of the investigation in the scenario being considered. These variables include the characteristics of the patient (or population) and clinical setting, the nature of the decision and action taken on receipt of the test result and the expected outcome. Asking a question is the first step of the evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) cycle, the other steps being acquiring the evidence, critically appraising the evidence, applying the evidence and auditing use of the evidence. Getting the question right determines the quality of the whole process, thus, defines the quality in practice of laboratory medicine. Whilst the main focus of the EBLM cycle is to provide a strong evidence base for use in clinical practice, it is clear that the five steps are equally applicable in commissioning, delivery and audit (performance management) of services. Asking the right question is crucial to improving the quality of evidence, and practice, in laboratory medicine, and should be used in routine laboratory medicine practice and management throughout healthcare.
Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, T D
Fingerprinting is thought to establish the identify of an individual in forensic cases. The technique is extensively used for forensic purposes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the vehicle of generational transference of heritable unit. While arching markers for genetic disease professor Alec Jeffreys discovered that certain regions of DNA showed variations in the number of tandem repeats known as variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs). Thus DNA fingerprint was named by observing the number of repeated sequences which differ from individual to individual. The structure of DNA is quite flexible, within the nucleus of each cell resides an identical copy of the individual's genetic material, DNA. The coding regions of the genomic DNA are known as genes. The DNA fingerprinting in forensic science has generated considerable excitement in the criminal justice community. DNA fingerprinting can be applied to identify an individual in criminal and civil cases. Polymerase chain reaction has revolutionised molecular biology it has an ability to amplify (usually fewer than 3000 bp) a particular sequence of DNA into million of copies in a very short period. Consequently only a very tiny amount of an organism's DNA needs to be available originally. This property of polymerase chain reaction has enabled to analyse many forensic samples particularly which are degraded. Microsatellite DNA or commonly as short tandem repeats are scattered throughout the human genome and occur on an average of every 10,000 nucleotides. Microsatellite markers are considered to be the most powerful genetic markers. Collection, preservation and handling are the integral part of DNA fingerprinting analysis. There are various methods to isolate DNA from different biological materials but presently most of the laboratories prefer using FTA paper. The age of humans can be estimated by using DNA based on telomere shortening.
Whiplash injury medico-legal reporting has traditionally been focused upon identifying restrictions in range of motion and identifying the presence of tender areas in the cervical spine in an effort both to diagnose the condition and to offer a prognosis. There have been considerable advances in this field over the last decade however that calls into question such a diminutive approach. This paper reviews the contemporary evidence base for the medico-legal assessment of whiplash injury and identifies a body of literature that strongly implicates a Claimant's physiological and psychological stress response as a key medico-legal marker in predicting prognosis following whiplash injury.
Sajantila, A; Palo, J U; Ojanperä, I; Davis, C; Budowle, B
Medico-legal autopsy is the primary method in determining the cause and manner of death when the death is suspected to be unnatural. In some of these autopsies, the death remains ambiguous, even after a complete autopsy including histological investigation and toxicological screenings. In cases where there are no morphological abnormalities, medico-legal genetics may offer additional means to provide knowledge of possible genetic mutations, which may have initiated the process or predisposed the individual to stress risk conditions leading to death. One class of ambiguous deaths consists of drug-related deaths where the interpretation of the toxicological results are not clear. In such situations post mortem genotyping and the analysis of metabolite rations may provide an insight to the findings. A few cases demonstrating the potential strength of pharmacogenetics in medico-legal context has been published. However, there is a paramount need for serious scientific studies before the field of post mortem pharmacogenetics can be utilized in routine medico-legal analyses casework and brought routinely into courtroom.
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Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Smith, Claire France; Gosden, Edward
The objective structural practical examination (OSPE) is a timed examination that assesses topographical and/or applied knowledge of anatomy with the use of cadaveric resources and medical images. This study investigated whether elements of question design (provision of clinical context, type of visual resources used, gender context, and…
Roth, Alvin E.
The deferred acceptance algorithm proposed by Gale and Shapley (1962) has had a profound influence on market design, both directly, by being adapted into practical matching mechanisms, and, indirectly, by raising new theoretical questions. Deferred acceptance algorithms are at the basis of a number of labor market clearinghouses around the world,…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Applicability of Good Laboratory Practice in Premarket Device Submissions: Questions and Answers; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...
This article examines women's experiences in India with health and legal interventions that address domestic violence, dowry-related violence, and rape. By examining the experiences of survivors of abuse with the medicolegal system in New Delhi, it considers the extent to which women are able to access their legal rights within the special protection system constructed specifically for them. The use of primary data highlights the impact of state procedures on women, and it demonstrates how procedures designed to enhance women's access to the law actually inhibit it. Using semistructured interviews with female survivors of abuse, police officers, case workers, nongovernmental organization leaders, lawyers, physicians, and government officials in a 4-year period, this article examines women's access to state services designed to address violence against women, and raises questions about state tolerance of domestic and sexual violence.
Poetker, David M; Smith, Timothy L
As otolaryngologists, we prescribe many medications to our patients. The objective of this article is to review the potential side effects and medicolegal risks of the common medications used to treat chronic rhinosinusitis. The authors evaluate some of the common side effects as well as the published literature on the lawsuits associated with those medications. Finally, the authors review the informed consent discussion and opportunities to improve patient care and decrease the risk of litigation.
El Banna, S; Beauthier, F; Beauthier, J P
Medical practice today is not simple because of various factors impinging on the doctor-patient relationship. The concept of consent arises from the ethical principle of patient autonomy and basic human rights. It is also the rule of law (Civil Code article 16-3) that guarantees the patient's right and freedom to decide what should or should not happen to his/her body and to gather information before undergoing a test/procedure/surgery. No one else has the right to coerce the patient to act in a particular way. The authors after a reflexion about medical accidents and their medicolegal implications, discuss the means to display in order to provide to the patients the adequate information about their disease and proposed treatment, therefore protecting the medical practitioner from the consequences of insufficient or ill information.
Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco
Concerning recent Italian laws and jurisprudential statements, guidelines application involves several difficulties in clinical practice, regarding prevention, diagnosis and therapy of venous thromboembolism. International scientific community systematically developed statements about this disease in order to optimize the available resources in prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy. Incongruous prevention, missed or delayed diagnosis and/or inadequate treatment of this disease can frequently give rise to medico-legal litigation.
Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H
We want to share experiences from an approach for clinical communication and research, intended to identify and mobilize personal health resources in female patients, and promote strategies for resource oriented talk in general practice. We used an action research design with qualitative evaluation to summarize the process where we developed a key question about self-assessed health resources in women, based on The Health Resource/Risk Balance Model, including salutogenesis, patient-centredness and gender perspectives. From consultations with 49 female patients in our own practices, we have drawn a narrative description of the development process, a summary of issues that facilitated resource talk, and our final version of the key question. We suggest that resource talk is based on 1) an explicit shift of language from disease to health, but nevertheless recognizing the fact that illness occurs, 2) options for answers given by the female patient and not by the doctor, 3) signification of the woman's assessment of her own situation (in contrast to the doctor's assessment), and 4) taking for granted that women's personal health resources exist as numerous strategies which are utilized, and may be identified. We have learnt that communicative action can provide tools for shifting the attention of doctor and patients from risks and diseases to resources and strengths. This is an example of one way to change your practice through systematic reflection in dialogue with a colleague.
Cleland, Joshua A; Noteboom, J Timothy; Whitman, Julie M; Allison, Stephen C
The process of evidence-based practice (EBP) guides clinicians in the integration of individual clinical expertise, patient values and expectations, and the best available evidence. Becoming proficient with this process takes time and consistent practice, but should ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. The EBP process entails 5 steps: (1) formulating an appropriate question, (2) performing an efficient literature search, (3) critically appraising the best available evidence, (4) applying the best evidence to clinical practice, and (5) assessing outcomes of care. This first commentary in a 2-part series will review principles relating to steps 1, 2, and 3 of this 5-step model. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a perspective to assist clinicians in formulating foreground questions, searching for the best available evidence, and determining validity of results in studies of interventions for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy.
Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah
Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues.
Blozen, Barbara B
There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.
To identify factors that contribute to the high variability of the rates of use of placebo interventions reported in questionnaire surveys, the author investigated the effect of the explicit use of the word "placebo" in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice on the results obtained. 190 primary care physicians in Poland were divided randomly into two groups. The groups received a questionnaire in which either the word placebo or the term "nonspecific methods of treatment" was used. The respondents who were asked explicitly about the use of placebo interventions declared that they never used placebo interventions significantly more often than participants asked about the use of nonspecific treatment methods. Moreover, the former reported significantly rarer use of placebo interventions than the latter. The study demonstrates that differences in the wording of questions in questionnaire surveys on placebo use can create statistically significant differences in results.
Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane
This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.
González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl
The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patients will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.
Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín
ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting.
Chevrant-Breton, O; Lebervet, J Y; Vialard, J
The authors have become interested in maternal mortality. This study has been carried out solely to look at the medico-legal aspect. Increasingly good health is seen as a right and the doctor the dispenser of this service. The rights of the mother (and of the infant) become of increasing importance. The improvement in obstetrical techniques, which are much better known to the public, have made families far more confident of the results of delivery. This is now seen as something without any danger. But delivering a baby still has lots of risks. Because of this, if an accident happens the obstetrician more than any other doctor perhaps can find himself in the courts. To avoid this he has to know very well the causes of maternal mortality in order to avoid them as far as possible. Furthermore, he must not undertake stupid emergency measures often initiated as measures of desperation caused by his emotional involvement for a patient who is approaching death. Finally, the expert should look for all the causes of death so that he does no wrongly blame the doctor for a maternal death.
Rojek, Sebastian; Bolechała, Filip; Kula, Karol; Maciów-Głąb, Martyna; Kłys, Małgorzata
Unlike amphetamine, amphetamine-like substances accessible on the drug market are less expensive and more easily available; they also produce hallucinogenic effects expected by the users. Such properties render them more attractive as compared to amphetamine. On the other hand, the knowledge of the toxicity of these compounds is very limited, what in consequence generates problems that create ever-expanding research areas, including analytical, clinical and medicolegal issues, thus leading to development of systemic databases. An example here is paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA), which appeared on the drug market in recent years as a result of creative inventiveness of producers of psychoactive substances, who aimed at PMA replacing the popular ecstasy (MDMA) as a less expensive and more available product. It is more potent than MDMA, but has a slower onset of action, which encourages users to take more. The problem is illustrated in the present paper by three fatal cases involving PMA, which were comprehensively investigated taking into consideration case histories, pathological and toxicological findings obtained with the use of LC-MS-MS method. In blood samples taken from all the three victims, very high concentrations of PMA were found (in the range of 10-27mg/L) and thus the cause of deaths was determined as overdoses of PMA with the underlying mechanism of acute cardiorespiratory failure.
Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S
Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.
Chang, Lin; Zhang, Baosheng; Yan, Ping; Fowler, David; Li, Ling
Medico-legal death investigation in China has a long history that can be traced back to the Chhin era in the third century BC. We conducted a national study on the current medico-legal death investigation system in China. Our study showed that, at present, medico-legal death investigations in China are conducted by c. 12,000 forensic medical experts mainly within five relatively independent agencies: the police organizations, the prosecutors' offices, the departments/divisions of forensic medicine/science in medical colleges and universities, the Institute of Forensic Science in the Ministry of Justice, and the government or private forensic societies. Owing to China's large population and area, the medico-legal death investigation is largely based on the administrative divisions. There is a wide variation in the scope, extent, and quality of investigations among the agencies and at the different levels of county/district, municipal, and provincial governments. This article gives a general overview of medicolegal death investigation in modern China.
Maloney, Krisellen; Kemp, Jan H.
There has been longstanding debate about whether the level of complexity of questions received at reference desks and via online chat services requires a librarian's expertise. Continued decreases in the number and complexity of reference questions have all but ended the debate; many academic libraries no longer staff service points with…
Secic, Damir; Husremovic, Dzenana; Kapur, Eldan; Jatic, Zaim; Hadziahmetovic, Nina; Vojnikovic, Benjamin; Fajkic, Almir; Meholjic, Amir; Bradic, Lejla; Hadzic, Amila
Testing strategies can either have a very positive or negative effect on the learning process. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of consistency in evaluating the practicality and logic of questions from a medical school pathophysiology test, between students and family medicine doctors. The study engaged 77 family medicine doctors and 51 students. Ten questions were taken from cardiac pathophysiology and 10 questions from pulmonary pathophysiology, and each question was assessed on the criteria of practicality and logic. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to test the difference between evaluators. On the criteria of logic, only four out of 20 items were evaluated differently by students in comparison to doctors, two items each from the fields of cardiology and pulmonology. On the criteria of practicality, for six of the 20 items there were statistically significant differences between the students and doctors, with three items each from cardiology and pulmonology. Based on these indicative results, students should be involved in the qualitative assessment of exam questions, which should be performed regularly under a strictly regulated process.
Secic, Damir; Husremovic, Dzenana; Kapur, Eldan; Jatic, Zaim; Hadziahmetovic, Nina; Vojnikovic, Benjamin; Fajkic, Almir; Meholjic, Amir; Bradic, Lejla; Hadzic, Amila
Testing strategies can either have a very positive or negative effect on the learning process. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of consistency in evaluating the practicality and logic of questions from a medical school pathophysiology test, between students and family medicine doctors. The study engaged 77 family medicine doctors…
Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.
This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709
Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J; Roberts, Lynne D
This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18-53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices.
Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle
.036), ano-genital injuries alone (AOR 7.00, 95% CI 1.44–33.9, p = 0.017), or both nongenital and ano-genital injuries (AOR 12.34, 95% CI 2.87–53.0, p = 0.001). DNA was not associated with case outcome. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show an association between documentation of ano-genital injuries, trials commencing, and convictions in rape cases in a developing country. Its findings are of particular importance because they show the value of good basic medical practices in documentation of injuries, rather than more expensive DNA evidence, in assisting courts in rape cases. Health care providers need training to provide high quality health care responses after rape, but we have shown that the core elements of the medico-legal response require very little technology. As such they should be replicable in low- and middle-income country settings. Our findings raise important questions about the value of evidence that requires the use of forensic laboratories at a population level in countries like South Africa that have substantial inefficiencies in their police services. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19823567
With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.
Bierman, Dick J.; Spottiswoode, James P.; Bijl, Aron
We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental
Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron
We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental
Velloso, Isabela S C; Ceci, Christine
Developments in professional practice can be related to ongoing changes in relations of power among professionals, which often lead to changes in the boundaries of practices. The differing contexts of practices also influence these changing relations among health professionals. Legislation governing professional practice also differs from country to country. In Brazil, over the past 12 years, in a climate of deep disagreement, a new law to regulate medical practice has been discussed. It was sanctioned, or made into law, but with some notable changes, in July 2013. Of interest to us in this paper are the ways the proposed legislation, by setting out the boundaries and scope of medical practice, 'interfered' in the practices of other health professions, undermining many 'independent' practices that have developed over time. However, even taking into account the multiple routes through which practices are established and developed, the role of legislation that seems able to contradict and deny the historical realities of multiple, intersecting practices should be critically interrogated. In this paper, we use the theoretical resources of poststructuralist thinking to explore gaps, ambiguities, and power relations implicit in the discourses that constituted this law. We argue that although the new law can be understood as a social and political device that will interfere in the organization of other health professions' practices, such legislation is only part of what constitutes change in a consolidated professional practice. And while it is important to understand the effects of such legislation, healthcare practices are also realized or 'made real' through ongoing relations of knowledge and power, including, as we will see in this case, activities of resistance. The problem, then, is to understand the practical arrangements, including legislation, traditions and routines, values and knowledge that come to shape the practices of nursing in a particular context.
After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…
This paper captures and characterises the interplay between a group of student teachers' narratives of social network practice and their emergent professional practice with technologies. Teachers on an Initial Teacher Education programme in the UK spent a semester studying a module that synthesised university-based lectures with a professional…
Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard
The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…
Complexity theory (CT) has had a meteoric rise in management literature and the social sciences. Its fledgling importation into school leadership and management raises several questions and concerns. This article takes one view of CT and argues that, though its key elements have much to offer school leadership and management, caution has to be…
Pubertal gynecomastia is a common concern in the consultation of the adolescent. Usually, it is accompanied by an emotional component that can lead to changes in everyday attitudes of youth. The responsability of the pediatrician is to rule out other etiologies, to avoid unnecessary additional studies, to limit active therapeutic attitudes, and to reaffirm the variation of normality. We briefly describe six eminently practical questions to be answered by the physician.
Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.
This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations. PMID:21359033
Steven, K; Neville, R G; Hoskins, G; Sullivan, F M; Drummond, N; Alder, E M
Assessment tools are a vital component of chronic disease management. The Royal College of Physicians has developed a patient-focused outcome measure for the treatment of asthma, the 'Three Key Questions'. However, in a study investigating the goals of people with asthma, several issues related to the tool emerged. Forty-seven adults of a range of ages and asthma severity but with no significant co-morbidity were interviewed. It emerged that the outcome measure may be subject to recall bias. Also, symptom reports may be conflated if daytime symptoms also occur with activity. 'Interference with activity' is a subjective term the interpretation of which varies considerably. Changes in the level of activity undertaken may be reported rather than changes in symptom severity. The 'Three Key Questions' are not fully patient-centred because they assess the presence of symptoms rather than their importance to the individual. The use of the 'Three Key Questions' as an outcome measure may not allow valid comparisons to be made between settings.
Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka
From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.
The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.
Gourlay, Lesley; Lanclos, Donna M.; Oliver, Martin
Work on students' study practices posits the digital and material as separate domains, with the "digital" assumed to be disembodied, decontextualised and free-floating, and spaces in the material campus positioned as prototypically "traditional" and analogue. Libraries in particular are often characterised as symbolic of…
Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.
The U-SAIL system is a practical approach to individualization of instruction in which a problem-solving process is employed to install a program in logical sequential phases. U-SAIL is a nationally validated, successfully replicated, cost-feasible system for individualization of instruction which can be implemented in a variety of settings with…
Introduction: A number of Scandinavian Web-based tutorials on information seeking mediate a kind of discourse of information literacy practice by combining the two themes, written academic assignment and information seeking. The aim of the paper is first to examine students' experience of the pragmatic value of two of these Web-based tutorials,…
Recent fraud cases in psychological and medical research have emphasized the need to pay attention to Questionable Research Practices (QRPs). Deliberate or not, QRPs usually have a deteriorating effect on the quality and the credibility of research results. QRPs must be revealed but prevention of QRPs is more important than detection. I suggest two policy measures that I expect to be effective in improving the quality of psychological research. First, the research data and the research materials should be made publicly available so as to allow verification. Second, researchers should more readily consider consulting a methodologist or a statistician. These two measures are simple but run against common practice to keep data to oneself and overestimate one's methodological and statistical skills, thus allowing secrecy and errors to enter research practice.
The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.
Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations
Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Eren, Mehmet; Küçükoğlu, Mehmet Serdar; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Sarı, İbrahim; Selçuk, Timur; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Weinstein, Jean Marc; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Kutlu, Merih; Özer, Necla; Şahin, Mahmut; Tokgözoğlu, Lale
Heart failure (HF) is a progressive disorder associated with impaired quality of life, high morbidity, mortality and frequent hospitalization and affects millions of people from all around the world. Despite further improvements in HF therapy, mortality and morbidity remains to be very high. The life-long treatment, frequent hospitalization, and sophisticated and very expensive device therapies for HF also leads a substantial economic burden on the health care system. Therefore, implementation of evidence-based guideline-recommended therapy is very important to overcome its worse clinical outcomes. However, HF therapy is a long process that has many drawbacks and sometimes HF guidelines cannot answers to every question which rises in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, commonly encountered questions, overlooked points, controversial issues, management strategies in grey zone and problems arising during follow up of a HF patient in real life clinical practice have been addressed in the form of expert opinions based on the available data in the literature.
Siddiqui, Nazeem Ishrat; Bhavsar, Vinayak H.; Bhavsar, Arnav V.; Bose, Sukhwant
Ever since its inception 100 years back, multiple choice items have been widely used as a method of assessment. It has certain inherent limitations such as inability to test higher cognitive skills, element of guesswork while answering, and issues related with marking schemes. Various marking schemes have been proposed in the past but they are not balanced, skewed, and complex, which are based on mathematical calculations which are typically not within the grasp of medical personnel. Type X questions has many advantages being easy to construct, can test multiple concepts/application/facets of a topic, cognitive skill of various level of hierarchy can be tested, and unlike Type K items, they are free from complicated coding. In spite of these advantages, they are not in common use due to complicated marking schemes. This is the reason we explored the aspects of methods of evaluation of multiple correct options multiple choice questions and came up with the simple, practically applicable, nonstringent but logical scoring system for the same. The rationale of the illustrated marking scheme is that it takes into consideration the distracter recognition ability of the examinee rather than relying on the ability only to select the correct response. Thus, examinee's true knowledge is tested, and he is rewarded accordingly for selecting a correct answer and omitting a distracter. The scheme also penalizes for not recognizing a distracter thus controlling guessing behavior. It is emphasized that if the illustrated scoring scheme is adopted, then Type X questions would come in common practice. PMID:27127312
This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.
Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E
An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings.
Hookano, Ryan; Knight, Laura D; Brunelli, Ronald A; Stoppacher, Robert
With the increased popularity of online social networking services (SNS) such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Google+, we propose that a wealth of new resources is available for medicolegal death investigation. Recognizing this potential, we identified cases in which social media had been useful in the past in our office and asked our investigative staff to consider using social media in current cases. These cases provided illustrative examples for this primer regarding how information from SNS was used in death investigations in our office. Information gleaned from online social media aided in establishing preliminary identification of a decedent, locating next-of-kin, investigating the circumstances of death as relevant to the manner of death, corroborating eyewitness accounts, and providing information relevant to time of death. Potential pitfalls were identified, such as shared accounts or online impostors. SNS proved useful to the medicolegal death investigator and medical examiner, so long as their limitations were recognized.
Ribeiro, M C; Bertolozzi, M R
Considering the side effects of environmental changes over the population's health, a theoretical model is proposed in this study in order to incorporate ecologic matters into the nursing practices. The reference for this work is the eco-socialist-marxist theory. The model is based on the analysis of the capitalist economic process, its production technologies and consumption. It is known that this economic model generates ecoinequalities and anthropogenic impacts that rebound on the health-disease profile of the population. The nursing action, permeated by ecological awareness, can prevent and also combat ecoinequalities and destructive human actions on the environment.
Healey, P; Samanta, J
Demand for less invasive surgical intervention has increased in recent years resulting in surgeons occasionally being pressurised into adopting new techniques before evidence of safety and efficacy has been established. Unlike pharmaceutical research, most innovative surgical procedures enter surgical practice without regulatory oversight. This anomaly was recently highlighted in the 'Bristol Report' resulting in a recommendation that unproven therapies or surgical techniques be subjected to ethical overview or independent oversight. When a novel technique is introduced, the surgeon will find himself/herself gaining proficiency and experience on suitable patients. Hence the surgeon embarks on a 'learning curve'. A learning curve can be defined as a graphic representation showing the relationship between experience with a procedure and outcome. Studies demonstrate that learning curves generally 'flatten out' as experience increases, resulting in fewer complications and less of a need to convert to the standard procedure. In addition to lack of regulatory oversight, it is this learning curve that gives rise to many ethical and legal dilemmas. This paper considers the ethical issues relating to a surgeon's candour and clinical equipoise, the legal standard of care in a negligence action and the ethical and legal implications regarding risk disclosure during informed consent. The paper concludes by considering a more patient centred approach where new and innovative therapies are being considered in order to ensure good medical practice and avoid litigation for allegations of negligence or breach of human rights.
Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio
Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers.
We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…
Uluçay, Tarik; Dizdar, Mustafa Gökhan; SunayYavuz, Mehmet; Aşirdizer, Mahmut
Data concerning the incidence of gossypiboma tend to fluctuate and is difficult to estimate because of a low reporting rate lest medico-legal implication. Gossypiboma is frequently located in the abdominal and pelvic cavities after gynecologic and upper abdominal surgical operations but can also follow thoracic, orthopedic, and urological and neurosurgical procedures. In medical literature, there are few articles about the medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma although it is typically subjected to a medico-legal process. In this article, we reported a 22-year-old female case with intraabdominal gossypiboma following a cesarean procedure and discussed the importance of medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma.
Noteboom, J Timothy; Allison, Stephen C; Cleland, Joshua A; Whitman, Julie M
The process of evidence-based practice (EBP) guides clinicians in the integration of individual clinical expertise, patient values and expectations, and the best available evidence. Becoming proficient with this process takes time and consistent practice, but should ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. The EBP process entails 5 steps: (1) formulating an appropriate question, (2) performing an efficient literature search, (3) critically appraising the best available evidence, (4) applying the best evidence to clinical practice, and (5) assessing outcomes of care. This second commentary in a 2-part series will review principles relating to steps 3 through 5 of this 5-step model. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a perspective to assist clinicians in interpreting results, applying the evidence to patient care, and evaluating proficiency with EBP skills in studies of interventions for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy.
Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic
Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…
Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic
Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…
Schröder, C; Riedel, S; Schmutzer, G; Brähler, E; Schwarz, R
Since 1999, the statutory obligation of all German hospitals to establish an internal quality management system has resulted in an increase of patient surveys on inpatient care. Information on the subjective satisfaction of the patients is of particular interest because improvements may be realised. In the present paper, the objectives, the methodology and the choice of a tested survey instrument, the interpretation of the results and the practical problems in implementing a survey on patient satisfaction at the Leipzig University Hospital (a public institution comprising 1,464 beds in 2001) will be reported. This is intended to facilitate comparable projects in the future and to enable hospitals with fewer resources to organize and use such surveys. Altogether, 1,718 questionnaires (Hamburg questionnaires on patient stay in hospital, HFK) from 43 wards could be evaluated. The high satisfaction determined (mean values of the scores for 10 test parameters are between 1.72 and 2.02 on a 5-point scale) corresponds to the general tendency of patients to make socially desirable responses. Covert dissatisfaction was therefore analysed comparing the relative frequencies of complete and limited satisfaction at item level. Sociodemographic patient characteristics such as age and stay in hospital were of no substantial relevance. One important aim of the Leipzig survey project was to give detailed feedback within brief time periods. The project focussed on a differentiated and early monitoring of responses. If requested, an oral presentation of the results was made to each structural unit. This presentation included the spontaneous responses of the patient, which enhanced the acceptance of the investigation by the medical staff.
Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.
Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…
Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C
Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.
De Giorgio, Fabio
Forensic implications of esophageal cancer surgery are varied and complex depending on the field of specialization involved i.e. civil law, criminal law, insurance or social security and for the distinct probative requirements related to each field. The aim of this article is to reconstruct the logical procedure of a forensic doctor who actually examines a practical case to establish the profiles of professional responsibility in particular in civil or criminal law.
Lucena, Joaquin; Mora, Esther; Rodriguez, Lucia; Muñoz, Mariela; Cantin, Mario G; Fonseca, Gabriel M
To confirm the nature and forensic significance of questioned skeletal material submitted a medico-legal setting is a relatively common procedure, although not without difficulties when the remains are fragmented or burned. Different methodologies have been described for this purpose, many of them invasive, time and money consuming or dependent on the availability of the analytical instrument. We present a case in which skeletal material with unusual conditions of preservation and curious discovery was sent to a medico-legal setting to determine its human/nonhuman origin. A combined strategy of imagenological procedures (macroscopic, radiographic and cone beam computed tomography - CBCT-technology) was performed as non-invasive and rapid methods to assess the nonhuman nature of the material, specifically of pig (Sus scrofa) origin. This hypothesis was later confirmed by DNA analysis. CBCT data sets provide accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, which demonstrate its reliable use as a forensic tool.
Medicolegal aspects of driving ability primarily concern patients themselves, because they are responsible when driving in traffic while under drug treatment. Pain patients taking analgesic medication prescribed by a doctor do not commit an offence, insofar as they are able to drive. A doctor's main duty consists of informing the patient about the way a given disease or drug intake affects driving ability. Patients have the duty to inform themselves about the drug they are taking and to assess their driving ability each time before they drive a car.
Sperry, K; McFeeley, P J
Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck (NFN) is a relatively rare, fulminating infectious process of the cervicofacial tissues which may cause sudden and unexpected death. Although often the result of a dental infection, injuries of the soft tissues of the neck may also initiate rampant cellulitis, and recognition of the underlying etiology of such cases is necessary to determine properly the manner of death. Five cases of NFN are presented with a review of the causative factors and usual bacteriology, and specific factors of medicolegal interest are addressed.
Schneemilch, C; Schiltz, K; Meinshausen, E; Hachenberg, T
Dreams and hallucinations under sedation or anesthesia have been well known phenomena since the introduction of anesthesia. Sexual hallucinations may lead to allegations of sexual molestation or assault by medical doctors or professional nursing staff. Hallucinations under the influence of sedative or hypnotic drugs may be very vivid and as misinterpreted as being real and it is therefore often difficult to disprove the resulting false allegations. In this report the terms drug-induced dreams and hallucinations are defined and the probable mechanism described. By a historical review and case reports the medicolegal consequences are demonstrated and procedures recommended to avoid allegations of sexual assault.
Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke
Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.
Bolino, G; Alfano, C
Any discussion of the delicate subject of a doctor's autonomy in the choice and management of therapy entails addressing the intimate question of professional and ethical conduct. The professional freedom to choose which therapy to use continues to be the most quintessential expression of the medical professional and, in respect of the primary purpose of safeguarding health, must be aligned with: the choices of the informed patient or his/her legal representatives, existing guidelines and the equitable allocation of resources. On these grounds, the author sets out brief considerations regarding a number of issues frequently raised in the everyday work of the pediatrician and neonatologist: from the doctor's autonomy to adopt a diagnostic-therapeutic approach, with special reference to the prescription of drugs and the subtle differences compared to pharmacological trials, to the promotion and protection of breastfeeding, with explicit reference to the Ministry of Health's recent Circular no. 16 of 24.10.2000 ("Promotion and protection of breastfeeding") which, following a cursory reading of the text, appears to highlight restrictions to the pediatrician's decision-making autonomy. Special emphasis is also given to the medicolegal problems of caring for high-risk neonates. The clinical practice of neonatology often places the doctor in "critical" decision-making situations, with far from negligible ethical and moral implications, not to mention juridical and forensic ones. The author sets out a number of decision-making parameters for use as guidelines: the statistical criterion, the legal criterion and the clinical criterion, the only one capable of adjusting to scientific progress and to the specific technical and professional resources of the medical centre where the doctor is required to intervene in order to preserve even the simple "possibility" of autonomous life for the fetus. From this point of view, the so-called chronological vitality and scientifically
Delice, Ali; Aydin, Emin; Cevik, K. Seda
The aim of this study is to investigate the questions that are used by teachers. In broader sense the intention is to focus on questions as part of teachers' formal as well as informal assessments. We will mainly concentrate on how students are assessed and how the questions in the assessments are formed and marked. The research is mainly…
Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod
In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of questioning techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…
Plattner, Thomas; Scheurer, Eva; Zollinger, Ulrich
Relatives of deceased persons, on whose body a forensic autopsy had been performed at the Institute of Forensic Science, Bern, Switzerland, were interrogated by a questionnaire. The aim was to investigate the attitude of relatives toward medicolegal investigation procedures in general and toward forensic autopsy in particular. A great majority of the relatives showed a positive or indifferent attitude toward a forensic autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results and wished to be informed. It was concluded that information given before the autopsy is important for better understanding and can, if properly given, improve the relatives' acceptance and collaboration regarding forensic investigations. By contrast, a lack of information before the autopsy and about the autopsy results can cause further suffering on behalf of the bereaved. A forensic autopsy can be of great benefit for relatives and can help them to cope with a tragic loss.
Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Ste-Marie, Peter A; Mailis, Angela; Shir, Yoram
The medicolegal challenges surrounding fibromyalgia (FM) arise from the subjectivity of symptoms, causal attribution and reported symptoms sufficiently severe to cause disablement. In the present article, the authors have endeavoured to provide clarification of some current issues by referencing the current literature, including the 2012 Canadian Fibromyalgia Guidelines. While FM is accepted as a valid condition, its diagnosis is vulnerable to misuse due to the subjectivity of symptoms. Without a defining cause, a physical or psychological event may be alleged to trigger FM, but adjudication of causation must be prudent. Although some individuals may experience severe symptoms, the prevalent societal concept of disablement due to FM must be tempered with the knowledge that working contributes to psychosocial wellbeing. Evidence provided in the present report may assist the courts in reaching decisions concerning FM. PMID:25479148
Kłys, M; Skupień, E; Bujak-Gizycka, B; Latacz, B
The main subject of the study was a toxicological investigation of biological specimens coming from two cases of intoxication with mixture of drugs. Two young people decided to commit suicide by the use of mixture of drugs mainly analgesic in approximately equal doses. For one person the dose of drugs administered turned out to be fatal while second person survived with the symptoms of acute intoxication. The analysis carried out with the use of liquid chromatographic method with mass detection (HPLC/MS) confirmed the presence of mixture of drugs in blood of living person and in postmortem specimens of the victim in significant concentrations. The toxicological findings have delivered information for discussion in medico-legal and ethical aspects.
Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz
In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.
The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.
Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…
Averill, Robin; Drake, Michael; Anderson, Dayle; Anthony, Glenda
Managing mathematical discussion is known to be challenging for novice teachers. Coaching within student teacher rehearsals of teaching has been shown to develop mathematics teaching practice, but can be time consuming. To examine how coaching using questions could assist novice teachers to promote mathematical thinking and discussions within…
Wang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Ze; Xie, Yanan; Ding, Suzhen
This research was aimed at discovering the serological and histological changes in cardiac and hepatic tissue after electric shock. The CK-MB, ALT, and AMS indexes were tested with serological methods. Moreover, the Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60 expression levels were carefully measured. An electrical injury model was established by giving rats electric shocks at 110 V with alternating electric current. Blood samples from the rats were analyzed for the biochemical indexes. The degrees of pathological changes in the heart and liver were evaluated using IHC staining for Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60. The levels of CK-MB in the electrical injury group rapidly peaked at 0.5 hours after the electric shock. Additionally, the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60 in the cardiac and hepatic tissues changed regularly after the electrical injury and exhibited apparent differences from the levels in the control group. CK-MB, ALT, and AMS were altered regularly after electric shock, and these results provide significant information for clinical and medicolegal practice. This research has shed light on the assessment of electrical injury without obvious electrical burns. Furthermore, the findings obtained for Bcl-2/Bax and Hsp-60 can also facilitate pathological diagnosis and the identification of antemortem and postmortem electrical injury. PMID:27648446
For several years now, with the introduction of the health care sector reform we have been observing a considerable drop in the number of postmortem examinations performed in patients who died in hospitals. The decrease amounts to as much as 50 to 70%. This is undoubtedly a consequence of financial restrictions imposed on the management of these inpatient facilities. On the other hand, Departments of Forensic Medicine established to evaluate the so-called medical errors are swamped with an increasing avalanche of complaints concerning the appropriateness of therapeutic management. This leads to a growing number of orders from penal prosecution and jurisdiction agencies with requests for assessment whether a medical error has been committed in a particular case. The result of a postmortem examination is practically the only basis for a factual evaluation of a given case. When no autopsy has been performed, the experts are virtually helpless, and in the majority of such instances, they are forced to refuse passing an expert opinion. The report presents basic principles of medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases (including proceedings pertaining to medical errors), the rules governing the medical error assessment, as well as problems encountered in evaluating the appropriate course of treatment when a post mortem examination has been waived.
Jones, Troy E
Communities, and the personal value you place on them, affect all your spending, both business and personal. Once you begin questioning and analyzing how they affect your financial decisions, you will begin making more complete choices - the better-informed, the greater chance of success. Society has attached many financial expectations to dentists - both good and bad. By participating in this part of the Five Questions process, you will be able to separate the business of dentistry from the practice of dentistry and your persona beliefs from the beliefs of your communities'.
Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.
Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…
Kowalski, Piotr; Skupień, Elzbieta
As it follows from the expertise practice of the authors, broadly understood "depression syndrome" is the most common diagnosis occurring in sick-leave certificates provided for legal procedures to the court. This problem is encountered in penal, civil and insurance cases. At the same time, in a significant percentage of cases, the patient's self-presentation does not correspond with the provided diagnosis. A particular legal situation of a person stigmatized with such a diagnosis clearly indicates its pragmatic character. Hence, several questions emerge: (1) Why does such a particular diagnosis prevail? (2) Is there another disease entity in psychiatry, which has such a broadly reactive background? On the basis of a particular case the authors formulate the problem of the appropriately understood interest of the patient. Does the current protection against broadly understood legal consequences cause the patient to fixate on the defense mechanisms and -- in consequence -- degradation of his functioning?
French, Keisha L; Daniels, Eldra W; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U
Spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess are rare surgical emergencies resulting in significant neurologic deficits. Making the diagnosis for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess can be challenging; however, a delay in recognition and treatment can be devastating. The objective of this retrospective analysis study was to identify risk factors for an adverse outcome for the provider. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to identify a total of 19 cases of spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess filed against medical providers. Outcome data on trial verdicts, age, sex, initial site of injury, time to consultation, time to appropriate imaging studies, time to surgery, and whether a rectal examination was performed or not were recorded. The results demonstrated a significant association between time to surgery more than 48 hours and an unfavorable verdict for the provider. The degree of permanent neurologic impairment did not appear to affect the verdicts. Fifty-eight percent of the cases did not present with an initial deficit, including loss of bowel or bladder control. All medical professionals must maintain a high level of suspicion and act quickly. Physicians who are able to identify early clinical features, appropriately image, and treat within a 48 hour time frame have demonstrated a more favorable medicolegal outcome compared with their counterparts in filed lawsuits for spinal epidural hematoma and spinal epidural abscess cases.
Strunk, Albert L; Kenyon, Sharon
From the standpoint of the obstetrician, gynecologist, failure to diagnose breast cancer is a significant medicolegal issue in terms of the number of claims initiated and the indemnity awards paid to successful plaintiffs. The incidence of breast cancer may continue to increase. Without quality care and good risk management on the part or health care providers, claims for failure to diagnose cancer in a timely manner will also increase. The challenge for the health care provider is to formulate a plan that promotes early detection and treatment while allowing for independent clinical judgment. Ideally, the plan should be written and followed for every patient in whom complaints of a breast mass have been documented. It is incumbent upon the physician and office staff to create an atmosphere in which patient complaints are not minimized, the limitations of mammography are recognized. follow-up procedures are in place and strictly followed, and a definitive diagnosis within 4 to 6 weeks of the initial presentation is the ultimate goal. Following these suggestions will improve the quality of health care for the patient and significantly decrease the likelihood of litigation alleging a failure to diagnose breast cancer. In the event breast cancer is diagnosed and a lawsuit is brought for failure to diagnose in a timely fashion, the best defense a physician can have is to be able to demonstrate that the patient's complaints were taken seriously, a consistent treatment plan was followed and documented, and the patient received appropriate care.
Honig, Alice Sterling; Martin, Patricia M.
Research using an intensive single-session training to increase use of Socratic (open-ended) questions and to lengthen turn-taking talk with low-income preschoolers showed that immediate posttraining gains were not sustained in classrooms 3 months later. Suggestions are given for trainers and for teachers that can boost teacher ability to…
Dong, Lianchun; Seah, Wee Tiong; Clarke, David
This study examines a teacher's questioning strategies in mathematics classrooms in China when implementing reform-based mathematics curriculum. It explores teacher's strategies to deal with the tensions involved in the creation of opportunities for students to express and communicate mathematics ideas while ensuring the productivity of…
Behera, C; Rautji, R; Dogra, T D
Relatives of deceased persons on whose bodies a medico-legal autopsy had been performed at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India were personally asked to complete a questionnaire. The aim of study was to determine surviving family members' attitudes towards medico-legal investigation and forensic autopsy. The majority of the relatives showed a positive attitude towards forensic autopsy but were not aware of the detailed procedure of the autopsy. They wanted sufficient information to be provided before the autopsy. They showed a great interest in autopsy results i.e. the cause of death. It was concluded that sufficient relevant explanations given before the autopsy improves the relatives' acceptance and helps alleviate the suffering of the bereaved. The experience and opinions of relatives may help an autopsy surgeon in more effective management of medico-legal cases.
Benomran, Fawzi A
Various characteristics of the medico-legal scene in Dubai are described, along with an overview of all cases examined over a period of 6 years. During the period of study, a total of 17,683 cases were examined in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Dubai Police General Headquarters. This constituted a yearly average of (2947.16). The average annual increment was 11.13%, the percentage of increase between 2002 and 2007 being 68.96%. Of these 10,165 (57.48%) were clinical cases of injuries, 5404 (30.56%) postmortem examinations, 1525 (8.62%) clinical cases of sexual crimes, 409 (2.3%) age estimations, 58 (0.32%) medical responsibility, 20 (0.11%) criminal abortion, 61 (0.34%) civil actions and 38 (0.21%) miscellaneous cases. Of postmortem examinations, 4846 (89.7%) of them were males and 558 (10.3%) females. The age ranged from (0-90) years, with a mean age of 40.5 years. The peak incidence was in the age group (20-50) years, where the extremes of age were least represented (Fig. 1). Only in 361 cases (6.68% of the grand total) the deceased was a local citizen. Autopsies amounted to 394 cases, which constituted 7.29% of the total deaths examined. The four manners of death in descending order of frequency were natural 3003 (55.57%), accidental 1727 (32%), suicidal 498 (9.2%), homicidal 164 (3%). The manner was undetermined in 12 (0.22%) of the cases over the 6 year period.
Brown, C. R.
Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)
Philip, Judith M. D.; Taber, Keith S.
School science practical activities have been criticised for exposing learners to a series of phenomena disconnected from the conceptual frameworks needed to understand them. Such activities are successful in the "domain of observables" but not the "domain of ideas". Few resources exist for classroom teachers wishing to improve…
White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice
This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue.
du Toit-Prinsloo, L; Pickles, C; Smith, Z; Jordaan, J; Saayman, G
There is a dearth of literature on the extent of fetal or newborn abandonment or "dumping" and the medico-legal investigation procedures these cases require. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a worldwide phenomenon and by definition involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide, depending on the country concerned. This article contributes to current literature in both respects and provides a retrospective case audit for the period 2004-2008 pertaining to all abandoned newborns and fetuses admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) in South Africa. Demographic details, scope, and nature of the medico-legal investigation as well as formulation of cause of death were recorded. A total of 289 cases were identified for inclusion in this study, 57% of which were considered to have been non-viable fetuses, while 45 of the viable fetuses were deemed to have been stillborn. These instances involve the crimes of concealment of birth and at times illegal abortion, yet prosecution of these cases are relatively unheard of. Signs of live birth were identified in 38 of the cases in the study. Of these infants, 9 were deemed to have died from injuries they have sustained, and in a further 9 cases, no anatomical cause of death could be identified. Homicidal cases should be brought in cases where death ensued as a result of abandonment; however, it is not known how many cases were prosecuted. A comparatively large number of cases were found to have been admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. This is alarming because South African abortion laws are liberal and services are free at point of access in the public health care sector. A substantial percentage of cases of abandoned infants were found to have shown signs of life after birth implying a homicidal manner of death or death by abandonment, but it seems these cases are merely shelved.
Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe
Introduction Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. Methods A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. Results The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Conclusion Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications. PMID:27099504
Bienkowski, Michal; Berghoff, Anna S; Marosi, Christine; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Heinzl, Harald; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Preusser, Matthias
O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status has prognostic and, in the subpopulation of elderly patients, predictive value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Therefore, knowledge of the MGMT promoter methylation status is important for clinical decision-making. So far, MGMT testing has been limited by the lack of a robust test with sufficiently high analytical performance. Recently, one of several available pyrosequencing protocols has been shown to be an accurate and robust method for MGMT testing in an intra- and interlaboratory ring trial. However, some uncertainties remain with regard to methodological issues, cut-off definitions, and optimal use in the clinical setting. In this article, we highlight and discuss several of these open questions. The main unresolved issues are the definition of the most relevant CpG sites to analyze for clinical purposes and the determination of a cut-off value for dichotomization of quantitative MGMT pyrosequencing results into "MGMT methylated" and "MGMT unmethylated" patient subgroups as a basis for further treatment decisions.
Huber, Jeffrey T.
Notes that diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to denote death sentence. Contends that AIDS is unique terminal illness in that no other single disease in history of American legal system has generated more litigation than AIDS. Examines medico-legal issues associated with AIDS-related death: estate planning,…
Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly
There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…
Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip
Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…
Keyes, Craig A; Hill, Lawrence; Gordon, Guinevere M
Decomposed bodies pose many questions for researchers regarding environmental effects, cause of death, and patterns. This study aimed to observe the factors associated with decomposed bodies autopsied at the Johannesburg Forensic Pathology Service Medico-legal Mortuary. A total of 4876 autopsies were conducted from 2010 to 2011, of which 109 were decomposed. Black individuals made up the largest proportion (67%) followed by White (26%). Males comprised 86.2%, while 12.8% were female. The mean age was 42.78 years. Most cases were in the early stages of decomposition (49.5%), with 32.1% bloated, 11.9% in active decay, 2.8% in advanced decay, and 3.7% were skeletal. Insect activity was identified in 25.7% of decomposition cases. Cause of death was determined in 48.6% of cases. Of all the cases, 64% were found indoors and 23% outdoors, while 23% had insufficient information regarding the location. Of considerable interest was the number of cases from hospitals and clinics.
Dixon, Brian E.; Grannis, Shaun J.
Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes. PMID:23569618
Dixon, Brian E; Grannis, Shaun J
Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes.
How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.
Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.
In this issue, editor Amara G. Hark-Weber speaks with two practicing artists who teach in very different programs and settings at college level. The first works with individuals who want to make a career out of their craft. Terry Gess is a potter in Western North Carolina who maintains his own practice and studio while also teaching at Haywood…
Shin, Sang Eon; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ji Hye; Ko, Kwang Soo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Ryoul; Park, Seong Hwan
Forensic entomology applies insect evidence to legal problems such as the estimation of minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). For this purpose, knowledge of the insect fauna that are attracted to human cadavers in each geographic region is a prerequisite. Despite many studies investigating the insect fauna attracted to meat, there has been no survey of the entomofauna on human cadavers in the East Asian temperate climate zone, particularly in Korea. Therefore, this study reports the entomofauna collected from medicolegal autopsies in northeastern Seoul and its suburbs. Insect samples were collected from 35 medicolegal autopsies in 2010, 2011, and 2013. Molecular and morphological methods were utilized for taxonomic identification. Among 1398 individual samples belonging to 3 orders, 13 families, 18 genera, and 32 species, the dominant family and species were Calliphoridae and Lucilia sericata, respectively. Despite its limited scale, this study provides a snapshot of the general entomofauna that are attracted to human cadavers in this region. PMID:26185759
Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok
Worldwide, mortality associated with epilepsy is a matter of grave concern. The mortality rate in epileptic population is two to three times more than that of the general population. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy, better known as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), is a mysterious and rare condition, in which typically young or middle-aged people with epilepsy die without a clearly defined cause. At times, this may raise a strong suspicion of foul play and raise several medico-legal issues. There may be several different underlying mechanisms but most research has focused on seizure-related cerebral and respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia and autonomic dysfunction. In recent years, some significant risk factors have been recognized and strategies have been suggested that could be useful in prevention of SUDEP. Present communication provides some of the updates on new advances in prevention of SUDEP as well as highlights related medico-legal issues.
Terranova, Claudio; Bruttocao, Andrea
Diabetic foot is a complex and challenging pathological state, characterized by high complexity of management, morbidity and mortality. The elderly present peculiar problems which interfere on one hand with the patient's compliance and on the other with their diagnostic-therapeutic management. Difficult clinical management may result in medico-legal problems, with criminal and civil consequences. In this context, the authors present a review of the literature, analysing aspects concerning the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot in the elderly which may turn out to be a source of professional responsibility. Analysis of these aspects provides an opportunity to discuss elements important not only for clinicians and medical workers but also experts (judges, lawyers, medico-legal experts) who must evaluate hypotheses of professional responsibility concerning diabetic foot in the elderly.
A consecutive group of 250 patients underwent medico-legal assessment at a mean of 24 (±13) months following upper limb injuries. Each had completed questionnaires to assess function (Quick-DASH) and cold intolerance (CIQ36) before clinical assessment following which their whole limb impairment percentage was calculated. The mean(±SD) whole limb impairment, QDASH and CIQ36 scores were 9(±14)%, 43(±24) and 17(±10), respectively. There was a significant correlation between whole limb impairment and QDASH, although some patients reported surprisingly high disability levels despite minimal or no objective functional impairment. Whilst useful qualitative information can be obtained from questionnaires, the correlation between subjective and objective scores is weak albeit statistically significant. Individual patients can show marked discrepancies between objective and subjective functional scores. The results of questionnaires in individual medico-legal patients should be treated with caution.
Ludes, B; Tracqui, A; Pfitzinger, H; Kintz, P; Levy, F; Disteldorf, M; Hutt, J M; Kaess, B; Haag, R; Memheld, B
The authors present the medico-legal investigations and identification after the aircrash of the Airbus A320 upon the Mount Sainte-Odile (France). The identification team comprising investigators from the gendarmerie, forensic pathologists, odontologists, and scientists of the Institute from Legal Medecine rapidly retrieved and identified 85 of the 87 victims, with 17 being identified through DNA typing, three through fingerprints and the remaining through dental records and specific physical or X-ray findings. Full autopsies were performed on all fatalities to determine patterns of injury and cause of death. Results lead us to point out the importance of a multidisciplinary team of forensic practitioners especially trained for managing medico-legal investigation in mass disaster and the ability of DNA technology to solve complex identification problems.
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie
Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.
Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…
Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.
Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)
Feola, Alessandro; Niola, Massimo; Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Graziano, Vincenzo; Pietra, Bruno Della
Abstract Introduction: Iatrogenic splenic injury is a recognized complication in abdominal surgery. The aim of this paper is to understand the medico-legal issues of iatrogenic splenic injuries. We performed a literature review on PubMed and Scopus using iatrogenic splenic or spleen injury and iatrogenic splenic rupture as keywords. Iatrogenic splenic injury cases were identified. Most cases were related to colonoscopy, but we also identified cases related to upper gastrointestinal procedures, colonic surgery, ERCP, left nephrectomy and/or adrenalectomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, vascular operations involving the abdominal aorta, gynecological operation, left lung biopsy, chest drain, very rarely spinal surgery and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are several surgical procedures that can lead to a splenic injury. However, from a medico-legal point of view, it is important to assess whether the cause can be attributed to a technical error of the operator rather than being an unpredictable and unpreventable complication. It is important for the medico-legal expert to have great knowledge on iatrogenic splenic injuries because it is important to evaluate every step of the first procedure performed, how a splenic injury is produced, and whether the correct treatment for the splenic injury was administered in a judgment. PMID:28352813
Oliva, Antonio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Campuzano, Oscar; Brion, Maria; Arena, Vincenzo; Partemi, Sara; Coll, Monica; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Josep; Carracedo, Angel; Brugada, Ramon
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete represents a dramatic event, and an increasing number of medico-legal cases have addressed this topic. In addition to representing an ethical and medico-legal responsibility, prevention of SCD is directly correlated with accurate eligibility/disqualification decisions, with an inappropriate pronouncement in either direction potentially leading to legal controversy. This review summarizes the common causes of SCD in young athletes, divided into structural (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, etc.), electrical (Brugada, congenital LQT, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, etc.), and acquired cardiac abnormalities (myocarditis, etc.). In addition, the roles of hereditary cardiac anomalies in SCD in athletes and the effects of a positive result on them and their families are discussed. The medico-legal relevance of pre-participation screening is analyzed, and recommendations from the American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology are compared. Finally, the main issues concerning the differentiation between physiologic cardiac adaptation in athletes and pathologic findings and, thereby, definition of the so-called gray zone, which is based on exact knowledge of the mechanism of cardiac remodeling including structural or functional adaptions, will be addressed.
This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…
Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David
The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health.
Ferrara, Santo Davide; Bajanowski, Thomas; Cecchi, Rossana; Snenghi, Rossella; Case, Colette; Viel, Guido
The preservation of uniqueness and the enhancement of the value of evidence in legal medicine is based on the implementation and development of a "quality management system," which includes a continuous education of specialists, the introduction and application of guidelines and protocols, as well as mechanisms of internal quality control. This ongoing process shows differences with regard to various fields of knowledge such as forensic genetics, toxicology, forensic pathology or forensic psychiatry, especially if different European countries are compared. To get an overview on the development of legal medicine in different European countries, a questionnaire was developed and sent to representatives of 42 European countries to verify the existence of bio-medicolegal guidelines and protocols. A National Society of Legal Medicine is established in 27 out of 32 countries (84%) which could be included in the final analyses. In 25 countries (78%), a specialisation is necessary as a prerequisite of inclusion in a national register, and 30 of the countries (94%) have guidelines in at least one field of legal medicine. The most common guidelines concern forensic pathology (in the fields of professional qualification and sudden death), forensic toxicology (driving under the influence of drugs and substance testing) and forensic genetics (paternity testing and personal identification). The findings of this study show that comparison is possible and can be a basis for further consensus in the European medicolegal community. The process of harmonisation of the medicolegal autopsy rules in Europe initiated in 1990 was a first step on this way. Further consensus is necessary and might be gained by developing European guidelines for each field within the subdisciplines, based on a standard European Guideline Format.
Kohli, Anil; Mishra, Kiran
Forensic experts are often required to give an opinion on the cause of death and its medico-legal interpretation in cases where an individual dies after receiving non-fatal injuries and at autopsy is discovered to have had a natural disease that alone could have caused death. The significance of this varies in different countries depending on the local laws relating to death in cases of trivial trauma associated with natural disease. This paper discusses this issue from an Indian perspective with the help of an illustrative case report and highlights the importance of the forensic pathologist in such cases.
Xie, Dan; Xie, Kai; Li, Pei; Peng, Yu-Long; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Li-Ying; Cai, Ji-Feng
An autopsy case of sudden death induced by alimentary tract hemorrhage was presented, which was caused by the unexpected rupture of clinically unrecognized tuberculous abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). The initial diagnosis was made of the syndrome of coronary heart disease and hypertensive disease. The detailed autopsy showed that the alimentary tract hemorrhage was caused by a sudden rupture of the mass after posture changing was ascertained as the cause of death. The diagnosis of TAAA was determined by the autopsy findings. Analysis for the medical dispute of TAAA was described, and the difficulty of the diagnosis and medico-legal implications were also discussed.
Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Dogra, Td; Lalwani, S; Millo, T; Singh, Sr
Rapid advancements of information and communication technology in the form of electronic mails, mobile phones, social networking sites, etc have an increasing impact on people's day to day life. It has been observed that these readily available applications are used frequently to express suicidal intentions. There are many studies on conventional handwritten suicide notes but suicide note in electronic format is an emerging issue and an under-researched phenomena. The authors have termed it as "E-suicide note" and discuss its medico-legal implications in India with examples from their observations.
Behera, C; Karthik, Krishna; Singh, Hansraj; Deepak, Prakash; Jhamad, Akhilesh R; Bhardwaj, D N
Suicide pacts are uncommon and mainly committed by male-female pairs in a consortial relationship. The victims frequently choose methods such as hanging, poisoning, using a firearm, etc; however, a case of a suicide pact by drowning is rare in forensic literature. We report a case where a male and a female, both young adults, in a relationship of adopted "brother of convenience" were found drowned in a river. The victims were bound together at their wrists which helped with our conclusion this was a suicide pact. The medico-legal importance of wrist binding in drowning cases is also discussed in this article.
Landolfi, Angelo; Giovannetti, Arianna; Mancarella, Paola; Conti, Stefano; Morgagni, Fabio; De Angelis, Claudio
The authors describe a case of bilateral carotid chemodectoma occurring in a military pilot who was assessed and evaluated in terms of aeromedical and medico-legal aspects for his fitness to fly. In view of the lack of specific guidelines and/or regulations, both national and international, we choose to follow a multidisciplinary clinical approach that included aero-physiological tests in the hypobaric chamber, in order to identify a standard protocol that could be used as reference for similar future cases, where this kind of assessment is necessary.
Le Quinquis, P; Chevrant-Breton, O
brought the action in civil rather than criminal court, and the question of the legal status of the operation was not raised even though the operation was not performed to remedy any pathological condition. The Court of Cassation was careful to specify that the surgeon had an obligation to use appropriate techniques according to state of the art procedures to obtain sterilization. The surgeon's error was not failure of the operation but failure to warn the patient of the possibility of pregnancy.
Halpin, S F S
A list of claims against radiologists from 1995–2006 was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. It shows a total of 440 claims. The largest number of claims (199) related to delayed or missed diagnoses of cancer, and 73 claims related to breast radiology. There is a trend for a mild increase in the number of claims each year. 30 claims were made after a false-positive diagnosis of cancer. Just under £8.5 million has so far been paid in damages, with a further £5 million in legal fees. A claim for multiple missed diagnoses of breast cancer led to a pay-out of £464 000 (£673 000 after legal fees); the largest sum awarded following a delay in the diagnosis of an individual cancer was £300 000. The subtle legal distinction between error and negligence is reviewed here. The reason why breast radiologists are more likely to be sued than any other type of British radiologist is also discussed, along with the implications for UK radiological practice, particularly in light of the recent Chief Medical Officer's report on revalidation. A method is proposed that may protect radiologists from allegations of clinical negligence in the future. PMID:19470570
Montisci, M; Ruscazio, M; Snenghi, R; Nalin, S; Montisci, R; Iliceto, S; Ferrara, S D
The authors' aim is to outline some of the main medico-legal problems in cardiology, especially those regarding the premature hospital discharge of patients with undefined chest pain and/or with acute myocardial infarction. After a brief overview on the etiology and clinical definition of chest pain and myocardial infarction, premature hospital discharge is defined and the incidental medico-legal risks that physicians operating in such situations are exposed to are pointed out. Next, the profiles regarding both the positive and negative views of professional medical responsibility are described. In the negative frame, the authors outline the most frequent civil and penal aspects of the unpremeditated responsibility. Then the physician's error, in both qualitative (generic or specific guilt) and quantitative (degree) terms, is considered; particularly, negligence, imprudence and inexperience, as qualitatively accepted meanings of generic guilt, are dealt with by adopting illustrative cases settled in the light of the right legal interpretation. The phases of the diagnostic or prognostic error are evaluated, and clinical protocols, as a reference parameter for the identification of error, are considered. Lastly, the problem of causality, essential condition for the judgment about the professional responsibility, and the problem of the patient's consent, including an evaluation of the legal capability or incapability about the declaration of consent, are examined closely.
Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław
The authors analyzed the medico-legal opinions in cases of insobriety in medical personnel. The studies were based on the results of 157 medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases performed in the years 2005-2007. Expert appraisals included: correctness of medical management, degree of exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health associated with alcohol intoxication of a physician, regardless of his activities being correct in their merits, as well as influence of insobriety on personnel behavior. Penal responsibility is implemented in case of exposing the patient to direct danger to life or severe detriment to health. The necessary analysis should include activities that have been or should have been performed by a physician with respect to his patients, their health status (degree of danged to life or health) and the effect of the physician's alcohol intoxication on his abilities to perceive and assess the reality, make decisions and perform his duties. The Polish law in force lacking the equivalent of Article 147 found in the Polish penal code of 1969 causes problems in penalization of insobriety in medical personnel.
Eckert, W G
Medicolegal investigation in America can truly be said to have begun in an organized manner in 1918. The Massachusetts medical examiner system, which began in 1877, never developed with the central control and the completeness that characterizes the New York Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, nor did it influence the spread of this form of medicolegal investigation. An overview of the period before the establishment of the New York Office in 1918 and early experiences in coroner's investigation in New York is presented. The roots of the development of the office are discussed, as were the early days of the office under Dr. Charles Norris, whose influence on the spread of knowledge and of providing an important service to the community in general is detailed. The contributions of Alexander Gettler, the father of forensic toxicology in America, are also discussed. The contributions of Gonzales, Vance, Helpern, Umberger, and Wiener are also included. Special problems of New York City are described, including narcotic deaths, gas refrigerator deaths, malaria in addicts, plastic bag hazards, sudden infant deaths, operative deaths, as well as many famous cases involving murder, disasters, and unusual deaths over a period of 60 years. Milestones in the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City are listed, as are chronological details of major cases and problems. Several comparative figures of the workload and frequency of various types of death are also included. A relationship of deaths to different life-styles is noted.
Marchetti, Daniela; Belviso, Maura; Fulcheri, Ezio
The authors present a case of stillbirth in which histologic examination of the placenta provides the opportunity to make a definitive diagnosis of a death due to fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV). Establishing the etiology in cases of stillbirth may avoid medical malpractice litigation. The better knowledge of the cause of stillbirths also helped obstetricians to recognize factors that could have prejudiced future pregnancies.
Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong
Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset
Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category.
Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.
Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob
This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…
Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548
Alharbi, Ziyad; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Dembinski, Rolf; Reckort, Sven; Grieb, Gerrit; Kauczok, Jens; Pallua, Norbert
Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.
Occupational fatalities are those that occur during the course of a person's occupation. They can occur in any industry or sector. Studies have shown that the construction sector is more dangerous for workers than the industrial sector, and there are more deaths both in the developed and developing countries. The construction sector has seen a boom in countries like India over the past few years and with it an increase in the number of occupational fatalities. Three different types of occupational fatalities pertaining to construction sector are presented here to increase awareness of the different types of occupational fatalities that may occur. The circumstances leading to them are discussed from a medico-legal viewpoint. Specific acts of negligence have been highlighted and suggestions offered with a view to decreasing fatalities.
Hosemann, W; Draf, C
Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5-1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education.
Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K
Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a range of birth defects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Infants with FAS are prone to death because of various physical abnormalities. Consequently, infants with FAS may be presented in the medicolegal investigation as a form of sudden unexpected death in infancy. The author reported a 6-month-old male infant who was found dead at home. The history of maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy was obtained. The infant was diagnosed with FAS at the autopsy because he was presented with postnatal growth retardation, multiple facial abnormalities, and abnormal brain structures, which met the criteria of FAS. The cause of death was severe aspiration pneumonia. The purposes of this case report are to show an uncommon manifestation of sudden unexpected death in infancy case for the forensic pathologists and to emphasize on the national healthcare problem.
Jurek, Tomasz; Bujak, Marek; Szostak, Maciej; Swiatek, Barbara
Estimating the subject's ability to undergo imprisonment has become a medicolegal opinionating problem. Polish penal law indicates the presence of negative prerequisites, such as a "serious disease" and "important health-associated reasons". In these cases, the conditions of imprisonment pose a direct danger of death or detriment to health. Interruption of imprisonment or remission of the penalty of imprisonment must constitute the only possibility of avoiding such dangers. In his opinion, the expert should define the health-associated needs of the condemned and the possibilities of meeting such needs in the situation of imprisonment, also taking into consideration the capacity of the prison health service facility and its cooperation with regular health care institutions.
Hosemann, W.; Draf, C.
Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5–1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education. PMID:24403974
Gaszczyk-Ozarowski, Zbigniew; Chowaniec, Czesław
The majority of experts in the field of forensic medicine maintain that the minutes of the medicolegal autopsy should be taken by the forensic pathologist. The authors argue that it is the public prosecutor who is obliged to draw up the minutes, whereas the forensic pathologist issues the expert opinion. To support their stance, the authors make frequent references to several provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code of 1997. The authors also imply that due to organizational reasons and the ratio legis of the aforementioned code, the forensic pathologist should not be assigned the role of the minutes-taker, despite the lack of a specific exclusion rule governing such a case. Possible consequences caused by the lack of the properly drawn up minutes are briefly discussed as well.
Gilmour, J M; Rosenberg, P J
Medicolegal issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiac care were considered in the United States by the National Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in 1985. This paper discusses these issues in the Canadian context. Although there is little legislation or case precedent in Canada to guide providers of CPR in decision-making, there appears to be little risk of liability or prosecution for competently rendered care. Providers should be cautious in withholding or withdrawing resuscitative measures from incompetent patients when brain death has not occurred and cardiovascular unresponsiveness has not been demonstrated. However, resuscitation may be withheld when a competent patient refuses it or if there is another medically and legally valid reason to do so. PMID:2644006
Dejonckere, Philippe H; Coryn, Christiane; Lebacq, Jean
Owing to an increasing number of requests for compensation, a medicolegal decision-making system for tinnitus related to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been elaborated at the Federal Belgian Institute of Occupational Diseases. Experience with 113 patients, all of them claiming compensation for NIHL and tinnitus, is now available. The patients underwent an exhaustive audiological investigation, and their professional career and noise exposure were carefully and objectively documented. We reviewed the group of 35 "accepted" cases (i.e., with chronic tinnitus recognized as related to NIHL and financially compensated as an occupational disease) and analyzed the medicolegal arguments for acceptance or rejection. In these patients, tinnitus was mostly bilateral, was perceived on average at a frequency of 4 KHz and with a supraliminal intensity of 7.2 dB, and lasted on average for 7.3 years. To gain better insight into the relationship between cochlear damage and chronic tinnitus, we compared our group to a control group of 35 patients with similar hearing thresholds at 3 and 4 KHz but free of tinnitus. The main difference is a significantly steeper slope of the audiometric curve between 2 and 3 KHz in the tinnitus group. Furthermore, a notch in the distortion product-gram is noticed in 60% of the ears affected by tinnitus versus 9% of the ears in the control group. This abrupt discontinuity in the activity along the tonotopic axis of the auditory system-the main characteristic of NIHL-could be a factor eliciting tinnitus, as a correspondence between the audiometric notch and tinnitus frequency appears to exist.
Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman
With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825
Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Clayton, Tara; Spiller, Henry A
Ritualistic serpent qua snake handling, which rests upon inveterate religious conviction arising out of literal interpretation of selected passages of the New Testament, is a rare ceremony practiced by a distinct minority of Christians predominantly in rural Appalachian regions of the United States commonly referred to as the Bible belt. The fervent, frenzied pursuit by anointed "sign-followers" of intimate contact with a variety of poisonous snakes, however, puts the handler together with sect members or bystanders at risk for lethal envenomation, particularly when prompt medical attention is held by the congregation of faith to contravene God's will. The authors report three separate cases of death due to envenomation by snakebite during a church service and the handler's faith-based refusal to seek treatment. Postmortem examination of each yielded similar physical findings attributable to various toxic sequelae of the complex venoms. A review of the injurious constituents of these chemical toxins also includes a discussion of complex pathophysiological mechanisms causing death. In addition, the authors review the history of representative legislative and judicial responses to the sensationally mortal phenomenon, all of which ineluctably grapple with fundamental Constitutional issues devolving from such controversial religious practices. We underscore the view that a thoroughly documented medicolegal investigation and autopsy are indispensable to both inform matters of public health and thereby contribute to the formulation of sound public policy.
Swiderski, Paweł; Zaba, Czesław; Tezyk, Artur; Wachowiak, Roman
In the last few years, the authors have noted an increasing amount of cases submitted for analysis in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, and addressing alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers. A question about the exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child by a breast-feeding mother under the influence of alcohol is posed by prosecution or the court, and the expectation is obtaining answers from forensic experts as to whether the situation fulfills the meaning of article 160 of the penal code, which would result in the mother bearing criminal liability. Difficulties that have arisen during the analysis of such cases have prompted the authors to analyze the problem of alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers in terms of medico-legal opinions.
Wilen, William W., Ed.
This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…
Polistena, Andrea; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Buccelli, Claudio; Conzo, Giovanni; Conti, Adelaide; Niola, Massimo; Avenia, Nicola
Abstract Aim of the present paper is the review of the principal complications associated to endocrine neck surgery considering how expertise, full adoption of guidelines, appropriate technology and proper informed consent may limit the medicolegal claims at the light of the incoming new regulation of the medical professional legal responsibility. A literature search, using the Medline/PubMed database for full-length papers, was used. Postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy and hypoparathy-roidism remain the principal causes of surgical malpractice claims . In the procedure of neck lymphadenctomy intra-operative haemorrhage, thoracic duct injury, injuries to loco-regional nerves can be observed and can be source of claims. After many years of increased medicolegal litigations, the Italian government is proposing a drastic change in the regulations of supposed medical malpractice in order to guarantee the patient’s right to a safe treatment and in the meantime to defend clinicians from often unmotivated and prejudicial legal cases. Surgical errors and complications in neck surgery are a relevant clinical issue. Only the combination of surgical and clinical expertise, application of guidelines, appropriate technology and a routinely use of specific informed consent can contain potential medicolegal implications. PMID:28352812
Daniels, Eldra W; Gordon, Zachary; French, Keisha; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U
Cauda equina syndrome is 1 of a few true surgical emergencies involving the lumbar spine. Although treatment within 48 hours has been found to correlate with improved outcomes, recovery of bowel and bladder control does not always occur, and loss of these functions can be distressing to patients. An understanding of factors affecting the legal outcome can aid the clinician in determining risk management for medicolegal cases of cauda equina syndrome. This study is a retrospective analysis of medicolegal cases involving cauda equina syndrome. The LexisNexis Academic legal search database was used to obtain medicolegal cases of cauda equina syndrome to determine risk factors for adverse decisions for the provider. Outcomes data on trial verdicts were collected, as were associated penalties. Case data were also compiled on age, sex, initial presentation site, initial diagnosis, whether a rectal examination was performed, time to consultation with a specialist, time to completion of advanced imaging study, time to surgery, and neurosurgical vs orthopedic consultation. Based on our study of court cases involving cauda equina syndrome, a positive association was found between time to surgery >48 hours and an adverse decision (P<.05). The actual degree of functional loss did not appear to affect the verdicts. Because 26.7% of the cases involved an initial presentation that included loss of bowel or bladder control, this study emphasizes the importance of cautioning all patients with spinal complaints of the potential risk for cauda equina syndrome.
Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Konopka, Tomasz
The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period.
Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.
Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…
Brigden, M L
More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410
Hariharan, Deepak; Psaltis, Emmanouil; Scholefield, John H; Lobo, Dileep N
In this review we aimed to evaluate quality of life after bile duct injury and the consequent medico-legal implications. A comprehensive English language literature search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index and Google™ Scholar databases for articles published between January 2000 and April 2016. The last date of search was 11 April 2016. Key search words included bile duct injury, iatrogenic, cholecystectomy, prevention, risks, outcomes, quality of life, litigation and were used in combination with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Long-term survival after bile duct injury is significantly impaired (all-cause long-term mortality approximately 21 %) along with the quality of life (especially psychological/mental state remains affected). Bile duct injury is associated with high rates of litigation. Monetary compensation varied from £2500 to £216,000 in the UK, €9826-€55,301 in the Netherlands and $628,138-$2,891,421 in the USA. Bile duct injuries have profound implications for patients, medical personnel and healthcare providers as they cause significant morbidity and mortality, high rates of litigation and raised healthcare expenditure.
Marinelli, E; Montanari Vergallo, G; Reale, G; di Luca, A; Catarinozzi, I; Napoletano, S; Zaami, S
In recent years there has been an exponential increase of fillers use in aesthetic medicine. The popularity of this anti-wrinkle product is based on their capacity to offer significant improvement in the aesthetic field, particularly to skin rejuvenating processes with non-invasive and less expensive techniques, if compared to the surgical methods (i.e. surgical lifting). The great number of fillers on the market is composed of a large heterogenic number of biomaterials. The aim of this review was to provide an overview and a classification of the filling materials that are most commonly used. A synthesis of the literature concerning fillers and related side effects was also reported. The law decree no. 23 of 1998, converted in the law no. 94 of 1998 and the principal judgments of the Italian Court of Cassation have been examined with the medico-legal issues related to fillers use in medicine. With respect to their degradation, filler materials may be classified as temporary (degradable), semi-permanent and permanent (not degradable). The temporary fillers such as hyaluronic acid and collagen are completely degraded by the surrounding tissue in a few months. The permanent fillers, such as the ones derived from silicon oil and minerals are not biodegradable and may cause serious and irreversible side effects. Their use requires a physician with a high level of specialization to perform the treatment, a deep knowledge of face anatomy and a great degree of experience.
Hofner, Marie-Claude; Burquier, Raphaelle; Huissoud, Thérèse; Romain, Nathalie; Graz, Bertrand; Mangin, Patrice
To improve care and services to victims of interpersonal violence, a medico-legal consultation unit was set up at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 2006. Adult victims of violence are referred to the consultation by the emergency department. Patients are received by forensic nurses for support, forensic examination and community orientation. A descriptive study of medical reports filled for the 2006 population was conducted in 2007 with the aim to explore characteristics of this specific population and to better orient prevention. Among the 422 patients in 2006, 57% were men and 43% women, with a median age of 31 years old. Violent episodes took place in a public place for 90% of male victims and at home for 70% of female victims. The perpetrators were mostly unknown to male victims (62% of all men victims) and mostly known (usually the partner or a former partner) to female victims (90% of all women victims). For 80% of the women and 47% of the men, the violent event which brought them to the consultation, was not the first one. Because 90% of all patients under study were victimized by men., not only is it necessary to target prevention program to match the potential victims, prevention messages must also focus on potential offenders, especially on young men.
Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław
Declaration of death is a diagnosis and it has legal consequences. While declaring death, there is a possibility of committing a medical error. The majority of irregularities in declaring an individual dead occur in emergency situations. When a physician declares death, he is released from the professional obligation of saving the individual's life. The studies were based on the results of medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases in medical errors. In case death is erroneously declared, we may face a situation of squandering the chance of saving the life of a human being. Exposure to loss of life or to severe detriment to health are possible charges here, along with failure to offer medical assistance, although a deliberate character of the offence according to article 162 of the Polish penal code renders such a legal qualification dubious in case of medical errors. In both cases verification is needed whether an interest protected by law was still in existence, i.e. whether the individual was still alive when the physician incorrectly declared him dead.
Sparr, Landy F; Bremner, J Douglas
The nature of remembrance of traumatic events has been particularly controversial during the past decade as vigorous new research has reshaped thinking about trauma and memory. Memory alterations in traumatized individuals have been investigated within both theoretical and biological frameworks. There are different types of memory, and empirical studies have associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a simultaneous weakening and a strengthening of memory. Memory deficiencies in PTSD have been found to be related to problems in new learning (explicit memory), but other specific deficiencies are unvalidated. Recently, accuracy of memory has received particular scrutiny because considerable importance is attached to victims' recollections. In 1998, at the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Bosnian-Croatian soldier was tried for aiding and abetting the rape of a Muslim woman. The defendant's lawyers suggested that the woman's memory was inaccurate, having been adversely affected by her traumatic experiences, and that the defendant whom she identified was not present during her interrogation and abuse. The prosecution disagreed and argued that memories of traumatic experiences in individuals with PTSD are characteristically hyperaccessible. Expert witnesses on both sides were brought in to provide medicolegal testimony about the scientific parameters of stress and its long-term effects on brain regions associated with memory. With the expert witness discussion as background, this article reviews the most recent research about the nature of memory in the aftermath of trauma and the politics of psychological trauma and the law.
Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances. Forensic odontology has played a chief role in solving cold cases and proved to be strong evidence in the court of law. Systematic collection of dental records and preservation of the same would marshal the legal officials in identification of the deceased. To serve the forensic operation and legal authorities, dental professionals need to be familiar with the basics of forensic odontology, which would create a consciousness to preserve the dental data. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the vital applications of forensic odontology in medico-legal issues. Conjointly the recent advancements applied in forensic human identification have been updated.
Abilock, Debbie, Ed.
One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…
In this article, veteran educator Otis Kriegel provides eight questions that teachers can ask themselves as they create or tweak lesson plans. With practical, straightforward advice, Kriegel suggests that teachers be mindful of who their audience is, how much students already know, and what materials they'll need. He also urges teachers to…
Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.
Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)
From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…
Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen
What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…
Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike
Documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' and the extent to which these questions are indicative of…
Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.
Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).
Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Belluso, Elena
Because asbestos diseases represent a complex pattern of legal, social, and political issue, the involvement of the mineralogist and pathologist for a multidisciplinary assessment of its diagnosis helps investigate the relationship between mesothelioma or lung cancer and occupational or environmental asbestos exposure.In the present study, we consider the concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) detected by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the burden of different kinds of mineral fibers (among which is asbestos) identified by SEM combined with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), in 10 lung tissue samples of subjects with occupational and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos.In all subjects with occupational exposure to asbestos, more than 1000 ABs per gram of dry weight were detected both with OM and SEM; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.In 9 lung samples of the 10 investigated by SEM-EDS different inorganic fibers were found. Asbestos fibers have been identified too, and more than 100,000 fibers per gram of dry weight were detected in subjects with occupational exposure; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.Instead, when the ABs burden is low or moderate (such as in subjects with absent or probable asbestos exposure), the correlation between ABs concentration determined by OM and those determined by SEM is lost. Therefore, when the ABs value in OM is borderline, the SEM investigation became essential. Furthermore, the mineralogical analysis by SEM-EDS (identification and quantification of inorganic fibers in general and asbestos in particular) of the fibers detected in the lung tissues is very useful, if not necessary, to complete the pathological diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies in medicolegal field.
Rajput, Meena; Sharma, Luv
India is among the world's large reservoirs of wild poliovirus (WPV) with 559 confirmed cases of poliomyelitis (wild virus) being reported in 2008. The World Health Organization's program for the eradication of poliomyelitis in third world countries like India is associated with major ethical and medico-legal implications. Two vaccines are available in India for poliomyelitis i.e. oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), of which OPV is used in the eradication campaign, the case count for 2009 being 36 out of a total of 384 reported cases globally, the case count for mid 2010 being 19 cases out of 84 reported globally. There are widespread reports of vaccine derived poliomyelitis as well as vaccine associated poliomyelitis (VAP) from different parts of the country, which can be linked to resurgence of polio in several states or to the failure of the polio drive (Polio Sundays). Though an extended comprehensive polio campaign is on and both money and manpower are being dumped for achieving the goal of polio eradication, the ground reality is entirely different. The argument that wild polio strains have surfaced to hamper the drive cannot account for all post vaccination cases. The Indian Academy of Paediatrics has forcefully suggested replacement of OPV by IPV, as the effectiveness of IPV far exceeds the cost benefit of OPV. IPV has by and large replaced OPV in many parts of the world. The second issue is the threat of litigation on the health department once the post vaccination cases rise even further. There are certain other socio-ethical issues discussed in this paper on a subject which has an important bearing on the health statistics of this country.
Kim, Candice; Vidovich, Mladen I
There are few assessments of patterns of medicolegal cases involving cardiac catheterizations. This descriptive study reviews the patterns of liability and medical outcomes involving cardiac catheterization litigation from the LexisNexis Academic database and the Physician Insurers Association of America registry. From 1985 to 2009, the Physician Insurers Association of America registry documented 1,361 closed coronary angiography claims. The cardiovascular disease specialty was involved in 699 with other specialties involved in the remaining cases. Of the 1,361 closed claims, 301 (22%) resulted in payments to the plaintiff (average indemnity of $230,987). The most common alleged error was for improper performance (35.4%; average indemnity of $255,542). The alleged error with the highest average indemnity of $270,916 was errors in diagnosis. Not performing an indicated procedure had the highest ratio of paid to closed claims (41%) with an average indemnity of $246,988. In regard to the severity of injury, death was the most common outcome (44%). The highest ratio of paid to total closed claims (43%) was for grave injuries (highest average indemnity of $555,625). Of the 116 LexisNexis cases, litigation against physicians occurred in 90.5% of cases with judgments in favor of the patients in 29.5%. When death was the outcome (31% of cases), physicians were highly likely to be sued (97%) and the judgment was more likely in the plaintiffs' favor (44%). In conclusion, in litigation related to cardiac catheterizations, most cases are due to medical malpractice and physicians are sued in a high percentage of cases. Cardiologists should recognize these patterns of litigation as these may impact and improve processes of care.
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Ogiela, Jakub; Tofilski, Adam
Cadavers attract numerous species and genera of Muscidae, both regular elements of carrion insect assemblages, and accidental visitors. Identification of adult Muscidae may be considered difficult, particularly by non-experts. Since species identification is a vital first step in the analysis of entomological material in any forensic entomology orientated experiment and real cases, various alternative methods of species identification have been proposed. We investigated possibility of semiautomated identification by means of wing measurements as an alternative for classic morphology and DNA-based approaches. We examined genus-level identification success for 790 specimens representing 13 genera of the most common European cadavers visiting Muscidae. We found 99.8% of examined specimens correctly identified to the genus-level. Without error, the following were identified: Azelia, Eudasyphora, Graphomya, Hydrotaea, Musca, Muscina, Mydaea, Neomyia, Polietes, Stomoxys and Thricops. Genus-level misidentifications were found only in Helina and Phaonia. Discrimination of examined material on the species level within Hydrotaea (318 specimens representing eight species) and Muscina (163 specimens representing four species) showed lower, yet still high average identification success, 97.2 and 98.8%, respectively. Our results revealed relatively high success in both genus and species identification of Muscidae of medico-legal importance. Semiautomated identification by means of wing measurements can be used by non-experts and does not require sophisticated equipment. This method will facilitate the identification of forensically relevant muscids in comparison to more difficult and more time-consuming identification approaches based on taxonomic keys or DNA-based methods. However, for unambiguous identification of some taxa, we recommend complementary use of identification keys.
Saint-Martin, Pauline; Bouyssy, Marie; O'Byrne, Patrick
We describe the medico-legal findings in a population of sexual assault cases assessed in an urban French referral centre, analyse the subsequent legal dispositions in each case and determine whether the characteristics of the assault and the medico-legal findings were associated with conviction of the assailant. We performed a retrospective study of medicolegal reports in all the sexual assault cases reported in Tours (France) during a seven-year period. We defined two groups of victims: children under 15 years old and victims aged 15 years or more. Legal outcomes were obtained from courtroom proceedings. The relationship between the outcomes and the circumstances of the case was analyzed by logistic regression. We enrolled a total of 756 cases during the study period. The mean age of the study population was 16.5 years and 68.3% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. In 57% of these cases, the assailant was a family member. 31.7% of all the victims were aged 15 years or more. The assailant was an acquaintance of the victim in 62.2% of the cases. Drug-facilitated assault was suspected in 2.9% of the cases. In 46.2% of the cases, formal criminal charges were not filed due to insufficient evidence; 36.3% of the assailants were convicted. Examination at the request of the police authorities and previous acquaintance of the assailant by the victim were significantly associated with conviction. Allegations of penetration, the presence of general body trauma and the presence of genital trauma were not necessarily associated with conviction. Medical examiners need to be circumspect when they record non-medical variables. Physical evidence of trauma was neither predictive nor essential for conviction. Successful prosecution depends on the quality of the testimony provided by the victim.
Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino
Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers.
de la Grandmaison, G L; Durigon, M
War crimes perpetrated during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in Kosovo prompted medicolegal investigations of mass graves as required by the International Criminal Tribunal (ICT). In spite of natural and methodological boundaries, these investigations were able to help to identify the victims and to discover the clues and evidence that are likely to support objectively the indictments brought by the ICT. However, the medico-legal data cannot explain everything. They should be exploited very carefully in order to avoid any error of interpretation.
Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Rygol, Krystian
Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal proceedings have been established, there are still some areas that--parallel to changes occurring in contemporary society--have started to be controversial. This phenomenon has prompted the authors to attempt establishing new criteria for certification in total/major permanent inability to work in profession. This work is a continuation of a cycle devoted to interpretation of article 156 of the Penal Code to meet the needs of medico-legal opinionating.
Alexander, John J.
Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)
Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.
Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)
Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.
White, Marilyn Domas
Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)
In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…
Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.
Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…
Weiss, Tarin Harrar
Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…
Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet
Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…
Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy
The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…
Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi
This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.
Muccino, Enrico; Gentile, Guendalina; Mantero, Stefano; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo
Desmoid tumor is a fibroproliferative neoplasm with an intermediate malignancy and it can be localized in every bodily district: some locations are considered exceptional, like the urogenital localization. The Author point out a rare case of giant idiopathic scrotal fibromatosis that was found during an autopsy. A widower, that lived alone in poor hygienic conditions, was found dead in his house. The Judicial Authority ordered the autopsy, that was performed two days later at the Medico-Legal Section of Milan University. External examinations revealed only the considerable dimension of the scrotum (cm 24 × 41). The cause of death was fixed in a cardiac tamponade due to a natural heart laceration localized in correspondence of a transmural infarction. The toxicological exam resulted negative, while the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis qualify the scrotal mass as a desmoids tumor. Due to the absence of predisposing conditions and of fibroproliferative infiltration in bladder and retroperitoneal space, the neoplasm was configured as an idiopathic desmoid tumor. The presented case gives the reason for the discussion concerning medico-legal aspects that are typical of rare neoplasms.
Ehmke, Ursula; Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine du; Saayman, Gert
The misuse of alcohol has a particularly detrimental effect and is one of the most significant public health problems in South Africa and it also has an impact on the criminal justice system with evidence of association between high levels of alcohol and risk-taking behaviour, committing crimes, or being a victim of crime. A global trend has been set worldwide with alcohol being one of the most common drugs found in post mortem specimens and especially with regard to cases admitted for medico-legal autopsies. The influence of alcohol on the cause of death is either a contributory or an underlying factor in a substantial number of violent deaths. We retrospectively reviewed 1455 cases, in which alcohol was taken, of 2344 medico-legal autopsies done in 2009. We found that 47% of the cases tested positive for alcohol, with the reported blood alcohol concentrations varying from 0.01 to 0.95g per 100ml (mean=0.16±0.11g per 100ml) with the highest proportion being in the 0.10-0.19g per 100ml range. A breakdown of the results showed that road traffic accidents, assaults and firearm-related deaths predominated the alcohol-positive cases. The results showed that there was a definite correlation between alcohol consumption and the incidence of other that natural deaths.
Koelzer, Sarah C; Held, Hannelore; Toennes, Stefan W; Verhoff, Marcel A; Wunder, Cora
that are then produced induce labor. In medicolegal contexts, the proof for an abortion through the administration of ethacridine lactate lies in the typical yellow discoloration of the fetus in conjunction with the toxicological demonstration of the substance in fetal body fluids, and if possible also in maternal body fluids.
In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…
According to Dylan Wiliam, the traditional classroom practice in which a teacher asks a question, students raise their hands, and the teacher calls on a volunteer does not actually provide much useful information--and it may even impede learning. When teachers ask questions in this way, they're only engaging the most confident students in the…
Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…
In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…
English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…
Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.
This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…
According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…
Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet
Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirÃ©e en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet
Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L
The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.
Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.
Leduc, Charles; Young, Iain D; Joneja, Mala G; Parker, Christopher M
Systemic sclerosis is a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and pathologists alike due to its protean manifestations and often insidious onset, particularly in cases without significant titres of auto-antibodies. Herein we present a case of a female in her sixties who died rapidly following a clinical diagnosis of pneumatosis intestinalis and respiratory failure of unclear etiology. Recently revised clinical diagnostic criteria were applied to the clinical history and postmortem findings to reach an unexpected diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. The diagnosis of systemic sclerosis at autopsy has important medicolegal implications largely related to premature death due to delayed treatment or poor post-operative outcome. Moreover, familial clustering of this disease underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in the postmortem setting.
Rancic, Nemanja; Erceg, Milena; Radojevic, Nemanja; Savic, Slobodan
A comparative analysis of firearm homicides committed in Belgrade was performed including four representative years: 1987 (before the civil war in the Former Yugoslavia), 1991 (beginning of the war), 1997 (end of the war), and 2007 (period of social stabilization). The increase in the number of homicides was established in 1991 and 1997 compared with 1987, with the decrease in 2007, but with the continuous increase in the percentage of firearm homicides in the total number of homicides, from 12% in 1987 up to 56% in 2007. The significant increase in firearm homicides during the last decade of the 20th century can be explained by the social disturbances and the high availability of firearms, while their reduction in 2007 could be linked to the gradual stabilization of social circumstances. The results showed that the actual social, political, and economical changes strongly influenced medicolegal characteristics of homicides and particularly firearm homicides.
Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara
Interpretative problems are caused by the semantic definition of the term "disturbance of the health" and its usage in the law system context. Judicial decisions show that this term is employed to denote a functional, as well as mental detriment to the health that exceeds the individual's adaptative abilities. A review of medico-legal literature demonstrates various interpretations of the term, starting from general systemic disturbances to definitions allowing for objectivization of the injured person's complaints. The deliberations constitute an attempt at quantification of "disturbance of the health" and defining the upper and lower limits of the medium and slight detriment to the health. The results of the analysis allow for adopting a definition that permits to judge objectively the injured person's complaints and to determine the limits of the compensatory ability of his body.
Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly
Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.
These answers to frequent questions (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.
Alexander, John J.
Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)
... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...
... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...
There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.
Jabłoński, Christian; Sybirska, Halina
In this paper results of the research on the usefulness of toxicological analysis relating to narcotics in intraocular fluid have been presented. The examined material comprised intraocular fluids and blood samples collected from 332 deceased suspected of being intoxicated or poisoned with psychoactive agents. The cases in which death resulted from injuries and those where an individual took drugs before his or her death were also considered. Drug analysis was carried out by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). In both biological fluids the degree of hydratation was determined. Ethyl alcohol, opiates, barbiturates and benzodiazepines were found in all the examined cases. In few cases ethanol substitutes such as isopropyl alcohol, ethylene glycol and methyl alcohol were indicated. Results of the quantitative examinations were divided into sets according to the kind of xenobiotic and then on the basics of concentration of the substance found in the blood and vitreous body 2 different groups were separated in each set. Statistic analysis of the correlations among xenobiotic concentrations in both organic fluids was also performed. The obtained findings allow to assume that intraocular fluid can be used for toxicological diagnosis of poisonings with psycho-active agents. The analytical results for intraocular fluid not only confirms the result for blood but also makes it credible. In single cases it can be a sufficient basis to determine and recognize psychoactive agents in the deceased.
McCord, J F
The provision of complete dentures is often perceived as a clinical 'black art' as it relies on a blend of clinical skill, scientific evidence and no little artistic interpretation. Coupled to this is a heavy reliance on patient ability to control their dentures in a muscular environment while, hopefully, coping with the various oral functions in addition to appearance. This article deals with the potential problem areas in the provision of complete dentures, reinforcing the importance of practitioners obtaining appropriate informed consent and of maintaining clinical knowledge and skills.
Partin, Ronald L.
Guidelines are given to the teacher on using questions to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using questions, ways to ask questions and acknowledge students' responses, and types of questions which should and should not be used. (SJL)
Todd, Ross J.
Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its origins in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…
Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo
Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM).
Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C
The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.
O'Neil, Robert M.
Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…
Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.
When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)
My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…
Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627
Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny
We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…
As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…
Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep
Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…
Woodruff, Melba D.
Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…
Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…
The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…
Hyman, Ronald T.
This study investigates the pattern of teacher questioning regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…
Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C
Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions.
Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław
The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine.
... Management of IC Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...
Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.
The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.
Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra
In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.
Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.
We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).
Martin, Sara F.
The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?
This article examines the acquisition of wh-questions and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either questions or relatives, and in which wh-questions must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)
Sykes, Rosetta A.
A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)
Gibbons, Andrew S.
This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice in educational technology. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal, and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract…
Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.
Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…
The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.
Hurren, Elizabeth T
There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state.
Morrison, Ian; Rumbold, John M M; Riha, Renata L
This review is aimed at summarizing the current state of knowledge regarding parasomnias, which have been implicated in medicolegal cases as well as providing guidance to those working within common-law jurisdictions regarding the technical aspects of the law. Sleepwalking and sexsomnia as a defence are being raised more frequently in criminal cases and there has been public debate on their validity. Unfortunately, expert evidence on forensic sleep disorders continues to be heavily opinion-based with the potential for miscarriages of justice seen in recent highly publicized cases. There is an apparent inertia in research into violent sleep disorders. We review the current state of forensic sleep science in the United Kingdom (UK) and abroad and discuss the need to formulate guidelines based on available evidence. We also highlight the pressing necessity for more research in this area as well as the need to reform the law, which is the subject of a recent Criminal Law Commission report in the United Kingdom. In time, this will facilitate the efficient, proportionate, and just disposal of violence arising from sleep, thus benefitting both society and the individual sufferer.
Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N
Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.
Carolei, L; Ermio, G; Accorinti, N; Meo, G; Lamberti, V; De Sarro, G
The pharmacological, deontologic and medico-legal aspects in the use of appetite suppressant drugs have been evaluated. Appetite suppressant drugs used in the treatment of obesity are divided into 2 broad pharmacological categories: those acting via brain catecholamine pathways and those acting via serotonin pathways. Of the former group, amphetamines and phenimetrazines are no longer used because of their stimulant properties and addictive potential. The remaining drugs of this group have some sympathomimetic and stimulant properties. Anorectic drugs which promote serotonin neurotransmission have no such stimulant or sympathomimetic properties. They reduce appetite and food intake and are effective in the treatment of obesity. If they are not used appropriately, appetite suppressants can be of no therapeutic benefit and cause marked health risks. As regards to anorectic drugs, the 13/4/1995 act "Rules and limits in preparing drugs containing anorectic substances", precisely defines rules about selling and use of those substances. Behavior of health care personnel neglecting observance of the rule, could be interpreted as "imprudence", "negligence" and "inexpertness" in designing and managing a fat-reducing diet, that may imply, in case of damage to the patient, a professional fault.
Ozsoy, Sait; Kara, Koray; Teke, Hacer Y; Turker, Turker; Congologlu, Mehmet A; Sezigen, Sermet; Renklidag, Tulay; Karapirli, Mustafa; Javan, Gulnaz T
Aggression, which is defined as a behavior causing harm or pain, is a behavioral pattern typically expected in children and adolescents who are involved in criminal activities. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between aggression and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in children and adolescents. The study was performed in 295 cases which were sent for medicolegal examination. The mean age of the subjects was 14.27 ± 1.05 years (age range 10-18 years). The aggression levels of the subjects were determined using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), which is an updated form of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The mean total AQ score of the subjects with and without SIB was 78.04 ± 21.0 and 62.75 ± 18.05, respectively (p < 0.01). There were significant statistical differences between the two groups with respect to their subscale scores (p < 0.01). It was concluded that the levels of aggression increased in children and adolescents who were involved in criminal activities when the SIBs increased.
Clement, Mary C.; Kistner, Warren; Moran, Wes
Developing best practices in the hiring of new teachers has become a necessity in times of teacher shortages. Personnel directors and principals charged with recruitment must be able to distinguish the most qualified applicants and to hire those with the most potential to succeed and remain in the profession. Behavior-based interviewing (BBI) is a…
McCarty, Teresa L.
This essay is based on a June 2014 interview with Bernard Spolsky, in which he discussed his life with educational linguistics. A self-described "accidental professor," Spolsky directed the first study of Navajo sociolinguistics, established educational linguistics as a field of study and practice, co-created a national language policy…
Tenenberg, Josh; McCartney, Robert
This special issue features a set of papers recently published in the 3rd International Workshop on Computing Education Research (ICER'07). The papers were selected because they closely meet the publication criteria for ACM/JERIC: stemming from computing education practice, grounded in relevant literature, containing analysis of primary empirical…
Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411
Swanson, Kara W
This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted.
Plotzker, S R
This article provides an overview of recent changes to federal law that physicians should be aware of The Final Compliance Program Guidance for Individual and Small Group Practices, the HIPAA privacy regulations, and the Fraud and Abuse Safe Harbors are discussed specifically. Also addressed are miscellaneous tax changes and the lapse of the Advisory Opinions.
Welch, James, IV
The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…
Induru, Raghava R; Lagman, Ruth L
For a variety of reasons, cancer pain is often undertreated, adversely affecting the quality of life for patients and caregivers. To manage cancer pain effectively, physicians need to understand its pathogenesis, how to assess it, how to treat it, and, in particular, how to optimize opioid treatment. We discuss common questions faced by physicians in everyday practice.
Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.
For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…
Joyner, James F
Roth 401(k) provisions are a newly available feature of 401(k) plans. Roth 401(k) provisions are after-tax savings that generally are tax-free at the time of distribution. Questions arise for plan sponsors about whether the new feature is beneficial, and to whom, and what needs to be done if the plan sponsor decides to offer this provision to its employees. This article tries to answer some of those common questions, including a simple computational analysis to try to answer the important question of how much an employee-participant genuinely benefits from this savings approach. Some practical issues of implementation are touched on, and some unanswered questions are identified.
In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…
Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose
A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…
Bin, Paola; Delbon, Paola; Piras, Mauro; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Conti, Adelaide
Abstract In recent years in Italy (and in the other European Countries) a new debated topic involves anatomists and the scientific world: donation of the body after death for scientific purposes. The aim of our analysis is to analyze the issue of voluntary body donation in Italy focusing first of all, on key principles of the disciplines of donation. Considering the rise of exhibitions and events in which death is spectacularized, the debate is focus on will, on respect and overall on the purpose for which the body is donated. Anatomical dissection is considered necessary in the direct learning of the human body, of surgical practices and new scientific techniques but the scarcity of programmes and regulations regarding the donation of bodies for study and research make it an uncommon practice. After discussing what are the constitutional principles underlying the issue we want to emphasize the need of a more effective and updated regulation to set limits and methods of a practice still essential for scientific progress. PMID:28352814
Bin, Paola; Delbon, Paola; Piras, Mauro; Paternoster, Mariano; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Conti, Adelaide
In recent years in Italy (and in the other European Countries) a new debated topic involves anatomists and the scientific world: donation of the body after death for scientific purposes. The aim of our analysis is to analyze the issue of voluntary body donation in Italy focusing first of all, on key principles of the disciplines of donation. Considering the rise of exhibitions and events in which death is spectacularized, the debate is focus on will, on respect and overall on the purpose for which the body is donated. Anatomical dissection is considered necessary in the direct learning of the human body, of surgical practices and new scientific techniques but the scarcity of programmes and regulations regarding the donation of bodies for study and research make it an uncommon practice. After discussing what are the constitutional principles underlying the issue we want to emphasize the need of a more effective and updated regulation to set limits and methods of a practice still essential for scientific progress.
White, R B; Fox, M W
The practice of vivisection is both defended as necessary to medical advancement and attacked as being symptomatic of a breakdown in society. White cites examples of people who survived critical or debilitating illnesses because of research on animals. His position is that through the use of animal experimentation cures and vaccines were found, and that research using animals must be continued to find cures for AIDS and other current, threatening illnesses. Fox contends that because of an already existing ecological breakdown, further advances in medical knowledge via animal research will not be forthcoming. He compares vivisection to terrorism and, citing the doctrine of ahisma (nonviolence), advocates the abolition of vivisection.
Moran, D J
An investigation of the pricing of implantable prosthetic devices in Australia reveals some alarming practices. A governmental mechanism exists to prop up the pricing of 7500 listed devices to levels that are unacceptably high by world standards. Private hospitals and doctors are able, legally, to profit by marking up the cost of these devices from the market price to this artificially inflated price. Even the open market prices of implantable prosthetic items, such as intra-ocular lenses, are high by international standards. In a time of budgetary constraint for health spending and rapidly increasing use of these devices, these issues urgently need to be addressed in Australia.
Hindi, Fadi; Ettles, Callum; Pemberton, Mark
Arterial complications following traumatic knee injury are relatively rare but mandate timely recognition and treatment to avoid significant comorbidity and medicolegal ramifications. In this report we describe a case of acute thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal artery occurring after knee dislocation, successfully repaired by intimal fixation and a limited venous patch reconstruction. We present a review of local practice in screening vascular injuries following knee dislocation, aligned with a review of the literature and considerations for practice. PMID:28246569
Godfrey, Anthony Dean; Hindi, Fadi; Ettles, Callum; Pemberton, Mark; Grewal, Perbinder
Arterial complications following traumatic knee injury are relatively rare but mandate timely recognition and treatment to avoid significant comorbidity and medicolegal ramifications. In this report we describe a case of acute thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal artery occurring after knee dislocation, successfully repaired by intimal fixation and a limited venous patch reconstruction. We present a review of local practice in screening vascular injuries following knee dislocation, aligned with a review of the literature and considerations for practice.
Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the impact on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the question of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.
van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.
Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)
Primack, J R; Abrams, N E
This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.
Motta, S; Nappi, S
The problem of professional liability in case of adverse outcomes or failures secondary to surgery is very sensitive in many countries of the European Community. In Italy, a recent sentence of the Supreme Court concerning a patient who underwent septoplasty raised considerable doubts in relation to the guidance to be followed in disputes related to an alleged professional liability, further exacerbating the juridical orientation of recent years in this context. This ruling involves any surgery, as well as rhinologic surgery, and calls into question most regulatory and legal principles that have traditionally been adopted by the Italian Civil Law. The sentence states that the plaintiff is only required to document the failure of surgical treatment, but not the breach of the duty of care by the surgeon, thus shifting the burden of proof to the physician-debtor. It also considers that, in assessing the degree of negligence, reference should be made to the qualifications of the surgeon, according to principles that are not covered by current regulations, denying that in general surgery (i.e., not with aesthetic purposes) the surgeon must only to act with diligence and need not guarantee a favourable outcome. This series of statements, complementing one another and evolving more unfavourably towards physicians, facilitate legal disputes for speculative purposes through complainants, with obvious health and socio-economic implications.
Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Vohra, Rajpal; Sharma, Yog Raj
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical profile of medicolegal cases (MLCs) presenting to the eye casualty in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of records. The cases were grouped according to the Ocular Trauma Classification Group classification system. Results: Out of 188 MLCs, 164 (87.2%) were male. Mean age (±standard deviation) was 31.6 (±12.7) years. Age ranged from 7 to 75 years. Twenty-six (13.8%) patients had bilateral involvement. The fist was the most common mode of injury, which was seen in 109 (58%) cases. A total of 27 (14.3%) patients had associated extraocular injury. No evidence of ocular or orbital trauma (malingering) could be found in 13 (7%) patients. Mechanical trauma was present in 169 (90%) patients with injury to globe in 129 (69%) patients and injury to lid or orbit without damage to the globe in 40 (21%) patients. Chemical injury was observed in 6 (3%) patients. Closed globe injury (CGI) was seen in 116 eyes and open globe injury (OGI) was noted in 29 eyes. The most common type of injury, zone, pupil, and grade of injury in CGI were Type A or contusion (79%), Zone I (72%), Pupil B (absence of relative afferent pupillary defect) in 95%, and Grade A [visual acuity (VA) ≥20/40] in 68% of the eyes, respectively. The most common type of injury, zone, pupil, and grade of injury in OGI were Type B or penetrating (48%), Zone II (38%), Pupil B (59%), and Grade D (VA 4/200-light perception) (42%), respectively. Conclusions: The most common form and mode of ocular injury in MLC were closed globe injury and fist, respectively. The most common type of injury in CGI and OGI was contusion and penetrating injury, respectively. PMID:27488149
Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI
Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743
Pfeiffer, Joost-Levin; Pueschel, Klaus; Seifert, Dragana
Aggressive behavior in traffic is a widespread phenomenon. Up to 90% of the population are involved in mild forms such as shouting or gesturing. More dramatic cases with injury to individuals affect at least 1100 people in the US annually. Certain factors such as a male sex, a young age and an urban residency have been identified to contribute to the likelihood of road rage. Central to this analysis is the determination of specific features regarding the conflicting parties, the crime scene and the injury pattern in violent offenses related to traffic. In a retrospective study spanning 10 years, cases of road rage-linked injuries were identified amongst patients at the Medico-Legal Center of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. The data were digitized and then analyzed using descriptive statistics via SPSS. There are disproportionately large numbers of males (85.7%) and motorists (61.2%) amongst road rage perpetrators. Usually the conflicting parties have no prior relationship (89.7%). In 68.1% of the cases, the violence applied was exclusively physical. Objects were utilized in 31.0% of all cases, and in more than half (55.6%) of these cases the vehicle was used as a weapon. The resulting trauma in road rage is mostly blunt and applied to the face and the extremities. There are characteristic features regarding the demographics, time and place of incident, as well as severity and pattern of injury in road rage associated offenses. Identifying these factors may lead to appropriate measures in the reduction of road rage.
Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar
The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we
Jorgensen, Estelle R.
In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…
Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…
Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.
The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…
Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.
Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…
Graesser, Arthur C.
The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…
Creating and Sustaining a Collaborative Culture: Lee Richmond School Improved Instruction by Creating a Culture Where It Is Good to Question Instructional Practices and Commit to Finding Answers Together
Creating and sustaining a collaborative culture takes work, effort and focus. If professional development delivered in the classrooms is to be successful, the focus and practice must become part of the school culture (Danielson, 2002). Providing in-classroom professional development has been the key to instructional reform at Lee Richmond…
Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep
Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a moral imperative as well. The Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association points out that “Ethical values and legal principles are usually closely related, but ethical obligations typically exceed legal duties.” Thus, from the perspective of the law, radiologists are required to communicate important unexpected findings to referring physicians in a timely fashion, or alternatively to the patients themselves. From a moral perspective, radiologists should want to effect such communications. Practice standards, moral values, and ethical statements from professional medical societies call for full disclosure of medical errors to patients affected by them. Surveys of radiologists and non-radiologic physicians reveal that only few would divulge all aspects of the error to the patient. In order to encourage physicians to disclose errors to patients and assist in protecting them in some manner if malpractice litigation follows, more than 35 states have passed laws that do not allow a physician’s admission of an error and apologetic statements to be revealed in the courtroom. Whether such disclosure increases or decreases the likelihood of a medical malpractice lawsuit is unclear, but ethical and moral considerations enjoin physicians to disclose errors and offer apologies. PMID:27006891
Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi
This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families.
Lawson, Emily S
Due to the demanding schedules of nurses, many clinical queries generated during patient care are forgotten before the nurse has time to conduct a search. This article describes a new clinical librarian service, Question Safari, created in partnership with the Nursing Research & Evidence-Based Practice initiative to help mitigate this issue and to support patient care.
Miller, C. C.; And Others
Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…
Miller, C. C.; And Others
Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…
Detrixhe, Jonathan J.
How is bibliotherapy with fiction hypothesized to work, and what are the ideal conditions for treatment success? Patterns in the bibliotherapy literature are explored. Questions are posed and suggestions offered regarding the practice of bibliotherapy with fiction.
Cameriere, Roberto; Ferrante, Luigi
One of the most interesting reasons for needing to estimate age in adult subjects is to ascertain the age of a person of questionable pensionable age. This problem is becoming increasingly important in Europe, owing to the high number of immigrants without valid birth certificates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the application of the apposition of secondary dentine of canines by the method of Cameriere et al. , in order to estimate the pensionable age of subjects without proper birth certificates. Periapical X-rays of 180 canines from 90 subjects aged between 50 and 79, 46 men and 44 women, were analysed. Estimated ages were used to test the medico-legal question as to whether an individual was older or younger than 65 years of age. In subjects under 65, age was correctly evaluated in 91% and 89% of individuals using maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. In subjects over 65, of pensionable age, estimates were correct in 85% and 88% of cases, respectively. The proportion of individuals with correct classifications was 89% for both maxillary and mandibular canines taken together. In only four subjects, the results of maxillary and mandibular canines were discordant; in the other 86 subjects, the test of maxillary and mandibular canines yielded concordant results. Among the latter, the proportion of individuals who were really aged 65 years or older, and who were correctly estimated as such, was 94%, and the proportion of individuals younger than 65 years of age who were correctly estimated as such was 96%.
The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…
Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…
Drolet, Leon L., Jr.
Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)
Crisp, Victoria; Sweiry, Ezekiel; Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair
Background: Through classroom preparation and exposure to past papers, textbooks and practice tests students develop expectations about examinations: what will be asked, how it will be asked and how they will be judged. Expectations are also involved in the automatic process of understanding questions. Where a question and a student's expectations…
Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.
Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (rs = 0.5052, p < .01). Addressing gender identity and sexuality issues within medical curricula may remove barriers to accessing health care and improve encounters for LGBTQ patients.
Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Chambliss, M. Lee; Ebell, Mark H.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.
Objective: To identify the most frequent obstacles preventing physicians from answering their patient-care questions and the most requested improvements to clinical information resources. Design: Qualitative analysis of questions asked by 48 randomly selected generalist physicians during ambulatory care. Measurements: Frequency of reported obstacles to answering patient-care questions and recommendations from physicians for improving clinical information resources. Results: The physicians asked 1,062 questions but pursued answers to only 585 (55%). The most commonly reported obstacle to the pursuit of an answer was the physician's doubt that an answer existed (52 questions, 11%). Among pursued questions, the most common obstacle was the failure of the selected resource to provide an answer (153 questions, 26%). During audiotaped interviews, physicians made 80 recommendations for improving clinical information resources. For example, they requested comprehensive resources that answer questions likely to occur in practice with emphasis on treatment and bottom-line advice. They asked for help in locating information quickly by using lists, tables, bolded subheadings, and algorithms and by avoiding lengthy, uninterrupted prose. Conclusion: Physicians do not seek answers to many of their questions, often suspecting a lack of usable information. When they do seek answers, they often cannot find the information they need. Clinical resource developers could use the recommendations made by practicing physicians to provide resources that are more useful for answering clinical questions. PMID:15561792
On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…
Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…
Sloan, Jamee Reid
This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…
Kalichman, Seth C.
This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…
Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.
Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399
Tang, Siew Tzuh
The observed Taiwanese neonatal professionals' more conservative attitudes than their worldwide colleagues towards end-of-life (EOL) decision making may stem from cultural attitudes toward death in children and concerns about medicolegal liability. Healthcare practice is rooted in local culture and laws; however that should be adjusted to patients' best interests. Improving Taiwanese neonatal professionals' knowledge and competence in EOL care may minimize ethical dilemmas, allow appropriate EOL care decision making, avoid infants' suffering, and ease parents' bereavement grief.
Thomassin, J-M; Bardot, J; Radulesco, T
In rhinoplasty, satisfying the patient both aesthetically and functionally can be complex. In aesthetic surgery, the rhinoplastician has a reinforced obligation of means. In our experience, the functional outcome of the patient is closely linked to the morphological result. When a rhinoplasty provides the patient with full aesthetic satisfaction, even if he/she has breathing difficulties, there will be very few disputes. In primary rhinoplasty, unsatisfactory results occur in 15%-30% of the cases. While orally informing the patient is paramount, the practitioner must also have written proof of the information via documents given or sent to the various players including the patient. The taking of pre- and postoperative photographs is essential and the surgeon must keep them on file for support in case of conflict.
Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.
Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…
Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting
Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.
Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting
Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178
Scarth, John; And Others
Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…
This work is the result of a kind of categorization of suicidal conduct based on an empirical-phenomenological approach, with integrated assessment of certain criteria, such as the dynamics, correlation of types of injury and how they were produced, evidence gathered during official inspections in loco, and case history findings about "suicide." This categorization is an attempt to provide a nosographic definition of atypical suicide, that is, cases in which the parameters of "typical" suicide are missing. Case studies are described, taken from a systematic exploration mainly of the Italian specialized literature of the 20th century, supplemented by earlier references when deemed significant. In-depth analysis of atypical suicide can supply additional interpretations of the problem of differential diagnosis of suicide, homicide, and accidental death, that is, the real punctum dolens in overall medico-legal determination of the cause of death in scenarios in which death cannot be definitely traced to a deliberate act.
Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac
Discusses the value of studying errors made by students in the process of learning science. Addresses 20 research questions dealing with student learning errors. Attempts to characterize errors made by students and clarify some terms used in error research. (TW)
Mather, John C.
John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
General Questions and Answers Concerning Confidential Business Information (CBI) Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act
Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526
Flannery, Maura C.
Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)
... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...
Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901
Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?
Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.
Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki
To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.
Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth
Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)
Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.
Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé
Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.
Mukherjee, Bipasha; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan
It is mandatory to incorporate clinical photography in an ophthalmic practice. Patient photographs are routinely used in teaching, presentations, documenting surgical outcomes and marketing. Standardized clinical photographs are part of an armamentarium for any ophthalmologist interested in enhancing his or her practice. Unfortunately, many clinicians still avoid taking patient photographs for want of basic knowledge or inclination. The ubiquitous presence of the digital camera and digital technology has made it extremely easy and affordable to take high-quality images. It is not compulsory to employ a professional photographer or invest in expensive equipment any longer for this purpose. Any ophthalmologist should be able to take clinical photographs in his/her office settings with minimal technical skill. The purpose of this article is to provide an ophthalmic surgeon with guidelines to achieve standardized photographic views for specific procedures, to achieve consistency, to help in pre-operative planning and to produce accurate pre-operative and post-operative comparisons, which will aid in self-improvement, patient education, medicolegal documentation and publications. This review also discusses editing, storage, patient consent, medicolegal issues and importance of maintenance of patient confidentiality. PMID:22446907
Mukherjee, Bipasha; Nair, Akshay Gopinathan
It is mandatory to incorporate clinical photography in an ophthalmic practice. Patient photographs are routinely used in teaching, presentations, documenting surgical outcomes and marketing. Standardized clinical photographs are part of an armamentarium for any ophthalmologist interested in enhancing his or her practice. Unfortunately, many clinicians still avoid taking patient photographs for want of basic knowledge or inclination. The ubiquitous presence of the digital camera and digital technology has made it extremely easy and affordable to take high-quality images. It is not compulsory to employ a professional photographer or invest in expensive equipment any longer for this purpose. Any ophthalmologist should be able to take clinical photographs in his/her office settings with minimal technical skill. The purpose of this article is to provide an ophthalmic surgeon with guidelines to achieve standardized photographic views for specific procedures, to achieve consistency, to help in pre-operative planning and to produce accurate pre-operative and post-operative comparisons, which will aid in self-improvement, patient education, medicolegal documentation and publications. This review also discusses editing, storage, patient consent, medicolegal issues and importance of maintenance of patient confidentiality.
Rowland, Caroline F.
The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…
Felton, Randall G.; Allen, Rodney F.
This exercise shows how to turn the expository treatment of a topic or event into a mystery or puzzling situation that students are asked to solve. Once a puzzle is presented, students may pose only questions that can be answered yes or no. Three sample lessons are included to illustrate the process. (JDH)
answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task
Meltzer, Edmund S.
In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.
Koocher, Gerald P.
Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…
Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.
This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as…
Experiencing and the significance of menstruation could possibly be a decisive factor in your physiology or pathologic physiology, in accordance with blood flow disturbance or endometriosis. Menstruation is a systemic, characteristic experience. Evolution, family, culture, community, media, health service and even the economy have an influence on the "period system". Damage and use, sense and the nonsensical of regular bleeding stand to the test. The cycle comes under increasing "pressure" and is no longer in "rhythm". Counter regulation, through regulation of the period seems to prevent the personal, community and health-wise restrictions. The price for this is unknown. Clearly, there is no longer a path between a natural, relaxed acceptance of and an artificial abolition of blood flow. The question of direction is posed in the menarche. This question remains unanswered even in our time.
Sullivan, Anna; Johnson, Bruce
Early career teachers eager to find employment are often encouraged by employers to accept positions in remote locations which are traditionally difficult to staff. This paper reports research that examined a case study of a graduate teacher employed in a remote school. Drawing on resilience theory, we challenge the profession to consider whether…
Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.
Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.
Parnis, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice
In this exploratory study we examine the practices surrounding with respect to standardization the administration and processing of the Sexual Assault Evidence Kit (SAEK). Despite the presumed scientific objectivity of this protocol, our survey of sexual assault nurses, physicians, police, and forensic scientists found that discretionary practices pervaded the evidentiary process. We argue that there must be greater awareness of the shaping of medicolegal evidence. Given the diverse characteristics of sexual assaults and of the health care needs of sexually assaulted women, we also suggest that it may be unreasonable to apply a single standard model of a rape kit.
Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.
Brualdi, Amy C.
Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…
Popkewitz, Thomas S.
This article turns one of most cited philosopher's John Dewey's title, "How We Think" (1933/1998) back upon itself to consider how "thought" or "reason" are cultural practices that historically order and generate principles for reflection and action. The discussion proceeds thusly: (1) Schooling is about changing people; (2) Changing people…
This book aims to provide practical, research-informed answers to the questions most frequently asked by teachers of second language learners. Every question targets one of the key instructional issues teachers must address to ensure success for their second language students. Included among the questions are: How do I assess a student's English?…
Kracl, Carrie L.
Asking surface-level questions is a common practice among educators. Delva Daines's (1986) pilot study indicated that 93 percent of the questions asked during lessons were at the literal level of comprehension and that it was very common for the teachers to restate, rephrase, or answer their own questions before the student had an opportunity to…
Air agencies and other stakeholders have raised technical questions and issues related to implementation since the EPA promulgated the EER. This Question and Answer (Q&A) document is intended to respond to some of these frequently asked questions.
Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.
Radhakrishnan, Phanikiran; Schimmack, Ulrich; Lam, Dianne
Participants engaged in inquiry by practicing how to answer questions about a journal article. Inquiry improves writing by helping one learn more about the topic at hand. Practice improves performance only if learners know how to perform a task accurately (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993) and answering questions trains them on the best way…
Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.
This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when…
Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo
No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed.
Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936
Glenn, Joanne M. Lozar
Pursuing environmental education certification is difficult, so why do it? What does it mean to be certified? Who benefits? How? These are just a few of the compelling questions addressed in "EE Certification: Making Best Practice Standard Practice," a new article exploring advancements and challenges in state and national EE…
Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J
The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period.
Sanford, Michelle R
Collection of insects at the scene is one of the most important aspects of forensic entomology and proper collection is one of the biggest challenges for any investigator. Adult flies are highly mobile and ubiquitous at scenes, yet their link to the body and the time of colonization (TOC) and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates is not well established. Collection of adults is widely recommended for casework but has yet to be rigorously evaluated during medicolegal death investigations for its value to the investigation. In this study, sticky card traps and immature collections were compared for 22 cases investigated by the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences, Houston, TX, USA. Cases included all manner of death classifications and a range of decomposition stages from indoor and outdoor scenes. Overall, the two methods successfully collected at least one species in common only 65% of the time, with at least one species unique to one of the methods 95% of the time. These results suggest that rearing of immature specimens collected from the body should be emphasized during training to ensure specimens directly associated with the colonization of the body can be identified using adult stages if necessary.
Leishmaniosis is a common infection in the canine population. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts for zoonotic human visceral leishmaniosis in both the Old and New Worlds. In fact, canine leishmaniosis is not just a veterinary problem. In the light of some recent advances in the field of diagnosis, the author evaluated the medico-legal aspects of buying and selling dogs that are potentially affected by leishmaniosis. This paper clarifies why it is impossible to attribute redhibitory vice (an essential defect in a product which renders it useless or so diminishes its usefulness or value that it must be presumed that, if he had been aware of it, the buyer would not have bought it, or would have paid a lesser price) to this disease and highlights the necessity to improve Sicilian regional law no. 15 of 3 July 2000 concerning the creation of a dog register by giving every animal a health book. With this aim in mind, the author suggests that leishmaniosis be included in the list of notifiable diseases that appears in article 1 of the Italian Veterinary Police Regulations so as to reduce the possibilities of fraudulent trade in dogs known to be infected before purchase.
Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Janica, Jerzy; Dopierała, Tomasz; Załuski, Janusz; Wardaszka, Zofia
Medical malpractice results from inadequate professional knowledge, incompliance to the present state of medical knowledge or negligence and inattention. The aim of the paper was the analysis of medical malpractice cases based on material in the field of neurology. The cases were assessed according to the number and type in 32 medico-legal opinions issued by specialist teams of forensic medicine and neurology in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Białystok in the years 2001-2006. In 11 cases (34%) medical malpractice was concluded with reference to improper treatment after head injury or brain pathology, inadequate care at neurology unit, lacked or delayed diagnostics of head pathology and injury, non-referral to hospital by neurologists. In the material analysed diagnostic errors predominated. Majority of them originated from the open health care system. Incompetence of neurologists with regard to differential diagnostics resulting in misdiagnosis and improper therapy was noted. In one third of the overall cases medical malpractice was concluded. The most common causes included misinterpretation of disease signs and symptoms, misapplication of available diagnostic potential and unjustified delay before commencing diagnostics.
Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława
Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information.
Lathrop, Sarah L; Davis, Wayland L; Nolte, Kurt B
Medical examiner and coroner reports are a rich source of data for epidemiologic research. To maximize the utility of this information, medicolegal death investigation data need to be electronically coded. In order to determine the best option for coding, we evaluated four different options (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT], International Classification of Disease [ICD] coding, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms [SNOMED CT], and an in-house system), then conducted internal and external needs assessments to determine which system best met the needs of a centralized, statewide medical examiner's office. Although all four systems offer distinct advantages and disadvantages, SNOMED CT is the most accurate for coding pathologic diagnoses, with ICD-10 the best option for classifying the cause of death. For New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator, the most feasible coding option is an upgrade of an in-house coding system, followed by linkage to ICD codes for cause of death from the New Mexico Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics, and ideally, SNOMED classification of pathologic diagnoses.
cymfony.com, firstname.lastname@example.org phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT
Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from
Pollard, Thomas D
Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.
Gibbons, Andrew N.
This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…
Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Maria Villegas, Ana
This article argues that research on teacher preparation over the last 100 years can be understood in terms of the major questions that researchers examined. The analysis is guided by the framework of "research as historically situated social practice," which emphasizes that researchers' interests, commitments, and social experiences…
What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…
Begun, James W.; Rieker, Patricia P.
Initial efforts at the University of North Carolina to develop a social science curriculum that is relevant to medical practice are reported. Descriptions of course content, format, teaching strategies, and course evaluation are included with a focus on the question of relevance. (Author/JMD)
This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…
Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark
We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified questions (Rule 714). 385.714 Section 385.714 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Decisions §...
Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.
This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…
The president of Association for Specialists in Group Work, a counselor trainer, and a consultant on group counseling, reported questions most often asked and framed responses mindful of beginning and practicing group counselors. Answers cover such topics as group size, selection, emotions, roles, leadership and other areas. (Author/CMG)
This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…
Mannheim, P.D. )
In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.
Samman, Mouna Liliane
International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.
Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.
Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.
Questions are the most important tool a teacher can use to build a community of thinkers. This practical guide provides teachers with a step-by-step process for implementing a set of questioning strategies known as the Questioning Cycle. This strategy supports teachers in planning and asking questions, assessing students' responses, and following…
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Mueller, Rebecca Glasgow Williams
The present qualitative study used socio-cultural theory (Wertsch, 1998), pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987), and reflective practice (Schon, 1983) to examine how social studies teachers define and develop inquiry questions. Existing literature reflects a long tradition of equating inquiry with high quality social studies instruction…
Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena
Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…
Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.
Bunkers, Sandra S
This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.
Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9925173
Kost, Amanda; Chen, Frederick M
The slang term "pimping" is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term "pimping" to describe questioning in medical education is harmful and unprofessional, and they propose clearly defining pimping as "questioning with the intent to shame or humiliate the learner to maintain the power hierarchy in medical education." Explicitly separating pimping from the larger practice of questioning allows the authors to make three recommendations for improving questioning practices. First, educators should examine the purpose of each question they pose to learners. Second, they should apply historic and modern interpretations of Socratic teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills. Finally, they should consider adult learning theories to make concrete changes to their questioning practices. These changes can result in questioning that is more learner centered, aids in the acquisition of knowledge and skills, performs helpful formative and summative assessments of the learner, and improves community in the clinical learning environment.
Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal
The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world.
Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan
The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning.
Paul, Richard; Kingston, Robert; Tsanaclis, Lolita; Berry, Anthony; Guwy, Alan
Two groups were selected from the remainder of hair samples that had been tested for drugs at TrichoTech for medico-legal cases: samples that tested negative (drug-negative group; N=42, age 33.4+/-7.2 years) and samples that tested positive for drugs (drug-positive group; N=57, age 32.5+/-8.8 years). A rapid, simple method to detect the ethanol metabolite, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair has been developed. The hair samples were sectioned, and then submitted to overnight sonication in water. Samples then underwent SPE using anion exchange cartridges, followed by derivatisation with N,O-bis[trimethylsilyl]trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), before confirmation by GC-MS/MS. The assay produced excellent linearity and sensitivity over the calibration range 0.02-1.0 ng/mg, assuming a 10 mg hair sample. The mean age of the two groups was not statistically different (p=0.575, Student t-test), indicating a homogeneous group. Twelve of the 57 (21.0%) hair samples of the drug-positive group tested positive for EtG, and 17 of the 42 (40.5%) hair samples of the drug-negative group tested positive for EtG. The mean concentration of EtG in the drug-positive group was 0.011 ng/mg compared to 0.107 ng/mg in the drug-negative group. When the full results of this study were subjected to statistical analysis it was shown that EtG levels in the drug-negative group were statistically higher than those found in the drug-positive group (p<0.05). This preliminary finding may be of use in the study of addiction and adds valuable data to previous studies regarding the use of EtG as a valuable marker for alcohol levels in hair.
Pérez-Álvarez, R.; García-Moliner, F.; Velasco, V. R.
The characterization of the spectrum of eigenstates of quasiperiodic heterostructures is discussed by focusing on three questions. Arguments are advanced to justify the often indiscriminate use of different approximants in the calculation of the eigenvalue spectra. It is stressed that the calculation of the fractal dimension may be rather inaccurate if the high eigenvalue range is not included, even if physically the interest is limited to the low range. The question of self-similarity is critically examined and found to have a very limited range of validity in practice. The unique properties of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence are also stressed.
Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie
Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners.
Regional Screening Level RSL frequently asked question FAQ page provides risk assessors answers to common questions about the preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.
The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Questions for your Doctor: Your First Visit This list of questions is intended to help ... cancer, be happy, but also be aware that testicular cancer is misdiagnosed as epididymitis or something similar almost ...
... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should ...
The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.
Spargo, Peter E.; Enderstein, L. Gus
Investigates what questions elementary students would ask when presented with various situations relating to the natural environment. Findings reveal the extraordinary range of questions that elementary students have concerning the solar system and space. (JRH)
science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.
Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael
Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…
Reinsvold, Lori Ann
Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…
Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…
Norman, Donald A.
An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…
Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)
Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)
Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert
The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…
Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise
Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...
The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…
... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
Explores the relation between interrogative, a category of grammatical form, and question, a category of meaning. Mismatches between interrogative phrases and questioned elements are also investigated. Two kinds of interrogative and three kinds of question are distinguished. (47 references) (Author/CK)
The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…
Vennemann, Marielle; Koppelkamm, Antje
Using human postmortem tissues for gene expression studies is particularly challenging. Besides the problem of impaired RNA one has to face a very high degree of biological variance within a sample set. Variations of individual parameters like age, body mass, health, but also the cause and circumstances of death and the postmortem interval lead to a rather inhomogeneous collection of samples. To meet these problems it is necessary to consider certain precautions before starting a gene expression project. These precautions include the sample collection and the determination of the RNA integrity, the number of replicates needed and the methods used for reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, but also the strategy for data normalisation and data interpretation. In this article practical issues are discussed to address some of the problems occurring in the work with postmortem human samples obtained during medico-legal autopsy.
When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to
When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then
Clinton, Patricia; Sperhac, Arlene M
The purpose of this article was to provide the background and rationale for the practice doctorate in nursing. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing's Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing, approved in October 2004, will be discussed. Outlined are some of the changes that will be needed in education, regulation, and advanced practice. Common questions and concerns that advanced practice nurses have, including titling, salary, and transitioning to the doctor of nursing practice degree, will be addressed.
Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.
The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.
Morgan, Norah; Saxton, Julianna
The intent of this book is to encourage teachers to examine how they question in order to generate richer classroom interaction. Part One sets out the reasons for the limited effectiveness of questions in present classroom practice, and examines the two structures which form the matrix of all educational processes: the structure for thinking and…
Lan, Yu-Feng; Lin, Pin-Chuan
With the rapid development of web-based learning environments, question-posing activities have become an important teaching and learning mode. However, this learning approach has some difficulties, one being the lack of a practical approach to assist teachers in evaluating the question-posing ability of all learners. To remedy this problem, the…
Boelé, Amy L.
Using sociocultural concepts of authoritative and dialogic discourse, I sought to examine 5th-grade teachers' questioning practices during small-group reading instruction to understand the differences between groups reading text on grade level and groups reading texts below grade level. The purpose was also to examine how questions functioned for…
Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Snow-Gerono, Jennifer L.
Having facilitated, read, and collected more than 200 teacher research pieces written by prospective and practicing teachers, the authors conducted a systematic analysis of the domains and contents of teachers' questions as they embarked on their first research study. Focusing on the questions teachers ask led to the generation of a typology of…
Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…
This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens,…
Hudson, Ross D.
This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…
This study examines the use of smartphones by Alabama Advanced Practice Nurses to find information to address clinical questions and seeks to describe the types of questions answered using smartphones; barriers to information seeking; apps and online resources perceived as most helpful; and training/resource needs. Information collected in this study can be used by libraries that serve nursing students to develop training and resources to assist both nursing students and practicing nurses to become more efficient and effective information seekers.
Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L
Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.
Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which
Madea, Burkhard; Schmidt, Peter; Preuss, Johanna; Dietmar, Elenz
In cases of post-mortem dismemberment, the main medicolegal task apart from the identification and assignment of body parts to one or several individuals is the determination of the cause of death and the course of events. Notably in cases of offensive postmortem dismemberment, the medicolegal findings on the victim may be of special importance also for the psychiatric evaluation of the suspect. In a case of offensive post-mortem dismemberment, parts of the body were found in a stone quarry and in the apartment where the victim and the suspect had lived together. Since the suspect refused to make a statement, the medicolegal findings were of great relevance for the psychiatric evaluation. In the first trial, in which the psychiatric expert was not present when the forensic pathologist gave his opinion, the Regional Court acquitted the suspect of murder and committed him to a psychiatric hospital. The accused successfully appealed on points of law, as the form and content of the psychiatric expert opinion did not comply with the requirements of procedural law and the forensic psychiatric state of the art. In a second trial, additional psychiatric experts were summoned. In that hearing, the task of the medicolegal expert was to reconstruct the course of events as far as possible to create a reliable basis for the psychiatric evaluation, as the suspect refused to make a statement both with regard to his personal circumstances and the facts of the case and did not agree to a psychiatric exploration either. The motivational and morphological criteria of the medicolegal classification as offensive post-mortem dismemberment with a cannibalistic background are discussed. In addition, some issues to be answered such as the detection of bloodstains on nonporous surfaces by means of leucocrystalviolet and the time of heat exposure of burned body parts are dealt with.
Chouinard, Michael M
Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…
Chouinard, Michelle M.
Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…
Ruminator generates a question such as: “Is Gabriela Mistral central to the story of Chile?” Examples of the types of journalist questions generated by...generated by the system are: “Is Bin Laden associated with Saddam Hussein?” “How is Gabriela Mistral related to Augusto Pinochet Ugarte?” “Who
Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah
Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)
This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…
This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…
Wilson, E. B.
The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…
Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest
This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…
This paper argues that provocative questions can be used by teachers to help students write. Described are a series of questions drawn from rhetorical theory, such as "How many times can I change focus so as to get the most complete understanding of a topic?""When does X occur?""Why does X occur?" and "What does X cause or prompt?" Several…
Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite
Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.
Hartford, Fred; Good, Ron
In previous studies, science students have been trained to ask more and better questions through intensive instruction apart from the ongoing academic program. Cognitive strategies (such as questioning) are developed best, however, within the framework of an academic subject. In the current study, questioning skills were taught to high school chemistry students in the context of their laboratory experiments. Since both intellectual development and questioning skills are causally related to problem solving, the effect of intellectual development on the learning of questioning skills also was investigated. The Piagetian model of intellectual development was chosen for its demonstrated effects on many important aspects of science instruction. The number and quality of student research questions was measured by the Science Inquiry Assessment Instrument. The student's level of intellectual development was measured by the Classroom Test of Formal Operations. The twelve-week experimental treatment involved printed lessons which taught students to ask research questions in response to unanticipated observations in their regularly scheduled laboratory experiments. The pretest exaggerated the effect of this treatment. This effect, however, was significant among unpretested students, accounting for 14% of the post-test score variance. The level of intellectual development has no effect on these post-test scores. These important questioning skills can be acquired within the framework of the regularly scheduled classroom activities by high school chemistry students, irrespective of their level of Piagetian intellectual development.
This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…
Seabury, Marcia Bundy
Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…
van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim
Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)
Lewis, Mark Rose; Mensink, Michael C.
Prereading questions can be an effective tool for directing students' learning. However, it is not always clear what the online effects of a set of prereading questions will be. In two experiments, this study investigated whether readers direct additional attention to and learn more from sentences that are potentially relevant to a set of…
This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…
Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John
This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…
A study of question and response patterns in middle and secondary schools in Indonesia is presented. The study examines questioning from the point of view of several previous studies. Interactions in 12 classes in English and in Bahasa Indonesian were videotaped in three middle schools and three secondary schools. Analysis of the data revealed…
"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…