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Sample records for medium chain triglycerides

  1. Medium chain triglycerides and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M. Hilary; Bolton, C. H.; Morris, J. S.; Read, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    The oral administration of short (C6) and medium (C8 and (C10) chain triglycerides produced no clinical or electroencephalographic changes in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Arterial ammonia levels were also monitored in these patients and showed no significant change after medium chain triglycerides. It was concluded that medium chain triglycerides, known to be of potential value in the treatment of malabsorption in patients with cirrhosis, are not clinically contraindicated, even in patients with evidence of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:4841275

  2. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yeou-mei Christiana

    2008-11-01

    The medium-chain triglyceride diet (MCTD) is a variant of the classic 4:1 ketogenic diet (KD) introduced in 1971 by Huttenlocher as an attempt to improve the palatability of the KD by allowing more carbohydrates yet preserving ketosis. Although initially found to be equally effective as the classic KD, use of the MCTD declined because of frequent gastrointestinal side effects such as cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. Recently, we have used the MCTD in more than 50 patients. We have found excellent seizure control, similar to the classic KD, and with careful monitoring, we have encountered minimal side effects. The MCTD should remain a viable dietary option for children with refractory epilepsy who have large appetites, can tolerate more calories, or cannot accept the restrictions of the classic KD.

  3. Medium Chain Triglycerides in Paediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Anderson, Charlotte M.

    1970-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) bypass the steps necessary for the absorption of long chain fats (LCT), and so have theoretical grounds for their use in various disease states, particularly malabsorptive disorders. In childhood, MCT have particular advantages since they allow restriction of dietary long chain fats without limiting the intake of protein necessary for growth while providing adequate calories. In malabsorptive states, MCT have been used mostly in cystic fibrosis, where they may reduce steatorrhoea. However, the long-term growth patterns of these children are dependent on the extent and severity of their chest disease. MCT may be a useful source of calories for those with anorexia due to infection or liver disease and in babies recovering from meconium ileus. The decrease in offensive stools, flatus, and abdominal discomfort improves well-being and social acceptability which is important for many schoolchildren and adolescents. Rectal prolapse may be helped. Where there is loss of the small intestinal absorptive surface, particularly after massive small bowel resection, MCT can help to maintain weight and nutrition. They may also be a useful supplementary nutritional measure in patients severely affected with coeliac disease while awaiting response to a gluten-free diet, and in patients with regional enteritis. In children with liver disease, MCT provide a ready source of calories while avoiding the loss of fat in their stools. Infants with neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia remain well nourished, and some older children with liver disease grow more rapidly and have fewer and less offensive stools and less abdominal discomfort. Where an abnormal number of faecal organisms colonize the small intestine (`contaminated small bowel syndrome' or `blind loop syndrome') intraluminal bile salts become deconjugated and cause steatorrhoea. A combination of antibiotic and surgical treatment is usually indicated, but MCT can be used to improve nutrition before

  4. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) formulas in paediatric and allergological practice

    PubMed Central

    Łoś-Rycharska, Ewa; Kieraszewicz, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    Fats constitute the most significant nutritional source of energy. Their proper use by the body conditions a number of complex mechanisms of digestion, absorption, distribution, and metabolism. These mechanisms are facilitated by fats made of medium chain fatty acids; therefore, they are an easy and quick source of energy. Thus, an increased supply of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) is particularly important in patients with disturbances of digestion and absorption such as disturbed bile secretion, classic coeliac disease, short bowel syndrome, inflammatory diseases of the intestines, disturbed outflow of lymph, some metabolic disease, and severe food allergies, as well as in prematurely born neonates. Use of preparations containing an additive of MCT is limited, especially if they are to be used for a longer period of time. With a large quantity of MCT in a diet, there is a risk of deficiency of necessary unsaturated fatty acids and some fat-soluble vitamins. The caloricity of MTC compared to long-chain triglycerides is lower, and formulas with MCT are characterised by higher osmolality. Medium chain triglycerides is not recommended as an additive to standard formulas for healthy children. The use of MCT should be limited to strictly specified medical indications. PMID:28053676

  5. Anticoccidial efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in calves.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Nitanai, Atushi; Kurosawa, Takashi; Oikawa, Shin

    2004-12-01

    Anticoccidial efficacy of dietary fat was evaluated in calves with coccidial infection (Eimeria spp., including E. bovis and E. zuernii). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)--natural edible fats composed of caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids -- were given orally with milk to 5 calves and with 10% glucose solution to 3 older, weaned calves by using the reticular groove reflex. After 3 to 11 days of MCT feeding, all Eimeria spp. oocysts had disappeared from the feces of all calves. MCT had no adverse effects on appetite or on fecal pH, ammonia, lactic acid, or volatile fatty acid levels. MCT feeding for coccidial control in calves has minimal side-effects and has benefits in terms of residue-free food production.

  6. A comparison of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z M; Zhang, S Y; Wang, X R; Yang, N F; Zhu, Y; Wilmore, D

    1993-02-01

    Available lipid emulsions made from soybean or safflower oil are classified as long-chain triglycerides (LCT). In contrast, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsions have different physical properties and are metabolized by other biochemical pathways. To compare the differences between these two fat emulsions, the authors studied 12 surgical patients and 6 volunteers. These subjects were randomly assigned to receive parenteral nutrition with MCT or LCT emulsion. Measurement of arterial and venous concentration differences across the forearm demonstrated that muscle utilization was significantly improved with MCT administration. There was also a trend toward improved nitrogen balance in the MCT group, and less weight loss in the postoperative period also was observed in this group. During the fat clearance test, the serum ketone concentrations were significantly higher in the MCT than the LCT group. The improvement in nitrogen retention may be associated with increasing ketone and insulin levels. Fat emulsions containing 50% MCT are safe for use in parenteral nutrition and may provide an alternate fuel that improves protein metabolism.

  7. A comparison of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z M; Zhang, S Y; Wang, X R; Yang, N F; Zhu, Y; Wilmore, D

    1993-01-01

    Available lipid emulsions made from soybean or safflower oil are classified as long-chain triglycerides (LCT). In contrast, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsions have different physical properties and are metabolized by other biochemical pathways. To compare the differences between these two fat emulsions, the authors studied 12 surgical patients and 6 volunteers. These subjects were randomly assigned to receive parenteral nutrition with MCT or LCT emulsion. Measurement of arterial and venous concentration differences across the forearm demonstrated that muscle utilization was significantly improved with MCT administration. There was also a trend toward improved nitrogen balance in the MCT group, and less weight loss in the postoperative period also was observed in this group. During the fat clearance test, the serum ketone concentrations were significantly higher in the MCT than the LCT group. The improvement in nitrogen retention may be associated with increasing ketone and insulin levels. Fat emulsions containing 50% MCT are safe for use in parenteral nutrition and may provide an alternate fuel that improves protein metabolism. PMID:8439215

  8. Stimulation of insulin secretion by medium-chain triglycerides in patients with cirrhosis 1

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Frank S.; Tzagournis, Manuel; Greenberger, Norton J.; Linscheer, Willem G.

    1971-01-01

    Oral medium-chain triglycerides were given to 10 normal volunteers, 12 cirrhotics (group I) without and 28 cirrhotics (group II) with abnormal portal systemic communications (ascites, splenomegaly, oesophageal varices, or surgically-created portacaval shunts). After 30 ml of medium-chain triglyceride oil there was no appreciable change in serum glucose levels in any of the three groups nor in serum insulin levels in the normals and in cirrhotics in group I. However, there was a significant increase in serum insulin levels in the cirrhotic patients in group II. It is suggested that the rise in serum insulin levels after medium-chain triglycerides noted in the cirrhotics with shunts is due to shunting of insulin-containing portal blood around the liver (anatomical shunts) and to a diminished hepatic cell mass capable of extracting insulin (functional shunt). This differential response of serum insulin levels to medium-chain triglycerides may prove to be of value in detecting the presence of abnormal portal systemic communications in cirrhotic patients. PMID:5548559

  9. Stimulation of insulin secretion by medium-chain triglycerides in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    McCullough, F S; Tzagournis, M; Greenberger, N J; Linscheer, W G

    1971-02-01

    Oral medium-chain triglycerides were given to 10 normal volunteers, 12 cirrhotics (group I) without and 28 cirrhotics (group II) with abnormal portal systemic communications (ascites, splenomegaly, oesophageal varices, or surgically-created portacaval shunts). After 30 ml of medium-chain triglyceride oil there was no appreciable change in serum glucose levels in any of the three groups nor in serum insulin levels in the normals and in cirrhotics in group I. However, there was a significant increase in serum insulin levels in the cirrhotic patients in group II. It is suggested that the rise in serum insulin levels after medium-chain triglycerides noted in the cirrhotics with shunts is due to shunting of insulin-containing portal blood around the liver (anatomical shunts) and to a diminished hepatic cell mass capable of extracting insulin (functional shunt). This differential response of serum insulin levels to medium-chain triglycerides may prove to be of value in detecting the presence of abnormal portal systemic communications in cirrhotic patients.

  10. Effects of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride on serum lipid and insulin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Grant, D B; Fosbrooke, A S; Segall, M M; Lloyd, J K

    1968-09-01

    Analysis of serum free fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography showed high proportions (27-57%) of octanoic acid for up to 4 hr after the ingestion of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride (approximately 1 g/kg body weight) in four volunteers. The effects of a medium-chain triglyceride load on the concentrations of plasma free long-chain fatty acids, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum triglyceride were observed and compared with the effects of a glucose load. A rapid fall in the free long-chain fatty acids followed both loads but only a small rise in serum insulin was observed after medium-chain triglyceride. The fall in free long-chain fatty acids following ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride cannot therefore be caused mainly by the release of insulin and may be due to a direct action on adipose tissue. No medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the serum triglyceride after ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride, but there was a small but significant increase in the percentage of hexadecenoic acid in this fraction.

  11. The metabolic consequences of infusing emulsions containing medium chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition: a comparative study with conventional lipid.

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, A. R.; Ball, M.; Crowe, P. J.; White, K.; Hands, L.; Watkins, R. M.; Kettlewell, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that medium chain triglycerides (MCT's) are a safe and potentially superior energy source during parenteral nutrition 13 patients were entered into a randomised cross over trial. They received either a long chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) or a 50% medium chain (MCT)/50% LCT mixture as part of their energy supply. Nitrogen balance was significantly better when MCT/LCT was infused and the greater levels of plasma ketones and lower plasma triglyceride levels suggested that MCT was more readily metabolised in these patients. Routine haematology, biochemistry and liver function tests gave no indication of harmful side effects from MCT. PMID:3089123

  12. Selective deuteration for molecular insights into the digestion of medium chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Salentinig, Stefan; Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J; Gilbert, Elliot; Darwish, Tamim A

    2015-09-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a unique form of dietary fat that have a wide range of health benefits. They are molecules with a glycerol backbone esterified with medium chain (6-12 carbon atoms) fatty acids on the two outer (sn-1 and sn-3) and the middle (sn-2) positions. During lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic lipase stereoselectively hydrolyses the ester bonds of these triglycerides on the sn-1 and sn-3 positions resulting in sn-2 monoglyceride and fatty acids as major products. However, the sn-2 monoglycerides are thermodynamically less stable than their sn-1/3 counterparts. Isomerization or fatty acid migration from the sn-2 monoglyceride to sn-1/3 monoglyceride may occur spontaneously and would lead to glycerol and fatty acid as final products. Here, tricaprin (C10) with selectively deuterated fatty acid chains was used for the first time to monitor chain migration and the stereoselectivity of the pancreatic lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of ester bonds. The intermediate and final digestion products were studied using NMR and mass spectrometry under biologically relevant conditions. The hydrolysis of the sn-2 monocaprin to glycerol and capric acid did not occur within biologically relevant timescales and fatty acid migration occurs only in limited amounts as a result of the presence of undigested diglyceride species over long periods of time in the digestion medium. The slow kinetics for the exchange of the sn-2 fatty acid chain and the stereoselectivity of pancreatic lipase on MCTs is relevant for industrial processes that involve enzymatic interesterification and the production of high-value products such as specific structured triacylglycerols, confectionery fats and nutritional products.

  13. Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Short-term consumption of a high-fat diet impairs exercise capacity in both rats and humans, and increases expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, UCP3, in rodent cardiac and skeletal muscle via activation of the transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Unlike long-chain fatty acids however, medium-chain fatty acids do not activate PPARα and do not increase muscle UCP3 expression. We therefore investigated exercise performance and cardiac mitochondrial function in rats fed a chow diet (7.5% kcal from fat), a long-chain triglyceride (LCT) rich diet (46% kcal from LCTs) or a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) rich diet (46% kcal from MCTs). Rats fed the LCT-rich diet for 15 days ran 55% less far than they did at baseline, whereas rats fed the chow or MCT-rich diets neither improved nor worsened in their exercise capacities. Moreover, consumption of an LCT-rich diet increased cardiac UCP3 expression by 35% and decreased oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, whereas consumption of the MCT-rich diet altered neither UCP3 expression nor oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Our results suggest that the negative effects of short-term high-fat feeding on exercise performance are predominantly mediated by long-chain rather than medium-chain fatty acids, possibly via PPARα-dependent upregulation of UCP3. PMID:21806803

  14. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides attenuate hepatic lipid deposition in growing rats with protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Amano, Saki; Yokoyama, Meiko; Shimamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on hepatic lipid accumulation in growing rats with protein malnutrition. Weaning rats were fed either a low-protein diet (3%, LP) or control protein diet (20%, CP), in combination with or without MCT. The four groups were as follows: CP-MCT, CP+MCT, LP-MCT, and LP+MCT. Rats in the CP-MCT, CP+MCT and LP+MCT groups were pair-fed their respective diets based on the amount of diet consumed by the LP-MCT group. Rats were fed each experimental diet for 30 d. Four weeks later, the respiratory quotient was higher in the LP-MCT group than those in the other groups during the fasting period. Hepatic triglyceride content increased in the LP groups compared with the CP groups. Hepatic triglyceride content in the LP+MCT group, however, was significantly decreased compared with that in the LP-MCT group. Levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1a mRNA and CPT2 mRNA were significantly decreased in the livers of the LP-MCT group, as compared with corresponding mRNA levels of the other groups. These results suggest that ingestion of a low-protein diet caused fatty liver in growing rats. However, when rats were fed the low-protein diet with MCT, hepatic triglyceride deposition was attenuated, and mRNA levels encoding CPT1a and CPT2 were preserved at the levels of rats fed control protein diets.

  15. Dietary substitution of medium-chain triglycerides improves insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in NIDDM subjects.

    PubMed

    Eckel, R H; Hanson, A S; Chen, A Y; Berman, J N; Yost, T J; Brass, E P

    1992-05-01

    Dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may improve insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility, 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, 4 hypertriglyceridemic, and 6 normotriglyceridemic nondiabetic control subjects were examined with a 5-day cross-over design, in which the short-term metabolic effects of a 40% fat diet containing 77.5% of fat calories as MCT were compared with an isocaloric long-chain triglyceride-containing diet. In diabetic patients, MCT failed to alter fasting serum glucose concentrations but reduced preprandial glycemic excursions by 45% (F = 7.9, P less than 0.01). On MCT, the amount of glucose needed to maintain euglycemia during an intravenous insulin infusion was increased in diabetic subjects by 30%, in hypertriglyceridemic subjects by 30%, and in normotriglyceridemic control subjects by 17%. MCT increased mean +/- SE insulin-mediated glucose disposal (4.52 +/- 0.56 vs. 2.89 +/- 0.21 mg.kg-1.min-1; n = 3, P less than 0.05) but failed to alter basal glucose metabolism or insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output. Metabolic responses to MCT were observed independent of sulfonylurea therapy or severity of fasting hyperglycemia. No change in fasting serum insulin or triglyceride concentrations were seen with MCT administration. Although MCT increased mean fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 0.26 +/- 0.06 mM (P less than 0.05) in normotriglyceridemic nondiabetic subjects, no change was seen in diabetic patients. Thus, MCT-containing diets increased insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in both diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. In diabetic subjects, this effect appears to be mediated by increases in insulin-mediated glucose disposal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides compared with long-chain triglycerides in total parenteral nutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Ming; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Sun, Li-Chu; Juang, Rue-Fen; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsieh, Jan-Sing

    2005-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective, randomized study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the short-term use of medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) fat emulsions, and to compare the hematologic and biochemical effects of MCT/LCT fat emulsions with LCT fat emulsions in gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer patients following surgery. Thirty patients with GI tract cancer requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were equally randomized to receive MCT/LCT or LCT emulsions for 7 days. After 7 days, no sign of complications directly related to administration of fat emulsions was observed and there were no marked differences in anthropometry, length of hospital stay, and surgical complication rates between the two groups. However, MCT/LCT significantly improved plasma prealbumin concentration (p = 0.005). Changes in complements C3 and C4, total lymphocyte count, and immunoglobulins after TPN were not significantly different between the groups. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels remained constant. The serum insulin level in the MCT/LCT group was higher than in the LCT group (p = 0.048). Our data revealed that MCT/LCT fat emulsions significantly enhanced nutritional status in patients with GI tract cancer, indicated by higher prealbumin levels, which might be partially due to the higher circulating insulin levels in the MCT/LCT group.

  17. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-09

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  18. Nanostructured Montmorillonite Clay for Controlling the Lipase-Mediated Digestion of Medium Chain Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Dening, Tahnee J; Joyce, Paul; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-12-07

    Biocompatible lipid hybrid particles composed of montmorillonite and medium chain triglycerides were engineered for the first time by spray drying oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by montmorillonite platelets to form montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) microparticles containing up to 75% w/w lipid. In vitro lipolysis studies under simulated intestinal conditions indicated that the specific porous nanoarchitecture and surface chemistry of MLH particles significantly increased the rate (>10-fold) and extent of lipase-mediated digestion compared to that of coarse and homogenized submicrometer triglyceride emulsions. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies verified the rapid and enhanced production of fatty acids for MLH particles; these are electrostatically repelled by the negatively charged montmorillonite platelet faces and avoid the "interfacial poisoning" caused by incomplete digestion that retards lipid droplet digestion. MLH particles are a novel biomaterial and encapsulation system that optimize lipase enzyme efficiency and have excellent potential as a smart delivery system for lipophilic biomolecules owing to their exceptional physicochemical and biologically active properties. These particles can be readily fabricated with varying lipid loads and thus may be tailored to optimize the solubilization of specific bioactive molecules requiring reformulation.

  19. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  20. Sensations induced by medium and long chain triglycerides: role of gastric tone and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Barbera, R; Peracchi, M; Brighenti, F; Cesana, B; Bianchi, P; Basilisco, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The relative roles of gastric relaxation and the neuroendocrine signals released by the small intestine in the perception of nutrient induced sensations are controversial. The different effects of long chain (LCT) and medium chain (MCT) triglyceride ingestion on perception, gastric relaxation, and hormonal release may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nutrient induced sensations.
AIMS—To compare the effects of intraduodenal LCT and MCT infusions on perception, gastric tone, and plasma gut hormone levels in healthy subjects.
SUBJECTS—Nine fasting healthy volunteers.
METHODS—The subjects received duodenal infusions of saline followed by LCTs and MCTs in a randomised order on two different days. The sensations were rated on a visual analogue scale. Gastric tone was measured using a barostat, and plasma gut hormone levels by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—LCT infusion increased satiation scores, reduced gastric tone, and increased the levels of plasma cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, neurotensin, and pancreatic polypeptide. MCT infusion reduced gastric tone but did not significantly affect perception or plasma gut hormone levels. LCTs produced greater gastric relaxation than MCTs.
CONCLUSIONS—The satiation induced by intraduodenal LCT infusion seems to involve changes in gastric tone and plasma gut hormone levels. The gastric relaxation induced by MCT infusion, together with the absence of any significant change in satiation scores and plasma hormone levels, suggests that, at least up to a certain level, gastric relaxation is not sufficient to induce satiation and that nutrient induced gastric relaxation may occur through cholecystokinin independent mechanisms.


Keywords: gastric tone; triglyceride; hormones; satiation; cholecystokinin; nutrients PMID:10601051

  1. Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on expansion and rheological properties of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Mario; Emin, M Azad; Hochstein, Bernhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Schuchmann, Heike Petra

    2013-04-02

    Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25 bar up to 35-37 bar due to the addition of oil.

  2. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  3. Creatine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides and endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Little, Jonathan P; Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Cornish, Stephen M; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2008-10-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation increases muscle mass, strength, and power. Arginine a-ketoglutarate (A-AKG) is a precursor for nitric oxide production and has the potential to improve blood flow and nutrient delivery (i.e., Cr) to muscles. This study compared a commercial dietary supplement of Cr, A-AKG, glutamine, taurine, branched-chain amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides with Cr alone or placebo on exercise performance and body composition. Thirty-five men (approximately 23 yr) were randomized to Cr + A-AKG (0.1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) Cr + 0.075 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)A-AKG, n = 12), Cr (0.1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), n = 11), or placebo (1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) sucrose, n = 12) for 10 d. Body composition, muscle endurance (bench press), and peak and average power (Wingate tests) were measured before and after supplementation. Bench-press repetitions over 3 sets increased with Cr + A-AKG (30.9 +/- 6.6 +/- 34.9 +/- 8.7 reps; p < .01) and Cr (27.6 +/- 5.9 +/- 31.0 +/- 7.6 reps; p < .01), with no change for placebo (26.8 +/- 5.0 +/- 27.1 +/- 6.3 reps). Peak power significantly increased in Cr + A-AKG (741 +/- 112 +/- 794 +/- 92 W; p < .01), with no changes in Cr (722 +/- 138 +/- 730 +/- 144 W) and placebo (696 +/- 63 +/- 705 +/- 77 W). There were no differences in average power between groups over time. Only the Cr-only group increased total body mass (79.9 +/- 13.0 +/- 81.1 +/- 13.8 kg; p < .01), with no significant changes in lean-tissue or fat mass. These results suggest that Cr alone and in combination with A-AKG improves upper body muscle endurance, and Cr + A-AKG supplementation improves peak power output on repeated Wingate tests.

  4. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ishii, Kenichi; Hosomura, Naohiro; Ogiku, Masahito

    2010-03-01

    The effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) were investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS and were then fed liquid diets containing MCTs or corn oil (AIN93) as controls. Serum and tissue samples were collected 1 week after TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured. Furthermore, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In another set of experiments, the protein expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 in the colon was measured 1 week after feeding of liquid diets. To investigate the effects of MCTs on macrophages, RAW246.7 macrophages were incubated with media containing albumin conjugated with MCT or linoleic acid, which is the major component of corn oil. Then, the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured. Dietary MCTs blunted significantly the protein levels of TLR-4 in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly blunted in RAW264.7 cells incubated with MCTs compared with cells incubated with linoleic acid. Induction of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), TNF-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the colon was attenuated by dietary MCT. Furthermore, MPO activities in the colonic tissue were significantly blunted in animals fed the MCT diets compared with those fed the control diets. As a result, dietary MCTs improved chemically induced colitis significantly. MCTs most likely are useful for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as an anti-inflammatory immunomodulating nutrient.

  5. Use of a long-chain triglyceride-restricted/medium-chain triglyceride-supplemented diet in a case of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Footitt, E J; Stafford, J; Dixon, M; Burch, M; Jakobs, C; Salomons, G S; Cleary, M A

    2010-12-01

    Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.9, MCD) deficiency, or malonic aciduria, is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterised by a variable phenotype of developmental delay, seizures, cardiomyopathy and acidosis. There is no consensus for dietary treatment in this condition. This case describes the effect of a long-chain triglyceride (LCT)-restricted/medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-supplemented diet upon the progress of an affected child. A full-term Asian girl of birth weight 3590 g was screened for malonic aciduria after birth due to a positive family history. She had elevated urine malonic and methylmalonic acids and was presumably homozygous for a deleterious mutation in the MLYCD gene. Her echocardiography showed mild cardiomyopathy at 0.5 months of age, but heart function was good. She was treated with carnitine 100 mg/kg per day and continued a high-energy formula feed, as her growth was slow. At 3 months of age, echocardiography showed deteriorating cardiac function with a fractional shortening of 18%. She started an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (Captopril). Over the next few months, her diet was altered to comprise 1.9% energy from LCT, 25% from MCT and the remainder carbohydrate. Cardiac function improved and was optimal at 23 months of age, with a fractional shortening of 28% and good systolic function. During a period of low MCT intake, her cardiac function was noted to deteriorate. This reversed and stabilised following reinstatement of the diet. This case of malonic aciduria with cardiomyopathy demonstrates improvement in cardiac function attributable to LCT-restricted/MCT-supplemented diet.

  6. Triheptanoin - a medium chain triglyceride with odd chain fatty acids: a new anaplerotic anticonvulsant treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Karin; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The triglyceride of heptanoate (C7 fatty acid), triheptanoin, is a tasteless oil used to treat rare metabolic disorders in USA and France. Heptanoate is metabolized by β-oxidation to provide propionyl-CoA, which after carboxylation can produce succinyl-CoA, resulting in anaplerosis – the refilling of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Heptanoate is also metabolized by the liver to the “C5 ketones”, β-ketopentanoate and/or β-hydroxypentanoate, which are released into the blood and thought to enter the brain via monocarboxylate transporters. Oral triheptanoin has recently been discovered to be reproducibly anticonvulsant in acute and chronic mouse seizures models. However, current knowledge on alterations of brain metabolism after triheptanoin administration and anaplerosis via propionyl-CoA carboxylation in the brain is limited. This review outlines triheptanoin’s unique anticonvulsant profile and its clinical potential for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Anaplerosis as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of epilepsy is discussed. More research is needed to elucidate the anticonvulsant mechanism of triheptanoin and to reveal its clinical potential for the treatment of epilepsy and other disorders of the brain. PMID:21855298

  7. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  8. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 {mu}M which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized (1-{sup 14}C)- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O{sub 2} consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 {mu}Ci of (1-{sup 14}C)-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h.

  9. Odd-numbered medium-chain triglycerides (trinonanoin) in total parenteral nutrition: effects on parameters of fat metabolism in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Linseisen, J; Wolfram, G

    1993-01-01

    Odd-numbered medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) might combine the advantages of "usual" MCTs applied in clinical nutrition with lower ketogenic action and the release of three carbon units. To test subacute toxicity, trinonanoin/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) (7/3 wt/wt) fat emulsions were given to rabbits (n = 8) for 11 days (7 h/d) within a total parenteral nutrition regimen at a dose of 46.5% of total daily energy. Comparisons were made with rabbits receiving equicaloric amounts of MCT/LCT (7/3, wt/wt) or pure LCT fat emulsions, as well as with orally fed controls. The trinonanoin/LCT emulsion was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight changes showed no statistically significant differences between groups. The enzymatic determination of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and free glycerol concentrations in plasma samples revealed similar results for both MCT groups. However, ketone body concentrations (3-hydroxybutyrate) were significantly lower after trinonanoin/LCT emulsion administration. In the trinonanoin/LCT group, the plasma concentrations of propionic acid as well as of other short-chain fatty acids continuously increased; on days 10 and 11, elevated amounts of propionic acid were also detected in the urine. The histologic examination of the gut mucosa revealed no distinct differences between groups. On the basis of the presented data, the trinonanoin/LCT emulsion showed no inferiority to "usual" MCT/LCT emulsions. The lower ketogenic effect as well as the marked increase in plasma short-chain fatty acid concentrations may encourage further testing of this substrate for total parenteral nutrition.

  10. Role of Medium Chain Triglycerides (Axona®) in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Bemis, Marc; Desilets, Alicia R

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists provides symptomatic relief but do not prevent its progression. Thus, additional approaches aimed at slowing the progression of the disease have been investigated. Reports detailing reduced brain glucose metabolism in the early stages of AD led to the hypothesis that alternate energy sources aimed at increasing neuronal metabolism may protect neurons and thus benefit patients with AD. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are metabolized to ketone bodies that serve as an alternative source of energy for neurons. Data from clinical trials suggest that MCTs improve cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD in apolipoprotein E4-negative patients. Adverse events observed were mild and included minor gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, and flatulence. However, since genomic profiles are not routinely conducted in patients with AD in a clinical setting, the role of MCTs in clinical practice seems to be minimal.

  11. Medium-chain triglycerides impair lipid metabolism and induce hepatic steatosis in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD)-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Primassin, Sonja; Ter Veld, Frank; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2010-09-01

    A medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is mainstay of treatment in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), a long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation defect. Beneficial effects have been reported with an MCT-bolus prior to exercise. Little is known about the impact of a long-term MCT diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Here we investigate the effects of MCT-supplementation on liver and blood lipids in the murine model of VLCADD. Wild-type (WT) and VLCAD-knock-out (KO) mice were fed (1) a long-chain triglyceride (LCT)-diet over 5weeks, (2) an MCT diet over 5 weeks and (3) an LCT diet plus MCT-bolus. Blood and liver lipid content were determined. Expression of genes regulating lipogenesis was analyzed by RT-PCR. Under the LCT diet, VLCAD-KO mice accumulated significantly higher blood cholesterol concentrations compared to WT mice. The MCT-diet induced severe hepatic steatosis, significantly higher serum free fatty acids and impaired hepatic lipid mobilization in VLCAD-KO mice. Expression at mRNA level of hepatic lipogenic genes was up-regulated. The long-term MCT diet stimulates lipogenesis and impairs hepatic lipid metabolism in VLCAD-KO mice. These results suggest a critical reconsideration of a long-term MCT-modified diet in human VLCADD. In contrast, MCT in situations of increased energy demand appears to be a safer treatment alternative.

  12. Cognition and Synaptic-Plasticity Related Changes in Aged Rats Supplemented with 8- and 10-Carbon Medium Chain Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Mitchell, Ellen S.

    2016-01-01

    Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612) phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244) but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473). MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1) were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels. PMID:27517611

  13. Cognition and Synaptic-Plasticity Related Changes in Aged Rats Supplemented with 8- and 10-Carbon Medium Chain Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Mitchell, Ellen S

    2016-01-01

    Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612) phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244) but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473). MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1) were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels.

  14. Pre-exercise medium-chain triglyceride application prevents acylcarnitine accumulation in skeletal muscle from very-long-chain acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Primassin, Sonja; Tucci, Sara; Herebian, Diran; Seibt, Annette; Hoffmann, Lars; ter Veld, Frank; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2010-06-01

    Dietary modification with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation is one crucial way of treating children with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Recently, supplementation prior to exercise has been reported to prevent muscular pain and rhabdomyolysis. Systematic studies to determine when MCT supplementation is most beneficial have not yet been undertaken. We studied the effects of an MCT-based diet compared with MCT administration only prior to exercise in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) knockout (KO) mice. VLCAD KO mice were fed an MCT-based diet in same amounts as normal mouse diet containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and were exercised on a treadmill. Mice fed a normal LCT diet received MCT only prior to exercise. Acylcarnitine concentration, free carnitine concentration, and acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle as well as hepatic lipid accumulation were determined. Long-chain acylcarnitines significantly increased in VLCAD-deficient skeletal muscle with an MCT diet compared with an LCT diet with MCT bolus prior to exercise, whereas an MCT bolus treatment significantly decreased long-chain acylcarnitines after exercise compared with an LCT diet. C8-carnitine was significantly increased in skeletal muscle after MCT bolus treatment and exercise compared with LCT and long-term MCT treatment. Increased hepatic lipid accumulation was observed in long-term MCT-treated KO mice. MCT seems most beneficial when given in a single dose directly prior to exercise to prevent acylcarnitine accumulation. In contrast, continuous MCT treatment produces a higher skeletal muscle content of long-chain acylcarnitines after exercise and increases hepatic lipid storage in VLCAD KO mice.

  15. Dietary or enteral medium-chain triglyceride usage in a Chinese general hospital.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongrong; Ma, Jiangfeng; Yu, Kang; Wang, Lilin

    2015-01-01

    目的:中链甘油三酯(Median chain triglycerides,MCTs)由于其摄入、吸收、代谢方面的特殊作用而广受关注,但目前其在中国住院患者的膳食及肠内临床应用尚无报道且现状不明。本文首次报告MCTs临床应用现状,以期进一步阐明其应用的指征和规范。方法:回顾性分析纳入北京协和医院2012年1月至2013年12月两年间应用MCTs进行膳食及肠内营养干预的住院患者46例次及其治疗2周后临床情况变化。所有患者的治疗指征及治疗结局均进行循证评价。同时,随机选取77名临床医师进行问卷调查,进一步阐明临床医师对MCTs营养治疗的认知度。结果:46例次接受MCTs营养干预的患者临床表现及MCTs应用指征各异,其中包括21例胃肠消化功能障碍(15例治疗2周后好转),15例淋巴循环障碍(7例好转),5例血脂异常(3例好转),4例胰腺外分泌功能不全(2例好转)以及1例癫痫发作(未好转)患者。病例的MCTs治疗指征均进行循证评价。针对医师的问卷调查显示,尽管应用MCTs治疗的患者例数正在逐渐增加,临床医师对MCTs的理化特点、应用指征以及MCTs治疗机制的认知仍存在普遍不足。结论:MCTs治疗可改善胃肠道吸收不良、胰腺外分泌功能不全、小肠淋巴管扩张以及血脂异常患者的临床表现,但目前尚需针对较大样本人群、具有足够随访时间的临床随机对照试验以进一步评价其疗效。同时更多的MCTs知识宣教应在临床医师中进行普及以提高临床医务人员对其的认知程度。.

  16. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rial, Sabri Ahmed; Karelis, Antony D.; Bergeron, Karl-F.; Mounier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are in constant increase around the world. While most obese patients show several metabolic and biometric abnormalities and comorbidities, a subgroup of patients representing 3% to 57% of obese adults, depending on the diagnosis criteria, remains metabolically healthy. Among many other factors, the gut microbiota is now identified as a determining factor in the pathogenesis of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) individuals and in obesity-related diseases such as endotoxemia, intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an optimal healthy-like gut microbiota structure may contribute to the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype. Here, we describe how dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT), previously found to promote lipid catabolism, energy expenditure and weight loss, can ameliorate metabolic health via their capacity to improve both intestinal ecosystem and permeability. MCT-enriched diets could therefore be used to manage metabolic diseases through modification of gut microbiota. PMID:27187452

  17. Effect of medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion on leucocyte death and inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cury-Boaventura, M F; Gorjão, R; Martins de Lima, T; Fiamoncini, J; Godoy, A B P; Deschamphs, F C; Soriano, F G; Curi, R

    2011-01-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) containing medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion (MCT/ω-6 LCT LE) has been recommended in the place of ω-6 LCT-based emulsion to prevent impairment of immune function. The impact of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE on lymphocyte and neutrophil death and expression of genes related to inflammation was investigated. Seven volunteers were recruited and infusion of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE was performed for 6 h. Four volunteers received saline and no change was found. Blood samples were collected before, immediately afterwards and 18 h after LE infusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 and 48 h in culture. The following determinations were carried out: plasma-free fatty acids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid composition, neutral lipid accumulation in lymphocytes and neutrophils, signs of lymphocyte and neutrophil death and lymphocyte expression of genes related to inflammation. MCT/ω-6 LCT LE induced lymphocyte and neutrophil death. The mechanism for MCT/ω-6 LCT LE-dependent induction of leucocyte death may involve changes in neutral lipid content and modulation of expression of genes related to cell death, proteolysis, cell signalling, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and transcription. PMID:21682721

  18. Possible role of insulin status in the increased lipogenic enzyme activity by dietary medium-chain triglyceride in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Takase, S; Hosoya, N

    1987-06-01

    The possible role of insulin status in the increase in liver lipogenic enzyme activities upon feeding medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) was investigated with streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Rats were fed synthetic diets that contained either 2% corn oil (control), fat free, 13% MCT +2% corn oil, or 13% lard +2% corn oil, respectively. Feeding the MCT diet for 3 days increased serum ketone bodies in both the normal and diabetic rats. Insulin levels of MCT-fed rats tended to be higher than in normal animals. MCT feeding caused an enhancement of fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) in the liver of normal rats, whereas diabetic rats failed to register an increase in those activities due to MCT feeding. Administration of insulin to diabetic rats resulted in a recovery of the level of those enzyme activities to about the same degree as in each of the normal rat groups. It was interesting that diabetic MCT-fed rats with insulin treatment maintained higher enzyme activities in comparison to the lard and control groups. These results suggest that the increase in lipogenic enzyme activities caused by dietary MCT is presumably dependent on differences in insulin status.

  19. Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) rich, paclitaxel loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate (PSNP): a safe and efficacious alternative to Taxol.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Patil, Anand; Mehta, Miten; Gota, Vikram; Vavia, Pradeep

    2013-12-01

    The current work was aimed to develop Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) rich self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate of paclitaxel (PTX) for parenteral delivery. Very high concentrations of Cremophor EL and ethanol in Taxol have rendered patients to severe side effects. Years of extensive research on development of cost effective and safer vehicle for PTX, have failed to provide a promising replacement for Taxol. MCT was selected as oil owing to its parenteral acceptability, high solubilization capacity and multiple therapeutic benefits in cancer cachexia. PTX precipitation kinetics and reported toxicity profile of Kolliphor HS15 has favored its selection for PTX Self Nanoemulsifying Preconcentrate (PSNP). Presence of 30% free PEG in Kolliphor HS15 (PEG-15-hydroxystearate) restricts its miscibility with MCT, imposing significant challenge in development of MCT rich self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Removal of PEG layer from oil-surfactant mixture facilitated the formulation of PSNP with 51% w/w MCT. PSNP exhibited better precipitation kinetic profile, higher PTX loading with negligible hemolysis and histamine release compared to Taxol. PSNP was bioequivalent to Taxol, though V(d) and MRT was significantly higher than Taxol. PSNP showed distinctly better profile in inhibiting tumor growth and maintaining body weight with significantly higher % survival. Thus, PSNP can be a safer vehicle with potential clinical benefits.

  20. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients.

  1. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Rial, Sabri Ahmed; Karelis, Antony D; Bergeron, Karl-F; Mounier, Catherine

    2016-05-12

    Obesity and associated metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are in constant increase around the world. While most obese patients show several metabolic and biometric abnormalities and comorbidities, a subgroup of patients representing 3% to 57% of obese adults, depending on the diagnosis criteria, remains metabolically healthy. Among many other factors, the gut microbiota is now identified as a determining factor in the pathogenesis of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) individuals and in obesity-related diseases such as endotoxemia, intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an optimal healthy-like gut microbiota structure may contribute to the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype. Here, we describe how dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT), previously found to promote lipid catabolism, energy expenditure and weight loss, can ameliorate metabolic health via their capacity to improve both intestinal ecosystem and permeability. MCT-enriched diets could therefore be used to manage metabolic diseases through modification of gut microbiota.

  2. [Protein-losing enteropathy with systemic lupus erythematosus effectively treated with octreotide and medium chain triglyceride diet: A case report].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Makoto; Uchida, Kousuke; Nakashima, Tadaaki; Oda, Seiko; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Watada, Toshiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Araki, Jun; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Yano, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In January 2009, a 62-year-old man presented with diarrhea, leg edema, and thrombopenia and was admitted to our hospital. The past medical history revealed Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis for which he had been administered prednisolone. On admission, a laboratory examination revealed massive hypoalbuminemia and high levels of C-reactive protein and platelet-associated IgG. Anti-double stranded DNA and anti-Sm antibodies were negative. Analysis of the bone marrow aspirate and Tc-99m albumin scintigraphy findings suggested autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) and protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), respectively. We diagnosed him as SLE, because past immunoserological testing had showed positivity for anti-double stranded DNA antibody and LE cells. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were ineffective. Rituximab was ineffective against PLE but was effective against AITP. Cyclosporine and Cyclophosphamide were ineffective against PLE. Subcutaneous injection of 200-μg octreotide daily and a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet was effective against PLE, and the patient's condition dramatically improved. The effectiveness of octreotide treatment and an MCT diet in the treatment of PLE with SLE is discussed.

  3. Anticonvulsant profile of caprylic acid, a main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wlaź, Piotr; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Zarnowska, Iwona; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Czuczwar, Stanisław J; Gasior, Maciej

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute anticonvulsant effects of caprylic acid (CA), the main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCT KD), in seizure tests typically used in screening for potential antiepileptic drugs in mice. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between CA and valproate (VPA) were also investigated. CA (p.o.) and VPA (i.p.) were administered 30 min before testing. Acute effects on motor coordination were assessed in the chimney test. Total plasma and brain concentrations of CA and VPA, when administered alone or in combination, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. CA (10-30 mmol/kg) increased the threshold for i.v. pentylenetetrazole-induced myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but not tonic convulsions. CA (5-30 mmol/kg) increased the threshold for 6-Hz psychomotor seizures but was ineffective in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. CA (10-60 mmol/kg p.o.) impaired motor performance in the chimney test (TD(50) value, 58.4 mmol/kg). Increasing doses of CA (5-30 mmol/kg) produced proportional increases in plasma and brain exposure with constant brain/plasma partitioning. CA increased anticonvulsant potency of VPA in the maximal electroshock seizure and 6-Hz seizure tests. Co-administration of CA and VPA had no effect on brain and plasma concentrations of either compound. In summary, CA exerts acute anticonvulsant effects and potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of VPA at doses that result in plasma exposures comparable to those reported in epileptic patients on the MCT KD. Thus, this acute anticonvulsant property of CA may benefit and add to the overall clinical efficacy of the MCT KD.

  4. Sexual dimorphism of lipid metabolism in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice in response to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Previously it was shown that long-term MCT supplementation strongly affects lipid metabolism in mice. We here investigate sex-specific effects in mice with very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency in response to a long-term MCT modified diet. We quantified blood lipids, acylcarnitines, glucose, insulin and free fatty acids, as well as tissue triglycerides in the liver and skeletal muscle under a control and an MCT diet over 1 year. In addition, visceral and hepatic fat content and muscular intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The long-term application of an MCT diet induced a marked alteration of glucose homeostasis. However, only VLCAD-/- female mice developed a severe metabolic syndrome characterized by marked insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, severe hepatic and visceral steatosis, whereas VLCAD-/- males seemed to be protected and only presented with milder insulin resistance. Moreover, the highly saturated MCT diet is associated with a decreased hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity in females aggravating the harmful effects of a saturated MCT diet. Long-term MCT supplementation deeply affects lipid metabolism in a sexual dimorphic manner resulting in a severe metabolic syndrome only in female mice. These findings are striking since the first signs of insulin resistance already occur in female VLCAD-/- mice during their reproductive period. How these metabolic adaptations are finally regulated needs to be determined. More important, the relevance of these findings for humans under these dietary modifications needs to be investigated.

  5. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics. PMID:25049656

  6. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hong, S M; Hwang, J H; Kim, I H

    2012-07-01

    One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1) (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age) and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age) were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i) negative control (NC), ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii) MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3) MCT, and iv) MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1), 0.32% (phase 2 and 3) MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05) ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05) by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05) by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05) and better FCR (p<0.05) than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05) by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05) energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G). In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks), but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  7. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  8. Medium- and long-chain triglycerides labeled with 13C: a comparison of oxidation after oral or parenteral administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Metges, C C; Wolfram, G

    1991-01-01

    The special physical properties of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) result in some substantial differences in their metabolism compared to that of long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Administering MCT is of importance in enteral nutrition of patients with disturbances of fat digestion or lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Their use in parenteral nutrition is also of interest. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of conversion of MCT and LCT to CO2 after parenteral or oral administration in humans. At 1-wk intervals, a liquid formula diet (418 kJ/h for 8 h) was given to five healthy volunteers following an overnight fast. Two hours after starting this, they were given either 100 mg [13C]trioctanoate or [13C]trioleate orally or parenterally. Excess 13C in breath carbon dioxide was analyzed by mass-spectrometry, and oxidation rates over 7.5 h were calculated. Oxidation rates for [13C]trioctanoate were on the average 34.7% after enteral and 31.0% after parenteral administration, and for [13C]trioleate, 25.3 and 24.9%, respectively (p less than 0.05, trioctanoate vs. trioleate). The results show that the oxidation of trioctanoate in healthy humans is greater both after oral and parenteral administration and increases more rapidly than that of [13C]trioleate.

  9. Medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet, an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and a comparison with other ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yeou-mei Christiana; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD) is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD), which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  10. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)—about 30%—have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to ‘ectopic fat’ metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6–C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate. PMID:27547436

  11. Evaluation of Resveratrol, Green Tea Extract, Curcumin, Oxaloacetic Acid, and Medium-Chain Triglyceride Oil on Life Span of Genetically Heterogeneous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard A.; Astle, Clinton M.; Baur, Joseph A.; de Cabo, Rafael; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Guo, Wen; Javors, Martin; Kirkland, James L.; Nelson, James F.; Sinclair, David A.; Teter, Bruce; Williams, David; Zaveri, Nurulain; Nadon, Nancy L.; Harrison, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) was established to evaluate agents that are hypothesized to increase life span and/or health span in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three test sites. It is the goal of the ITP to publish all results, negative or positive. We report here on the results of lifelong treatment of mice, beginning at 4 months of age, with each of five agents, that is, green tea extract (GTE), curcumin, oxaloacetic acid, medium-chain triglyceride oil, and resveratrol, on the life span of genetically heterogeneous mice. Each agent was administered beginning at 4 months of age. None of these five agents had a statistically significant effect on life span of male or female mice, by log-rank test, at the concentrations tested, although a secondary analysis suggested that GTE might diminish the risk of midlife deaths in females only. PMID:22451473

  12. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Baumgardner, January N; Sharma, Neha; Vantrease, Jamie; Ferguson, Matthew; Tong, Yudong; Wu, Xianli; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been shown to protect against steatosis and alcoholic liver injury. The current study was designed to determine if a similar beneficial effect of MCT occurs in a rat model of NAFLD. Groups of male rats were isocalorically overfed diets containing 10%, 35% or 70% total energy as corn oil or a 70% fat diet in which corn oil was replaced with increasing concentrations of saturated fat (18:82, beef tallow:MCT oil) from 20% to 65% for 21 days using total enteral nutrition (TEN). As dietary content of corn oil increased, hepatic steatosis and serum alanine amino transferases were elevated (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by greater expression of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) and higher concentrations of polyunsaturated 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (FA) in the hepatic lipid fractions (P < 0.05). Keeping the total dietary fat at 70%, but increasing the proportion of MCT-enriched saturated fat resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steatosis and necrosis without affecting CYP2E1 induction. There was no incorporation of C8-C10 FAs into liver lipids, but increasing the ratio of MCT to corn oil: reduced liver lipid 18:2 and 20:4 concentrations; reduced membrane susceptibility to radical attack; stimulated FA β- and ω-oxidation as a result of activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α, and appeared to increase mitochondrial respiration through complex III. These data suggest that replacing unsaturated fats like corn oil with MCT oil in the diet could be utilized as a potential treatment for NAFLD.

  13. Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster.

  14. The effects of feeding medium-chain triglycerides on the growth, insulin responsiveness, and body composition of Holstein calves from birth to 85 kg of body weight.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K; Ross, D A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding calves isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets that varied in the amount and type of fatty acids on growth, response to an insulin challenge, and body composition. Thirty-six calves were assigned to a randomized block design with 3 dietary treatments, 10 calves per treatment, and a baseline group of 6 calves. Three different milk-replacer-based diets were designed to deliver less than 2% of the lipid as medium-chain triglycerides (control; diet contained no added medium-chain triglycerides), 32% medium-chain triglycerides primarily as caprylate (CAP oil), and 32% of fatty acids primarily as laurate from coconut oil (CCO). Calves were offered 0.28 Mcal of intake energy/kg of body weight (BW)0.75 from d 1 to 7 and 0.32 Mcal of intake energy/kg of BW0.75 adjusted weekly for BW from d 8 to harvest. Dry matter, intake energy, crude protein, and fat intakes were 53.7 kg, 281.8 Mcal, 14.6 kg, and 13.0 kg; 56.6 kg, 297.2 Mcal, 15.8 kg, and 14.2 kg; and 53.8 kg, 280.4 Mcal, 15.4 kg, and 13.3 kg for the control, CAP oil, and CCO treatments, respectively. Dry matter, energy, protein, and fat intakes did not differ among treatments. At approximately 65 kg of BW, 5 calves per treatment were given an insulin challenge. After the challenge the decrease in plasma glucose concentration was greater for the calves fed the CAP oil diet compared with those fed the control and CCO diets. Calves were harvested at approximately 88 kg of BW. Empty body gains were 0.92, 0.79, and 0.87 kg/d for control-, CAP oil-, and CCO-fed calves, respectively, and the gains of the CAP oil-fed calves were less than those of the control-fed calves. Empty body crude protein, ash, and water were not different among treatments. Empty body retained energy and fat tended to be 5.6 and 8.7% greater for calves consuming the CCO diet than for those fed the control diet. The livers of calves consuming the CCO diet were 330 g heavier and contained 15% more

  15. Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with MCT decreased coliforms counts (C) in colon and rectum content (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with CS decreased C and lactic acid bacteria plus C counts (L + C) in cecum (P < 0.05), and C, L + C (P < 0.01) and ratio of L and C (P < 0.05) in colon and rectum contents. The lack of interactions between MCT and CS indicates different modes of action and additive effects between the two supplementations. In conclusion, supplementation with MCT in diet with or without CS could improve the intestinal microbial environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs.

  16. Medium-chain triglycerides and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kondreddy, Vijay Kumar Reddy; Anikisetty, Maheswaraiah; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Little information is known regarding the influence of lipid composition in the background diet on the modulatory effect of FO supplementation on CVDs. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of various background dietary lipids and FO on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Adult Wistar rats were fed semisynthetic diet with FO at 1.0% or 2.0% along with other lipids, namely, medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs, for 5 weeks. Some of the potent CVD risk factors were estimated in the rats. FO at 1.0% and 2.0% has significantly reduced serum lipid peroxides, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TAGs), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein; liver and adipose TAG and cholesterol levels in MCT, MUFA and n-6 PUFA diet groups. Notably, these alterations were comparatively higher in 1.0% FO-substituted MCT and MUFA diet groups. Interestingly, feeding of FO along with n-3 PUFAs did not show additive effect in attenuation of these factors. Serum liver EPA and DHA levels were remarkably elevated in rats fed FO-enriched MCT or MUFA diets. Our results suggest that MCTs or MUFAs in the background diet might promote the beneficial effects of FO on CVDs.

  17. Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil Consumption as Part of a Weight Loss Diet Does Not Lead to an Adverse Metabolic Profile When Compared to Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Bosarge, Aubrey; Goree, Laura Lee T.; Darnell, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Objective Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) consumption may have a beneficial impact on weight management, however, some studies point to a negative impact of MCT oil consumption on cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined the effects of MCT oil consumption, as part of a weight loss diet, on metabolic risk profile compared to olive oil. Design Thirty-one men and women, age 19–50 y and body mass index 27–33 kg/m2, completed this randomized, controlled, 16-week weight loss program. Oils were consumed at a level of ~12% of the subjects’ prescribed energy intakes in the form of muffins and liquid oil. Results After controlling for body weight, there was a significant effect of time on fasting serum glucose (P = 0.0177) and total cholesterol (P = 0.0386) concentrations, and on diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0413), with reductions in these variables occurring over time; there was no time-by-diet interaction for any of the parameters studied. Two of the 3 subjects in the MCT oil group with evidence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline did not have metabolic syndrome at endpoint. In the olive oil group, 6 subjects had the metabolic syndrome at baseline; 2 subjects no longer had metabolic syndrome at endpoint, 1 person developed metabolic syndrome, and 4 subjects did not have any change in their metabolic syndrome status. Conclusions Our results suggest that MCT oil can be incorporated into a weight loss program without fear of adversely affecting metabolic risk factors. Distinction should be made regarding chain length when it comes to discussing the effects of saturated fats on metabolic risk factors. PMID:18845704

  18. Effectiveness of Medium-Chain Triglyceride Oil Therapy in Two Japanese Citrin-Deficient Siblings: Evaluation Using Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Hiroki; Sasai, Hideo; Abdelkreem, Elsayed; Kawamoto, Norio; Kawamoto, Minako; Kamiya, Toshiya; Tanimoto, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Numakura, Chikahiko; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Citrin deficiency, an inherited defect of the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform (citrin), may cause impairment of glycolysis because of an increase in the cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio. We report a Japanese boy whose main complaint was recurrent hypoglycemic episodes. He was suspected as having citrin deficiency because of his peculiar preference for protein- and fat-rich food. His young sister also had a similar food preference. Both siblings were diagnosed with citrin deficiency by genetic analysis. The brother and sister underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 10 and 7 yr of age, respectively. Blood glucose, ammonia, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, and insulin levels were monitored before starting the test, and then every 30 min. During this test, they maintained blood glucose levels until 180 min. At 210 min, they experienced vomiting, feeling ill, and decreased blood glucose levels (2.9 and 2.8 mmol/l in the brother and sister, respectively). The sister and brother recovered uneventfully by intravenous glucose injection. In a second OGTT, 4 months after medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil supplementation, they had no major symptoms and normal glucose levels were maintained, even after 240 min. Additionally, after MCT oil therapy, their food preference slightly changed as they started eating more carbohydrates. Our OGTT data suggest excess carbohydrate intake has adverse consequences in patients with citrin deficiency, including hypoglycemia after a few hours. MCT oil therapy may be effective in preventing such hypoglycemia and improving metabolic derangement, even during the so-called apparently healthy period.

  19. Fat-soluble vitamins and plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in chylothorax pediatric patients receiving a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Wongarn, Renu; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Phuangphan, Phakkanan; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2014-11-01

    Post-operative chylothorax can be cured by a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-rich diet. However, there is concern that an MCT-rich diet results in clinical and biochemical deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. We compared fat-soluble vitamins status and fatty acids status before and after administration of an MCT-rich diet. Nine children with congenital heart disease developed chylothorax after cardiac surgery. Blood samples were drawn from each subject twice, first prior to administration of an MCT-rich diet and secondly when the chylothorax was clinically cured and the MCT diet discontinued. Both blood samples were analyzed for retinol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, the ratio of α-tocopherol to total lipids (α-TE/TL), coagulogram, and the fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. In spite of a decrease in the α-TE/TL ratio (3.78 ± 0.89 vs 2.36 ± 0.44 mg/g, p<0.05), this decrease did not reach the deficiency cut-off level. Linoleic acid in both plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids decreased significantly (25.25 ± 8.06 vs 14.25 ± 2.88%, and 11.19 ± 2.15 vs 6.89 ± 2.45%, respectively). Administration of an MCT-rich diet for treatment of postoperative chylothorax caused a reduction in vitamin E status and linoleic acid, but without any symptoms of deficiency.

  20. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in

  1. Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if feeding dogs medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, and L-carnitine enriched foods offsets age-associated changes in serum fatty acids (FA) and carnitine metabolites. Forty-one healthy Beagles, mean age 9.9 years (range 3.1 to 14.8), were fed control or one of two treatment foods for 6 months. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient requirements for adult dogs, and had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approx. 7.4%, 14.0%, and 18.1%, respectively). The treatment diets both contained added L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) and 0.6% (treatment food 1) or 1.5% (treatment food 2) added fish oil. Treatment food 2 also had increased MCT from coconut oil, added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Composition of serum FA was determined by gas chromatography of FA methyl esters. Metabolomic profiles of serum samples were determined from extracted supernatants that were split and run on GC/MS and LC/MS/MS platforms, for identification and relative quantification of small metabolites. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among dog groups, there was no change in total-lean-body weight, or in serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations, based on time or dietary treatment. Serum concentrations of carnitine metabolites were decreased in geriatric (>7 years) vs. mature adult (≤ 7 years) dogs, and supplementation with L-carnitine attenuated the effects of aging. The ratio of PUFA to SFA was significantly greater in mature dogs at baseline (P ≤ 0.05). Serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic FA increased in a dose-dependent manner. Dogs consuming treatment food 2 also had increased serum concentrations of lauric and myristic FA, and decreased concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and arachidonate (all P ≤ 0.05) and their PUFA to SFA ratio increased. In summary, dietary MCT, fish oil, and L-carnitine counterbalanced the effects of aging on circulating

  2. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  3. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Toda, Aiko; Kimoto, Ayako; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Tagata, Yuko; Ito, Masanobu; Ota, Tsuneyoshi; Shibata, Nobuto; Arai, Heii

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is the first clinical trial of this type in Japan, designed to analyze two important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) management using medium-chain triglycerides. Axona was administered for 3 months (40 g of powder containing 20 g of caprylic triglycerides). We used an indurating, four-step dose-titration method (from 10 to 40 g per day) for 7 days before the trial, and examined the tolerance and adverse effects of this intervention. We also investigated its effect on cognitive function in mild-to-moderate AD patients. Patients and methods This was a clinical intervention in 22 Japanese patients with sporadic AD at a mild-to-moderate stage (ten females, 12 males), mean age (± standard deviation) 63.9 (±8.5) years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, 10–25, seven patients were ApoE4-positive. During Axona administration, we examined changes in cognitive function by obtaining MMSE and AD assessment-scale scores. Intolerance and serum ketone concentrations were also examined. Results The tolerance of Axona was good, without severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. Axona did not improve cognitive function in our sample of AD patients, even in those patients without the ApoE4 allele. However, some ApoE4-negative patients with baseline MMSE score ≥14 showed improvement in their cognitive functions. Conclusion The modified dose-titration method, starting with a low dose of Axona, decreased gastrointestinal adverse effects in Japanese patients. Axona might be effective for some relatively mildly affected patients with AD (with cognitive function MMSE score of ≥14 and lacking the ApoE4 allele). PMID:26811674

  4. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  5. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P < 0.01), lower GFR (P = 0.04), and lower sCr concentrations (P < 0.01). However, SDMA concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in older cats. This study shows that in cats, serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age.

  6. Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Charles R.; Sweetman, Lawrence; Roe, Diane S.; David, France; Brunengraber, Henri

    2002-01-01

    The current dietary treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects (high carbohydrate with medium-even-chain triglycerides and reduced amounts of long-chain fats) fails, in many cases, to prevent cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness. We hypothesized that the apparent defect in energy production results from a depletion of the catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle via leakage through cell membranes (cataplerosis). We further hypothesized that replacing dietary medium-even-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA) by medium-odd-chain fatty acids (precursors of acetyl-CoA and anaplerotic propionyl-CoA) would restore energy production and improve cardiac and skeletal muscle function. We fed subjects with long-chain defects a controlled diet in which the fat component was switched from medium-even-chain triglycerides to triheptanoin. In three patients with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, this treatment led rapidly to clinical improvement that included the permanent disappearance of chronic cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness (for more than 2 years in one child), and of rhabdomyolysis and weakness in the others. There was no evidence of propionyl overload in these patients. The treatment has been well tolerated for up to 26 months and opens new avenues for the management of patients with mitochondrial fat oxidation disorders. PMID:12122118

  7. [The medium chain fat acids. Content in food. Physiology, characteristics of metabolism and application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Arkhipovskiĭ, A V; Titov, V N

    2013-06-01

    It is rational, according to biology laws and purposes for which cells use fatty acids, to distinguish between saturated (without double bonds in chain), monoene (with one bond), unsaturated (with 2 and 3 double bonds) and polyene (with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds) acids. The saturated and monoene fatty acids are mainly the substratum for oxygenation and working out of energy by cells. The unsaturated fatty acids are the substratum for formation of membranes. The polyene fatty acids are the predecessors of synthesis of eicosanoids and aminophosphotides. With subject to characteristics of metabolism and transfer in vivo, the fatty acids are subdivided into short chain C4 - C8 and medium chain C-10 - C-14 fatty acids. The etherification occurs with glycerin into "short" triglycerides which are not bounded with apoproteins. The long chain fatty acids form "long" triglycerides which in enterocytes are structured by apoprotein B-48 into composition of chylomicrons. It is possible to validly consider that difference in outflow from enterocytes to veins of portal system (which includes veins of omentum) of medium chain fatty acids in the form of short triglycerides can directly input into pathogenesis of syndrome of isolated omental obesity and metabolic syndrome. The another input into the mentioned conditions is the secretion through ductus thoracicus into large veins of greater systemic circulation of long chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in the content of chylomicrons. The omental obesity is the only specific symptom of metabolic syndrome.

  8. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated

  9. Relationship between plasma free fatty acid, intramyocellular triglycerides and long-chain acylcarnitines in resting humans

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are trafficked directly to intramyocellular long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) rather than transiting intramyocellular triglycerides (imTG) on the way to resting muscle fatty acid oxidation. Overnight fasted adults (n= 61) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0830 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) labelling plasma NEFA, imTG, imLCAC and im-non-esterified FA (imNEFA). Two muscle biopsies (0830 and 1400 h) were performed following 6 h, overlapping, sequential palmitate/oleate tracer infusions. Enrichment of plasma palmitate was ∼15 times greater than enrichment of imTG, imNEFA-palmitate and im-palmitoyl-carnitine. Fatty acid enrichment in LCAC was correlated with imTG and imNEFA; there was a significant correlation between imTG concentrations and imLCAC concentrations in women (r= 0.51, P= 0.005), but not men (r= 0.30, P= 0.11). We estimated that ∼11% of NEFA were stored in imTG. imTG NEFA storage was correlated only with NEFA concentrations (r= 0.52, P= 0.004) in women and with (r= 0.45, P= 0.02) in men. At rest, plasma NEFA are trafficked largely to imTG before they enter LCAC oxidative pools; thus, imTG are an important, central pool that regulates the delivery of fatty acids to the intracellular environment. Factors relating to plasma NEFA storage into imTG differ in men and women. PMID:19858228

  10. Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose, that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is complicated and the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and the prevention of cardiovascular risk clustering. This review explores the physiological functions and molecular actions of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in the development of metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies demonstrate that dietary MCFAs/MCTs suppress fat deposition through enhanced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in animal and human subjects. Additionally, several reports suggest that MCFAs/MCTs offer the therapeutic advantage of preserving insulin sensitivity in animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Seizure control by ketogenic diet-associated medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Terbach, Nicole; Plant, Nick; Chen, Philip E; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2013-06-01

    The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is used extensively for treating refractory childhood epilepsy. This diet increases the plasma levels of medium straight chain fatty acids. A role for these and related fatty acids in seizure control has not been established. We compared the potency of an established epilepsy treatment, Valproate (VPA), with a range of MCT diet-associated fatty acids (and related branched compounds), using in vitro seizure and in vivo epilepsy models, and assessed side effect potential in vitro for one aspect of teratogenicity, for liver toxicology and in vivo for sedation, and for a neuroprotective effect. We identify specific medium chain fatty acids (both prescribed in the MCT diet, and related compounds branched on the fourth carbon) that provide significantly enhanced in vitro seizure control compared to VPA. The activity of these compounds on seizure control is independent of histone deacetylase inhibitory activity (associated with the teratogenicity of VPA), and does not correlate with liver cell toxicity. In vivo, these compounds were more potent in epilepsy control (perforant pathway stimulation induced status epilepticus), showed less sedation and enhanced neuroprotection compared to VPA. Our data therefore implicates medium chain fatty acids in the mechanism of the MCT ketogenic diet, and highlights a related new family of compounds that are more potent than VPA in seizure control with a reduced potential for side effects. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Targets and Approaches to the Treatment of Epilepsy'.

  12. Elimination of lipofundin S during the intravenous fat tolerance test in patients with low, medium, and high fasting triglyceride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, W; Julius, U; Schulze, J; Hanefeld, M; Haller, H

    1985-01-01

    The intravenous fat tolerance test with Lipofundin S (0.5 ml of 20% emulsion/kg body weight) was performed in 22 male nondiabetic patients. According to their fasting triglycerides (TG), the patients were arranged into three groups: low (less than 2.8 mmol/liter), medium (2.8-5.7 mmol/liter), and high (greater than 5.7 mmol/liter) concentrations. Fractional elimination rates of injected Lipofundin S decreased from 11.08 in low TG to 4.57%/min in high TG; they were positively correlated with fasting levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but negatively with those of TG. The same pattern of correlations was observed with fractional catabolic rates of endogenous TG as measured after injection of tritium-labeled glycerol. The intravenous Lipofundin S load effected transient TG and free fatty acid elevations which were delayed in high TG. The elimination mechanisms of injected Lipofundin S and of endogenous TG are compared.

  13. Synthesis of medium chain length fatty acid ethyl esters in engineered Escherichia coli using endogenously produced medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liping; Liu, Junfeng; Nie, Kaili; Liu, Luo; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2013-07-10

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived biofuels from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of micro-diesel. The expression of codon optimized two plants (Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase genes (ucFatB and ccFatB) in Escherichia coli resulted in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity and caused large accumulation of medium-chain free fatty acids. By heterologous co-expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, specific plant thioesterases in E. coli, with supplementation of exogenous ethanol, resulted in drastic changes in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) composition ranging from 12:0 to 18:1. Through an optimized microbial shake-flask fermentation of two modified E. coli strains, yielded FFAs and FAEEs in the concentration of approximately 500 mg L(-1)/250 mg L(-1) and 2.01 mg g(-1)/1.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal ethanol level for FAEEs yield in the two recombinant strains was reached at the 3% ethanol concentration, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.93-fold higher than that of 1% ethanol concentration.

  14. Carbon and Acyl Chain Flux during Stress-induced Triglyceride Accumulation by Stable Isotopic Labeling of the Polar Microalga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169.

    PubMed

    Allen, James W; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2017-01-06

    Deriving biofuels and other lipoid products from algae is a promising future technology directly addressing global issues of atmospheric CO2 balance. To better understand the metabolism of triglyceride synthesis in algae, we examined their metabolic origins in the model species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, using stable isotopic labeling. Labeling patterns arising from [U-(13)C]glucose, (13)CO2, or D2O supplementation were analyzed by GC-MS and/or LC-MS over time courses during nitrogen starvation to address the roles of catabolic carbon recycling, acyl chain redistribution, and de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis during the expansion of the lipid bodies. The metabolic origin of stress-induced triglyceride was found to be a continuous 8:2 ratio between de novo synthesized FA and acyl chain transfer from pre-stressed membrane lipids with little input from lipid remodeling. Membrane lipids were continually synthesized with associated acyl chain editing during nitrogen stress, in contrast to an overall decrease in total membrane lipid. The incorporation rates of de novo synthesized FA into lipid classes were measured over a time course of nitrogen starvation. The synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, and galactolipids followed a two-stage pattern where nitrogen starvation resulted in a 2.5-fold increase followed by a gradual decline. Acyl chain flux into membrane lipids was dominant in the first stage followed by triglycerides. These data indicate that the level of metabolic control that determines acyl chain flux between membrane lipids and triglycerides during nitrogen stress relies primarily on the Kennedy pathway and de novo FA synthesis with limited, defined input from acyl editing reactions.

  15. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: diagnosis by acylcarnitine analysis in blood.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, J L; Zhang, W; Kahler, S G; Roe, C R; Chen, Y T; Terada, N; Chace, D H; Iafolla, A K; Ding, J H; Millington, D S

    1993-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid catabolism, with autosomal recessive inheritance. The disease is characterized by episodic illness associated with potentially fatal hypoglycemia and has a relatively high frequency. A rapid and reliable method for the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency is highly desirable. Analysis of specific acylcarnitines was performed by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry on plasma or whole blood samples from 62 patients with MCAD deficiency. Acylcarnitines were also analyzed in 42 unaffected relatives of patients with MCAD deficiency and in other groups of patients having elevated plasma C8 acylcarnitine, consisting of 32 receiving valproic acid, 9 receiving medium-chain triglyceride supplement, 4 having multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and 8 others with various etiologies. Criteria for the unequivocal diagnosis of MCAD deficiency by acylcarnitine analysis are an elevated C8-acylcarnitine concentration (> 0.3 microM), a ratio of C8/C10 acylcarnitines of > 5, and lack of elevated species of chain length > C10. These criteria were not influenced by clinical state, carnitine treatment, or underlying genetic mutation, and no false-positive or false-negative results were obtained. The same criteria were also successfully applied to profiles from neonatal blood spots retrieved from the original Guthrie cards of eight patients. Diagnosis of MCAD deficiency can therefore be made reliably through the analysis of acylcarnitines in blood, including presymptomatic neonatal recognition. Tandem mass spectrometry is a convenient method for fast and accurate determination of all relevant acylcarnitine species. PMID:8488845

  16. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Qualice, LLC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  17. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by INEOS Chlor Americas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  18. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Dover Chemical

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  19. Comparison of triglycerides and phospholipids as supplemental sources of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Susan A; Oliver, William T; Phillips, Oulayvanh T; Odle, Jack; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Harrell, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Addition of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to infant formula promotes visual and neural development. This study was designed to determine whether the source of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affected overall animal health and safety. Piglets consumed ad libitum from 1 to 16 d of age a skim milk-based formula with different fat sources added to provide 50% of the metabolizable energy. Treatment groups were as follows: control (CNTL; no added LCPUFA), egg phospholipid (PL), algal/fungal triglyceride (TG) oils, TG plus PL (soy lecithin source) added to match phospholipid treatment (TG + PL) and essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD). Formulas with LCPUFA provided 0.6 and 0.3 g/100 g total fatty acids as AA and DHA, respectively. CNTL piglets had 40% longer ileal villi than PL piglets (P < 0.03), but the TG group was not different from the CNTL group. Gross liver histology did not differ among any of the formula-fed groups (P > 0.1). Apparent dry matter digestibility was 10% greater in CNTL, TG and TG + PL groups compared with PL piglets (P < 0.002). No differences in alanine aminotransferase were detected among treatments, but aspartate aminotransferase was elevated (P < 0.03) in PL piglets compared with TG + PL piglets. Total plasma AA concentration was greater in the TG group compared with CNTL piglets (P < 0.05). Total plasma DHA concentrations were greater in TG piglets compared with PL (P < 0.06) or CNTL (P < 0.02) piglets. These data demonstrate that the algal/fungal TG sources of DHA and AA may be a more appropriate supplement for infant formulas than the egg PL source based on piglet plasma fatty acid profiles and apparent dry matter digestibilities.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new reformulated microemulsion and the long-chain triglyceride emulsion of propofol in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S-H; Ghim, J-L; Song, M-H; Choi, H-G; Choi, B-M; Lee, H-M; Lee, E-K; Roh, Y-J; Noh, G-J

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Microemulsion propofol was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events of long-chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) propofol. We compared dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of both formulations. Experimental approach: The study was a randomized, two-period and crossover design with 7-day wash-out period. Microemulsion and LCT propofol were administered by zero-order infusion (0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mg·kg−1·min−1) for 20 min in 30 beagle dogs (male/female = 5/5 for each rate). Arterial samples were collected at preset intervals. The electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) was used as a measure of propofol effect. Dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bioequivalence were evaluated by non-compartmental analyses. Population analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Key results: Both formulations showed dose proportionality at the applied dose range. The ratios of geometric means of AUClast and AUCinf between both formulations were acceptable for bioequivalence, whereas that of Cmax was not. The pharmacodynamic bioequivalence was indicated by the arithmetic means of AAC (areas above the ApEn time curves) and E0 (baseline ApEn)–Emax (maximally decreased ApEn) between both formulations. The pharmacokinetics of both formulations were best described by three compartment models. Body weight was a significant covariate for V1 of both formulations and sex for k21 of microemulsion propofol. The blood-brain equilibration rate constants (ke0, min−1) were 0.476 and 0.696 for microemulsion and LCT propofol respectively. Conclusions and implications: Microemulsion propofol was pharmacodynamically bioequivalent to LCT propofol although pharmacokinetic bioequivalence was incomplete, and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics at the applied dose ranges. PMID:19925493

  1. Site-specific saturation mutagenesis on residues 132 and 450 of Candida rugosa LIP2 enhances catalytic efficiency and alters substrate specificity in various chain lengths of triglycerides and esters.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chih-Chung; Malmis, Conmar C; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Lee, Li-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2010-10-27

    The catalytic versatility of recombinant Candida rugosa LIP2 has been known to have potential applications in industry. In this study, site-specific saturation mutagenesis on residues L132 and G450 of recombinant LIP2 has been employed to investigate the impact of both residues on substrate specificity of LIP2. Point mutations on L132 and G450 were done separately using mutagenic degenerate primer sets containing 32 codons to generate two libraries of mutants in Pichia pastoris . Replacements of amino acid on these mutants were identified as L132A, L132I, G450S, and G450A. In lipase activity assay, L132A and L132I mutants showed a shift of preference from short- to medium-chain triglyceride, whereas G450S and G450A mutants retained preferences as compared to wild-type LIP2. Among mutants, G450A has the highest activity on tributyrin. However, hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters with L132A, L132I, and G450S did not show differences of preferences over medium- to long-chain esters except in G450A, which prefers only medium-chain ester as compared to wild-type LIP2. All mutants showed an enhanced catalytic activity and higher optimal temperature and pH stability as compared to wild-type LIP2.

  2. Effect of long-chain triglyceride lipid emulsion on bupivacaine-induced changes in electrophysiological parameters of rabbit Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Sandrine; Rouet, René; Manrique, Alain; Hanouz, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Lipid emulsions are used in the reversal of local anesthetic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular electrophysiological effects of long-chain triglyceride lipid emulsion (LCTE) on cardiac action potential characteristics and conduction disturbances induced by bupivacaine. Purkinje fibers were dissected from the left ventricle of New Zealand white rabbit hearts and superfused with either Tyrode's solution during 30 min (control group), with bupivacaine 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M, and 5.10(-5) M alone, or in the presence of LCTE 0.5%, in addition, LCTE at 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% was perfused alone. Electrophysiological parameters were recorded using the conventional microelectrode technique (37 °C, 1 Hz frequency). Bupivacaine 5.10(-5) M-induced conduction blocks (8/8 preparations): LCTE 0.5% suppressed the bupivacaine 5.10(-5) M-induced conduction blocks (1/8 preparations). Exposure to bupivacaine 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M, and 5.10(-5) M resulted in a significant decrease in the maximal rate of depolarization (Vmax) (respectively, 25%, 55%, 75%; P < 0.002 vs. control group). In the presence of LCTE 0.5%, bupivacaine 10(-6) M did not significantly decreased Vmax (13%; P = 0.10 vs. control group). The decrease in Vmax resulting from bupivacaine 10(-5) M alone was significantly less in the presence of LCTE 0.5% (P < 0.01 vs. bupivacaine 10(-5) M alone). Exposure to bupivacaine 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M, and 5.10(-5) M alone or in the presence of LCTE 0.5% resulted in a significant decrease in action potential duration measured at 50% and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90; P < 0.01 vs. control group). LCTE inhibited the Purkinje fibers conduction blocks induced by bupivacaine. Moreover, LCTE 0.5% attenuates the decrease in Vmax induced by bupivacaine 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M.

  3. Static and Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Triglycerides on Solid Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michalski; Saramago

    2000-07-15

    Triglyceride wetting properties on solid surfaces of different hydro-phobicities were investigated using three different methods, namely, the sessile drop method for static contact angle measurements, the Wilhelmy method for dynamic contact angle measurements, and the captive bubble method to investigate thin triglyceride film stability. For solid surfaces having a surface free energy higher than the surface tension of triglycerides (tributyrin, tricaprylin, and triolein), a qualitative correlation was observed between wetting and solid/triglyceride relative hydrophobicities. On surfaces presenting extreme hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties, medium-chain triglycerides had a behavior similar to that of long-chain unsaturated ones. On a high-energy surface (glass), tricaprylin showed an autophobic effect subsequent to molecular adsorption in trident conformation on the solid, observed with the three methods. Thin triglyceride films between an air bubble and a solid surface were stable for a short time, for solids with a surface free energy larger than the triglyceride surface tension. If the solid surface had a lower surface free energy, the thin film collapsed after a time interval which increased with triglyceride viscosity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Improving the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium-chain fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-09-01

    Microbial fatty acids are an attractive source of precursors for a variety of renewable commodity chemicals such as alkanes, alcohols, and biofuels. Rerouting lipid biosynthesis into free fatty acid production can be toxic, however, due to alterations of membrane lipid composition. Here we find that membrane lipid composition can be altered by the direct incorporation of medium-chain fatty acids into lipids via the Aas pathway in cells expressing the medium-chain thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (BTE). We find that deletion of the aas gene and sequestering exported fatty acids reduces medium-chain fatty acid toxicity, partially restores normal lipid composition, and improves medium-chain fatty acid yields.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down (metabolize) a group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in foods and the body's fat tissues. Fatty acids are a major source of energy for the heart and muscles. During periods of fasting, ... of this enzyme, medium-chain fatty acids are not metabolized properly. As a ...

  6. Inverse Problem for Electromagnetic Propagation in a Dielectric Medium using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0397 INVERSE PROBLEM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN A DIELECTRIC MEDIUM USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO METHOD ...SUBTITLE INVERSE PROBLEM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN A DIELECTRIC MEDIUM USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO METHOD (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT...a stochastic inverse methodology arising in electromagnetic imaging. Nondestructive testing using guided microwaves covers a wide range of

  7. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

    PubMed

    Thevenet, Jonathan; De Marchi, Umberto; Domingo, Jaime Santo; Christinat, Nicolas; Bultot, Laurent; Lefebvre, Gregory; Sakamoto, Kei; Descombes, Patrick; Masoodi, Mojgan; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides have been used as part of a ketogenic diet effective in reducing epileptic episodes. The health benefits of the derived medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are thought to result from the stimulation of liver ketogenesis providing fuel for the brain. We tested whether MCFAs have direct effects on energy metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and neurons. Using single-cell imaging, we observed an acute pronounced reduction of the mitochondrial electrical potential and a concomitant drop of the NAD(P)H signal in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Despite the observed effects on mitochondrial function, MCFAs did not lower intracellular ATP levels or activate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase. ATP concentrations in astrocytes were unaltered, even when blocking the respiratory chain, suggesting compensation through accelerated glycolysis. The MCFA decanoic acid (300 μM) promoted glycolysis and augmented lactate formation by 49.6%. The shorter fatty acid octanoic acid (300 μM) did not affect glycolysis but increased the rates of astrocyte ketogenesis 2.17-fold compared with that of control cells. MCFAs may have brain health benefits through the modulation of astrocyte metabolism leading to activation of shuttle systems that provide fuel to neighboring neurons in the form of lactate and ketone bodies.-Thevenet, J., De Marchi, U., Santo Domingo, J., Christinat, N., Bultot, L., Lefebvre, G., Sakamoto, K., Descombes, P., Masoodi, M., Wiederkehr, A. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

  8. Reduction of serum free fatty acids and triglycerides by liver-targeted expression of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minhao; Cao, Aiqin; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jingwen

    2011-05-01

    ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that consists of 5 isozymes responsible for cellular fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of ACSL3 mRNA and protein in liver was specifically increased after feeding hamsters with a fat- and cholesterol-enriched diet, providing the first in vivo evidence for the regulated expression of ACSL3 in liver tissue. The aim of the current study was to further investigate the role of ACSL3 in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo. We utilized an adenoviral-mediated gene delivery approach to exogenously express hamster ACSL3 in hamster liver as well as in HepG2 cells. Transduction of HepG2 cells with Ad-hamACSL3 adenovirus elevated total cellular ACSL enzyme activity, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of cellular contents of triglycerides and total phospholipids. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ACSL3 was localized to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In vivo, infection of hamsters with Ad-hamACSL3 led to sustained expression of ACSL3 mRNA and protein in liver two weeks after infection. Importantly, compared with Ad-GFP control virus infected hamsters, we observed significantly lower free fatty acids and triglycerides plus modest reduction of phospholipids in the serum of Ad-hamACSL3 infected animals. Furthermore, triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in Ad-hamACSL3 infected hamster liver. Altogether, these results provide important and physiologically relevant evidence that strengthens the link between ACSL3 expression and hepatic reduction of triglycerides and fatty acids.

  9. An insight on acyl migration in solvent-free ethanolysis of model triglycerides using Novozym 435.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Daniel Alberto; Tonetto, Gabriela Marta; Ferreira, María Luján

    2016-02-20

    In this work, the ethanolysis of triglycerides catalyzed by immobilized lipase was studied, focusing on the secondary reaction of acyl migration. The catalytic tests were performed in a solvent-free reaction medium using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst. The selected experimental variables were biocatalyst loading (5-20mg), reaction time (30-90min), and chain length of the fatty acids in triglycerides with and without unsaturation (short (triacetin), medium (tricaprylin) and long (tripalmitin/triolein)). The formation of 2-monoglyceride by ethanolysis of triglycerides was favored by long reaction times and large biocatalyst loading with saturated short- to medium-chain triglycerides. In the case of long-chain triglycerides, the formation of this monoglyceride was widely limited by acyl migration. In turn, acyl migration increased the yield of ethyl esters and minimized the content of monoglycerides and diglycerides. Thus, the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was favored by long-chain triglycerides (which favor the acyl migration), long reaction times and large biocatalyst loading. The conversion of acylglycerides made from long-chain fatty acids with unsaturation was relatively low due to limitations in their access to the active site of the lipase.

  10. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  11. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Han Y; Warman, Roberto; Suh, Edward H; Cheng, Anny MS

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG). Design Observational case report. Observations A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation. Results Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusion Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. PMID:27799830

  12. Fatty acid biosynthesis redirected to medium chains in transgenic oilseed plants

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, T.A.; Worrell, A.C.; Anderson, L.; Bleibaum, J.; Fan, C.; Hawkins, D.J.; Radke, S.E.; Davies, H.M. )

    1992-07-03

    Medium-chain fatty acids (FAs), found in storage lipids of certain plants, are an important renewable resource. Seeds of undomesticated California bay accumulate laurate (12:0), and a 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase (BTE) has been purified from this tissue. Sequencing of BTE enabled the cloning of a complementary DNA coding for a plastid-targeted preprotein. Expression of the complementary DNA in the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in BTE activity, and medium chains accumulated at the expense of long-chain ({ge}16) FAs. Laurate became the most abundant FA species and was deposited in the storage triacylglycerols. These results demonstrate a mechanism for medium-chain FA synthesis in plants.

  13. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is often associated with a cluster of increased health risks collectively known as "Metabolic Syndrome" (MS). MS is often accompanied by development of fatty liver. Sometimes fatty liver results in damage leading to reduced liver function, and need for a transplant. This condition is known...

  14. Safety evaluation of a medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol oil produced from medium-chain triacylglycerols and edible vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Matulka, R A; Noguchi, O; Nosaka, N

    2006-09-01

    To reduce the incorporation of dietary lipids into adipose tissue, modified fats and oils have been developed, such as medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). Typical dietary lipids from vegetable oils, termed long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), are degraded by salivary, intestinal and pancreatic lipases into two fatty acids and a monoacyl glycerol; whereas, MCT are degraded by the same enzymes into three fatty acids and the simple glycerol backbone. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are readily absorbed from the small intestine directly into the bloodstream and transported to the liver for hepatic metabolism, while long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are incorporated into chylomicrons and enter the lymphatic system. MCFA are readily broken down to carbon dioxide and two-carbon fragments, while LCFA are re-esterified to triacylglycerols and either metabolized for energy or stored in adipose tissue. Therefore, consumption of MCT decreases the incorporation of fatty acids into adipose tissue. However, MCT have technological disadvantages precluding their use in many food applications. A possible resolution is the manufacture and use of a triacylglycerol containing both LCT and MCT, termed medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT). This manuscript describes studies performed for the safety evaluation of a MLCT oil enzymatically produced from MCT and edible vegetable oil (containing LCT), by a transesterification process. The approximate fatty acid composition of this MLCT consists of caprylic acid (9.7%), capric acid (3.3%), palmitic acid (3.8%), stearic acid (1.7%), oleic acid (51.2%), linoleic acid (18.4%), linolenic acid (9.0%), and other fatty acids (2.9%). The approximate percentages of long (L) and medium (M) fatty acids in the triacylglyerols are as follows: L, L, L (55.1%), L, L, M (35.2%), L, M, M (9.1%), and M, M, M (0.6%). The studies included: (1) acute study in rats (LD50>5000 mg/kg); (2) 6 week repeat-dose safety study via dietary administration to rats (NOAEL

  15. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs.

  16. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-05-27

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6–C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 & C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  18. Synthesis of medium-chain length capsinoids from coconut oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipases.

    PubMed

    Trbojević Ivić, Jovana; Milosavić, Nenad; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Gavrović Jankulović, Marija; Bezbradica, Dejan; Kolarski, Dušan; Veličković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained. The findings presented here suggest that our experimental method can be applied for the enrichment of CO with capsinoids, thus giving it additional health promoting properties.

  19. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids exhibit antimicrobial activity for oral microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chifu B.; Altimova, Yelena; Myers, Taylor M.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the antibacterial activity of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids against various oral microorganisms. Methods The short-chain fatty acids [formic acid (C1), acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), isobutyric acid (C4), isovaleric acid (C5), hexanoic acid (C6)], medium-chain fatty acids [octanoic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), lauric acid (12)], and long-chain fatty acids [myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16)], were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Results The data demonstrated that the fatty acids exhibited patterns of inhibition against oral bacteria with some specificity that appeared related more to the bacterial species that the general structural characteristics of the microorganism. As a group the fatty acids were much less effective against C. albicans than the oral bacteria, with effectiveness limited to hexanoic, octanoic, and lauric acids. Formic acid, capric, and lauric acids were broadly inhibitory for the bacteria. Interestingly, fatty acids that are produced at metabolic end-products by a number of these bacteria, were specifically inactive against the producing species, while substantially inhibiting the growth of other oral microorganisms. Conclusions The results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) could influence the microbial ecology in the oral cavity via at least 2 potential pathways. First, the agents delivered exogenously as therapeutic adjuncts could be packaged to enhance a microbial-regulatory environment in the subgingival sulcus. Second, it would be the intrinsic nature of these fatty acid inhibitors in contributing to the characteristics of the microbial biofilms, their evolution, and emergence of

  20. Safety assessment of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols containing 30% (w/w) medium-chain fatty acids in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengmin; Wang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-02-16

    A novel medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), with 30% (w/w) medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) was evaluated for its safety as a dietary fat in mice and rats. The subacute oral toxicity study showed that the maximum tolerated dose exceeded 54.33 g/kg body weight (kg bw)/day. In the 90-day feeding study, no dose-related adverse effects were observed in rats administered diets formulated with different levels of MLCT (2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg bw/day) as compared to the rapeseed oil control diet. Further safety assessment in pregnant rats did not reveal any significant difference relative to the control at a treatment level up to 8.0 g MLCT/kg bw/day. The results from this study indicated the safe use of MLCT with high contents of MCFA in food products for improving human health.

  1. Improving medium chain fatty acid productivity using chain elongation by reducing the hydraulic retention time in an upflow anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Grootscholten, T I M; Steinbusch, K J J; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to further increase the medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) production rate by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in an upflow anaerobic filter. The results showed that the volumetric MCFA production rate was increased to 57.4 g MCFA l(-1) d(-1), more than 3 times higher than previous work. Despite the lower MCFA concentrations at 4h HRT, the MCFA selectivity remained above 80%. Extra carbon dioxide additions and higher yeast extract concentrations were required to increase the MCFA production rate. More research related to substrates and (micro)nutrients in mixed culture continuous reactors needs to be performed to reduce yeast extract use in chain elongation.

  2. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  3. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  4. Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Zuckermann, Alexandra M E; Williams, Sophie; Close, Adam J; Cano-Jaimez, Marife; McEvoy, James P; Spencer, John; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2015-01-01

    The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is a major treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy but is problematic, particularly in adults, because of poor tolerability. Branched derivatives of octanoic acid (OA), a medium chain fat provided in the diet have been suggested as potential new treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy, but the structural basis of this functionality has not been determined. Here we investigate structural variants of branched medium chain fatty acids as new seizure-control treatments. We initially employ a series of methyl-branched OA derivatives, and using the GABAA receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol to induce seizure-like activity in rat hippocampal slices, we show a strong, branch-point-specific activity that improves upon the related epilepsy treatment valproic acid. Using low magnesium conditions to induce glutamate excitotoxicity in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures for the assessment of neuroprotection, we also show a structural dependence identical to that for seizure control, suggesting a related mechanism of action for these compounds in both seizure control and neuroprotection. In contrast, the effect of these compounds on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, associated with teratogenicity, shows no correlation with therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, small structural modifications of the starting compounds provide active compounds without HDAC inhibitory effects. Finally, using multiple in vivo seizure models, we identify potent lead candidates for the treatment of epilepsy. This study therefore identifies a novel family of fatty acids, related to the MCT ketogenic diet, that show promise as new treatments for epilepsy control and possibly other MCT ketogenic diet-responding conditions, such as Alzheimer disease.

  5. Calculation of Physicochemical Properties for Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glüge, Juliane; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Buser, Andreas M.; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-06-01

    Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins are potential PBT chemicals (persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins are under review for inclusion in the UNEP Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Despite their high production volume of more than one million metric tonnes per year, only few data on their physicochemical properties are available. We calculated subcooled-liquid vapor pressure, subcooled-liquid solubility in water and octanol, Henry's law constant for water and octanol, as well as the octanol-water partition coefficient with the property calculation methods COSMOtherm, SPARC, and EPI Suite™, and compared the results to experimental data from the literature. For all properties, good or very good agreement between calculated and measured data was obtained for COSMOtherm; results from SPARC were in good agreement with the measured data except for subcooled-liquid water solubility, whereas EPI Suite™ showed the largest discrepancies for all properties. After critical evaluation of the three property calculation methods, a final set of recommended property data for short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins was derived. The calculated property data show interesting relationships with chlorine content and carbon chain length. Increasing chlorine content does not cause pronounced changes in water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) as long as it is below 55%. Increasing carbon chain length leads to strong increases in KOW and corresponding decreases in subcooled-liquid water solubility. The present data set can be used in further studies to assess the environmental fate and human exposure of this relevant compound class.

  6. Chiral two- and three-nucleon forces along medium-mass isotope chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somà, V.; Cipollone, A.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.; Duguet, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ab initio calculations have shown that chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions correctly reproduce binding energy systematics and neutron drip lines of oxygen and nearby isotopes. Exploiting the novel Gorkov-Green's function approach applicable to genuinely open-shell nuclei, we present the first ab initio investigation of Ar, K, Ca, Sc, and Ti isotopic chains. In doing so, stringent tests of internucleon interaction models are provided in the medium-mass region of the nuclear chart. Leading chiral three-nucleon interactions are shown to be mandatory to reproduce the trend of binding energies throughout these chains and to obtain a good description of two-neutron separation energies. At the same time, nuclei in this mass region are systematically overbound by about 40 MeV. While the fundamental N =20 and 28 magic numbers do emerge from basic internucleon interactions, the former is shown to be significantly overestimated, which points to deficiencies of state-of-the-art chiral potentials. The present results demonstrate that ab initio many-body calculations can now access entire medium-mass isotopic chains including degenerate open-shell nuclei and provide a critical testing ground for modern theories of nuclear interactions.

  7. Medium-chain fatty acids but not L-carnitine accelerate the kinetics of [14C]triacylglycerol utilization by colostrum-deprived newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kinam N; Lin, Xi; Han, In K; Odle, Jack

    2002-07-01

    The effect of L-carnitine on in vivo fatty acid utilization was determined using colostrum-deprived newborn piglets fed emulsified triglycerides (TG) composed of [1-14C]octanoate (tri-8:0) or [1-14C]octadecanoate (tri-18:1). A soy protein-based liquid diet devoid of L-carnitine was fed piglets for 1 d to allow development of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes and intestinal fat digestion and absorption before assessment of in vivo fat utilization. The radiolabeled TG were fed in isoenergetic amounts (97.7 kJ/kg(0.75)), with or without L-carnitine (1 mmol/kg(0.75)) as 30% (v/v) emulsions, using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate as an emulsifier. Expired CO(2) was quantified and specific radioactivity (Bq/micromol) was determined at 20-min intervals over 24 h. The rate (mmol ATP.kg(-0.75).min(-1)) and extent (mol ATP/kg(0.75)) of TG oxidative utilization (i.e., composite of digestion, absorption and oxidation) were calculated from the kinetics of 14CO(2) expiration. The maximal rate and extent of tri-8:0 oxidation were three and fourfold greater than those of tri-18:1, respectively (P < 0.001), and tri-18:1 delayed the time to reach 10 and 50% of maximal oxidation rate by 1.2 and 1.9 h (P < 0.01, respectively), regardless of supplemental carnitine. Collectively, these findings quantify the accelerated oxidation of medium-chain vs. long-chain triglycerides, but fail to support a need for supplemental carnitine to maximize fat oxidation in colostrum-deprived piglets.

  8. Effect of Dietary Medium-Chain Triacylglycerol on Serum Albumin and Nitrogen Balance in Malnourished Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Ogawa, Akiko; Nakamura, Reiko; Kasai, Michio

    2008-01-01

    The present study was examined the therapeutic effect of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Wistar rats were fed low protein diet containing 70 g/kg of long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) or MCT for 31 days. The serum albumin concentration in rats fed MCT diet (2.88 ± 0.04 g/dl) were significantly higher compared with those fed LCT diet (2.72 ± 0.04 g/dl) at day 31. Nitrogen balance was higher in rats fed MCT diet (54.1 ± 2.3 mg/day) compared with those fed LCT diet (45.4 ± 2.4 mg/day) during d 10–12. These results suggest that MCT effectively elevates serum albumin concentration and improves nitrogen balance in malnourished rats. PMID:18231629

  9. Radiation crosslinking of a bacterial medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) elastomer from tallow.

    PubMed

    Ashby, R D; Cromwick, A M; Foglia, T A

    1998-07-01

    Pseudomonas resinovorans produces a medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (MCL-PHA) copolymer when grown on tallow (PHA-tal). This polymer had a repeat unit composition ranging from C4 to C14 with some mono-unsaturation in the C12 and C14 alkyl side chains. Thermal analysis indicated that the polymer was semi-crystalline with a melting temperature (T(m)) of 43.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C and a glass transition temperature (Tg) of -43.4 +/- 2.0 degrees C. The presence of unsaturated side chains allowed crosslinking by gamma-irradiation. Irradiated polymer films had decreased solubility in organic solvents that indicated an increase in the crosslinking density within the film matrix. The addition of linseed oil to the gamma-irradiated film matrix enhanced polymer recovery while minimizing chain scission. Linseed oil also caused a decrease in the enthalpy of fusion (delta Hm) of the films (by an average of 60%) as well as enhanced mineralization. The effects of crosslinking on the mechanical properties and biodegradability of the polymer were determined. Radiation had no effect on the storage modulus (E') of the polymer. However, radiation doses of 25 and 50 kGy did increase the Young modulus of the polymer by 129 and 114%, and the tensile strength of the polymer by 76 and 35%, respectively. Finally, the formation of a higher crosslink density within the polymer matrix decreased the biodegradability of the PHA films.

  10. Triglyceride-induced diabetes mellitus in congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Montenegro, Ana Paula Dias Rangel; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado; de Moraes, Renata Ribeiro; Elias, Jorge; Gouveia, Leonor Maria Ferreira Braz; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Foss, Milton Cesar; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2002-04-01

    High levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intense whole body reduction of subcutaneous fat. Its clinical manifestations appear during the first years of life. However, DM is usually a late event. We report a patient with CGL, diagnosed at 4 months of age, who has severe hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride 12.34 mmol/l and cholesterol 3.90 mmol/l), muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly and DM (fasting glycemia 25.9 mmol/l). Hepatic biopsy revealed steatosis and fibrosis. A modified normolipidic (composed of medium chain triglycerides) normocaloric normoproteic milky diet and insulin therapy were instituted. After 1 month treatment a reduction of serum glucose and triglyceride levels (4.13 mmol/I and 7.7 mmol/l, respectively) was noted, with later normalization, which led to the discontinuation of insulin therapy. The patient has been maintaining good control with diet alone, presenting normal serum lipid levels (triglycerides 1.07 mmol/l, total cholesterol 2.71 mmol/l) and the following glycemic profile at OGTT: 0' 4.4 mmol/l; 30' 7.0 mmol/l; 60' 3.8 mmol/l; 90' 5.3 mmol/l, and 120' 5.2 mmol/l. The disappearance of hepatic steatosis was evidenced by a biopsy obtained 1 year after the beginning of treatment. In conolusion, this report suggests that the DM occurring in CGL can be precipitated by high triglyceride levels.

  11. Microbial biosynthesis of medium-chain 1-alkenes by a nonheme iron oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rui, Zhe; Li, Xin; Zhu, Xuejun; Liu, Joyce; Domigan, Bonnie; Barr, Ian; Cate, Jamie H D; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-12-23

    Aliphatic medium-chain 1-alkenes (MCAEs, ∼10 carbons) are "drop-in" compatible next-generation fuels and precursors to commodity chemicals. Mass production of MCAEs from renewable resources holds promise for mitigating dependence on fossil hydrocarbons. An MCAE, such as 1-undecene, is naturally produced by Pseudomonas as a semivolatile metabolite through an unknown biosynthetic pathway. We describe here the discovery of a single gene conserved in Pseudomonas responsible for 1-undecene biosynthesis. The encoded enzyme is able to convert medium-chain fatty acids (C10-C14) into their corresponding terminal olefins using an oxygen-activating, nonheme iron-dependent mechanism. Both biochemical and X-ray crystal structural analyses suggest an unusual mechanism of β-hydrogen abstraction during fatty acid substrate activation. Our discovery unveils previously unidentified chemistry in the nonheme Fe(II) enzyme family, provides an opportunity to explore the biology of 1-undecene in Pseudomonas, and paves the way for tailored bioconversion of renewable raw materials to MCAE-based biofuels and chemical commodities.

  12. Biodegradation of a medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate in tropical river water.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yen-Him; Gan, Seng-Neon; Tan, Irene K P

    2002-01-01

    The medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil as the carbon source could degrade readily in water taken from Kayu Ara River in Selangor, Malaysia. A weight loss of 71.3% of the PHA film occurred in 86 d. The pH of the river water medium fell from 7.5 (at d 0) to 4.7 (at d 86), and there was a net release of CO2. In sterilized river water, the PHA film also lost weight and the pH of the water fell, but to lesser extents. The C8 monomer of the PHA was completely removed after 6 d of immersion in the river water, while the proportions of the other monomers (C10, C12, and C14) were reversed from that of the undegraded PHA. By contrast, the monomer composition of the PHA immersed in sterilized river water did not change significantly from that of the undegraded PHA. Scanning electron microscopy showed physical signs of degradation on the PHA film immersed in the river water, but the film immersed in sterilized river water was relatively unblemished. The results thus indicate that the PHA(MCL) was degraded in tropical river water by biologic as well as nonbiologic means. A significant finding is that shorter-chain monomers were selectively removed throughout the entire PHA molecule, and this suggests enzymatic action.

  13. Exploring medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates production in the engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cuijuan; Qi, Qingsheng; Madzak, Catherine; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-09-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) are a large class of biopolymers that have attracted extensive attention as renewable and biodegradable bio-plastics. They are naturally synthesized via fatty acid de novo biosynthesis pathway or β-oxidation pathway from Pseudomonads. The unconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has excellent lipid/fatty acid catabolism and anabolism capacity depending of the mode of culture. Nevertheless, it cannot naturally synthesize PHA, as it does not express an intrinsic PHA synthase. Here, we constructed a genetically modified strain of Y. lipolytica by heterologously expressing PhaC1 gene from P. aeruginosa PAO1 with a PTS1 peroxisomal signal. When in single copy, the codon optimized PhaC1 allowed the synthesis of 0.205 % DCW of PHA after 72 h cultivation in YNBD medium containing 0.1 % oleic acid. By using a multi-copy integration strategy, PHA content increased to 2.84 % DCW when the concentration of oleic acid in YNBD was 1.0 %. Furthermore, when the recombinant yeast was grown in the medium containing triolein, PHA accumulated up to 5.0 % DCW with as high as 21.9 g/L DCW, which represented 1.11 g/L in the culture. Our results demonstrated the potential use of Y. lipolytica as a promising microbial cell factory for PHA production using food waste, which contains lipids and other essential nutrients.

  14. ACX3, a Novel Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Oxidase from Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Froman, Byron E.; Edwards, Patricia C.; Bursch, Adam G.; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2000-01-01

    In a database search for homologs of acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (ACX) in Arabidopsis, we identified a partial genomic sequence encoding an apparently novel member of this gene family. Using this sequence information we then isolated the corresponding full-length cDNA from etiolated Arabidopsis cotyledons and have characterized the encoded recombinant protein. The polypeptide contains 675 amino acids. The 34 residues at the amino terminus have sequence similarity to the peroxisomal targeting signal 2 of glyoxysomal proteins, including the R-[I/Q/L]-X5-HL-XL-X15-22-C consensus sequence, suggesting a possible microsomal localization. Affinity purification of the encoded recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli followed by enzymatic assay, showed that this enzyme is active on C8:0- to C14:0-coenzyme A with maximal activity on C12:0-coenzyme A, indicating that it has medium-chain-specific activity. These data indicate that the protein reported here is different from previously characterized classes of ACX1, ACX2, and short-chain ACX (SACX), both in sequence and substrate chain-length specificity profile. We therefore, designate this new gene AtACX3. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of AtACX3 during development and in various tissues were similar to those of the AtSACX and other genes expressed in glyoxysomes. Currently available database information indicates that AtACX3 is present as a single copy gene. PMID:10859203

  15. Synthesis Gas (Syngas)-Derived Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthesis in Engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Fricke, Philipp; Kenny, Shane T.; Morales-Gamez, Laura; Babu, Ramesh P.; O'Connor, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purple nonsulfur alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was genetically engineered to synthesize a heteropolymer of mainly 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid [P(3HD-co-3HO)] from CO- and CO2-containing artificial synthesis gas (syngas). For this, genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 coding for a 3-hydroxyacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (phaG), a medium-chain-length (MCL) fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (PP_0763), and an MCL polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (phaC1) were cloned and expressed under the control of the CO-inducible promoter PcooF from R. rubrum S1 in a PHA-negative mutant of R. rubrum. P(3HD-co-3HO) was accumulated to up to 7.1% (wt/wt) of the cell dry weight by a recombinant mutant strain utilizing exclusively the provided gaseous feedstock syngas. In addition to an increased synthesis of these medium-chain-length PHAs (PHAMCL), enhanced gene expression through the PcooF promoter also led to an increased molar fraction of 3HO in the synthesized copolymer compared with the Plac promoter, which regulated expression on the original vector. The recombinant strains were able to partially degrade the polymer, and the deletion of phaZ2, which codes for a PHA depolymerase most likely involved in intracellular PHA degradation, did not reduce mobilization of the accumulated polymer significantly. However, an amino acid exchange in the active site of PhaZ2 led to a slight increase in PHAMCL accumulation. The accumulated polymer was isolated; it exhibited a molecular mass of 124.3 kDa and a melting point of 49.6°C. With the metabolically engineered strains presented in this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrated the synthesis of elastomeric second-generation biopolymers from renewable feedstocks not competing with human nutrition. IMPORTANCE Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) showing properties similar to those of commonly produced petroleum-based nondegradable

  16. Effect of salicylic acid and diclofenac on the medium-chain and long-chain acyl-CoA formation in the liver and brain of mouse.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Fumiyo; Kazumi, Maya; Tatsuki, Takao; Suzuki, Risa

    2009-07-01

    Medium-chain and long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in fatty acid metabolism. Effects of salicylic acid on the in vivo formation of acyl-CoAs in mouse liver and brain were investigated. Further, inhibition of the medium-chain and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases by salicylic acid and diclofenac was determined in mouse liver and brain mitochondria. Acyl-CoA esters were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The amounts of medium-chain acyl-CoAs (C(6), C(8) and C(10)) were less than long-chain acyl-CoAs (C(16:0), C(18:0), C(18:1) and C(20:4)) in both liver and brain. The administration of salicylic acid decreased the levels of both the medium-chain (C(6), C(8) and C(10)) and long-chain acyl-CoAs (C(16:0), C(18:0), C(18:1) and C(20:4)) in liver. In brain, however, only long-chain acyl-CoAs were decreased. The level of salicylyl-CoA detected in brain was about 12% of that in liver. Salicylic acid had a strong inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 0.1 mm) for the liver mitochondrial formation of hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoic acid, whereas diclofenac was weak (IC(50) = 4.4 mm). In contrast, diclofenac (IC(50) = 1.4 mm) inhibited the liver mitochondrial long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases more potently than salicylic acid (IC(50) = 25.5 mm). Similar inhibitory activities for the acyl-CoA synthetases were obtained in the case of the brain and liver mitochondria, except for the weak inhibition of brain medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetases by salicylic acid (IC(50) = 1.8 mm). These findings suggest that salicylic acid and diclofenac exhibit different mechanisms of inhibition of fatty acid metabolism depending on the length of the acyl chain and tissues, and they may contribute to the further understanding of the toxic effects associated with these drugs.

  17. Microextraction method of medium and long chain fatty acids from milk.

    PubMed

    Añorve-Morga, Javier; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Cepeda-Saez, Alberto; Archibold, Armando Durant; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a method for microextraction and quantification of long and medium chain fatty acids from milk. The proposed method was carried out on three steps: (1) lipids extraction from 10 μL of whole or skimmed milk containing omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) during 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, in 2 mL chloroform: methanol mixture (2:1); (2) acid methylation of FAs; and (3) quantification of FAs methyl esters by gas chromatography. Using this method, the percentage recovery of FAs was higher (67% for whole and 85% for skimmed milk) compared with AOAC method 905.02 recovery (49% and 83%, respectively). Good reproducibility and repeatability (<3%) were obtained. The method developed can be useful for researching and in routine quality control. Additionally, it is simpler, faster and cheaper than the reference procedure since it requires minimum sample and solvents volume as well as fewer steps.

  18. Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

    2013-12-11

    Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 μg/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration.

  19. Contrasting metabolic effects of medium- versus long-chain fatty acids in skeletal muscle[S

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Magdalene K.; Osborne, Brenna; Brown, Simon H. J.; Small, Lewin; Mitchell, Todd W.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Turner, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) plays a causative role in insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Whereas LCFAs promote lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, diets rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been associated with increased oxidative metabolism and reduced adiposity, with few deleterious effects on insulin action. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences between dietary fat subtypes are poorly understood. To investigate this further, we treated C2C12 myotubes with various LCFAs (16:0, 18:1n9, and 18:2n6) and MCFAs (10:0 and 12:0), as well as fed mice diets rich in LCFAs or MCFAs, and investigated fatty acid-induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress. MCFA-treated cells displayed less lipid accumulation, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and less oxidative stress than LCFA-treated cells. These changes were associated with improved insulin action in MCFA-treated myotubes. MCFA-fed mice exhibited increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and better glucose tolerance compared with LCFA-fed mice. Dietary MCFAs increased respiration in isolated mitochondria, with a simultaneous reduction in reactive oxygen species generation, and subsequently low oxidative damage. Collectively our findings indicate that in contrast to LCFAs, MCFAs increase the intrinsic respiratory capacity of mitochondria without increasing oxidative stress. These effects potentially contribute to the beneficial metabolic actions of dietary MCFAs. PMID:24078708

  20. Production of medium-chain triacylglycerols from corn oil: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Tarik; Ustun, Guldem; Aksoy, H Ayse

    2010-10-01

    Structured lipids (SLs) having long-chain fatty acids at sn-2 and medium-chain caprylic acid (CA, 8:0) at their sn-1,3-positions from corn oil (CO) were obtained and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-level, three-factor face-centered cube design. Compositions of triacylglycerol species (TAGs) in SLs were also investigated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosa was used for the acidolysis of CO with CA in n-hexane. The effects of substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, and reaction time on CA incorporation into CO were optimized. The optimum conditions were 13.2% (wt.) enzyme, 3.9:1 caprylic acid/corn oil molar ratio, and 3.1 h reaction time. At optimum conditions, 21.5 +/- 0.8 mol.% caprylic acid containing SLs was obtained. This product was characterized by 50% of triacylglycerol species with equivalent carbon number (ECN) C30, C32, C36, and C38, and 50% of triacylglycerol species with ECN C42, C44, and C46.

  1. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  2. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O.; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production. PMID:28212406

  3. Characterization of a Novel Subgroup of Extracellular Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerases from Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Prieto, María Auxiliadora; de la Mata, Isabel; Llama, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen medium-chain-length (mcl) poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-degrading microorganisms were isolated from natural sources. From them, seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were identified. The ability of these microorganisms to hydrolyze other biodegradable plastics, such as short-chain-length (scl) PHA, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), and poly(l-lactide) (PLA), has been studied. On the basis of the great ability to degrade different polyesters, Streptomyces roseolus SL3 was selected, and its extracellular depolymerase was biochemically characterized. The enzyme consisted of one polypeptide chain of 28 kDa with a pI value of 5.2. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.5 with chromogenic substrates. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed mcl PHA and PCL but not scl PHA, PES, and PLA. Moreover, the mcl PHA depolymerase can hydrolyze various substrates for esterases, such as tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-alkanoates, with its maximum activity being measured with pNP-octanoate. Interestingly, when poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [11%]) was used as the substrate, the main hydrolysis product was the monomer (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate. In addition, the genes of several Actinobacteria strains, including S. roseolus SL3, were identified on the basis of the peptide de novo sequencing of the Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 mcl PHA depolymerase by tandem mass spectrometry. These enzymes did not show significant similarity to mcl PHA depolymerases characterized previously. Our results suggest that these distinct enzymes might represent a new subgroup of mcl PHA depolymerases. PMID:22865072

  4. A specific acyl-ACP thioesterase implicated in medium-chain fatty acid production in immature cotyledons of Umbellularia californica.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M R; Anderson, L; Fan, C; Hawkins, D J; Davies, H M

    1991-02-01

    Umbellularia californica (California Bay) seeds accumulate 10:0 and 12:0 as principal reserve fatty acyl groups. An in vitro fatty acid synthesis system from the developing cotyledons produces chiefly 10:0 and 12:0, in approximately the same proportions as the intact tissue. The kinetics of acyl thioester and free fatty acid formation in this system suggest that a medium-chain specific acyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) hydrolysis mechanism is responsible for the preponderance of medium-chain products. A crude extract of the developing cotyledons exhibits hydrolytic activity toward acyl-ACPs, with marked preference for 12:0-ACP and 18:1-ACP in the test series 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 11:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:1-ACPs. Partial purification of the 12:0-ACP hydrolytic activity has resulted in its separation from the 18:1-ACP hydrolase(s) and the 12:0-coenzyme A hydrolase(s) that are also present, thereby demonstrating its specificity for the 12-carbon acyl chain length and the ACP derivative. During cotyledon development, as the proportion of medium-chain to other fatty acyl groups increases, the extractable yield of this activity also increases substantially. Collectively these results suggest a role for this 12-ACP thioesterase in medium-chain production in vivo.

  5. Degradation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in tropical forest and mangrove soils.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew-Ping; Gan, Seng-Neon; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are perceived to be a suitable alternative to petrochemical plastics because they have similar material properties, are environmentally degradable, and are produced from renewable resources. In this study, the in situ degradation of medium-chain-length PHA (PHAMCL) films in tropical forest and mangrove soils was assessed. The PHAMCL was produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO) as the carbon source. After 112 d of burial, there was 16.7% reduction in gross weight of the films buried in acidic forest soil (FS), 3.0% in the ones buried in alkaline forest soil by the side of a stream (FSst) and 4.5% in those buried in mangrove soil (MS). There was a slight decrease in molecular weight for the films buried in FS but not for the films buried in FSst and in MS. However, no changes were observed for the melting temperature, glass transition temperature, monomer compositions, structure, and functional group analyses of the films from any of the burial sites during the test period. This means that the integral properties of the films were maintained during that period and degradation was by surface erosion. Scanning electron microscopy of the films from the three sites revealed holes on the film surfaces which could be attributed to attack by microorganisms and bigger organisms such as detritivores. For comparison purposes, films of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a short-chain-length PHA, and polyethylene (PE) were buried together with the PHAMCL films in all three sites. The PHB films disintegrated completely in MS and lost 73.5% of their initial weight in FSst, but only 4.6% in FS suggesting that water movement played a major role in breaking up the brittle PHB films. The PE films did not register any weight loss in any of the test sites.

  6. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in children with non-ketotic hypoglycemia and low carnitine levels.

    PubMed

    Stanley, C A; Hale, D E; Coates, P M; Hall, C L; Corkey, B E; Yang, W; Kelley, R I; Gonzales, E L; Williamson, J R; Baker, L

    1983-11-01

    Three children in two families presented in early childhood with episodes of illness associated with fasting which resembled Reye's syndrome: coma, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and fatty liver. One child died with cerebral edema during an episode. Clinical studies revealed an absence of ketosis on fasting (plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate less than 0.4 mmole/liter) despite elevated levels of free fatty acids (2.6-4.2 mmole/liter) which suggested that hepatic fatty acid oxidation was impaired. Urinary dicarboxylic acids were elevated during illness or fasting. Total carnitine levels were low in plasma (18-25 mumole/liter), liver (200-500 nmole/g), and muscle (500-800 nmole/g); however, treatment with L-carnitine failed to correct the defect in ketogenesis. Studies on ketone production from fatty acid substrates by liver tissue in vitro showed normal rates from short-chain fatty acids, but very low rates from all medium and long-chain fatty acid substrates. These results suggested that the defect was in the mid-portion of the intramitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway at the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase step. A new assay for the electron transfer flavoprotein-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenases was used to test this hypothesis. This assay follows the decrease in electron transfer flavoprotein fluorescence as it is reduced by acyl-CoA-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex. Results with octanoyl-CoA as substrate indicated that patients had less than 2.5% normal activity of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The activities of short-chain and isovaleryl acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were normal; the activity of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was one-third normal. These results define a previously unrecognized inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation due to deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

  7. Metabolic engineering of medium-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaf lipids

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kyle B.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C.; Blanchard, Christopher L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Various research groups are investigating the production of oil in non-seed biomass such as leaves. Recently, high levels of oil accumulation have been achieved in plant biomass using a combination of biotechnological approaches which also resulted in significant changes to the fatty acid composition of the leaf oil. In this study, we were interested to determine whether medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) could be accumulated in leaf oil. MCFA are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and a range of oleochemical products including lubricants, coatings, and detergents. In this study, we explore the synthesis, accumulation, and glycerolipid head-group distribution of MCFA in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana after transient transgenic expression of C12:0-, C14:0-, and C16:0-ACP thioesterase genes. We demonstrate that the production of these MCFA in leaf is increased by the co-expression of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor, with the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) from Cocos nucifera being required for the assembly of tri-MCFA TAG species. We also demonstrate that the newly-produced MCFA are incorporated into the triacylglycerol of leaves in which WRI1 + diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) genes are co-expressed for increased oil accumulation. PMID:25852716

  8. Retrospective study of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ventura, F V; Leandro, P; Luz, A; Rivera, I A; Silva, M F B; Ramos, R; Rocha, H; Lopes, A; Fonseca, H; Gaspar, A; Diogo, L; Martins, E; Leão-Teles, E; Vilarinho, L; Tavares de Almeida, I

    2014-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the commonest genetic defect of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. About 60% of MCADD patients are homozygous for the c.985A>G (p.Lys329Glu) mutation in the ACADM gene (G985 allele). Herein, we present the first report on the molecular and biochemical spectrum of Portuguese MCADD population. From the 109 patients studied, 83 were diagnosed after inclusion of MCADD in the national newborn screening, 8 following the onset of symptoms and 18 through segregation studies. Gypsy ancestry was identified in 85/109 patients. The G985 allele was found in homozygosity in 102/109 patients, in compound heterozygosity in 6/109 and was absent in one patient. Segregation studies in the Gypsy families showed that 93/123 relatives were carriers of the G985 allele, suggesting its high prevalence in this ethnic group. Additionally, three new substitutions-c.218A>G (p.Tyr73Cys), c.503A>T (p.Asp168Val) and c.1205G>T (p.Gly402Val)-were identified. Despite the particularity of the MCADD population investigated, the G985 allele was found in linkage disequilibrium with H1(112) haplotype. Furthermore, two novel haplotypes, H5(212) and H6(122) were revealed.

  9. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected among Hispanics by New Jersey newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Botti, Christina; Li, Bo; Millonig, James H; Lyon, Elaine; Millson, Alison; Karabin, Suzanne S M; Brooks, Susan Sklower

    2012-09-01

    In the follow-up of New Jersey newborn screens suggestive of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) during a 30-month period, we identified five patients of Hispanic American ethnicity. With information provided by the New Jersey Department of Health and Human Services Newborn Screening program we calculated an overall cumulative incidence of approximately 7.20/100,000 for MCADD; 7.58/100,000 among Hispanic Americans and 7.08/100,000 among non-Hispanic Americans. Among the five Hispanic American infants who screened positive, a common variant (c.443G>A [p.R148K]) was identified which accounted for 30% of the alleles; c.799G>A (p.G267R) and c.985A>G (p.K329E) each accounted for an additional 20%; and a novel variant c.302G>A (p.G101E) was identified in one patient. Although treated prospectively during interim illnesses to prevent unwanted sequelae; till date, none of the patients carrying the c.443G>A variant have been symptomatic.

  10. Production of medium chain fatty acid rich mustard oil using packed bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Roy, Susmita; Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was done on the production of different medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich mustard oil using a stirred tank batchreactor (STBR) and packed bed bio reactor (PBBR) using three commercially available immobilised lipases viz. Thermomyces lanuginosus, Candida antarctica and Rhizomucor meihe. Three different MCFAs capric, caprylic and lauric acids were incorporated in the mustard oil. Reaction parameters, such as substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature and enzyme concentration were standardized in the STBR and maintained in the PBBR. To provide equal time of residence between the substrate and enzyme in both the reactors for the same amount of substrates, the substrate flow rate in the PBBR was maintainedat 0.27 ml/min. Gas liquid chromatography was used to monitor the incorporation of MCFA in mustard oil. The study showed that the PBBR was more efficient than the STBR in the synthesis of structured lipids with less migration of acyl groups. The physico-chemical parameters of the product along with fatty acid composition in all positions and sn-2 positions were also determined.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Michael; Matt, Laurie; Rubin, Evelyn; Visitacion, Mark Paul; Haller, Nairmeen A; Grey, Scott F; Woolverton, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide; in addition, the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile is becoming a significant problem. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown previously to have the antimicrobial activity. This study evaluates the lipid components of VCO for the control of C. difficile. VCO and its most active individual fatty acids were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect on C. difficile in vitro. The data indicate that exposure to lauric acid (C12) was the most inhibitory to growth (P<.001), as determined by a reduction in colony-forming units per milliliter. Capric acid (C10) and caprylic acid (C8) were inhibitory to growth, but to a lesser degree. VCO did not inhibit the growth of C. difficile; however, growth was inhibited when bacterial cells were exposed to 0.15-1.2% lipolyzed coconut oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the disruption of both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of cells exposed to 2 mg/mL of lauric acid. Changes in bacterial cell membrane integrity were additionally confirmed for VCO and select fatty acids using Live/Dead staining. This study demonstrates the growth inhibition of C. difficile mediated by medium-chain fatty acids derived from VCO.

  12. Insights into Medium-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Structure by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Cátia A; Leandro, Paula; Ventura, Fátima V; Guedes, Rita C

    2016-08-01

    The medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (mFAO) pathway. Its deficiency is the most common genetic disorder of mFAO. Many of the MCAD disease-causing variants, including the most common p.K304E variant, show loss of function due to protein misfolding. Herein, we used molecular dynamics simulations to provide insights into the structural stability and dynamic behavior of MCAD wild-type (MCADwt) and validate a structure that would allow reliable new studies on its variants. Our results revealed that in both proteins the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) has an important structural role on the tetramer stability and also in maintaining the volume of the enzyme catalytic pockets. We confirmed that the presence of substrate changes the dynamics of the catalytic pockets and increases FAD affinity. A comparison between the porcine MCADwt (pMCADwt) and human MCADwt (hMCADwt) structures revealed that both proteins are essentially similar and that the reversion of the double mutant E376G/T255E of hMCAD enzyme does not affect the structure of the protein neither its behavior in simulation. Our validated hMCADwt structure is crucial for complementing and accelerating the experimental studies aiming for the discovery and development of potential stabilizers of MCAD variants as candidates for the treatment of MCAD deficiency (MCADD).

  13. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoliposomes Entrapping Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Vitamin C by Lyophilization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuibing; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Wei; Yu, Haixia; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-01-01

    The complex nanoliposomes encapsulating both a hydrophilic drug vitamin C (vit C) and hydrophobic drug medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was prepared by combining double emulsion method with dynamic high pressure microfluidization. The complex nanoliposomes was further freeze-dried under −86 °C for 48 h with sucrose at the sucrose/lipids ratio of 2:1(w/w) in order to enhance its stability. The freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes under the suitable conditions exhibited high entrapment efficiency of MCFAs (44.26 ± 3.34)%, relatively high entrapment efficiency of vit C (62.25 ± 3.43)%, low average size diameter (110.4 ± 7.28) nm and good storage stability at 4 °C for 60 days with slight changes in mean particle diameter and drug entrapment efficiencies. The results of transmission electron microscopy of freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes also showed that the freeze-dried samples with sucrose were stable without great increase in their particle sizes and without destroying their spherical shape. The results indicated that sucrose presented well protection effects in MCFAs-vit C complex nanoliposomes, suggesting the possibility of further usage in commercial liposomes. PMID:24084723

  15. Preparation of palm olein enriched with medium chain fatty acids by lipase acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Chnadhapuram, Mounika; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Medium chain (MC) fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, up to 36% and 43%, respectively, when added as mixtures or individually after 24h. It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids, the former being larger in quantity and reduction of 18:2 was negligible. The modified palm olein products showed reduction in higher molecular weight triacylglycerols (TGs) and increase in concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to those of palm olein. Fatty acids at sn-2 position in modified products were: C10:0, 4%; C16:0, 13%; C18:1, 66%; and C18:2, 15.4%. DSC results showed that the onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced in modified palm olein products and no solids were found even at and below 10°C and also the onset of crystallisation was considerably lowered. The cloud point was reduced and iodine value dropped from 55.4 to 38 in modified palm olein. Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing MC fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis.

  16. The application of medium-chain fatty acids: edible oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Seiji; Kojima, Keiichi; Aoyama, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    The bulk of fatty acids found in our diets consists of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are molecules containing 12 or more carbon atoms. In contrast, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are composed of 8-10 carbon atoms, and are found in palm kernel oil, among other types of foods. MCFA have attracted attention as being part of a healthy diet, because they are absorbed directly into the portal vein, transported rapidly to the liver for beta-oxidation, and thus increase diet-induced thermogenesis. In contrast, long-chain triacylglycerols are absorbed via the intestinal lymphatic ducts and transported by chylomicrons through the thoracic duct into the systemic circulation. Because medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) containing solely MCFA have a few disadvantages when used for deep frying, we have developed a new kind of triacylglycerol product: medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT). MLCT is produced by lipase-catalyzed enzymatic transesterification. Long-term clinical trials have demonstrated that MLCT and MCT result in less body fat accumulation in humans. MLCT oil has been approved as FOSHU (Food for Specified Health Use) for use as cooking oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation.

  17. Health benefits, enzymatic production, and application of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) in food industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2012-08-01

    Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a modified lipid containing medium- chain (C6-C12) and long-chain fatty acids (C14-C24) in the same triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule. It can be produced either through enzymatic (with 1,3 specific or nonspecific enzyme) or chemical methods. The specialty of this structured lipid is that it is metabolized differently compared to conventional fats and oils, which can lead to a reduction of fat accumulation in the body. Therefore, it can be used for obesity management. It also contains nutritional properties that can be used to treat metabolic problems. This review will discuss on the health benefits of MLCT, its production methods especially via enzymatic processes and its applications in food industries.

  18. Impact of maternal dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk medium-chain fatty acids and the implications for neonatal liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Novak, Elizabeth M; Innis, Sheila M

    2011-11-01

    Levels of n-6, n-3, and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are known to inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, influence MCFA in rat and human milk and the implications of varying MCFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids in rat milk for metabolic regulation in the neonatal liver. Rats were fed a low-fat diet or one of six higher-fat diets, varying in 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids. Higher maternal dietary 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 did not influence milk MCFA, but lower maternal plasma triglycerides, due to either a low-fat or a high-fat high-LC n-3 diet led to higher milk MCFA. MCFA levels were inversely associated with 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in human milk, likely reflecting the association between dietary total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. High LC n-3 fatty acid in rat milk was associated with lower hepatic Pklr, Acly, Fasn, and Scd1 and higher Hmgcs2 in the milk-fed rat neonate, with no effect of milk 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, or MCFA. These studies show that the dietary fatty acid composition does not impact MCFA secretion in milk, but the fatty acid composition of milk, particularly the LC n-3 fatty acid, is relevant to hepatic metabolic regulation in the milk-fed neonate.

  19. A reconfigured Kennedy pathway which promotes efficient accumulation of medium chain fatty acids in leaf oils.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kyle B; Taylor, Matthew C; Cullerne, Darren P; Blanchard, Christopher L; Wood, Craig C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2017-03-16

    Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C6-14 fatty acids) are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and broader oleochemicals. In recent decades, several studies have used transgenic engineering to produce MCFA in seeds oils, though these modifications result in unbalance membrane lipid profiles that impair oil yields and agronomic performance. Given the ability to engineer non-seed organs to produce oils, we have previously demonstrated that MCFA profiles can be produced in leaves, but this also results in unbalanced membrane lipid profiles and undesirable chlorosis and cell death. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase from oil palm, EgDGAT1, was necessary to channel nascent MCFA directly into leaf oils and therefore bypassing MCFA residing in membrane lipids. This pathway resulted in increased flux towards MCFA rich leaf oils, reduced MCFA in leaf membrane lipids and, crucially, the alleviation of chlorosis. Deep sequencing of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) generated candidate genes of interest, which were then tested for their ability to improve oil accumulation. Thioesterases were explored for the production of lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic (C14:0). The thioesterases from Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora produced a total of 52% C12:0 and 40% C14:0, respectively, in transient leaf assays. This study demonstrated that the introduction of a complete acyl-CoA dependent pathway for the synthesis of MFCA-rich oils avoided disturbing membrane homeostasis and cell death phenotypes. This study outlines a transgenic strategy for the engineering of biomass crops with high levels of MCFA rich leaf oils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency using electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P.; Doig, M.; Ghafari, S.; Meaney, C.; Taylor, C.; Leonard, J.; Morris, M.; Johnson, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish criteria for the diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in the UK population using a method in which carnitine species eluted from blood spots are butylated and analysed by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).
DESIGN—Four groups were studied: (1) 35 children, aged 4 days to 16.2 years, with proven MCAD deficiency (mostly homozygous for the A985G mutation, none receiving carnitine supplements); (2) 2168control children; (3) 482 neonates; and (4) 15 MCAD heterozygotes.
RESULTS—All patients with MCAD deficiency had an octanoylcarnitine concentration ([C8-Cn]) > 0.38 µM and no accumulation of carnitine species > C10 or < C6. Among the patients with MCAD deficiency, the [C8-Cn] was significantly lower in children > 10 weeks old and in children with carnitine depletion (free carnitine < 20 µM). Neonatal blood spots from patients with MCAD deficiency had a [C8-Cn] > 1.5 µM, whereas in heterozygotes and other normal neonates the [C8-Cn] was < 1.0 µM. In contrast, the blood spot [C8-Cn] in eight of 27 patients with MCAD deficiency > 10 weeks old fell within the same range as five of 15 MCAD heterozygotes (0.38-1.0 µM). However, the free carnitine concentrations were reduced (< 20 µM) in the patients with MCAD deficiency but normal in the heterozygotes.
CONCLUSIONS—Criteria for the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency using ESI-MS/MS must take account of age and carnitine depletion. If screening is undertaken at 7-10 days, the number of false positive and negative results should be negligible. Because there have been no instances of death or neurological damage following diagnosis of MCAD deficiency in our patient group, a strong case can be made for neonatal screening for MCAD deficiency in the UK.

 PMID:9797589

  1. Production and characterization of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas mosselii TO7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jr; Huang, Yan-Chia; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2014-08-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production and growth of Pseudomonas mosselii TO7, a newly isolated Pseudomonas species from the wastewater of a vegetable oil manufacturing facility, was analyzed. Phenotypic analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that it is closely related to Pseudomonas mosselii. In the presence of palm kernel and soybean oils, P. mosselii TO7 produced up to 50% cell dry weight (CDW) medium-chain-length (MCL) PHAs comprising high poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (P(3HO)) content; P(3HO) content increased to 45% CDW when grown in octanoate using a single-step culture process. The PHA monomer was identified by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The average molecular weight and polydispersity index of PHA were 218.30 ± 31.73 and 2.21 ± 0.18, respectively. The PHA produced by P. mosselii TO7 in the presence of palm kernel oil had two melting temperature (Tm) values of 37.2°C and 55.7°C with melting enthalpy (ΔHm) values of 51.09 J g(-1) and 26.57 J g(-1), respectively. Inhibition analyses using acrylic and 2-bromooctanoic acids revealed β-oxidation as the primary pathway for MCL-PHA biosynthesis using octanoic acid. Moreover, Pseudomonas putida GPp104 PHA(-), harboring the PHA synthase genes of P. mosselii (phaC1pm and phaC2pm) was used for heterologous expression, which demonstrated that phaC1pm is the main PHA synthesis enzyme, and 3-hydroxyoctanoyl-CoA is its major substrate. This was the first report of a P. mosselii TO7 isolate producing high-yield P(3HO) through utilization of plant oils.

  2. Development of environmentally friendly coatings and paints using medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) as the polymer binder.

    PubMed

    van der Walle, G A; Buisman, G J; Weusthuis, R A; Eggink, G

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) produced by Pseudomonas putida from linseed oil fatty acids (LOFA) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), were used as the polymer binder in the formulation of high solid alkyd-like paints. The relatively high concentration of unsaturated alkyl side chains incorporated into the PHA resins resulted in oxidative drying PHA paints having excellent coating properties. The homogeneously pigmented PHA coatings yielded high-gloss, smooth and strong films upon curing and showed an excellent flexibility, a good adhesion to different substrates, cohesive film properties and resistance to chipping.

  3. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents[S

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings. PMID:26136510

  4. Development of paclitaxel-loaded liposomal nanocarrier stabilized by triglyceride incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Seok; Choi, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, So Hee; Lim, Soo-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the challenge of developing injectable liposomes as a paclitaxel (PTX) carrier, a challenge attributable to the limitations in liposomal stability caused by PTX loading. Poor stability of PTX-loaded liposomes is caused by PTX-triggered aggregation or fusion of liposomal membranes and is exacerbated in the presence of PEGylated lipid. In the present study, the effect of triglyceride incorporation on the stability of PTX-loaded/PEGylated liposomes was explored. Incorporation of a medium chain triglyceride Captex 300 into saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based liposomes (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DMPC]:cholesterol [CHOL]:N-(Carbonyl-methoxypolyethyleneglycol 2000)-1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine [PE-PEG]), produced a fine, homogeneous, and membrane-filterable PTX-loaded liposomes fulfilling the requirement of an injectable lipid formulation. Triglyceride incorporation also greatly inhibited the time-dependent leakage of PTX from saturated PC-based liposomes, which appears to be mediated by the inhibition of liposome fusion. In contrast, triglyceride incorporation induced the destabilization and PTX leakage of unsaturated PC-based liposomes, indicating the opposite effect of triglyceride depending on the fluidity status of PC constituting the liposomal membrane. PTX release profile and the in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy of triglyceride-incorporated DMPC:CHOL:PE-PEG liposomes were similar to Taxol® while the toxicity of liposomal PTX was significantly lower than that of Taxol. Taken together, triglyceride incorporation provided an injectable PTX formulation by functioning as a formulation stabilizer of PEGylated/saturated PC-based liposomes. PMID:27660440

  5. Medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs): a review of bioaccumulation potential in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Roy; Vaughan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high molecular weight organochlorine compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial applications for many years. Medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) (CAS 85535-85-9; Alkanes, C14-17 , chloro) are currently under investigation as potential persistent bioaccumulative toxic (PBT) compounds. In this article, the bioaccumulation potential of MCCPs is assessed using a tiered framework proposed after a recent Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop in 2008. The framework proposes the use of physicochemical properties and modeling assessment, bioconcentration/bioaccumulation (BCF/BAF) assessment, biomagnification (BMF) assessment, and trophic magnification factor (TMF) assessment. It is hoped that use of this framework could harmonize and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the chemical substance evaluation screening process for PBT properties. When applied to MCCPs, the following conclusions were made: empirical physiochemical data is available negating the use of models; laboratory BCFs range from 1000 to 15 000 (growth-corrected lipid normalized values) for 2 MCCP structures; field BAFs were an order of magnitude higher than the trigger criterion for "B status possible"; although results may not meet acceptance criteria for field studies, laboratory-derived BMFs for a number of C14-17 chlorinated alkanes were less than the trigger value of 1 (based on whole-body concentrations) whereas field-derived BMFs were less than 1 (based on lipid corrected values [generally used for field data] excluding one measure for sculpin, [Cottus cognatus]-Diporeia that was based on only one detectable sample); and finally, TMFs were less than the trigger criterion value of 1, which are considered the most convincing evidence for bioaccumulative properties of a compound and the "Gold Standard" measure of bioaccumulation. This article also discusses the uncertainties surrounding the published data

  6. Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes suppress body fat accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Yang, Shui-Bing; Liu, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hui-Juan; Su, Kun-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are widely used in diets for patients with obesity. To develop a delivery system for suppressing dietary fat accumulation into adipose tissue, MCFA were encapsulated in nanoliposomes (NL), which can overcome the drawbacks of MCFA and keep their properties unchanged. In the present study, crude liposomes were first produced by the thin-layer dispersion method, and then dynamic high-pressure microfluidisation (DHPM) and DHPM combined with freeze-thawing methods were used to prepare MCFA NL (NL-1 and NL-2, respectively). NL-1 exhibited smaller average size (77.6 (SD 4.3) nm), higher zeta potential (- 40.8 (SD 1.7) mV) and entrapment efficiency (73.3 (SD 16.1) %) and better stability, while NL-2 showed narrower distribution (polydispersion index 0.193 (SD 0.016)). The body fat reduction property of NL-1 and NL-2 were evaluated by short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) experiments of mice. In contrast to the MCFA group, the NL groups had overcome the poor palatability of MCFA because the normal diet of mice was maintained. The body fat and total cholesterol (TCH) of NL-1 (1.54 (SD 0.30) g, P = 0.039 and 2.33 (SD 0.44) mmol/l, P = 0.021, respectively) and NL-2 (1.58 (SD 0.69) g, P = 0.041 and 2.29 (SD 0.38) mmol/l, P = 0.015, respectively) significantly decreased when compared with the control group (2.11 (SD 0.82) g and 2.99 (SD 0.48) mmol/l, respectively). The TAG concentration of the NL-1 group (0.55 (SD 0.14) mmol/l) was remarkably lower (P = 0.045) than the control group (0.94 (SD 0.37) mmol/l). No significant difference in weight and fat gain, TCH and TAG was detected between the MCFA NL and MCFA groups. Therefore, MCFA NL could be potential nutritional candidates for obesity to suppress body fat accumulation.

  7. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  8. Bioconversion of Xylan to Triglycerides by Oil-Rich Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Ray; Phelps, Patricia; Spindler, Diane

    1984-01-01

    A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Cryptococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Cryptococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. PMID:16346541

  9. Medium-chain versus long-chain triacylglycerol emulsion hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase: Implications for the mechanisms of lipase action

    SciTech Connect

    Deckelbaum, R.J. ); Hamilton, J.A.; Butbul, E.; Gutman, A. ); Moser, A. ); Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.; Olivecrona, T. ); Carpentier, Y.A. )

    1990-02-06

    To explore how enzyme affinities and enzyme activities regulate hydrolysis of water-insoluble substrates, the authors compared hydrolysis of phospholipid-stabilized emulsions of medium-chain (MCT) versus long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT). Because substrate solubility at the emulsion surface might modulate rates of hydrolysis, the ability of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine to solubilize MCT was examined by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shift measurements showed that 11 mol % of ({sup 13}C)carbonyl enriched trioctanoin was incorporated into phospholipid vesicles as a surface component. Line widths of trioctanoin surface peaks were half that of LCT, and relaxation times, T{sub 1}, were also shorter for trioctanoin, showing greater mobility for MCT in phospholipid. In assessing the effects of these differences in solubility on lipolysis, they found that both purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase and human hepatic lipase hydrolyzed MCT at rates at least 2-fold higher than for LCT. Differences in affinity were also demonstrated in mixed incubations where increasing amounts of LCT emulsion resulted in decreased hydrolysis of MCT emulsions. These results suggest that despite lower enzyme affinity for MCT emulsions, shorter chain triacylglycerols are more readily hydrolyzed by lipoprotein and hepatic lipases than long-chain triacylglycerols because of greater MCT solubility and mobility at the emulsion-water interface.

  10. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid.

  11. Analytical solution to the diffusion, sorption and decay chain equation in a saturated porous medium between two reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan; Maximov, Serguei; Escarela-Perez, Rafael; López-García, Irvin; Moranchel, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion and distribution coefficients are important parameters in the design of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. These coefficients can be determined using a two-reservoir configuration, where a saturated porous medium is allocated between two reservoirs filled by stagnant water. One of the reservoirs contains a high concentration of radioisotopes. The goal of this work is to obtain an analytical solution for the concentration of all radioisotopes in the decay chain of a two-reservoir configuration. The analytical solution must be obtained by taking into account the diffusion and sorption processes. Concepts such as overvalued concentration, diffusion and decay factors are employed to this end. It is analytically proven that a factor of the solution is identical for all chains (considering a time scaling factor), if certain parameters do not change. In addition, it is proven that the concentration sensitivity, due to the distribution coefficient variation, depends of the porous medium thickness, which is practically insensitive for small porous medium thicknesses. The analytical solution for the radioisotope concentration is compared with experimental and numerical results available in literature.

  12. Growth Performance, Plasma Fatty Acids, Villous Height and Crypt Depth of Preweaning Piglets Fed with Medium Chain Triacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Chwen, Loh Teck; Foo, Hooi Ling; Thanh, Nguyen Tien; Choe, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. PMID:25049841

  13. Characterization of an extracellular medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes LB19.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Nam, Jin Sik; Rhee, Young Ha

    2002-01-01

    An extracellular medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (MCL-PHA) depolymerase from an isolate, Pseudomonas alcaligenes LB19, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction chromatography using Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B and gel permeation chromatography using Sephadex G-150. The molecular mass of the enzyme, which consisted of a single polypeptide chain, was approximately 27.6 kDa. The pI value of the enzyme was estimated to be 5.7, and its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.0 and 45 degreesC. The enzyme was significantly inactivated by EDTA and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) but insensitive to dithiothreitol. It was also markedly inhibited by 0.1% Tween 80 and 0.05% Triton X-100. The purified enzyme could hydrolyze various types of bacterial aliphatic and aromatic MCL-PHAs but not poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), polycaprolactone, and poly(L-lactide). Biodegradation rates of the aromatic MCL-PHAs were significantly lower than those of the aliphatic MCL-PHAs, regardless of the compositions and types of aromatic substituents. It was able to hydrolyze medium-chain-length p-nitrophenylalkanoates more efficiently than the shorter-chain forms. The main hydrolysis products of poly(3-hydroxynonanoate) were identified as monomer units. The results demonstrated in this study suggest that the MCL-PHA depolymerase from P. alcaligenes LB19 is a distinct enzyme, which are different from those of other MCL-PHA degrading bacteria in its quaternary structure, pI value, sensitivity to EDTA and PMSF, and hydrolysis products of MCL-PHA.

  14. Second-generation functionalized medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates: the gateway to high-value bioplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Marta; da Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Prieto, María Auxiliadora

    2013-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable biocompatible polyesters, which accumulate as granules in the cytoplasm of many bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs), characterized by C6-C14 branched monomer chains and typically produced by Pseudomonas species, are promising thermoelastomers, as they can be further modified by introducing functional groups in the side chains. Functionalized PHAs are obtained either by feeding structurally related substrates processed through the beta-oxidation pathway, or using specific strains able to transform sugars or glycerol into unsaturated PHA by de novo fatty-acid biosynthesis. Functionalized mcl-PHAs provide modified mechanical and thermal properties, and consequently have new processing requirements and highly diverse potential applications in emergent fields such as biomedicine. However, process development and sample availability are limited due to the toxicity of some precursors and still low productivity, which hinder investigation. Conversely, improved mutant strains designed through systems biology approaches and cofeeding with low-cost substrates may contribute to the widespread application of these biopolymers. This review focuses on recent developments in the production of functionalized mcl-PHAs, placing particular emphasis on strain and bioprocess design for cost-effective production.

  15. Effects of Long-Chain and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Cells with Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baogui; Li, Lumin; Fu, Jing; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling

    2016-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity-related metabolic complications, which caused by excess energy intake and physical inactivity apart from genetic defects. The mechanisms that promote disease progression from NAFLD to further liver injury are still unclear. We hypothesize that the progression involved "2nd hit" is strongly influenced by the type of fatty acids in diets. Flow cytometric analysis showed that medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) markedly decreased the percentage of late apoptotic and necrotic cells compared with long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), and MCFA inhibited the activities of caspase-3 and -9 in human liver cells with steatosis. Western blot analysis found that the levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were substantially reduced by MCFA compared with LCFA. Proteomic analysis further showed that LCFA inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and increased the expression of proteins associated with oxidative stress. It was found that LCFA (palmitate), not MCFA induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory responses in the hepatic cells with steatosis. In conclusion, reasonable selection of dietary fats has potential to translate therapeutically by ameliorating disease progression in patients with NAFLD.

  16. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, J. Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H.; Rose, Joshua P.; Raines, Thomas C.; Politz, Mark C.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol / g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli. PMID:24141053

  17. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, J Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H; Rose, Joshua P; Raines, Thomas C; Politz, Mark C; Copeland, Matthew F; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol/g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli.

  18. Continuous measurement of galactolipid hydrolysis by pancreatic lipolytic enzymes using the pH-stat technique and a medium chain monogalactosyl diglyceride as substrate.

    PubMed

    Amara, Sawsan; Lafont, Dominique; Fiorentino, Brice; Boullanger, Paul; Carrière, Frédéric; De Caro, Alain

    2009-10-01

    Galactolipids are the main lipids from plants and galactolipases play a major role in their metabolism. These enzymes were however poorly studied so far and only few assays have been developed. A specific and continuous galactolipase assay using synthetic medium chain monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) as substrate was developed using the pH-stat technique and recombinant human (rHPLRP2) and guinea pig (rGPLRP2) pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 as model enzymes. PLRP2s are the main enzymes involved in the digestion of galactolipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Monogalactosyl di-octanoylglycerol was mixed with bile salt solutions by sonication to form a micellar substrate before launching the assay. The nature of the bile salt and the bile salt to MGDG ratio were found to significantly affect the rate of MGDG hydrolysis by rHPLRP2 and rGPLRP2. The maximum galactolipase activity of both enzymes was recorded with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and at a NaDC to MGDG ratio of 1.33 and at basic pH values (8.0-9.0). The maximum rates of hydrolysis were obtained using a MGDG concentration of 10(-2) M and calcium chloride was found to be not necessary to obtain the maximum of activity. Under these conditions, the maximum turnovers of rGPLRP2 and rHPLRP2 on mixed NaDC/MGDG micelles were found to be 8000+/-500 and 2800+/-60 micromol/min/mg (U/mg), respectively. These activities are in the same order of magnitude as the activities on triglycerides of lipases and they are the highest specific activities ever reported for galactolipases. For the sake of comparison, the hydrolysis of mixed bile salt/MGDG micelles was also tested using other pancreatic lipolytic enzymes and only native and recombinant human carboxyl ester hydrolase were found to display significant but lower activities (240+/-17 and 432+/-62 U/mg, respectively) on MGDG.

  19. Phase equilibriums, self-assembly and interactions in two-, three- and four medium-chain length component systems.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2014-03-01

    The Scandinavian surface (surfactant) and colloid science owes much of its success to Per Ekwall and Björn Lindman. In this review the main topics shared by their research groups at Åbo Akademi University in Finland and at Lund University in Sweden are described. The nature of surface active substances (cosolvents, co-surfactants and surfactants) and microemulsions are evaluated. It is shown that the properties of medium-chain length surfactants differ dramatically from long-chain surfactants. The phase equilibriums of binary systems are related to the phase equilibriums of ternary and quaternary systems referred to as microemulsions or more recently also as nanoemulsions. A distinction is made between hydrotrope liquids, detergentless microemulsions, surfactant mixture systems and microemulsions. Three component systems are assembled to "true" quaternary microemulsions. An exceptionally comprehensive network of thermodynamic parameters describing molecular site exchange and micelle formation are derived and related mutually. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, volume, heat capacity, expansivity and compressibility can be used to illustrate the degree of aggregation cooperativity and to evaluate whether micelle formation is of a first-, second- or intermediate order phase transition. Theoretical simulations and experimental results show that the associate structures of medium-chain length surfactants are quite open and may be deformed due to small aggregation numbers. The self-assembly occurs over a number of distinct steps at a series of experimentally detectable critical concentrations. Despite the low aggregation tendency their phase behavior equals those of long-chain homologs in surfactant mixture and microemulsion systems. A number of models describing the self-assembly are reviewed. Nuclear magnetic resonance (shift, relaxation rate and diffusion), Laser Raman and infrared spectroscopies were chosen as key instruments for molecular interaction

  20. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with fatty acids and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui-Ling; Yu, Vincent; Wai, Lam; Yu, Hoi-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this study, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using different carbon sources. Decanoic acid induced the highest (9.71% [+/- 0.7]) mcl-PHAs accumulation in bacterial cells at 47 h. The cells preferred to accumulate and degrade the polyhydroxyoctanoate than polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD) during early stage and final stage of the growth, respectively. The production cost of mcl-PHAs can be reduced by using edible oils as the carbon source. The bacteria accumulated 6% (+/- 0.7) of mcl-PHAs in the presence of olive oil. Besides, reused oil was another potential carbon source for the reduction of the production cost of mcl-PHAs. Overall, PHD was the major constituent in the accumulated mcl-PHAs.

  1. Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Sicco H; van Mourik, Louise; O'Brien, Jake W; Eaglesham, Geoff; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Gallen, Christie; Mueller, Jochen; Gaus, Caroline; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-03-21

    To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  2. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-11-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds.

  3. Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57–1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116–960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PMID:28218842

  4. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Schrama, Johan W; Médale, Françoise; Geurden, Inge

    2012-06-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 weeks one of the four isoproteic diets containing fish oil (FO) or CO as fat source (FS), incorporated at 5% (low fat, LF) or 15% (high fat, HF). Fat level or FS did not modify food intake (g/kg(0·8) per d), despite higher intestinal cholecystokinin-T mRNA in trout fed the HF-FO diet. The HF diets relative to the LF ones induced higher growth and adiposity, whereas the replacements of FO by CO resulted in similar growth and adiposity. This, together with the substantial retention of C12 (57% of intake), suggests the relatively low oxidation of ingested C12. The down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) confirms the minor dependency of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on CPT-1 to enter the mitochondria. However, MCFA did not up-regulate mitochondrial oxidation evaluated using hepatic hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a marker, in line with their high retention in body lipids. At a low lipid level, MCFA increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, elongase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in liver, showing the hepatic activation of fatty acid synthesis pathways by MCFA, reflected by increased 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 16 : 1, 18 : 1 body levels. The high capacity of trout to incorporate and transform C12, rather than to readily oxidise C12, contrasts with data in mammals and may explain the absence of a satiating effect of CO in rainbow trout.

  5. Alteration of the specificity and regulation of fatty acid synthesis of Escherichia coli by expression of a plant medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Voelker, T A; Davies, H M

    1994-12-01

    The expression of a plant (Umbellularia californica) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (BTE) cDNA in Escherichia coli results in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity but causes only a minor accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. BTE's full impact on the bacterial fatty acid synthase is apparent only after expression in a strain deficient in fatty acid degradation, in which BTE increases the total fatty acid output of the bacterial cultures fourfold. Laurate (12:0), normally a minor fatty acid component of E. coli, becomes predominant, is secreted into the medium, and can accumulate to a level comparable to the total dry weight of the bacteria. Also, large quantities of 12:1, 14:0, and 14:1 are made. At the end of exponential growth, the pathway of saturated fatty acids is almost 100% diverted by BTE to the production of free medium-chain fatty acids, starving the cells for saturated acyl-ACP substrates for lipid biosynthesis. This results in drastic changes in membrane lipid composition from predominantly 16:0 to 18:1. The continued hydrolysis of medium-chain ACPs by the BTE causes the bacterial fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids even when membrane production has ceased in stationary phase, which shows that the fatty acid synthesis rate can be uncoupled from phospholipid biosynthesis and suggests that acyl-ACP intermediates might normally act as feedback inhibitors for fatty acid synthase. As the fatty acid synthesis is increasingly diverted to medium chains with the onset of stationary phase, the rate of C12 production increases relative to C14 production. This observation is consistent with activity of the BTE on free acyl-ACP pools, as opposed to its interaction with fatty acid synthase-bound substrates.

  6. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  7. Solubilisation of different medium chain esters in zwitterionic surfactant solutions--effects on phase behaviour and structure.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Prévost, S; Popig, J; Dzionara, M; Hedicke, G; Gradzielski, M

    2011-12-01

    We studied the effect of solubilisation of methyl esters with different chains of medium length into the binary surfactant system tetradecyldimethylamine oxide/water at constant surfactant concentration of 200 mM. As esters we employed valeric, capronic, enanthic, and pelargonic methyl ester, thereby decreasing the polarity. Always a phase sequence L(1)-L(α)-L(1) is observed with increasing ester concentration, where the L(α)-phase increases in extent and goes to much lower temperatures with increasing chain length of the ester. Viscosity measurements show a maximum at intermediate concentrations of additive that is independent of the type of ester. From SANS measurements detailed information about the structural changes occurring during the rod-to-sphere transition in the system of the shortest additive is deduced, which proceeds first through a pronounced rod growth. Interestingly, for the different esters an almost constant value of the volumic solubilisation capacity is observed, in agreement with the relatively constant interfacial tension. For the different esters no effect on the radius and the area requirement at the amphiphilic interface is observed at the solubilisation boundary. The microemulsions present here are spherical aggregates where the ester is partitioned between core and shell. From the SANS and interfacial tension data the effective bending constants of the surfactant monolayers were deduced and they show that the extension of the L(α)-phase is directly related to a corresponding increase in the bending constants of the surfactant/ester monolayers.

  8. Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol on mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes in malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Keiichi; Kasai, Michio

    2008-12-01

    We have reported previously that dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) improved serum albumin concentration and protein balance in malnourished rats. To clarify the mechanisms for this effect of MCT, hepatic messenger RNA levels of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in rats fed low-protein diets containing either MCT or isocaloric long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) for 2 wk. The serum albumin concentration in rats fed the MCT diet was significantly higher compared with those fed the LCT diet. Serum free fatty acids and ketone body fraction were higher in rats fed MCT compared with those fed the LCT diet. The hepatic mRNA level of PDH was significantly lower in rats fed MCT than those fed LCT. But, there was no significant difference between the two groups in mRNA of gluconeogenic enzymes or ALT. These results suggest that ketone bodies, which are an alternative energy source and might spare blood glucose, increase by MCT feeding, and the reason for the PEM (protein-energy malnutrition)-improving effect of MCT is not caused by suppression of gluconeogenesis.

  9. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  10. Intake of small-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids is associated with peripheral leukocyte telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Song, Yiqing; Kang, Mo K; Hou, Lifang; Wallace, Robert; Eaton, Charles B; Tinker, Lesley F; Liu, Simin

    2013-06-01

    Dietary factors, including dietary fat, may affect the biological aging process, as reflected by the shortening of telomere length (TL), by affecting levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the direct relations of total and types of dietary fats and fat-rich foods to peripheral leukocyte TL. In 4029 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative, intakes of total fat, individual fatty acids, and fat-rich foods were assessed by a questionnaire. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intake of short-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SMSFAs; aliphatic tails of ≤ 12 carbons) was inversely associated with TL. Compared with participants in other quartiles of SMSFA intake, women who were in the highest quartile (median: 1.29% of energy) had shorter TLs [mean: 4.00 kb (95% CI: 3.89, 4.11 kb)], whereas women in the lowest quartile of intake (median: 0.29% of energy) had longer TLs [mean: 4.13 kb (95% CI: 4.03, 4.24 kb); P-trend = 0.046]. Except for lauric acid, all other individual SMSFAs were inversely associated with TL (P < 0.05). In isoenergetic substitution models, the substitution of 1% of energy from SMSFAs with any other energy source was associated with 119 bp longer TLs (95% CI: 21, 216 bp). Intakes of nonskim milk, butter, and whole-milk cheese (major sources of SMSFAs) were all inversely associated with TL. No significant associations were found with long-chain saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, we found that higher intakes of SMSFAs and SMSFA-rich foods were associated with shorter peripheral leukocyte TL among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest the potential roles of SMSFAs in the rate of biological aging.

  11. High-Throughput Determination and Characterization of Short-, Medium-, and Long- Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Gao, Shixiong; Wang, Beili; Hu, Jianying

    2017-02-22

    The industrial chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are comprised of short-chain (SCCPs), medium chain (MCCPs), and long chain (LCCPs) CPs. Although SCCPs and MCCPs are environmentally ubiquitous, little is known about CPs in humans. This study established a method for simultaneous determination of 261 SCCP, MCCP, and LCCP congener groups in one injection by reversed ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with chlorine-enhanced electron spray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method yielded good peak shapes, high sensitivities, and low co-eluted interferences for all examined CPs. LCCPs with carbon numbers of 21 to 27 were detected in their standard technical mixtures, and MCCPs and LCCPs impurities were detected in the LCCP and MCCP standard technical mixtures, respectively, causing quantification deviations when these mixtures were used for calibration. After considering these impurities' contribution to the total concentrations, the quantification accuracies for ∑SCCPs, ∑MCCPs, and ∑LCCPs ranged from 95.1±8.4% to 105.6±9.2% in the eight CP technical mixtures. The method was successfully applied to determine CPs in about 6 g human blood samples from a general population, and estimated ∑SCCP, ∑MCCP, and ∑LCCP concentrations to be 370-35,000, 130-3200, and 22-530 ng/g lipid weight (n=50), respectively. A comparison of blood and soil/air CP profiles from the same areas suggested a relatively higher potential for the accumulation of SCCPs, compared with MCCPs, in humans.

  12. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  13. Caprylic Triglyceride as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Effectively Improve the Performance and Attenuate the Symptoms Due to the Motor Neuron Loss in ALS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Varghese, Merina; Vempati, Prashant; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Cheng, Alice; Wang, Jun; Lange, Dale; Bilski, Amanda; Faravelli, Irene; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and finally death. ALS patients suffer from asthenia and their progressive weakness negatively impacts quality of life, limiting their daily activities. They have impaired energy balance linked to lower activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes in ALS spinal cord, suggesting that improving mitochondrial function may present a therapeutic approach for ALS. When fed a ketogenic diet, the G93A ALS mouse shows a significant increase in serum ketones as well as a significantly slower progression of weakness and lower mortality rate. In this study, we treated SOD1-G93A mice with caprylic triglyceride, a medium chain triglyceride that is metabolized into ketone bodies and can serve as an alternate energy substrate for neuronal metabolism. Treatment with caprylic triglyceride attenuated progression of weakness and protected spinal cord motor neuron loss in SOD1-G93A transgenic animals, significantly improving their performance even though there was no significant benefit regarding the survival of the ALS transgenic animals. We found that caprylic triglyceride significantly promoted the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in vivo. Our results demonstrated that caprylic triglyceride alleviates ALS-type motor impairment through restoration of energy metabolism in SOD1-G93A ALS mice, especially during the overt stage of the disease. These data indicate the feasibility of using caprylic acid as an easily administered treatment with a high impact on the quality of life of ALS patients. PMID:23145119

  14. Triglycerides: Why Do They Matter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect how your body converts fat to energy. High triglycerides could also be a side effect of taking medications such as beta blockers, birth ... for red meat. Limit how much alcohol you drink. Alcohol is high in ... particularly potent effect on triglycerides. Even small amounts of alcohol can ...

  15. Meta-analysis of structured triglyceride versus other lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengbai; Li, Xueliang

    2013-06-01

    Structured triglyceride (STG) is a new emulsion synthesized from long-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids bound to the same glycerol backbone. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of STG for parenteral nutrition. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedicine Database, with the last search done in May 2012. Only randomized controlled trials in humans published in Chinese or English were included. Search terms included structured triglyceride and structural lipid. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the Jadad Scale. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0.24 to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals. Twenty-one studies (833 participants) published in English or Chinese were included in the analysis. STG significantly affected plasma triglycerides (WMD = -0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.29 to -0.01; P = 0.04), plasma glycerol (WMD = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.01-0.41; P = 0.04), free fatty acids (WMD = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.03-0.39; P = 0.02), nitrogen balance (SMD = 1.13; 95% CI, 0.26-1.99; P = 0.01), AST (WMD = -5.97; 95% CI, -7.17 to -4.76; P < 0.00001), and glucose (WMD = -0.18; 95% CI, -0.30 to -0.06; P = 004), but not respiratory quotient, resting energy expenditure, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, cholesterol, serum creatinine, or vital signs. STG is rapidly metabolized without harming the liver, and positively affects nitrogen balance. STG is at least as safe and effective for parenteral nutrition as other triglycerides.

  16. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 2. Limiting parameters of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2009-08-31

    The final stages in the development of a branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) are analysed. Approximate expressions are derived to calculate the limiting parameters of the chain reaction: the final degree of iodide decomposition, the maximum concentration of excited iodine atoms, the time of its achievement, and concentrations of singlet oxygen and iodide at that moment. The limiting parameters, calculated by using these expressions for a typical composition of the active medium of a pulsed COIL, well coincide with the results of numerical calculations. (active media)

  17. Process analysis of the conversion of styrene to biomass and medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate in a two-phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Casey, Eoin; Duane, Gearoid F; Mitic, Dragana; Hume, Aisling R; Kenny, Shane T; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2011-10-01

    The improvement and modeling of a process for the supply of the volatile aromatic hydrocarbon, styrene, to a fermentor for increased biomass production of the medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) accumulating bacterium Pseudomonas putida CA-3 was investigated. Fed-batch experiments were undertaken using different methods to provide the styrene. Initial experiments where styrene was supplied as a liquid to the bioreactor had detrimental effects on cell growth and inhibited PHA polymer accumulation. By changing the feed of gaseous styrene to liquid styrene through the air sparger a 5.4-fold increase in cell dry-weight was achieved (total of 10.56 g L(-1)) which corresponds to a fourfold improvement in PHA production (3.36 g L(-1)) compared to previous studies performed in our laboratory (0.82 g L(-1)). In addition this final improved feeding strategy reduced the release of styrene from the fermentor 50-fold compared to initial experiments (0.12 mL total styrene released per 48 h run). An unstructured kinetic model was developed to describe cell growth along with substrate and oxygen utilization. The formation of dispersed gas (air) and liquid (styrene) phases in the medium and the transfer of styrene between the aqueous and dispersed liquid droplet phases was also modeled. The model provided a detailed description of these phase transitions and helped explain how the feeding strategy led to improved process performance in terms of final biomass levels. It also highlighted the key factors to be considered during further process improvement.

  18. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  19. Biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by volatile aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading Pseudomonas fulva TY16.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Yang; Kim, Do Young; Chung, Moon Gyu; Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Ho-Yong; Rhee, Young Ha

    2010-11-01

    Pseudomonas fulva TY16 biosynthesized medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (MCL-PHAs) containing unsaturated 3-hydroxydodecenoate unit (approximately 8-9%) when grown with volatile aromatic compounds including benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene as sole carbon substrate. In particular, when cultivated using a continuous feeding system designed to supply toluene at a flow rate of 0.42gL(-1)h(-1) into a 7-L jar fermentor, the growth of the organism reached up to approximately 3.87gL(-1) after the 48h fed-batch fermentation, representing an accumulated cellular MCL-PHA of 58.9% by weight. The obtained MCL-PHA was a copolyester primarily consisting of 3-hydroxydecanoate (55.2%) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (26.8%) with minor constituents being 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3.7%), 3-hydroxydodecenoate (8.2%), and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (6.1%). The present results suggest that P. fulva TY16 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of toxic petrochemical wastes to valuable biopolymers.

  20. Elevated Temperature Enhances Short to Medium Chain Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Black Band Disease Associated Vibrios.

    PubMed

    Bhedi, Chinmayee D; Prevatte, Carson W; Lookadoo, Maggie S; Waikel, Patricia A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Campagna, Shawn R; Richardson, Laurie L

    2017-01-29

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a horizontally migrating, pathogenic, polymicrobial mat community which is active above a temperature threshold of 27.5°C on the reef. Bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy corals, and SML of healthy areas of BBD infected corals were tested for production of short to medium chain acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) using the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter strain. Of 110 bacterial isolates tested, 19 produced AHLs and 15 of these were from BBD. Eight AHLs were identified using LC-MS/MS, with 3OHC4 the most commonly produced, followed by C6. AHL-producing isolates exposed to three temperatures (24°, 27°, 30°C) revealed that production of three AHLs (3OHC4, 3OHC5, and 3OHC6) significantly increased at 30°C when compared to 24°C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that all of the AHL producing BBD isolates were vibrios. Metagenomic data of BBD communities showed the presence of AHL (and autoinducer-2) genes, many of which are known to be associated with vibrios. These findings suggest that quorum sensing may be involved in BBD pathobiology and community structure due to enhanced production of quorum sensing signal molecules (AHLs) above the temperature threshold of this globally distributed coral disease.

  1. Antibacterial study of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides: individual effects and synergistic relationships.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela I; Todorova, Iva T; Tsvetkova, Iva V; Najdenski, Hristo M

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides was evaluated towards several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria and Streptococcus. The 1-monoglycerides were more active than the fatty acids with monolaurin being the most active compound. Interesting effects were observed when the streptococcal strain Streptococcus pyogenes was used as a test microorganism. First, blocking of the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol moiety of monolaurin led to a compound with remarkable antibacterial activity (MIC, 3.9 microg/ml). Secondly, synergistic relationships were observed between monolaurin and monocaprin as well as between monolaurin and the poorly active lauric acid when their two component mixtures were examined. The mixtures in which one of the components was 2-fold more predominant than the other one were much more active than the pure components taken individually. Moreover, the presence of the components in ratio 1:1 was disadvantageous. Synergistic relationships were also found between monolaurin and monomyristin towards Staphylococcus aureus 209 when monomyristin was in the same quantity as monolaurin or in shortage.

  2. Medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates-carbon nanotubes composite anode enhances the performance of microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hindatu, Y; Annuar, M S M; Subramaniam, R; Gumel, A M

    2017-03-25

    Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m(2), which was 15-53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m(2)) and pristine CC (119 mW/m(2)) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode.

  3. Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Naser M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. Methods The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid–water systems. Results Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ∼50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Conclusions Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. ‘Diffusion and stranding’ appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification. PMID:25561872

  4. Functional effects of different medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase genotypes and identification of asymptomatic variants.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Marga; Herebian, Diran; Mueller, Martina; Laryea, Maurice D; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency (OMIM 201450) is the most common inherited disorder of fatty acid metabolism presenting with hypoglycaemia, hepatopathy and Reye-like symptoms during catabolism. In the past, the majority of patients carried the prevalent c.985A>G mutation in the ACADM gene. Since the introduction of newborn screening many other mutations with unknown clinical relevance have been identified in asymptomatic newborns. In order to identify functional effects of these mutant genotypes we correlated residual MCAD (OMIM 607008) activities as measured by octanoyl-CoA oxidation in lymphocytes with both genotype and relevant medical reports in 65 newborns harbouring mutant alleles. We identified true disease-causing mutations with residual activities of 0 to 20%. In individuals carrying the c.199T>C or c.127G>A mutation on one allele, residual activities were much higher and in the range of heterozygotes (31%-60%). Therefore, both mutations cannot clearly be associated with a clinical phenotype. This demonstrates a correlation between the octanoyl-CoA oxidation rate in lymphocytes and the clinical outcome. With newborn screening, the natural course of disease is difficult to assess. The octanoyl-CoA oxidation rate, therefore, allows a risk assessment at birth and the identification of new ACADM genotypes associated with asymptomatic disease variants.

  5. Effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, B; Yavari, Z; Kordestani, A H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 176 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatments including control treatment (basal diet), 0.1% MCFA, 0.2% MCFA, and 0.3% MCFA treatments according to a completely randomised design. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates with 11 chicks for each replicate. In MCFA treatments, the amounts of MCFAs were added to basal diet as a substitution of soybean oil. There were not any significant differences in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio among the treatments in different stages of the experiment. However, MCFA treatments had a lower abdominal fat and a higher breast yield compared to control treatment. Blood glucose, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased, but blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the MCFA treatments compared to the control treatment. These results indicate that dietary MCFA has a positive effect on the health and productivity of broiler chickens.

  6. A medium-chain fatty acid receptor Gpr84 in zebrafish: expression pattern and roles in immune regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Liu, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    Gpr84 was recently identified as a receptor for medium-chain fatty acids, but its functions remain to be clarified. We reported the identification of a zebrafish Gpr84 homologue (zGpr84), which has a higher gene expression in the tissues of intestine, heart and liver. During embryogenesis, zGpr84 is maternally expressed and a significant increase is observed at segmentation period, and it is mainly restricted to the head region, pectoral fins, branchial arches, intestine and lateral line neuromast. Fasting or treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce significant up-regulation of zGpr84. We further demonstrated that zGpr84 is involved in the accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Moreover, undecanoic acid (UA) can amplify LPS induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 p40 through zGpr84, supporting the proposal that Gpr84 may play a role in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation. The resulting data in fish lay a foundation for a comprehensive exploration of the functions and evolution of Gpr84.

  7. Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanlong; Larson, Brian; Araujo, Joseph A; Lau, Winnie; de Rivera, Christina; Santana, Ruben; Gore, Asa; Milgram, Norton W

    2010-06-01

    The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source.

  8. Self-diffusion in molecular liquids: Medium-chain n-alkanes and coenzyme Q10 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Christoph; Busch, Sebastian; Gemmecker, Gerd; Unruh, Tobias

    2008-07-01

    A systematic time-of-flight quasielastic neutron scattering (TOF-QENS) study on diffusion of n-alkanes in a melt is presented for the first time. As another example of a medium-chain molecule, coenzyme Q10 is investigated in the same way. The data were evaluated both in the frequency and in the time domain. TOF-QENS data can be satisfactorily described by different models, and it turned out that the determined diffusion coefficients are largely independent of the applied model. The derived diffusion coefficients are compared with values measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). With increasing chain length, an increasing difference between the TOF-QENS diffusion coefficient and the PFG-NMR diffusion coefficient is observed. This discrepancy in the diffusion coefficients is most likely due to a change of the diffusion mechanism on a nanometer length scale for molecules of medium-chain length.

  9. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  10. A systematic optimization of medium chain fatty acid biosynthesis via the reverse beta-oxidation cycle in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Xia, Xiudong; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-04-06

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6-10 carbons) are valuable precursors to many industrial biofuels and chemicals, recently engineered reversal of the β-oxidation (r-BOX) cycle has been proposed as a potential platform for efficient synthesis of MCFAs. Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on functionally characterizing four core enzymes of this r-BOX cycle. However, the information about bottleneck nodes in this cycle is elusive. Here, a quantitative assessment of the inherent limitations of this cycle was conducted to capitalize on its potential. The selection of the core β-oxidation reversal enzymes in conjunction with acetyl-CoA synthetase endowed the ability to synthesize about 1g/L MCFAs. Furthermore, a gene dosage experiment was developed to identify two rate-limiting enzymes (acetyl-CoA synthetase and thiolase). The de novo pathway was then separated into two modules at thiolase and MCFA production titer increased to 2.8g/L after evaluating different construct environments. Additionally, the metabolism of host organism was reprogrammed to the desired biochemical product by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference system, resulted in a final MCFA production of 3.8g/L. These findings described here identified the inherent limitations of r-BOX cycle and further unleashed the lipogenic potential of this cycle, thus paving the way for the development of a bacterial platform for microbial production of high-value oleo-chemicals from low-value carbons in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner.

  11. Structurally divergent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases with high selectivity for saturated medium chain fatty acids from Cuphea seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Andersson, Mariette; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) catalyzes acylation of the sn-2 position on lysophosphatidic acid by an acyl CoA substrate to produce the phosphatidic acid precursor of polar glycerolipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs). In the case of TAGs, this reaction is typically catalyzed by an LPAT2 from microsomal LPAT class A that has high specificity for C18 fatty acids containing Δ9 unsaturation. Because of this specificity, the occurrence of saturated fatty acids in the TAG sn-2 position is infrequent in seed oils. To identify LPATs with variant substrate specificities, deep transcriptomic mining was performed on seeds of two Cuphea species producing TAGs that are highly enriched in saturated C8 and C10 fatty acids. From these analyses, cDNAs for seven previously unreported LPATs were identified, including cDNAs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvLPAT2) and Cuphea avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPAT2a) encoding microsomal, seed-specific class A LPAT2s and a cDNA from C. avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPATB) encoding a microsomal, seed-specific LPAT from the bacterial-type class B. The activities of these enzymes were characterized in Camelina sativa by seed-specific co-expression with cDNAs for various Cuphea FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (FatB) that produce a variety of saturated medium-chain fatty acids. CvLPAT2 and CpuLPAT2a expression resulted in accumulation of 10:0 fatty acids in the Camelina sativa TAG sn-2 position, indicating a 10:0 CoA specificity that has not been previously described for plant LPATs. CpuLPATB expression generated TAGs with 14:0 at the sn-2 position, but not 10:0. Identification of these LPATs provides tools for understanding the structural basis of LPAT substrate specificity and for generating altered oil functionalities.

  12. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p < 0.05) for the MCT and soya bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p < 0.05) for the diets containing MCT and soya bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  13. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation.

  14. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  15. A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma S S; Pan, Yuanlong; Zanghi, Brian; Want, Elizabeth; Volk, Holger A

    2015-11-14

    Despite appropriate antiepileptic drug treatment, approximately one-third of humans and dogs with epilepsy continue experiencing seizures, emphasising the importance for new treatment strategies to improve the quality of life of people or dogs with epilepsy. A 6-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over dietary trial was designed to compare a ketogenic medium-chain TAG diet (MCTD) with a standardised placebo diet in chronically antiepileptic drug-treated dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Dogs were fed either MCTD or placebo diet for 3 months followed by a subsequent respective switch of diet for a further 3 months. Seizure frequency, clinical and laboratory data were collected and evaluated for twenty-one dogs completing the study. Seizure frequency was significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (2·31/month, 0-9·89/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (2·67/month, 0·33-22·92/month, P=0·020); three dogs achieved seizure freedom, seven additional dogs had ≥50 % reduction in seizure frequency, five had an overall <50 % reduction in seizures (38·87 %, 35·68-43·27 %) and six showed no response. Seizure day frequency were also significantly lower when dogs were fed the MCTD (1·63/month, 0-7·58/month) in comparison with the placebo diet (1·69/month, 0·33-13·82/month, P=0·022). Consumption of the MCTD also resulted in significant elevation of blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in comparison with placebo diet (0·041 (sd 0·004) v. 0·031 (sd 0·016) mmol/l, P=0·028). There were no significant changes in serum concentrations of glucose (P=0·903), phenobarbital (P=0·422), potassium bromide (P=0·404) and weight (P=0·300) between diet groups. In conclusion, the data show antiepileptic properties associated with ketogenic diets and provide evidence for the efficacy of the MCTD used in this study as a therapeutic option for epilepsy treatment.

  16. Newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: regional experience and high incidence of carnitine deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common inherited defect in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. Newborn screening (NBS) has considerably improved MCADD outcome, but the risk of complication remains in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical data at diagnosis and during follow-up, in order to optimize monitoring of these patients. Methods We carried out a multicenter study in southwest Europe, of MCADD patients detected by NBS. Evaluated NBS data included free carnitine (C0) and the acylcarnitines C8, C10, C10:1 together with C8/C2 and C8/C10 ratios, clinical presentation parameters and genotype, in 45 patients. Follow-up data included C0 levels, duration of carnitine supplementation and occurrence of metabolic crises. Results C8/C2 ratio and C8 were the most accurate biomarkers of MCADD in NBS. We found a high number of patients homozygous for the prevalent c.985A > G mutation (75%). Moreover, in these patients C8, C8/C10 and C8/C2 were higher than in patients with other genotypes, while median value of C0 was significantly lower (23 μmol/L vs 36 μmol/L). The average follow-up period was 43 months. To keep carnitine levels within the normal range, carnitine supplementation was required in 82% of patients, and for a longer period in patients homozygotes for the c.985A>G mutation than in patients with other genotypes (average 31 vs 18 months). Even with treatment, median C0 levels remained lower in homozygous patients than in those with other genotypes (14 μmol/L vs 22 μmol/L). Two patients died and another three suffered a metabolic crisis, all of whom were homozygous for the c.985 A>G mutation. Conclusions Our data show a direct association between homozygosity for c.985A>G and lower carnitine values at diagnosis, and a higher dose of carnitine

  17. A Clostridium Group IV Species Dominates and Suppresses a Mixed Culture Fermentation by Tolerance to Medium Chain Fatty Acids Products

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stephen J.; De Groof, Vicky; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Props, Ruben; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations. Here, we operated continuous mixed population MCFA fermentations on biorefinery thin stillage to investigate the community response associated with the production and toxicity of MCFA. In this study, an uncultured species from the Clostridium group IV (related to Clostridium sp. BS-1) became enriched in two independent reactors that produced hexanoic acid (up to 8.1 g L−1), octanoic acid (up to 3.2 g L−1), and trace concentrations of decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is reported here for the first time as a possible product of a Clostridium group IV species. Other significant species in the community, Lactobacillus spp. and Acetobacterium sp., generate intermediates in MCFA production, and their collapse in relative abundance resulted in an overall production decrease. A strong correlation was present between the community composition and both the hexanoic acid concentration (p = 0.026) and total volatile fatty acid concentration (p = 0.003). MCFA suppressed species related to Clostridium sp. CPB-6 and Lactobacillus spp. to a greater extent than others. The proportion of the species related to Clostridium sp. BS-1 over Clostridium sp. CPB-6 had a strong correlation with the concentration of octanoic acid (p = 0.003). The dominance of this species and the increase in MCFA resulted in an overall toxic effect on the mixed community, most significantly on the Lactobacillus spp., which resulted in a decrease in total

  18. Molecular characterization of extracellular medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerase genes from Pseudomonas alcaligenes strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Sun Young; Rhee, Young Ha

    2005-06-01

    A bacterial strain M4-7 capable of degrading various polyesters, such as poly(epsilon-caprolactone), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), and poly(3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate), was isolated from a marine environment and identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes. The relative molecular mass of a purified extracellular medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (MCL-PHA) depolymerase (PhaZ(PalM4-7)) from P. alcaligenes M4-7 was 28.0 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The PhaZ(PalM4-7) was most active in 50 mM glycine-NaOH buffer (pH 9.0) at 35 degrees C. It was insensitive to dithiothreitol, sodium azide, and iodoacetamide, but susceptible to p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid, N-bromosuccinimide, acetic anhydride, EDTA, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Tween 80, and Triton X-100. In this study, the genes encoding MCL-PHA depolymerase were cloned, sequenced, and characterized from a soil bacterium, P. alcaligenes LB19 (Kim et al., 2002, Biomacromolecules 3, 291-296) as well as P. alcaligenes M4-7. The structural gene (phaZ(PalLB19)) of MCL-PHA depolymerase of P. alcaligenes LB19 consisted of an 837 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 278 amino acids with a deduced M((r)) of 30,188 Da. However, the MCL-PHA depolymerase gene (phaZ(PalM4-7)) of P. alcaligenes M4-7 was composed of an 834 bp ORF encoding a protein of 277 amino acids with a deduced Mr of 30,323 Da. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that, in the two different polypeptides, a substrate-binding domain and a catalytic domain are located in the N-terminus and in the C-terminus, respectively. The PhaZ(PalLB19) and the PhaZ(PalM4-7) commonly share the lipase box, GISSG, in their catalytic domains, and utilize 111Asn and 110Ser residues, respectively, as oxyanions that play an important role in transition-state stabilization of hydrolytic reactions.

  19. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  20. The effects of long- or medium-chain fat diets on glucose tolerance and myocellular content of lipid intermediates in rats.

    PubMed

    De Vogel-van den Bosch, Johan; Hoeks, Joris; Timmers, Silvie; Houten, Sander M; van Dijk, Paul J; Boon, Wendy; Van Beurden, Denis; Schaart, Gert; Kersten, Sander; Voshol, Peter J; Wanders, Ronald J A; Hesselink, Matthijs K; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle upon high-fat (HF) feeding is the resultant of fatty acid uptake and oxidation and is associated with insulin resistance. As medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are preferentially β-oxidized over long-chain fatty acids, we examined the effects of medium-chain TAGs (MCTs) and long-chain TAGs (LCTs) on muscle lipid storage and whole-body glucose tolerance. Rats fed a low-fat (LF), HFLCT, or an isocaloric HFMCT diet displayed a similar body weight gain over 8 weeks of treatment. Only HFLCT increased myocellular TAG (42.3 ± 4.9, 71.9 ± 6.7, and 48.5 ± 6.5 µmol/g for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P < 0.05) and long-chain acylcarnitine content (P < 0.05). Neither HF diet increased myocellular diacylglycerol (DAG) content. Intraperitoneal (IP) glucose tolerance tests (1.5 g/kg) revealed a significantly decreased glucose tolerance in the HFMCT compared to the HFLCT-fed rats (802 ± 40, 772 ± 18, and 886 ± 18 area under the curve for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P < 0.05). Finally, no differences in myocellular insulin signaling after bolus insulin injection (10 U/kg) were observed between LF, HFLCT, or HFMCT-fed rats. These results show that accumulation of TAGs and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle in the absence of body weight gain do not impede myocellular insulin signaling or whole-body glucose intolerance.

  1. Changes in the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes incubated in the presence of magnesium ions and/or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Grochowska-Niedworok, E; Calyniuk, B; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E; Muc-Wierzgon', M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the commonly used dietary supplements. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and their esters in isolated rat hepatocytes induced by magnesium and/or ethanol. Isolation of hepatocytes was carried out by the Seglen's enzymatic method using collagenase. To thus prepared samples ethanol and/or MgCl2 solution were added, respectively, so that their concentrations were as follows: 150 mM/dm3 ethanol and/or 2 mM/dm3 MgCl2, 4 mM/dm3 MgCl2. The contents of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and those of ester-bound acids were determined. The statistical evaluation of the experiment was made by comparing the area normalized for the analysed fatty acids in hepatocytes incubated for 5 h in the presence of the test substances. The effect of magnesium ions on the content of fatty acids and their esters in isolated hepatocytes incubated for 5 h depended on their concentration in the medium. A normalizing effect of magnesium ions on ethanol-induced changes in the content of C14-C17, C18-C20 and C21-C24 fatty acids was demonstrated. A normalizing effect of magnesium on ethanol-induced changes in the content of ester-bound fatty acids in hepatocytes was not confirmed.

  2. Gastric pre-processing is an important determinant of the ability of medium-chain lipid solution formulations to enhance oral bioavailability in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of dispersion and digestion in the stomach to the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs administered in lipid-based formulations was assessed by comparison of intraduodenal (ID) and peroral (p.o.) administration using cinnarizine (CZ) as a model drug. Differences in the dispersion and digestion in the gastric and intestinal compartments for medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT) and long-chain triacylglycerides (LCT) were observed, leading to differences in the oral bioavailability of CZ. Bypassing gastric processing using ID administration of lipid solution formulations decreased drug bioavailability regardless of lipid type. Overall, bioavailability from LCT formulations was higher than MCT regardless of route of administration, consistent with past data after p.o. administration and previously reported descriptions of increases in drug precipitation after administration of medium-chain lipid formulations. The larger differences between bioavailability after both p.o. and ID administration for MCT compared with LCT formulations suggest that passage through the stomach is more critical for MCT formulations, and that gastric digestion may be more critical for MCT than LCT formulations. For MCT-based formulations, efficient dispersion and partial digestion in the stomach may be required to allow rapid transfer to intestinal-mixed micelles and absorption in the upper small intestine prior to drug precipitation.

  3. Pharyngeal lipase and digestion of dietary triglyceride in man.

    PubMed

    Hamosh, M; Klaeveman, H L; Wolf, R O; Scow, R O

    1975-05-01

    Lipolytic activity was studied in esophageal and gastric aspirates obtained with a nasogastric tube from 14 healthy adult subjects. Samples were collected from esophagus, first at 30-35 cm and then at 40-45 cm from the nose, as the subject, after drinking 15-30 ml of a cream-milk mixture, swallowed small amounts of water. The samples from stomach were taken last and usually contained a small amount of cream-milk mixture. Lipolytic activity was assayed using chylomicron, milk, and corn oil triglyceride as substrate. Esophageal and gastric samples both contained lipolytic activity which hydrolyzed long-chain triglyceride to diglyceride, monoglyceride, and FFTA, had a pH optimum of 5.4, and was not affected by either had a pH optimum of 5.4, and was not affected by either 0.5 M NaCl or 4 mM sodium taurodexycholate. The activity, expressed as nanomoles of chylomicron triglyceride hydrolyzed per milliter per minute, ranged from 0 to 145 in upper esophageal, 5 to 303 in lower esophageal, and 50 to 357 in gastric samples. Only a trace of lipolytic activity was found at pH 5.4 in saliva collected from the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, thus excluding those tissues as a source of the activity found in esophageal and gastric aspirates. The findings suggest that in man glands in or near the pharynx secrete a lipase that acts in the stomach to hydrolyze long-chain triglyceride to partial glycerides and FFA. It is proposed this reaction is the first step in the digestion of dietary fat and that the amphiphilic lipids formed by lipolysis facilitate the emulsification of triglyceride in the stomach.

  4. Biodegradation of Medium Chain Hydrocarbons by Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW Immobilized to Hair-Based Adsorbent Mats (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Difco Lab- oratories, Detroit, MI) was used as a complete medium for bacterial cultivation . Bushnell-Haas (BH) (Becton Dickinson 3 Laboratories, Sparks...Bacterial cultivation and characterization Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW was cultured aerobically in BH broth (Becton Dickinson Laboratories...over a period of 40 min using a Synergy 4 hybrid plate reader (Biotek, Winooski, VT). The same cell dilutions were cultivated overnight at room

  5. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  6. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  7. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP(2) (also known as PIP(2))] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy.

  8. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids prevent PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Sternkopf Lillebæk, Eva Maria; Lambert Nielsen, Stine; Scheel Thomasen, Rikke; Færgeman, Nils J; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    2017-03-23

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment. In the gastrointestinal phase of infection, the bacterium encounters a variety of antimicrobial agents, including medium- and long-chain free fatty acids that are commonly found in our diet and as active components of bile. Here we show that subinhibitory concentrations of specific antimicrobial free fatty acids act to downregulate transcription of PrfA-activated virulence genes. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect is also evident in cells encoding a constitutively active variant of PrfA. Collectively, our data suggest that antimicrobial medium- and long-chain free fatty acids may act as signals to prevent PrfA-mediated activation of virulence genes in environments where PrfA activation is not required, such as in food and the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. PMR analysis of unsaturated triglycerides using shift reagents.

    PubMed

    Frost, D J; Keuning, R; Sies, I

    1975-04-01

    The addition of Pr(fod)3 i.e. tris(1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-,7-dimethyl 1-4,6-octanedionato) praseodymium, to trilinolein has been found to induce a difference in the chemical shifts of the absorptions from the acids on the alpha- and beta positions. At 220 MHz this was observed up to 18 carbon atoms along the chain. Decoupling of the alkenyl protons at 100 MHz enabled the absorptions from the skipped methylene groups to be used to determine the position of linoleate and linolenante chains in triglycerides.

  11. Integrated engineering of β-oxidation reversal and ω-oxidation pathways for the synthesis of medium chain ω-functionalized carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Clomburg, James M; Blankschien, Matthew D; Vick, Jacob E; Chou, Alexander; Kim, Seohyoung; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    An engineered reversal of the β-oxidation cycle was exploited to demonstrate its utility for the synthesis of medium chain (6-10-carbons) ω-hydroxyacids and dicarboxylic acids from glycerol as the only carbon source. A redesigned β-oxidation reversal facilitated the production of medium chain carboxylic acids, which were converted to ω-hydroxyacids and dicarboxylic acids by the action of an engineered ω-oxidation pathway. The selection of a key thiolase (bktB) and thioesterase (ydiI) in combination with previously established core β-oxidation reversal enzymes, as well as the development of chromosomal expression systems for the independent control of pathway enzymes, enabled the generation of C6-C10 carboxylic acids and provided a platform for vector based independent expression of ω-functionalization enzymes. Using this approach, the expression of the Pseudomonas putida alkane monooxygenase system, encoded by alkBGT, in combination with all β-oxidation reversal enzymes resulted in the production of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid, and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid. Following identification and characterization of potential alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, chnD and chnE from Acinetobacter sp. strain SE19 were expressed in conjunction with alkBGT to demonstrate the synthesis of the C6-C10 dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, suberic acid, and sebacic acid. The potential of a β-oxidation cycle with ω-oxidation termination pathways was further demonstrated through the production of greater than 0.8 g/L C6-C10 ω-hydroxyacids or about 0.5 g/L dicarboxylic acids of the same chain lengths from glycerol (an unrelated carbon source) using minimal media.

  12. Spatial and temporal trends of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments off the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Horii, Yuichi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Weifang; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters. Significant correlation between CP concentration and population density in the coastal district of Hong Kong was observed (r(2) = 0.72 for SCCPs and 0.55 for MCCPs, p < 0.05), highlighting the effect of urbanization. By contrast, a relatively lower pollution level of CPs was detected in Tokyo Bay. More long-chain groups within SCCPs in the PRD than in Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay implied the effect of industrialization. Comparison of temporal trends between Hong Kong outer harbor with Tokyo Bay shows the striking difference in historical deposition of CPs under different regulatory situations in China and Japan. For the first time, the declining CP concentrations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls.

  13. Engineering Escherichia coli for Conversion of Glucose to Medium-Chain ω-Hydroxy Fatty Acids and α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Christopher H; Bonin, Jeff; Kogler, Anna; Barba-Ostria, Carlos; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2016-03-18

    In search of sustainable approaches to plastics production, many efforts have been made to engineer microbial conversions of renewable feedstock to short-chain (C2-C8) bifunctional polymer precursors (e.g., succinic acid, cadaverine, 1,4-butanediol). Less attention has been given to medium-chain (C12-C14) monomers such as ω-hydroxy fatty acids (ω-OHFAs) and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (α,ω-DCAs), which are precursors to high performance polyesters and polyamides. Here we engineer a complete microbial conversion of glucose to C12 and C14 ω-OHFAs and α,ω-DCAs, with precise control of product chain length. Using an expanded bioinformatics approach, we screen a wide range of enzymes across phyla to identify combinations that yield complete conversion of intermediates to product α,ω-DCAs. Finally, through optimization of culture conditions, we enhance production titer of C12 α,ω-DCA to nearly 600 mg/L. Our results indicate potential for this microbial factory to enable commercially relevant, renewable production of C12 α,ω-DCA-a valuable precursor to the high-performance plastic, nylon-6,12.

  14. The synthesis of n-caproate from lactate: a new efficient process for medium-chain carboxylates production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Liang, Cheng; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yanfei; Bo, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A unique microbiome that metabolizes lactate rather than ethanol for n-caproate production was obtained from a fermentation pit used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL). The microbiome was able to produce n-caproate at concentrations as high as 23.41 g/L at a maximum rate of 2.97 g/L/d in batch trials without in-line extraction. Compared with previous work using ethanol as the electron donor, the n-caproate concentration increased by 82.89%. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the microbiome was dominated by a Clostridium cluster IV, which accounted for 79.07% of total reads. A new process for n-caproate production was proposed, lactate oxidation coupled to chain elongation, which revealed new insight into the well-studied lactate conversion and carbon chain elongation. In addition, these findings indicated a new synthesis mechanism of n-caproate in CSFL. We believe that this efficient process will provide a promising opportunity for the innovation of waste recovery as well as for n-caproate biosynthesis. PMID:26403516

  15. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  16. [Tolerance and metabolic results of long-term administration of a mixture of saturated triglycerides by recto-colic route in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Dorier, A; Perret, J P; Bacques, C

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit's and Dog's colonic absorption of triglycerides is shown in previous works. Further, we are studying the possibility to use the rectal route for nutritive substances. This way remains now poorly used and an exceptional therapeutic. However, bringing triglycerides in adequate state would be an energetic, supply, all the more as it is very difficult to provide potent caloric source in parenteral nutrition. This is why we investigate, on the Rabbit, the issues of chronic administration of glycerides by rectal route, on caloric balance and on a biochemical view to seek for in lipid composition of tissues the print of lipids administrated by transanal way. The animals are individually housed in metabolism units feeding a standard diet and drinking ad libitum. The treated subjects are given by transanal way, twice a day, for eight weeds, a sum of 1 g/kg of medium chain triglycerides. The metabolic balance-sheet is daily drawn. The clinic balance-sheet is set on the end, by biological controls to explore the hepatic and renal function (prothrombine ratio, transaminases (SGOT, SGPT), ornithine, carbamyl transferase (OCT), urea, total proteins ratio and electrolyte imbalance. We measure also the concentration of total lipids plasma and tissue (liver, kidney, heart, lungs, perirenal adipose tissue). The triglyceride composition and fatty acid composition of different lipids fractions of control and treated subjects are analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The animals support perfectly, without damage, a chronic and massive (1 g/kg/each day) administration of medium chain triglycerides by rectal route. The growth of treated subjects is normal. On the opposite, they adjust their alimentary consumption with the caloric charge of the diet, this is the reason why the reduction is about 12p. 100 with respect to the control animals. The coli-rectal administration of saturated glycerides produces at middle end only qualitative variations of lipids extracts. They essentially

  17. Utilization of ascites plasma very low density lipoprotein triglycerides by Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, D E; Spector, A A

    1974-07-01

    Much of the lipid present in the ascites plasma in which Ehrlich cells grow is contained in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Chemical measurements indicated that triglycerides were taken up by the cells during in vitro incubation with ascites VLDL. When tracer amounts of radioactive triolein were incorporated into the ascites VLDL, the percentage uptakes of glyceryl tri[1-(14)C]oleate and triglycerides measured chemically were similar. The cells also took up [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate that was added to VLDL, but the percentage of available (3)H recovered in the cell lipids was 30-40% less than that of (1 4)C from glyceryl tri[1-(1 4)C]oleate. This difference was accounted for by water-soluble (3)H that accumulated in the incubation medium, suggesting that extensive hydrolysis accompanied the uptake of VLDL triglycerides. Radioactive fatty acids derived from the VLDL triglycerides were incorporated into cell phospholipids, glycerides, and free fatty acids, and they also were oxidized to CO(2). Triglyceride utilization increased as the VLDL concentration was raised. These results suggest that one function of the ascites plasma VLDL may be to supply fatty acid to the Ehrlich cells and that the availability of fatty acid to this tumor is determined in part by the ascites plasma VLDL concentration. Although Ehrlich cells incorporate almost no free glycerol into triglycerides, considerable amounts of [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate radioactivity were recovered in cell triglycerides. This indicates that at least some VLDL triglycerides were taken up intact. The net uptake of VLDL protein and cholesterol was very small relative to the triglyceride uptake, suggesting that intact triglycerides are transferred from the ascites VLDL to the Ehrlich cells and that hydrolysis occurs after the triglyceride is associated with the cells.

  18. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Touma, E; Rashed, M; Vianey-Saban, C; Sakr, A; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Andresen, B

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased long chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence.

 PMID:11124787

  19. Recognition of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in asymptomatic siblings of children dying of sudden infant death or Reye-like syndromes.

    PubMed

    Roe, C R; Millington, D S; Maltby, D A; Kinnebrew, P

    1986-01-01

    The medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency of mitochondrial beta oxidation has been identified in two asymptomatic siblings in a family in which two previous deaths had been recorded, one attributed to sudden infant death syndrome and the other to Reye syndrome. Recognition of this disorder in one of the deceased and in the surviving siblings was accomplished by detection of a diagnostic metabolite, octanoylcarnitine, using a new mass spectrometric technique. This resulted in early treatment with L-carnitine supplement in the survivors, which should prevent metabolic deterioration. Further studies suggest that breast-feeding may be protective for infants with MCAD deficiency. Families with children who have had Reye syndrome or in which sudden infant death has occurred are at risk for MCAD deficiency. We suggest that survivors and asymptomatic siblings should be tested for this treatable disorder.

  20. Production of medium chain saturated fatty acids with enhanced antimicrobial activity from crude coconut fat by solid state cultivation of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Parfene, Georgiana; Horincar, Vicentiu; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Malik, Anushree; Bahrim, Gabriela

    2013-02-15

    Fatty acids profiles and antimicrobial activity of crude coconut fat hydrolysates obtained in solid-state cultivation system with a selected yeast strain Yarrowia lipolytica RO13 were performed. A preliminary step regarding extracellular lipase production and solid state enzymatic hydrolysis of crude fat at different water activity and time intervals up to 7 days was also applied. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used for quantification of medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) and the results revealed a higher concentration of about 70% lauric acid from total fatty acids. Further, antimicrobial activity of fatty acids against some food-borne pathogens (Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus) was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the obtained hydrolysates varied from 12.5 to 1.56 ppm, significantly lower than values reported in literature. The results provide substantial evidence for obtaining biopreservative effects by coconut fat enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Celia P; Tadayyon, Mohammad; Andrews, John L; Benson, William G; Chambers, Jon K; Eilert, Michelle M; Ellis, Catherine; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Goetz, Aaron S; Minnick, Dana T; Murdock, Paul R; Sauls, Howard R; Shabon, Usman; Spinage, Lisa D; Strum, Jay C; Szekeres, Philip G; Tan, Kong B; Way, James M; Ignar, Diane M; Wilson, Shelagh; Muir, Alison I

    2003-03-28

    GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed. Ligand fishing experiments in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 revealed that a range of saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths greater than six were able to induce an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), measured using a fluorometric imaging plate reader. 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid was the most potent fatty acid tested, with a pEC(50) of 5.7. G protein coupling of GPR40 was examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the G alpha(q/i)-responsive Gal4-Elk1 reporter system. Expression of human GPR40 led to a constitutive induction of luciferase activity, which was further increased by exposure of the cells to eicosatriynoic acid. Neither the constitutive nor ligand-mediated luciferase induction was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, suggesting that GPR40 was coupled to G alpha(q/11.) Expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GPR40 was specifically expressed in brain and pancreas, with expression in rodent pancreas being localized to insulin-producing beta-cells. These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of CYP94A2, a medium chain fatty acid hydroxylase from Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Le Bouquin, R; Pinot, F; Benveniste, I; Salaün, J P; Durst, F

    1999-07-22

    A full length cDNA encoding a new cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase (CYP94A2) was isolated from a Vicia sativa library. CYP94A2 displays 58% sequence identity with CYP94A1, a fatty acid omega-hydroxylase isolated from the same material. Heterologous expression of CYP94A2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain WAT11 shows that it catalyses the hydroxylation of myristic (C14) acid with a K(m(app)) of 4.0 microM and a turnover rate number of 80 min(-1). In addition, lauric (C12) and palmitic (C16) acids were hydroxylated at a ten-fold lower rate, while C18 fatty acids were not oxidized. Remarkably, the regiospecificity of hydroxylation is different for the C12, C14, and C16 fatty acids and appears to be correlated with the length of the carbon chain. Northern blot analysis showed a low level of constitutive expression of CYP94A2 in V. sativa seedlings. In contrast to CYP94A1, transcript accumulation of CYP94A2 was only weakly enhanced in seedlings treated with clofibrate or methyl jasmonate, indicating that both substrate range and gene regulation of the two fatty acid hydroxylases are different.

  3. Modulation of Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 by Replacing FabH with a Chaetoceros Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huiya; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Davies, Fiona K.; Sisson, Lyle A.; Schneider, Philip E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    The isolation or engineering of algal cells synthesizing high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) is attractive to mitigate the high clouding point of longer chain fatty acids in algal based biodiesel. To develop a more informed understanding of MCFA synthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms, we isolated several algae from Great Salt Lake and screened this collection for MCFA accumulation to identify strains naturally accumulating high levels of MCFA. A diatom, Chaetoceros sp. GSL56, accumulated particularly high levels of C14 (up to 40%), with the majority of C14 fatty acids allocated in triacylglycerols. Using whole cell transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly, putative genes encoding fatty acid synthesis enzymes were identified. Enzymes from this Chaetoceros sp. were expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to validate gene function and to determine whether eukaryotic enzymes putatively lacking bacterial evolutionary control mechanisms could be used to improve MCFA production in this promising production strain. Replacement of the Synechococcus 7002 native FabH with a Chaetoceros ketoacyl-ACP synthase III increased MCFA synthesis up to fivefold. The level of increase is dependent on promoter strength and culturing conditions. PMID:27303412

  4. Characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Jing; Liang, Rubing; Liu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    A gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium SJTD-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. SJTD-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C30) as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. In 36 h, 500 mg/L of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octadecane were transformed completely; and 2 g/L n-hexadecane was degraded to undetectable levels within 72 h. Two putative alkane-degrading genes (gene 3623 and gene 4712) were characterized and our results indicated that their gene products were rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synergetic catabolism of C12-C16 alkanes. On the basis of bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis, two P450 monooxygenases, along with a putative AlmA-like oxygenase, were examined. Genetically defective mutants lacking the characteristic alkane hydroxylase failed to degrade n-octadecane, thereby suggesting a different catalytic mechanism for the microbial transformation of alkanes with chain lengths over C18.

  5. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  6. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Jupin, M; Michiels, P J; Girard, F C; Spraul, M; Wijmenga, S S

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  7. Engineering of FRT-lacZ fusion constructs: induction of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fadAB1 operon by medium and long chain-length fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mike S.; Nguyen, David T.; Kang, Yun; Hoang, Tung T.

    2008-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the promoters of various genes in bacteria, it can be difficult to study gene regulation using reporter-gene fusions. Regulation studies of promoters are ideal at their native locus, which do not require prior knowledge of promoter regions. Based on a previous study with FRT-lacZ-KmR constructs, we constructed two novel FRT-lacZ-GmR plasmids. This allows easy engineering of P. aeruginosa reporter-gene fusions, post-mutant construction with the Flp-FRT system. We demonstrate the usefulness of one of these FRT-lacZ-GmR plasmids to study the regulation of the fadAB1 operon in P. aeruginosa at its native locus. The fadAB1 operon, involved in fatty acid (FA) degradation, was significantly induced in the presence of several medium chain-length fatty acids (MCFA) and, to a lesser degree, long chain-length fatty acids (LCFA). In addition to the previous work on the FRT-lacZ-KmR tools, these new constructs increase the repertoire of tools that can be applied to P. aeruginosa or other species and strains of bacteria where kanamycin resistance may not be appropriate. PMID:18221997

  8. High performance polymer electrolytes based on main and side chain pyridine aromatic polyethers for high and medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geormezi, M.; Chochos, C. L.; Gourdoupi, N.; Neophytides, S. G.; Kallitsis, J. K.

    Novel aromatic polyether type copolymers bearing side chain polar pyridine rings as well as combination of main and side chain pyridine units have been evaluated as potential polymer electrolytes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The advanced chemical and physicochemical properties of these new polymers with their high oxidative stability, mechanical integrity and high glass transition temperatures (T g's up to 270 °C) and decomposition temperatures (T d's up to 480 °C) make them promising candidates for high and medium temperature proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. These copolymers exhibit adequate proton conductivities up to 0.08 S cm -1 even at moderate phosphoric acid doping levels. An optimized terpolymer chemical structure has been developed, which has been effectively tested as high temperature phosphoric acid imbibed polymer electrolyte. MEA prepared out of the novel terpolymer chemical structure is approaching state of the art fuel cell operating performance (135 mW cm -2 with electrical efficiency 45%) at high temperatures (150-180 °C) despite the low phosphoric acid content (<200 wt%) and the low platinum loading (ca. 0.7 mg cm -2). Durability tests were performed affording stable performance for more than 1000 h.

  9. Increasing the Thermal Conductivity of Graphene-Polyamide-6,6 Nanocomposites by Surface-Grafted Polymer Chains: Calculation with Molecular Dynamics and Effective-Medium Approximation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangyang; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2016-02-25

    By employing reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations in a full atomistic resolution, the effect of surface-grafted chains on the thermal conductivity of graphene-polyamide-6.6 (PA) nanocomposites has been investigated. The interfacial thermal conductivity perpendicular to the graphene plane is proportional to the grafting density, while it first increases and then saturates with the grafting length. Meanwhile, the intrinsic in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene drops sharply as the grafting density increases. The maximum overall thermal conductivity of nanocomposites appears at an intermediate grafting density because of these two competing effects. The thermal conductivity of the composite parallel to the graphene plane increases with the grafting density and grafting length which is attributed to better interfacial coupling between graphene and PA. There exists an optimal balance between grafting density and grafting length to obtain the highest interfacial and parallel thermal conductivity. Two empirical formulas are suggested, which quantitatively account for the effects of grafting length and density on the interfacial and parallel thermal conductivity. Combined with effective medium approximation, for ungrafted graphene in random orientation, the model overestimates the thermal conductivity at low graphene volume fraction (f < 10%) compared with experiments, while it underestimates it at high graphene volume fraction (f > 10%). For unoriented grafted graphene, the model matches the experimental results well. In short, this work provides some valuable guides to obtain the nanocomposites with high thermal conductivity by grafting chain on the surface of graphene.

  10. Evidence that the major metabolites accumulating in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency disturb mitochondrial energy homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Ferreira, Gustavo da Costa; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Zanatta, Angela; Klamt, Fábio; Wajner, Moacir

    2009-11-03

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation in which the affected patients predominantly present high levels of octanoic (OA) and decanoic (DA) acids and their glycine and carnitine by-products in tissues and body fluids. It is clinically characterized by episodic encephalopathic crises with coma and seizures, as well as by progressive neurological involvement, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro effects of OA and DA on various parameters of energy homeostasis in mitochondrial preparations from brain of young rats. We found that OA and DA markedly increased state 4 respiration and diminished state 3 respiration as well as the respiratory control ratio, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the matrix NAD(P)H levels. In addition, DA-elicited increase in oxygen consumption in state 4 respiration was partially prevented by atractyloside, indicating the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocator. OA and DA also reduced ADP/O ratio, CCCP-stimulated respiration and the activities of respiratory chain complexes. The data indicate that the major accumulating fatty acids in MCADD act as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and as metabolic inhibitors. Furthermore, DA, but not OA, provoked a marked mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, reflecting a permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Taken together, these data suggest that OA and DA impair brain mitochondrial energy homeostasis that could underlie at least in part the neuropathology of MCADD.

  11. Medium-chain triacylglycerol suppresses the decrease of plasma albumin level through the insulin-Akt-mTOR pathway in the livers of malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Seiji; Terada, Shin; Aoyama, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) improved serum albumin concentration in elderly people with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and in malnourished rats. However, the mechanism for this effect has not been clarified. Dietary MCT promotes insulin secretion from the pancreas, and insulin activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) via the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effecter, Akt. mTORC1 promotes mRNA translation through S6K and 4E-BP1. Therefore, we hypothesized that dietary MCT elevates albumin synthesis through promotion of insulin-Akt-mTOR transduction in the liver. To test this hypothesis, we measured phosphorylated Akt, mTOR and albumin in the livers of malnourished rats. In the present study we examined rats fed low-protein diets containing either MCT or long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) with energy restriction. The plasma and liver albumin levels were significantly higher in the MCT-fed group than in the LCT-fed group. In addition, plasma insulin concentration, liver phosphorylated Akt/Akt and phosphorylated mTOR/mTOR levels were significantly higher in the MCT-fed group than in the LCT-fed group. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms for the albumin improvement effect of dietary MCT is the promotion of albumin synthesis through the insulin-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway of the liver.

  12. Modulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 by replacing FabH with a Chaetoceros Ketoacyl-ACP synthase

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Huiya; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Davies, Fiona K.; ...

    2016-05-26

    The isolation or engineering of algal cells synthesizing high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) is attractive to mitigate the high clouding point of longer chain fatty acids in algal based biodiesel. To develop a more informed understanding of MCFA synthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms, we isolated several algae from Great Salt Lake and screened this collection for MCFA accumulation to identify strains naturally accumulating high levels of MCFA. A diatom, Chaetoceros sp. GSL56, accumulated particularly high levels of C14 (up to 40%), with the majority of C14 fatty acids allocated in triacylglycerols. Using whole cell transcriptome sequencing and de novomore » assembly, putative genes encoding fatty acid synthesis enzymes were identified. Enzymes from this Chaetoceros sp. were expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to validate gene function and to determine whether eukaryotic enzymes putatively lacking bacterial evolutionary control mechanisms could be used to improve MCFA production in this promising production strain. Replacement of the Synechococcus 7002 native FabH with a Chaetoceros ketoacyl-ACP synthase Ill increased MCFA synthesis up to fivefold. In conclusion, the level of increase is dependent on promoter strength and culturing conditions.« less

  13. Activation and repression of Epstein-Barr Virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycles by short- and medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gorres, Kelly L; Daigle, Derek; Mohanram, Sudharshan; Miller, George

    2014-07-01

    The lytic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are induced in cell culture by sodium butyrate (NaB), a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Valproic acid (VPA), another SCFA and an HDAC inhibitor, induces the lytic cycle of KSHV but blocks EBV lytic reactivation. To explore the hypothesis that structural differences between NaB and VPA account for their functional effects on the two related viruses, we investigated the capacity of 16 structurally related short- and medium-chain fatty acids to promote or prevent lytic cycle reactivation. SCFAs differentially affected EBV and KSHV reactivation. KSHV was reactivated by all SCFAs that are HDAC inhibitors, including phenylbutyrate. However, several fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as isobutyrate and phenylbutyrate, did not reactivate EBV. Reactivation of KSHV lytic transcripts could not be blocked completely by any fatty acid tested. In contrast, several medium-chain fatty acids inhibited lytic activation of EBV. Fatty acids that blocked EBV reactivation were more lipophilic than those that activated EBV. VPA blocked activation of the BZLF1 promoter by NaB but did not block the transcriptional function of ZEBRA. VPA also blocked activation of the DNA damage response that accompanies EBV lytic cycle activation. Properties of SCFAs in addition to their effects on chromatin are likely to explain activation or repression of EBV. We concluded that fatty acids stimulate the two related human gammaherpesviruses to enter the lytic cycle through different pathways. Importance: Lytic reactivation of EBV and KSHV is needed for persistence of these viruses and plays a role in carcinogenesis. Our direct comparison highlights the mechanistic differences in lytic reactivation between related human oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. Our findings have therapeutic implications, as fatty acids are found in the diet and produced by the human microbiota. Small

  14. Stability of triglyceride liquid films on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glasses.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Rosa; Nogueira, Rui; Orfão, Marta; Mata, José Luís; Saramago, Benilde

    2006-07-01

    Wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces by oily fluids were investigated in terms of the stability of the liquid film formed between an air bubble and the solid surface. With the objective of understanding how molecules with low polarity but relatively complex molecular structure behave at the solid/liquid interface, three liquid triglycerides with different chain length and saturation were chosen, namely, tributyrin, tricaprylin, and triolein. Tributyrin and tricaprylin exist in milkfat while triolein is present in vegetable oils. The stability of the liquid films may be inferred from the shape of the disjoining pressure isotherms, which represent the dependence of the disjoining pressure on the film thickness. Disjoining pressure isotherms for films of the three triglycerides on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glasses were obtained using a recently developed apparatus, based on the interferometric technique. The experimental curves are compared with the theoretical predictions of London-Hamaker. The deviations between theory and experiment are interpreted in terms of a structural component of the disjoining pressure. All triglycerides form metastable films on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic glasses which means that for disjoining pressures higher than a critical value, pi(c), a wetting transition occurs and the film ruptures. The mechanisms for film rupture are discussed and a correlation between film stability and the apolar (Lifshitz-van der Waals) and the polar components of the spreading coefficient is proposed.

  15. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  16. A Diet Rich in Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Improves Systolic Function and Alters the Lipidomic Profile in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Airhart, Sophia; Cade, W. Todd; Jiang, Hui; Coggan, Andrew R.; Racette, Susan B.; Korenblat, Kevin; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; O'Connor, Robert; Bashir, Adil; Ory, Daniel S.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Novak, Eric; Farmer, Marsha; Waggoner, Alan D.; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Javidan-Nejad, Cylen

    2016-01-01

    Context: Excessive cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) metabolism/storage causes cardiomyopathy in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are absorbed and oxidized efficiently. Data in animal models of diabetes suggest MCFAs may benefit the heart. Objective: Our objective was to test the effects of an MCFA-rich diet vs an LCFA-rich diet on plasma lipids, cardiac steatosis, and function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, 2-week matched-feeding study. Setting: The study included ambulatory patients in the general community. Patients: Sixteen patients, ages 37–65 years, with type 2 diabetes, an ejection fraction greater than 45%, and no other systemic disease were included. Intervention: Fourteen days of a diet rich in MCFAs or LCFAs, containing 38% as fat in total, was undertaken. Main Outcome Measures: Cardiac steatosis and function were the main outcome measures, with lipidomic changes considered a secondary outcome. Results: The relatively load-independent measure of cardiac contractility, S′, improved in the MCFA group (P < .05). Weight-adjusted stroke volume and cardiac output decreased in the LCFA group (both P < .05). The MCFA, but not the LCFA, diet decreased several plasma sphingolipids, ceramide, and acylcarnitines implicated in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and changes in several sphingolipids correlated with improved fasting insulins. Conclusions: Although a diet high in MCFAs does not change cardiac steatosis, our findings suggest that the MCFA-rich diet alters the plasma lipidome and may benefit or at least not harm cardiac function and fasting insulin levels in humans with type 2 diabetes. Larger, long-term studies are needed to further evaluate these effects in less-controlled settings. PMID:26652763

  17. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  18. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  19. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the bloodstream by way of lipoproteins (LDL and ...

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in air concentrations of short-chain (C10-C13) and medium-chain (C14-C17) chlorinated n-alkanes measured in the U.K. atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jonathan L; Sweetman, Andy J; Thomas, Gareth O; Braekevelt, Eric; Stern, Gary A; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-06-15

    Two studies were carried out on short-chain (C10-C13) and medium-chain (C14-C17) polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs and mPCAs) in U.K. air samples. The first study entailed taking 20 24-h air samples with a pair of Hi-Vol air samplers at the Hazelrigg field station, near Lancaster University. These samples were carefully selected to coincide with times when air masses were predicted to have a fairly constant back trajectory for 24 h and to give a broad spectrum of different origins. The second study was a spatial survey of PCAs in the air at 20 outdoor sites in northern England and four indoor locations in Lancaster, using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers. Levels of the sPCAs in the Hi-Vol samples ranged from <185 to 3430 pg m(-3) (average 1130 pg m(-3)) and were higher than those previously measured at this site in 1997. Levels of the mPCAs ranged from <811 to 14500 pg m(-3) (average 3040 pg m(-3)); that is, they were higher than sPCAs. Both sPCA and mPCA air concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as PAH at this site. Back trajectory analysis showed that the history of the air mass in the 48 h prior to sampling had an important effect on the concentrations observed, with overland samples having higher levels than oceanic, implying that the U.K. is probably responsible for most of the PCAs measured in the U.K. atmosphere. Amounts of both sPCAs and mPCAs in the passive air samples followed a rural-urban gradient. PCAs appear to be released from multiple sources around the country, as a result of the diffusive, open industrial and construction use of the technical mixtures.

  1. Structural and functional properties of a yeast xylitol dehydrogenase, a Zn2+-containing metalloenzyme similar to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Lunzer, R; Mamnun, Y; Haltrich, D; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    1998-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Galactocandida mastotermitis has been purified in high yield (80%) and characterized. Xylitol dehydrogenase is a heteronuclear multimetal protein that forms homotetramers and contains 1 mol of Zn2+ ions and 6 mol of Mg2+ ions per mol of 37.4 kDa protomer. Treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA results in the removal of the Zn2+ ions with a concomitant loss of enzyme activity. The Mg2+ ions are not essential for activity and are removed by chelation or extensive dialysis without affecting the stability of the enzyme. Results of initial velocity studies at steady state for d-sorbitol oxidation and d-fructose reduction together with the characteristic patterns of product inhibition point to a compulsorily ordered Theorell-Chance mechanism of xylitol dehydrogenase in which coenzyme binds first and leaves last. At pH 7.5, the binding of NADH (Ki approximately 10 microM) is approx. 80-fold tighter than that of NAD+. Polyhydroxyalcohols require at least five carbon atoms to be good substrates of xylitol dehydrogenase, and the C-2 (S), C-3 (R) and C-4 (R) configuration is preferred. Therefore xylitol dehydrogenase shares structural and functional properties with medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases. PMID:9806889

  2. Polyester hydrolytic and synthetic activity catalyzed by the medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerase from Streptomyces venezuelae SO1.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; Gangoiti, Joana; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin; Serra, Juan L; Llama, María J

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanote (MCL-PHA) depolymerase from an isolate identified as Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass and pI of the purified enzyme were approximately 27 kDa and 5.9, respectively. The depolymerase showed its maximum activity in the alkaline pH range and 50 °C and retained more than 70 % of its initial activity after 8 h at 40 °C. The MCL-PHA depolymerase hydrolyzes various p-nitrophenyl-alkanoates and polycaprolactone but not polylactide, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, and polyethylene succinate. The enzymatic activity was markedly enhanced by the presence of low concentrations of detergents and organic solvents, being inhibited by dithiothreitol and EDTA. The potential of using the enzyme to produce (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate in aqueous media or to catalyze ester-forming reactions in anhydrous media was investigated. In this sense, the MCL-PHA depolymerase catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate to monomeric units and the ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone and lactides, while ε-caprolactone and pentadecalactone were hardly polymerized.

  3. Dispersion of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) from a CP Production Plant to the Surrounding Surface Soils and Coniferous Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiazhi; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Zhan, Faqiang; Chen, Jiping

    2016-12-06

    Chlorinated paraffin (CP) production is one important emission source for short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the environment. In this study, 48 CP congener groups were measured in the surface soils and coniferous leaves collected from the inner and surrounding environment of a CP production plant that has been in operation for more than 30 years to investigate the dispersion and deposition behavior of SCCPs and MCCPs. The average concentrations of the sum of SCCPs and MCCPs in the in-plant coniferous leaves and surface soils were 4548.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 3481.8 ng g(-1) dw, which were 2-fold and 10-fold higher than those in the surrounding environment, respectively. The Gaussian air pollution model explained the spatial distribution of CPs in the coniferous leaves, whereas the dispersion of CPs to the surrounding surface soils fits the Boltzmann equation well. Significant fractionation effect was observed for the atmospheric dispersion of CPs from the production plant. CP congener groups with higher octanol-air partitioning coefficients (KOA) were more predominant in the in-plant environment, whereas the ones with lower KOA values had the elevated proportion in the surrounding environment. A radius of approximately 4 km from the CP production plant was influenced by the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of CPs.

  4. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    PubMed

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  5. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI) in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23) mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death. PMID:23095120

  6. Acquired intestinal lymphangiectasia successfully treated with a low-fat and medium-chain triacylglycerol-enriched diet in a patient with liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Biselli, Maurizio; Andreone, Pietro; Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Cursaro, Carmela; Lorenzini, Stefania; Bonvicini, Fiorenza; Bernardi, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is defined as a dilatation of small bowel lymphatic capillaries and a loss of lymph into the bowel lumen. Clinically it is characterized by hypoproteinaemia and oedema. We present here a case of protein-losing enteropathy due to intestinal lymphangiectasia after liver transplantation in a 57-year-old man who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus. Four years after liver transplantation, the patient developed hypoalbuminaemia and ascites associated with recurrence of cirrhosis. The sudden fall in serum albumin led us to look for a cause of reduction other than or in addition to cirrhosis. Duodenal biopsies showed tall villi with dilated lymphatic vessels and widening of the villi caused by oedema, demonstrating intestinal lymphangiectasia. In this case a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triacylglycerols achieved an early clinical improvement with increased serum albumin levels and ascites disappearance. Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected in liver-transplanted patients developing hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia after the recurrence of cirrhosis.

  7. Rheology of Hyperbranched Poly(triglyceride)-Based Thermoplastic Elastomers via RAFT polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mengguo; Cochran, Eric

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we discuss how melt- and solid-state properties are influenced by the degree of branching and molecular weight in a family of hyperbranched thermoplastics derived from soybean oil. Acrylated epoxidized triglycerides from soybean oils have been polymerized to hyperbranched thermoplastic elastomers using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. With the proper choice of chain transfer agent, both homopolymer and block copolymer can be synthesized. By changing the number of acrylic groups per triglycerides, the chain architectures can range from nearly linear to highly branched. We show how the fundamental viscoelastic properties (e.g. entanglement molecular weight, plateau modulus, etc.) are influenced by chain architecture and molecular weight.

  8. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane

  9. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  10. Improved production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in glucose-based fed-batch cultivations of metabolically engineered Pseudomonas putida strains.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Castro, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Andre Luis; Lam, Carolyn Ming Chi; Kessler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in metabolic engineering for enhanced synthesis of value-added chemicals is to design and develop new strains that can be translated into well-controlled fermentation processes using bioreactors. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various fed-batch strategies in the performance of metabolically engineered Pseudomonas putida strains, Δgcd and Δgcd-pgl, for improving production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) using glucose as the only carbon source. First we developed a fed-batch process that comprised an initial phase of biomass accumulation based on an exponential feeding carbon-limited strategy. For the mcl-PHA accumulation stage, three induction techniques were tested under nitrogen limitation. The substrate-pulse feeding was more efficient than the constant-feeding approach to promote the accumulation of the desirable product. Nonetheless, the most efficient approach for maximum PHA synthesis was the application of a dissolved-oxygen-stat feeding strategy (DO-stat), where P. putida Δgcd mutant strain showed a final PHA content and specific PHA productivity of 67% and 0.83 g·l(-1)·h(-1), respectively. To our knowledge, this mcl-PHA titer is the highest value that has been ever reported using glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. Our results also highlighted the effect of different fed-batch strategies upon the extent of realization of the intended metabolic modification of the mutant strains.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria

    2017-07-25

    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness.

  12. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in urban soils of Shanghai: spatial distribution, homologue group patterns and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Wang, Xi-Kui; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Lei; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Mei; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2014-08-15

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. Data on the presence of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in urban areas with dense population are still scarce to date. SCCPs and MCCPs were measured in urban soils from Shanghai to comprehensively investigate their levels, spatial distribution, homologue group patterns and ecological risk. The concentrations of CPs in soils varied from ND to 615 ng g(-1) with a median value of 15.7 ng g(-1) for SCCPs and from 1.95 to 188 ng g(-1) with a median value of 7.98 ng g(-1) for MCCPs, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in most soils were higher than those of MCCPs. The total CP concentrations in soil samples were between 4.10 and 625 ng g(-1) with a median value of 26.4 ng g(-1). For different functional zones, the median concentrations of soil CPs were found higher in green land including park, greenbelt and campus than those in roadside. The highest concentrations of CPs in soils could be derived from sewage sludge application and wastewater irrigation for green land. Three types of soils were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for SCCPs and MCCPs, the most abundant homologue groups in the bulk of the soil samples were C11Cl5-7 and C13Cl5-7 for SCCPs, and C14Cl7-8 and C15Cl7-8 for MCCPs. Correlation analysis and PCA suggested that SCCPs and MCCPs in soils in the studied area derived from different sources. The preliminary ecological risk assessment indicates that soil CPs at present levels poses no significant ecological risk for soil-dwelling organisms.

  13. Data mining methods for classification of Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) using non-derivatized tandem MS neonatal screening data.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulcke, Tim; Vanden Broucke, Paul; Van Hoof, Viviane; Wouters, Kristien; Vanden Broucke, Seppe; Smits, Geert; Smits, Elke; Proesmans, Sam; Van Genechten, Toon; Eyskens, François

    2011-04-01

    Newborn screening programs for severe metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry are widely used. Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most prevalent mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect (1:15,000 newborns) and it has been proven that early detection of this metabolic disease decreases mortality and improves the outcome. In previous studies, data mining methods on derivatized tandem MS datasets have shown high classification accuracies. However, no machine learning methods currently have been applied to datasets based on non-derivatized screening methods. A dataset with 44,159 blood samples was collected using a non-derivatized screening method as part of a systematic newborn screening by the PCMA screening center (Belgium). Twelve MCADD cases were present in this partially MCADD-enriched dataset. We extended three data mining methods, namely C4.5 decision trees, logistic regression and ridge logistic regression, with a parameter and threshold optimization method and evaluated their applicability as a diagnostic support tool. Within a stratified cross-validation setting, a grid search was performed for each model for a wide range of model parameters, included variables and classification thresholds. The best performing model used ridge logistic regression and achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 99.987% and a positive predictive value of 32% (recalibrated for a real population), obtained in a stratified cross-validation setting. These results were further validated on an independent test set. Using a method that combines ridge logistic regression with variable selection and threshold optimization, a significantly improved performance was achieved compared to the current state-of-the-art for derivatized data, while retaining more interpretability and requiring less variables. The results indicate the potential value of data mining methods as a diagnostic support tool.

  14. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl.

  15. Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects and Mode of Action of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Combination with Organic Acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic bactericidal effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) and organic acids (OAs; acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acid) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to identify their underlying mechanism(s) of action. E. coli O157:H7 was treated with MCFAs, OAs, or different combinations of MCFAs and OAs. Membrane damage and cell morphology were examined by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Combined treatment resulted in an additional log-unit reduction compared with the sum of the reductions obtained after individual treatment. For example, caprylic acid (1.0 mM, or 0.016%) and citric acid (1.0 mM, or 0.012%) alone showed negligible bactericidal effects (0.30- and 0.06-log-unit reductions, respectively); however, a marked synergistic effect (>7.15-log-unit reduction) was observed when the two were combined. Although flow cytometry and microscopic analyses of bacteria treated with individual MCFAs and OAs showed evidence of membrane disruption, the bacteria were still able to form colonies; thus, the cell damage was recoverable. In contrast, cells exposed to combined treatments showed clear membrane disintegration and/or cell death (irreversible damage). The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effects of combined treatment with MCFAs or OAs may involve disruption of the bacterial membrane, which then facilitates the entry of other antimicrobial compounds into the cytoplasm. The main advantage of combined treatment with very low concentrations of natural antimicrobial compounds is that it is very cost-effective. Thus, this approach may be an alternative to more conventional antimicrobial treatments, such as those currently used in public health, medical centers, and the food industry. PMID:23956396

  16. Temporal Trends and Pattern Changes of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine Mammals from the South China Sea over the Past Decade.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin; Lam, Paul K S

    2015-10-06

    Temporal trends of short- (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) were examined in blubber samples of 50 finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and 25 Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) collected from the South China Sea between 2004 and 2014. Elevated levels of SCCPs and MCCPs were detected in all blubber samples of both cetacean species. Concentrations of SCCPs ranged from 280 to 3900 ng·g(-1) dry weight (dw) in porpoises and from 430 to 9100 ng·g(-1) dw in dolphins, while concentrations of MCCPs ranged from 320 to 8600 ng·g(-1) dw in porpoises and from 530 to 23 000 ng·g(-1) dw in dolphins. Significantly higher concentrations were present in dolphins than porpoises due to their exposure levels in their living habitats. Strongly linear correlations existed between SCCPs and MCCPs, but there were no significant concentration differences between the genders of the two cetacean species in the same sampling year. Significantly temporal increasing trends of ∑SCCPs and ∑MCCPs have been observed in both porpoise and dolphin samples over the past decade, which reflect the influence of histories of production and usage on the bioaccumulation of CPs in marine mammals in China. An apparent temporal shift trend from SCCPs to MCCPs was also observed in CP accumulation profiles. Complex environmental fractionation from localized sources in the study region via atmospheric transport, oceanic/offshore water transport, and trophic transfer have resulted in different CP accumulation levels and homologue patterns in the two cetacean species. This is the first report of systematic temporal trends of SCCPs and MCCPs in marine mammals.

  17. Acylcarnitine profiles during carnitine loading and fasting tests in a Japanese patient with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kyoko; Ito, Tetsuya; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Yoko; Ueta, Akihito; Nomura, Takayasu; Koyama, Norihisa; Kato, Ineko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kurono, Yukihisa; Sugiyama, Naruji; Togari, Hajime

    2007-12-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is rare among Asian individuals, and the clinical course and biochemical findings remain unclear. We report herein a 3-year-old Japanese girl with MCADD. The diagnosis was suggested by acylcarnitine profiles and confirmed by enzyme activity and genetic analysis after clinical presentation. Our described method with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry allows quantification of levels of n-octanoylcarnitine (C8-N) and other isomers (e.g. valproylcarnitine). We examined the patient's acylcarnitine profiles in serum and urine samples during carnitine loading and 14-hr fasting tests with/without carnitine supplementation. Under hypocarnitinemia, serum level of C8-N was 0.16 micromol/l and C8-N/decanoylcarnitine (C10) ratio was 1.8, which did not correspond to the diagnostic criteria for MCADD. However, intravenous carnitine loading test (100 mg/kg/day for 3 days and 50 mg/kg/day for 1 day) led to increased serum C8-N levels and urinary excretion was obvious, strongly suggesting MCADD. In the fasting test with carnitine supplementation, marked production of acylcarnitines (C8-N > C2 > C6 > C10) was found, compared to the fasting test without carnitine supplementation. These results indicate that carnitine supplementation may be useful for detoxification of accumulated acylcarnitines even in an asymptomatic state. Moreover, the one-point examination for serum C8-N level and/or C8-N/C10 ratio may make the diagnosis of MCADD difficult, particularly in the presence of significant hypocarnitinemia. To avoid this pitfall, attention should be given to serum levels of free carnitine, and carnitine loading may be demanded in hypocarnitinemia.

  18. Medium-chain TAG attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in intra-uterine growth-retarded weanling piglets by improving the metabolic efficiency of the glutathione redox cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yueping; Li, Yue; Yang, Li; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Tian

    2014-09-28

    The present study investigated the effects of medium-chain TAG (MCT) on hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). At weaning (mean 21 (SD 1·06) d of age), twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weight (BW; IUGR: mean 0·95 (SD 0·04) kg; NBW: mean 1·58 (SD 0·04) kg) and weight at the time of weaning (IUGR: mean 5·26 (SD 0·15) kg; NBW: mean 6·98 (SD 0·19) kg) and fed either a soyabean oil (SO) diet (containing 5% SO) or a MCT diet (containing 1% SO and 4% MCT) for 28 d. IUGR piglets exhibited poor (P<0·05) growth performance, lower (P<0·05) metabolic efficiency of hepatic glutathione (GSH) redox cycle, and increased (P<0·05) levels of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes compared with NBW piglets. The MCT diet increased (P<0·05) the average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets during the first 4 weeks after weaning. Furthermore, MCT diet-fed piglets had a higher (P<0·05) GSH:oxidised glutathione ratio and increased (P<0·05) activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and GSH reductase. The expression of G6PD was up-regulated (P<0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and apoptosis and necrosis levels in hepatocytes were decreased (P<0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. These results indicate that MCT might have auxiliary therapeutic potential to attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in IUGR offspring during early life, thus leading to an improvement in the metabolic efficiency of the hepatic GSH redox cycle.

  19. [Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and abetalipoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Berriot-Varoqueaux, N; Aggerbeck, L P; Samson-Bouma, M

    2000-05-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a dimeric protein complex consisting of protein disulfide isomerase and a unique 97 kDa subunit. In vitro, MTP accelerates the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between vesicles. It was recently demonstrated that abetalipoproteinemia, a disease characterized as an inability to produce chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins in the intestine and liver, respectively, is the result of a genetic absence of MTP. Downstream effects resulting from this defect, include very low plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, absence of plasma apolipoprotein B and a lipid malabsorption syndrome, leading to lipo-soluble vitamin deficiencies. A low fat diet is instituted to eliminate the diarrhea. In addition, a therapy with vitamins A and E is essential to prevent patients from developing secondary effects such as neuropathy, muscle weakness, and retinopathy.

  20. The control of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in rat epididymal adipose tissue. Roles of coenzyme A derivatives, citrate and l-glycerol 3-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Denton, R. M.; Halperin, M. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. Methods are described for the extraction and assay of acetyl-CoA and of total acid-soluble and total acid-insoluble CoA derivatives in rat epididymal adipose tissue. 2. The concentration ranges of the CoA derivatives in fat pads incubated in vitro under various conditions were: total acid-soluble CoA, 0·20–0·59mm; total acid-insoluble CoA, 0·08–0·23mm; acetyl-CoA, 0·03–0·14mm. 3. An investigation was made of some postulated mechanisms of control of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. The concentrations of intermediates of possible regulatory significance were measured at various rates of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis produced by the addition to the incubation medium (Krebs bicarbonate buffer containing glucose) of insulin, adrenaline, albumin, palmitate or acetate. 4. The whole-tissue concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, l-glycerol 3-phosphate, citrate, acetyl-CoA, total acid-soluble CoA and total acid-insoluble CoA were assayed after 30 or 60min. incubation. The rates of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, calculated from the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into fatty acids and glyceride glycerol respectively, and the rates of glucose uptake, lactate plus pyruvate output and glycerol output were measured over a 60min. incubation. 5. The rate of triglyceride synthesis could not be correlated with the concentrations of either l-glycerol 3-phosphate or long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (measured as total acid-insoluble CoA). Factor(s) other than the whole-tissue concentrations of these recognized precursors appear to be involved in the determination of the rate of triglyceride synthesis. 6. No relationship was found between the rate of fatty acid synthesis and the whole-tissue concentrations of the intermediates, citrate or acetyl-CoA, or with the two proposed effectors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, citrate (as activator) or long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (as inhibitor). The control of fatty acid synthesis

  1. Increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase index and triglyceride content in the liver of rats after a single bout of swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is closely related to improved insulin resistance. We investigated whether the SCD indices in tissues were influenced by a single-endurance exercise and low content of dietary medium-chain fatty acid (FA). Wistar rats were fed a long-chain (S) or medium- and long-chain FA (M) diet for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were further assigned to two sub-groups (sedentary, Sed; exercise, Ex). These groups were defined as S-Sed, S-Ex, M-Sed, and M-Ex. The rats in the exercise groups were subjected to swimming exercise for 4 h, and tissue samples were obtained. The exercise significantly increased the triglyceride (TG) content and SCD index only in the liver. In contrast, no such changes were apparent by intake of the M diet. A single bout of endurance exercise increased the hepatic TG content and SCD index which might be effective in protecting against insulin resistance.

  2. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  3. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  4. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  5. The tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of two nuclear genes encoding rat mitochondrial proteins. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Gordon, J I; Alpers, R; Strauss, A W

    1989-11-15

    To study the regulation of nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism, absolute levels of mRNA encoding rat medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) were determined in developing and adult male rat tissues. MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of adult male tissues with highest steady state levels in heart, adrenal, and skeletal muscle and lowest levels in brain, lung, and testes. In comparison, steady state levels of mMDH mRNA in adult male rat tissues were similar to those of MCAD mRNA in heart, small intestine, adrenal, and skeletal muscle but markedly different in brain, stomach, and testes. Thus, the steady-state levels of MCAD and mMDH mRNA are highest in adult tissues with high energy requirements. Dot blot analysis of RNA prepared from late fetal, suckling, and weaning rat heart, liver, and brain demonstrated the presence of MCAD and mMDH mRNA during the fetal period in all three tissues. Both MCAD and mMDH mRNA levels increased 2-2.5-fold at birth followed by a decline during the first postnatal week in heart and liver. The patterns of accumulation of these mRNAs in heart and liver during the weaning and early adult periods were also similar, although the absolute levels were significantly different. Brain MCAD mRNA levels were consistently low (less than 0.1 pg/micrograms total cellular RNA) throughout the developmental stages. However, brain mMDH mRNA levels exhibited a marked increase during the weaning period, reaching a peak concentration which is higher than the level of mMDH mRNA in heart and liver at any point during development. These results indicate that the level of expression of the nuclear genes encoding MCAD and mMDH is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. The patterns of MCAD and mMDH mRNA accumulation parallel the changes in energy metabolism which occur during development and among adult tissues.

  6. Medium-chain fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol by regulating the metabolism of bile acid in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xinsheng; Xu, Qing; Yang, Xueyan; Xue, Changyong

    2017-01-25

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group. All mice were fed with a high fat diet. After 16 weeks, the mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The mouse portal vein blood, the liver and the start site of the ileum (1 cm) were collected. The body weight of the mice and blood lipid profiles were measured. Gene transcription and the expression level associated with bile acid metabolism in the liver and small intestine were determined by real-time PCR and the western blotting method. The concentrations of bile acid metabolites in bile and feces were analysed. After 16 weeks of treatment, the concentrations of TC and LDL-C in the caprylic acid group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid and capric acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the liver (P < 0.05), however the transcription and expression level of the small heterodimer partner (SHP) were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid, capric acid and oleic acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the small intestine (P < 0.05). The concentrations of total bile acid, mainly cholic acid and cholesterol in bile and feces were significantly higher in the caprylic and capric acid groups than

  7. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  8. Loss of both phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in abetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Irani; Walsh, Meghan T; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) cause abetalipoproteinemia (ABL), characterized by the absence of plasma apoB-containing lipoproteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of various MTP missense mutations found in ABL patients with respect to their expression, subcellular location, and interaction with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In addition, we characterized functional properties by analyzing phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities and studied their ability to support apoB secretion. All the mutants colocalized with calnexin and interacted with PDI. We found that R540H and N780Y, known to be deficient in triglyceride transfer activity, also lacked phospholipid transfer activity. Novel mutants S590I and G746E did not transfer triglycerides and phospholipids and did not assist in apoB secretion. In contrast, D384A displayed both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities and supported apoB secretion. These studies point out that ABL is associated with the absence of both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities in MTP.

  9. Very low density lipoproteins in intestinal lymph: role in triglyceride and cholesterol transport during fat absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Hughes, Faith B.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1969-01-01

    The role of nonchylomicron very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf 20-400) in the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol was studied during lipid absorption. Various long chain fatty acids were infused intraduodenally in the form of mixed fatty acid—mono-olein-taurocholate micelles; control animals received saline or taurocholate. As compared with controls, all fatty acids (palmitic, oleic, linoleic) resulted in significant increases in chylomicron (Sf > 400) triglyceride. In addition, palmitic acid resulted in a twofold increase in VLDL triglyceride, whereas with the absorption of oleic or linoleic acid VLDL triglyceride did not change significantly. Differences in triglyceride fatty acid composition between chylomicrons and VLDL were observed during lipid absorption. Although the absolute amount of endogenous cholesterol in intestinal lymph was not significantly affected by lipid absorption under these conditions, its lipoprotein distribution differed substantially among the lipid-infused groups. During palmitate absorption, VLDL cholesterol was similar to that in the taurocholate-infused controls, and was equal to chylomicron cholesterol. In contrast, during oleate and linoleate absorption the VLDL cholesterol fell markedly, and was less than half of the chylomicron cholesterol in these groups. The half-time of plasma survival of VLDL cholesterol-14C was found to be twice that of chylomicron cholesterol-14C. These studies demonstrate that dietary long chain fatty acids differ significantly in their effects upon the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol by lipoproteins of rat intestinal lymph. These findings, together with the observed differences in rates of removal of chylomicrons and VLDL from plasma, suggest that variations in lipoprotein production at the intestinal level may be reflected in differences in the subsequent metabolism of absorbed dietary and endogenous lipids. PMID:5355348

  10. Biopolymer from microbial assisted in situ hydrolysis of triglycerides and dimerization of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, V; Radhakrishnan, N; Madhavacharyulu, E; Sailakshmi, G; Sekaran, G; Reddy, B S R; Rajkumar, G Suseela; Gnanamani, Arumugam

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates biopolymer production by in situ bio-based dimerization of fatty acids by microorganism isolated from marine sediments. Microbial isolate grown in Zobell medium in the presence of triglycerides for the period of 24-240 h at 37 degrees C, hydrolyze the applied triglycerides and sequentially dimerized the hydrolyzed products and subsequently polymerized and transformed to a biopolymer having appreciable adhesive properties. Physical (nature, odour, stickyness and tensile strength), chemical (instrumentation) and biochemical (cell free broth) methods of analyses carried out provided the hypotheses involved in the formation of the product as well as the nature of the product formed. Results revealed, lipolytic enzymes released during initial period of growth and the biosurfactant production during later period, respectively, hydrolyze the applied triglycerides and initiate the dimerization and further accelerated when the incubation period extended. The existence and the non-existence of in situ hydrolysis of various triglycerides followed by dimerization and polymerization and the mechanism of transformation of triglycerides to biopolymer are discussed in detail.

  11. Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

    2011-06-01

    While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC₅₀. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation.

  12. INTESTINAL TRIGLYCERIDE ABSORPTION IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Cardell, Robert R.; Badenhausen, Susan; Porter, Keith R.

    1967-01-01

    This report provides information on the morphology of fat absorption in rat intestinal epithelial cells. Three types of experiments were performed: (a) intubation of corn oil into fasted rats, (b) injection of physiological fatty-chyme prepared from fat-fed donor rats into ligated segments of jejunum of fasted animals, and (c) administration of electron-opaque particles in corn oil and markers given concurrently with the fat. These results support the hypothesis that fat is absorbed by selective diffusion of monoglycerides and fatty acids from micelles rather than by pinocytosis of unhydrolized triglycerides. Evidence is presented that the pits between the microvilli, previously believed to function in the transport of fat, are not involved in this process. Instead they appear to contribute their contents to lysosomes in the apical cytoplasm. Arguments are offered that the monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse from the micelle while the latter is associated with the microvillous membrane of the absorptive cell. These micellar components penetrate the plasma membrane and diffuse into the cytoplasmic matrix where they encounter the SER. Triglyceride synthesis occurs in the SER and results in the deposition of fat droplets within its lumina. The synthesis of triglycerides and their sequestration into the SER establishes an inward diffusion gradient of monoglycerides and fatty acids. PMID:6033529

  13. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  14. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause a rise in cholesterol and triglycerides. Older beta blockers, such as propranolol (Inderal, Innopran XL), atenolol (Tenormin) ... around the abdomen Abnormal cholesterol and triglycerides Newer beta blockers, such as carvedilol (Coreg) and nebivolol (Bystolic), are ...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

  19. PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and
    model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized
    with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were
    predicted utilizing the F...

  20. Triglycerides: how much credit do they deserve?

    PubMed

    Kohli, Payal; Cannon, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    In the modern era of statin therapy, major advances have been made in treating coronary heart disease. However, despite intensive treatment with statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk persists and has been attributed to the persistence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and, in part, elevated triglycerides (TGs). In this review, the authors focus on the mechanism of elevated TGs and provide a discussion of the challenges of measuring TGs as a biomarker, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic heart disease, and results of several recent studies that have elucidated the relationship between TGs and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Multiple functions of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) was first identified as a major cellular protein capable of transferring neutral lipids between membrane vesicles. Its role as an essential chaperone for the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was established after the realization that abetalipoproteinemia patients carry mutations in the MTTP gene resulting in the loss of its lipid transfer activity. Now it is known that it also plays a role in the biosynthesis of CD1, glycolipid presenting molecules, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol ester biosynthesis. In this review, we will provide a historical perspective about the identification, purification and characterization of MTP, describe methods used to measure its lipid transfer activity, and discuss tissue expression and function. Finally, we will review the role MTP plays in the assembly of apoB-lipoprotein, the regulation of cholesterol ester synthesis, biosynthesis of CD1 proteins and propagation of hepatitis C virus. We will also provide a brief overview about the clinical potentials of MTP inhibition. PMID:22353470

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPARα agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPARα agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

  3. Dietary accumulation and quantitative structure-activity relationships for depuration and biotransformation of short (C{sub 10}), medium (C{sub 14}), and long (C{sub 18}) carbon-chain polychlorinated alkanes by juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A.T.; Tomy, G.T.; Cymbalisty, C.D.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to three [{sup 14}C]-polychlorinated alkanes at nominal concentrations of 1.5 and 15 {micro}g/g for 40 d, followed by 160 d of clean food, to measure bioaccumulation parameters and biotransformation. These PCSs are identical in carbon-chain length and chlorine content to industrial chlorinated paraffin products, although their method of synthesis differs from that of chlorinated paraffin products. Half-lives ranged from 26 to 91 d, biomagnification factors ranged from 0.9 to 2.8, and both exhibited increasing trends with increasing carbon-chain length. Data from this work and others on PCAs were used to determine biotransformation rates and to examine quantitative structure-activity relationships for bioaccumulation and biotransformation. Quantitative structure-activity relationships developed for half-life and biomagnification factor showed positive linear relationships with the number of carbon atoms, or chlorine atoms, of total carbon and chlorine atoms, and log K{sub ow}. The PCA biotransformation rates (per day) ranged from -0.00028 to 8.4 and exhibited negative relationships with the number of carbon atoms, of chlorine atoms, of total carbon and chlorine atoms, and log K{sub ow}. Results suggest that PCAs with a total number of carbon and chlorine atoms between 22 and 30 are slowly, or are not, biotransformed in juvenile rainbow trout. Increasing carbon-chain length and chlorine content result in greater bioaccumulation of PCAs by reducing partition-based (i.e., diffusion) and metabolic (i.e., biotransformation) elimination processes. High bioaccumulation potential and low biotransformation rates of medium (C{sub 14--18}) and long (C{sub 18--30}) carbon-chain PCAs and highly chlorinated PCAs indicate that information is needed regarding the environmental concentrations of these PCAs in aquatic food chains.

  4. Regulation of triglyceride metabolism by glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that play critical and complex roles in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. Depending on physiological states, glucocorticoids can modulate both TG synthesis and hydrolysis. More intriguingly, glucocorticoids can concurrently affect these two processes in adipocytes. The metabolic effects of glucocorticoids are conferred by intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). GR is a transcription factor that, upon binding to glucocorticoids, regulates the transcriptional rate of specific genes. These GR primary target genes further initiate the physiological and pathological responses of glucocorticoids. In this article, we overview glucocorticoid-regulated genes, especially those potential GR primary target genes, involved in glucocorticoid-regulated TG metabolism. We also discuss transcriptional regulators that could act with GR to participate in these processes. This knowledge is not only important for the fundamental understanding of steroid hormone actions, but also are essential for future therapeutic interventions against metabolic diseases associated with aberrant glucocorticoid signaling, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity and hepatic steatosis. PMID:22640645

  5. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified.

  6. Regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L.-F.; Purushotham, A.; Wendel, A. A.; Koba, K.; DeIuliis, J.; Lee, K.; Belury, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the mechanism by which rosiglitazone regulates adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with rosiglitazone daily (10 mg/kg body weight), and adipose tissues were weighed and preserved for mRNA and protein analysis of ATGL. In parallel, preadipocyte (3T3-L1) cells were differentiated with insulin/dexamethasone/3-isobutyl-1-methlxanthine cocktail or rosiglitazone, and ATGL levels were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Rosiglitazone concomitantly promoted differentiation of pre-adipocytes to functional adipocytes and induced mRNA levels of ATGL. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether significantly abrogated the induction of mRNA, but not protein levels of ATGL by rosiglitazone in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the presence of epinephrine rosiglitazone stimulated free fatty acid release and increased diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) mRNA suggest that ATGL and DGAT-1 may be cooperatively involved in rosiglitazone-stimulated triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with rosiglitazone or insulin did not appear to alter localization of ATGL staining surrounding lipid droplets. Finally, we found that rosiglitazone increased ATGL mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone regulation of ATGL occurs at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Rosiglitazone directly regulates transcription of ATGL, likely through a PPARγ-mediated mechanism. PMID:18643838

  7. Successful Treatment of Cardiomyopathy due to Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: First Case Report from Oman with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharef, Sharef Waadallah; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Joshi, Surendra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MIM 201475) is a severe defect of mitochondrial energy production from oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids. This inherited metabolic disorder often presents in early neonatal period with episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia usually responding well to intravenous glucose infusion. These babies are often discharged without establishment of diagnosis but return by 2-5 months of age with severe and progressive cardiac failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without hepatic failure and steatosis. An early diagnosis and treatment with high concentration medium chain triglycerides based feeding formula can be life saving in such patients. Here, we report the first diagnosed and treated case of Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Oman. This infant developed heart failure with left ventricular dilation, hypertrophy and pericardial effusion at the age of 7 weeks. Prompt diagnosis and subsequent intervention with medium chain triglycerides-based formula resulted in a reversal of severe clinical symptoms with significant improvement of cardiac status. This treatment also ensured normal growth and neurodevelopment. It is stressed that the disease must be recognized by the pediatricians and cardiologists since the disease can be identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; therefore, it should be considered to be included in expanded newborn screening program, allowing early diagnosis and intervention in order to ensure better outcome and prevent complications. PMID:24044064

  8. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure triglyceride (neutral fat) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in... diseases involving lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic monitor of triglyceride hydrolysis in a skin pore phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Millicent K.; Morris, Michael D.

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial hydrolysis of triglycerides is followed in a sebum probe phantom by microprobe surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The phantom consists of a purpose-built syringe pump operating at physiological flow rates connected to a 300 micron i.d. capillary. We employ silicon substrate SERS microprobes to monitor the hydrolysis products. The silicon support allows some tip flexibility that makes these probes ideal for insertion into small structures. Propionibacterium acnes are immobilized on the inner surface of the capillary. These bacteria hydrolyze the triglycerides in a model sebum emulsion flowing through the capillary. The transformation is followed in vitro as changes in the SERS caused by hydrolysis of triglyceride to fatty acid. The breakdown products consists of a mixture of mono- and diglycerides and their parent long chain fatty acids. The fatty acids adsorb as their carboxylates and can be readily identified by their characteristic spectra. The technique can also confirm the presence of bacteria by detection of short chain carboxylic acids released as products of glucose fermentation during the growth cycle of these cells. Co-adsorption of propionate is observed. Spatial localization of the bacteria is obtained by ex-situ line imaging of the probe.

  10. Unique plasma metabolomic signatures of individuals with inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    McCoin, Colin S; Piccolo, Brian D; Knotts, Trina A; Matern, Dietrich; Vockley, Jerry; Gillingham, Melanie B; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Blood and urine acylcarnitine profiles are commonly used to diagnose long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD: i.e., long-chain hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [LCHAD] and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 [CPT2] deficiency), but the global metabolic impact of long-chain FAOD has not been reported. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to characterize plasma metabolites in 12 overnight-fasted individuals with FAOD (10 LCHAD, two CPT2) and 11 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls, with the caveat that individuals with FAOD consume a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) while matched controls consume a typical American diet. In plasma 832 metabolites were identified, and partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) identified 114 non-acylcarnitine variables that discriminated FAOD subjects and controls. FAOD individuals had significantly higher triglycerides and lower specific phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides, and sphingomyelins. Differences in phosphatidylcholines were also found but the directionality differed by metabolite species. Further, there were few differences in non-lipid metabolites, indicating the metabolic impact of FAOD specifically on lipid pathways. This analysis provides evidence that LCHAD/CPT2 deficiency significantly alters complex lipid pathway flux. This metabolic signature may provide new clinical tools capable of confirming or diagnosing FAOD, even in subjects with a mild phenotype, and may provide clues regarding the biochemical and metabolic impact of FAOD that is relevant to the etiology of FAOD symptoms.

  11. Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Hanna, Charles B.; Sandt, Christophe; MacDonald, Adam J.; MacEachern, Ronald; Corkery, Robert; Rousseau, Dérick

    2010-02-01

    We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of ˜120° between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h∗-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h∗ conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T∗=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy ΔH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of ΔH in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h∗ model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h∗ model gave a value of ΔH that was too small by a factor of ˜3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman

  12. Fasting and nonfasting triglycerides in cardiovascular and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Blahová, T

    2015-01-01

    Moderately elevated plasma/serum triglycerides (2-10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for cardiovascular disease or presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Extremely elevated triglycerides (more than 10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The concentration of triglycerides is regulated by many genetic and nongenetic factors. Extremely elevated triglycerides not provoked by nutritional factors, especially inappropriate alcohol intake are more likely to have a monogenic cause. On the contrary, mildly to moderately elevated triglycerides are often caused by polygenic disorders; these could be also associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Concentration of triglycerides is also closely interconnected with presence of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, impaired reverse cholesterol transport and more atherogenic small LDL particles. In general, there is tight association between triglycerides and many other metabolic factors including intermediate products of lipoprotein metabolism which are frequently atherogenic. Therefore, reliable evaluation of the independent role of triglycerides especially in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease is difficult. In individual cases values of HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol (total minus HDL cholesterol), non-HDL/nonLDL cholesterol (total minus HDL minus LDL cholesterol, especially in nonfasting status), atherogenic index of plasma and/or apolipoprotein B could help in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment.

  13. Medium- and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene and protein families : the SDR superfamily: functional and structural diversity within a family of metabolic and regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, K L; Jörnvall, H; Persson, B; Oppermann, U

    2008-12-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a large family of NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases, sharing sequence motifs and displaying similar mechanisms. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactor, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. Sequence identities are low, and the most conserved feature is an alpha/beta folding pattern with a central beta sheet flanked by 2 - 3 alpha-helices from each side, thus a classical Rossmannfold motif for nucleotide binding. The conservation of this element and an active site, often with an Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys tetrad, provides a platform for enzymatic activities encompassing several EC classes, including oxidoreductases, epimerases and lyases. The common mechanism is an underlying hydride and proton transfer involving the nicotinamide and typically an active site tyrosine residue, whereas substrate specificity is determined by a variable C-terminal segment. Relationships exist with bacterial haloalcohol dehalogenases, which lack cofactor binding but have the active site architecture, emphasizing the versatility of the basic fold in also generating hydride transfer-independent lyases. The conserved fold and nucleotide binding emphasize the role of SDRs as scaffolds for an NAD(P)(H) redox sensor system, of importance to control metabolic routes, transcription and signalling.

  14. Interference of an anesthetic preparation with plasma triglyceride determinations.

    PubMed

    Hata, Y; Shigematsu, H; Tonomo, Y; Ehata, Y; Goto, Y; Miyajima, E

    1978-06-01

    A marked elevation in plasma triglycerides is observed when experimental animals are anesthetized with a pentobarbital sodium injection (Nembutal), a most widely used anesthetic in animal experiments. This is proven, however, to be a false rise due to the interference of propylene glycol present in the solvent of the injection with the plasma triglyceride determinations. One mole of propylene glycol produces one mole of formaldehyde by oxidation. The formaldehyde thus generated from propylene glycol mixes with those from glycerol moiety of plasma triglycerides, and gives an enhanced color reaction to all chromogenic reactions with formaldehyde. Since most of the chemical methods for plasma triglyceride determination is based on either one of these color reactions, we have to pay attention to a hypertriglyceridemia due to such influence as exerted by a solvent additive of propylene glycol upon the triglyceride measurements.

  15. Occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhou, Hongqiang; Na, Guangshui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Jiping

    2014-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were measured in air samples at a remote air monitoring site established in Georgia King Island, Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica (Great Wall Station, China) to study the long-range atmospheric transport of these anthropogenic pollutants to the Antarctic. Gas- and particle-phase CPs were collected using polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) and glass fiber filters (GFF) respectively during summertime of 2012. The total atmospheric levels of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 9.6 to 20.8 pg m-3 (average: 14.9 pg m-3) and 3.7-5.2 pg m-3 (average: 4.5 pg m-3), respectively. C10 and C11 carbon chain homologues with Cl5 and Cl6 chlorine atoms predominated in SCCP formula groups both in gas- and particle-phase. Significant linear correlation was found between gas/particle partition coefficients (KP) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (pL°) (R2 = 0.437, p < 0.01), as well as KP and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) (R2 = 0.442, p < 0.01). Absolute slope values of two regression models (0.31 and 0.39) were less than 0.6 indicating that the way of absorption into organic matter of aerosol played a more important role on atmospheric partitioning and transferring of CPs in remote Antarctic area. Both the Junge-Pankow model and the KOA-based model tended to underestimate the sorption of lower chlorinated CPs and overestimate the sorption of highly chlorinated CPs.

  16. Modulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 by replacing FabH with a Chaetoceros Ketoacyl-ACP synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Huiya; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Davies, Fiona K.; Sisson, Lyle A.; Schneider, Philip E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2016-05-26

    The isolation or engineering of algal cells synthesizing high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) is attractive to mitigate the high clouding point of longer chain fatty acids in algal based biodiesel. To develop a more informed understanding of MCFA synthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms, we isolated several algae from Great Salt Lake and screened this collection for MCFA accumulation to identify strains naturally accumulating high levels of MCFA. A diatom, Chaetoceros sp. GSL56, accumulated particularly high levels of C14 (up to 40%), with the majority of C14 fatty acids allocated in triacylglycerols. Using whole cell transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly, putative genes encoding fatty acid synthesis enzymes were identified. Enzymes from this Chaetoceros sp. were expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to validate gene function and to determine whether eukaryotic enzymes putatively lacking bacterial evolutionary control mechanisms could be used to improve MCFA production in this promising production strain. Replacement of the Synechococcus 7002 native FabH with a Chaetoceros ketoacyl-ACP synthase Ill increased MCFA synthesis up to fivefold. In conclusion, the level of increase is dependent on promoter strength and culturing conditions.

  17. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  18. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Schweiger, Martina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Zechner, Rudolf; Portillo, María del Puy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to increase adrenaline-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The general aim of the present work was to gain more insight concerning the effects of trans-resveratrol on lipid mobilization. The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule. For lipolysis experiments, 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes as well as adipose tissue from wild-type, ATGL knockout and HSL knockout mice were used. Moreover, gene and protein expressions of these lipases were analyzed. Resveratrol-induced free fatty acids release but not glycerol release in 3T3-L1 under basal and isoproterenol-stimulating conditions and under isoproterenol-stimulating conditions in SGBS adipocytes. When HSL was blocked by compound 76-0079, free fatty acid release was still induced by resveratrol. By contrast, in the presence of the compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, resveratrol effect was totally blunted. Resveratrol increased ATGL gene and protein expressions, an effect that was not observed for HSL. Resveratrol increased fatty acids release in epididymal adipose tissue from wild-type and HSL knockout mice but not in that adipose tissue from ATGL knockout mice. Taking as a whole, the present results provide novel evidence that resveratrol regulates lipolytic activity in human and murine adipocytes, as well as in white adipose tissue from mice, acting mainly on ATGL at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Enzyme activation seems to be induced via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

  19. Structure and dynamics of water molecules confined in triglyceride oils.

    PubMed

    Groot, Carien C M; Velikov, Krassimir P; Bakker, Huib J

    2016-10-26

    Though it is commonly known that a small amount of water can be present in triglyceride oil, a molecular picture of how water molecules organize in the oil phase is lacking. We investigate the hydrogen-bond configuration and dynamics of water in triacetin, tributyrin and trioctanoin using linear infrared and time-resolved two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of the water hydroxyl stretch vibration. We identify water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride, water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglycerides, and water clusters. These species do not interconvert on the 20 ps timescale of the experiment, as evidenced by the absence of cross-peaks in the 2DIR spectrum. The vibrational response of water molecules with a single strong hydrogen bond to the triglyceride depends strongly on the excitation frequency, revealing the presence of different subspecies of singly-bound water molecules that correspond to different hydrogen-bond locations. In contrast, the water molecules with two weaker hydrogen bonds to the triglyceride correspond to a single, specific hydrogen-bond configuration; these molecules likely bridge the carbonyl groups of adjacent triglyceride molecules, which can have considerable influence on liquid triglyceride properties.

  20. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  1. Homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele show altered postprandial response in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrechtsen, L.; Hansen, T. H.; Mahendran, Y.; Pyl, P.; Andersson, E.; Jonsson, A.; Gjesing, A.; Linneberg, A.; Jørgensen, T.; Hansen, T.; Vestergaard, H.

    2017-01-01

    The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele shows the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among common gene variants. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of metabolites following a meal test in individuals carrying the high risk rs790346 TT genotype (cases) and low-risk CC genotype (controls). Sixty-two men were recruited based on TCF7L2 genotype, 31 were TT carriers and 31 were age- and BMI-matched CC carriers. All participants consumed a test meal after 12 hours of fasting. Metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Metabolomic profiling of TCF7L2 carriers were performed for 141 lipid estimates. TT carriers had lower fasting levels of L-VLDL-L (total lipids in large very low density lipoproteins, p = 0.045), L-VLDL-CE (cholesterol esters in large VLDL, p = 0.03), and L-VLDL-C (total cholesterol in large VLDL, p = 0.045) compared to CC carriers. Additionally, TT carriers had lower postprandial levels of total triglycerides (TG) (q = 0.03), VLDL-TG (q = 0.05, including medium, small and extra small, q = 0.048, q = 0.0009, q = 0.04, respectively), HDL-TG (triglycerides in high density lipoproteins q = 0.037) and S-HDL-TG (q = 0.00003). In conclusion, TT carriers show altered postprandial triglyceride response, mainly influencing VLDL and HDL subclasses suggesting a genotype-mediated effect on hepatic lipid regulation. PMID:28220878

  2. Changes in structure of triglycerides from maturing kernels of corn.

    PubMed

    Weber, E J

    1973-05-01

    Kernels of corn inbred H51 were collected at five intervals after hand pollination. The triglyceride content of the total lipids increased from 8.6% at 10 days after pollination to 78.3% at 60 days. The most active period of triglyceride synthesis occurred from 20 to 45 days after pollination, when the weight of triglycerides per kernel increased from 1.1 to 7.5 mg. Over all the collection periods the percentages of palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acids decreased while oleic acid increased, but from 30 to 60 days after pollination the fatty acid composition of the triglycerides was nearly constant. Stereospecific analysis revealed a general fatty acid pattern for the triglycerides, in which the concentration of the saturated acids was highest in position 1, linoleic acid in 2 and oleic acid in 3. From 20 to 60 days after pollination there was little change in the fatty acid composition at the 1 position, but the largest changes occurred at the 3 position where palmitic and oleic acids decreased 5.1% and 7.3%, respectively, and linoleic acid increased 13.4%. The variations in the molecular species of the triglycerides were determined by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography and were found to be small from 20 to 60 days after pollination, except for an increase in trilinolein from 5.2 to 11.9%. Stereospecific analyses of four major triglycerides species, SMD, M2D, SD2, and MD2, revealed larger changes in fatty acid distribution at individual positions during maturation than were apparent from analyses of the total triglycerides.

  3. A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.

  4. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-γ in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Yasuhiko; and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare severe heart disease. •PPARγ is up-regulated in myocardium in patients with TGCV. •Possible vicious cycle for fatty acid may be involved in pathophysiology of TGCV. -- Abstract: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, “Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)”. Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5′ splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules’ lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients’ passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG

  5. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target.

  6. Prazosin lowers plasma triglyceride concentration in rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M; Dall'Aglio, E

    1982-01-01

    Prazosin was administered by intraperitoneal injection (0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg) to normal chow-fed male rats for 14 days. Mean +/- SEM plasma triglyceride levels were lower (p less than 0.001) in the prazosin-treated rats (74 +/- 12 mg/dl and 72 +/- 9 mg/dl) than in saline-injected control rats (115 +/- 11 mg/dl). This effect was associated with commensurate reductions in very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion in prazosin-treated rats. No changes were noted in either plasma total or high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, prazosin was capable of reducing by approximately 50% the elevation in plasma triglyceride concentration produced by a high glucose diet in control rats. The mechanism of the observed effect of prazosin on very low density lipoprotein metabolism in the rat remains to be defined.

  7. Determination of triglycerides with special emphasis on biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are transesterification product of fatty acids and glycerol and engaged in the transportation of fats. Elevated triglyceride level is associated with coronary heart disease (CAD), atherosclerosis and hypolipoprotenemia. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on enzymes are an attractive alternative to conventional analytical methods. Triglyceride biosensors (TGBs) are based on either measurement of oxygen consumed or electron generated from splitting of H2O2, an ultimate product, of immobilized enzymes. TGBs work optimally within 2-900 s, between pH 6.4-8.5 and the potential 0.5-4V. TGBs measure TG level in serum directly and can be used over a period of 14 to 168 days. This review describes the analytic characteristics of various methods available for determination of TGs with special emphasis on TGBs.

  8. L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Friedrich; Glos, Sabrina; Petruschka, Dörte; Altenburg, Christiane; Maas, Renke; Benndorf, Ralf; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Beil, Ulrich; Böger, Rainer H

    2009-05-01

    We recently noticed a possible triglyceride-lowering effect during dietary supplementation with L-arginine. The major limitation of prior studies on L-arginine, however, was that triglyceride levels were not the primary end point, and patients were not necessarily hypertriglyceridemic. Therefore, we conducted a 2-arm, randomized, double-blind study in 33 hypertriglyceridemic patients to investigate the hypothesis that oral L-arginine may lower serum triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients on and off statins. The study consisted of a 6-week run-in phase, 6 weeks of treatment with L-arginine (n = 22, 1.5 g bid) or placebo (n = 11), and a 6-week extension period where simvastatin (20 mg qd) was added. All patients received dietary advice during each study visit. Routine and lipid laboratory parameters were determined in the local routine clinical laboratory. Treatment with L-arginine alone had no effects on serum lipids compared to placebo. The combination of L-arginine with simvastatin led to a significantly stronger reduction in triglycerides compared to placebo plus simvastatin (-140.5 +/- 149.2 mg/dL vs -56.1 +/- 85.0 mg/dL; P = .048). In addition, we found simvastatin-induced increases in aspartate transaminase and fibrinogen to be attenuated by L-arginine as compared to placebo. We conclude from our data that L-arginine enhances the effects of simvastatin on lipid metabolism, but it has no triglyceride-lowering effects when given alone.

  9. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  10. Unveiling the Pathogenic Molecular Mechanisms of the Most Common Variant (p.K329E) in Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency by in Vitro and in Silico Approaches.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Cátia A; Nunes, Joana; Leandro, João; Louro, Filipa; Leandro, Paula; Ventura, Fátima V; Guedes, Rita C

    2016-12-27

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common genetic disorder affecting the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The mature and functional form of human MCAD (hMCAD) is a homotetramer assembled as a dimer of dimers (monomers A/B and C/D). Each monomer binds a FAD cofactor, necessary for the enzyme's activity. The most frequent mutation in MCADD results from the substitution of a lysine with a glutamate in position 304 of mature hMCAD (p.K329E in the precursor protein). Here, we combined in vitro and in silico approaches to assess the impact of the p.K329E mutation on the protein's structure and function. Our in silico results demonstrated for the first time that the p.K329E mutation, despite lying at the dimer-dimer interface and being deeply buried inside the tetrameric core, seems to affect the tetramer surface, especially the β-domain that forms part of the catalytic pocket wall. Additionally, the molecular dynamics data indicate a stronger impact of the mutation on the protein's motions in dimer A/B, while dimer C/D remains similar to the wild type. For dimer A/B, severe disruptions in the architecture of the pockets and in the FAD and octanoyl-CoA binding affinities were also observed. The presence of unaffected pockets (C/D) in the in silico studies may explain the decreased enzymatic activity determined for the variant protein (46% residual activity). Moreover, the in silico structural changes observed for the p.K329E variant protein provide an explanation for the structural instability observed experimentally, namely, the disturbed oligomeric profile, thermal stability, and conformational flexibility, with respect to the wild-type.

  11. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment. PMID:27570415

  12. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  13. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed.

  14. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  15. Fructose impairs glucose-induced hepatic triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danshan; Dhawan, Tania; Young, Stephen; Yong, William H; Boros, Laszlo G; Heaney, Anthony P

    2011-01-24

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia frequently coexist and are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Consumption of refined carbohydrate and particularly fructose has increased significantly in recent years and has paralled the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that high dietary fructose intake positively correlates with increased dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Metabolism of fructose occurs primarily in the liver and high fructose flux leads to enhanced hepatic triglyceride accumulation (hepatic steatosis). This results in impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression. Here we demonstrate that fructose alters glucose-stimulated expression of activated acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), pSer hormone sensitive lipase (pSerHSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in hepatic HepG2 or primary hepatic cell cultures in vitro. This was associated with increased de novo triglyceride synthesis in vitro and hepatic steatosis in vivo in fructose- versus glucose-fed and standard-diet fed mice. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms involved in fructose-mediated hepatic hypertriglyceridemia and identify fructose-uptake as a new potential therapeutic target for lipid-associated diseases.

  16. Interrupting Sitting Time with Regular Walks Attenuates Postprandial Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, M; Edamoto, K; Kidokoro, T; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Takahashi, M; Burns, S

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of prolonged sitting with the effects of sitting interrupted by regular walking and the effects of prolonged sitting after continuous walking on postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women. 15 participants completed 3 trials in random order: 1) prolonged sitting, 2) regular walking, and 3) prolonged sitting preceded by continuous walking. During the sitting trial, participants rested for 8 h. For the walking trials, participants walked briskly in either twenty 90-sec bouts over 8 h or one 30-min bout in the morning (09:00-09:30). Except for walking, both exercise trials mimicked the sitting trial. In each trial, participants consumed a breakfast (08:00) and lunch (11:00). Blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after breakfast. The serum triglyceride incremental area under the curve was 15 and 14% lower after regular walking compared with prolonged sitting and prolonged sitting after continuous walking (4.73±2.50 vs. 5.52±2.95 vs. 5.50±2.59 mmol/L∙8 h respectively, main effect of trial: P=0.023). Regularly interrupting sitting time with brief bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial triglyceride in postmenopausal women.

  17. Dry matter intake is decreased more by abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids than by unsaturated triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Thire, S; Beaulieu, A D; Reynolds, C K; Benson, J A; Drackley, J K

    2005-02-01

    Previous experiments from our group have demonstrated that abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) markedly decreases dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows. In contrast, experiments from other groups have noted smaller decreases in DMI when unsaturated triglycerides (TG) were infused postruminally. Our hypothesis was that unsaturated FFA would be more potent inhibitors of DMI than an equivalent amount of unsaturated TG. Four Holstein cows in late lactation were used in a single reversal design. Cows were fed a total mixed ration containing (DM basis) 23% alfalfa silage, 23% corn silage, 40.3% ground shelled corn, and 10.5% soybean meal. Two cows received soy FFA (UFA; 0, 200, 400, 600 g/d) and 2 received soy oil (TG) in the same amounts; cows then were switched to the other lipid source. Cows were abomasally infused with each amount for 5-d periods. The daily amount of lipid was pulse-dosed in 4 equal portions at 0600, 1000, 1700, and 2200 h; no emulsifiers were used and there was no sign of digestive disturbance. Both lipid sources linearly decreased DMI, with a significant interaction between lipid source and amount. Slope-ratio analysis indicated that UFA were about 2 times more potent in decreasing DMI than were TG. Decreased DMI led to decreased milk production. Milk fat content was increased linearly by lipid infusion. Milk fat yield decreased markedly for UFA infusion but was relatively unaffected by infusion of TG. Contents of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk fat decreased as the amount of either infusate increased. Contents of C(18:2) and C(18:3) in milk fat were increased linearly by abomasal infusion of either fat source; cis-9 C(18:1) was unaffected. Transfer of infused C(18:2) to milk fat was 35.6, 42.5, and 27.8% for 200, 400, and 600 g/d of UFA, and 34.3, 39.6, and 34.0% for respective amounts of TG. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) concentration in plasma significantly increased as DMI decreased with increasing

  18. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

  19. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells.

  20. Increased plasma triglyceride secretion in EFA-deficient rats fed diets with or without saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A; Tinoco, J; Hincenbergs, I; Thomas, B

    1989-05-01

    Metabolic responses to essential fatty acid-deficiency in rats include an increased rate of triglyceride secretion into the plasma, a large reduction in the HDL1 plasma lipoprotein concentration, and increased concentrations of liver triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters. Because of differences in the types of EFA-deficient diets used, it is not clear whether these responses were solely due to the absence of EFA from the diet or whether saturated fat, or differences in acyl group chain length in this fat, might be responsible. Therefore, we fed rats diets differing only in amounts and kinds of fat, and measured triacylglycerol secretion rates and liver concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, for comparison with our earlier measurements of plasma high density lipoprotein subpopulations in rats fed exactly the same diets. The purified diets contained either no fat, 5% by weight hydrogenated coconut oil, 5% hydrogenated cottonseed oil, or each of these three diets supplemented with 1% safflower oil, or 5% corn oil. We also fed some rats a nonpurified stock diet for comparison with literature reports. The present results indicate that the metabolic responses to essential fatty acid deficiency described above are definitely due to essential fatty acid-deficiency and not to the presence or chain length of acyl groups in saturated fat in the diet.

  1. Inhibitory effects of fatty acids on glucose-regulated B-cell function: association with increased islet triglyceride stores and altered effect of fatty acid oxidation on glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y P; Ling, Z C; Grill, V E

    1996-08-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids (FA) inhibits B-cell function. We tested whether the inhibitory effects are associated with increased islet triglycerides (TG). Rat pancreatic islets were cultured for 48 hours in RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 11 mmol/L glucose in the presence or absence of the long-chain FA, palmitate. Palmitate (0.125 mmol/L) exposure successively increased islet TG 70% after 6 hours and 200% after 48 hours of culture. The dose-response for palmitate was similar for the increase in TG and inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Reversal of elevated islet TG in RPMI medium (after 48 hours of palmitate) was 29% after 6 hours and 84% after 24 hours. A more rapid decline of TG was observed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) medium in the absence of nutrients. This decline was totally prevented by 1 mumol/L of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) inhibitor, etomoxir. Etomoxir enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion from palmitate-cultured islets; however, this effect was lost when TG were normalized. Under conditions when oxidation of FA from islet TG stores was blocked with etomoxir, we tested the effects of octanoate, the oxidation of which is not blocked by etomoxir. Oxidation of [1-14C]octanoate from islets precultured with palmitate (48 hours) did not differ from that in control islets. Conversely, after palmitate, octanoate inhibited glucose oxidation (14CO2 production from [U-14C]glucose, 613 +/- 41 pmol/10 islets/90 min v 1,129 +/- 87 after control conditions, P < .01). In conclusion, (1) palmitate induces increases in islet TG that are associated with inhibition of B-cell function, and (2) long-term exposure to palmitate also induces an inhibitory effect of FA oxidation on glucose metabolism that is independent of TG.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of triglyceride based thermosetting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Erde

    2005-07-01

    Plant oils, which are found in abundance in all parts of the world and are easily replenished annually, have the potential to replace petroleum as a chemical feedstock for making polymers. Within the past few years, there has been growing interest to use triglycerides as the basic constituent of thermosetting polymers with the necessary rigidity, strength and glass transition temperatures required for engineering applications. Plant oils are not polymerizable in their natural form, however various functional groups that can polymerize can easily be attached to the triglyceride structure making them ideal cross-linking monomers for thermosetting liquid molding resins. Through this research project a number of thermosetting liquid molding resins based on soybean and castor oil, which is a specialty oil with hydroxyls on its fatty acids, have been developed. The triglyceride based monomers were prepared via the malination of the alcoholysis products of soybean and castor oil with various polyols, such as pentaerythritol, glycerol, and Bisphenol A propoxylate. The malinated glycerides were then cured in the presence of a reactive diluent, such as styrene, to form rigid glassy materials with a wide range of properties. In addition to maleate half-esters, methacrylates were also introduced to the glyceride structure via methacrylation of the soybean oil glycerolysis product with methacrylic anhydride. This product, which contains methacrylic acid as by-product, and its blends with styrene also gave rigid materials when cured. The triglyceride based monomers were characterized via conventional spectroscopic techniques. Time resolved FTIR analysis was used to determine the curing kinetics and the final conversions of polymerization of the malinated glyceride-styrene blends. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determine the thermomechanical behavior of these polymers and other mechanical properties were determined via standard mechanical tests. The use of lignin

  3. Genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hodúlová, Miloslava; Šedová, Lucie; Křenová, Drahomíra; Liška, František; Krupková, Michaela; Kazdová, Ludmila; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Křen, Vladimír; Šeda, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The plasma profile of major lipoprotein classes and its subdivision into particular fractions plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a major predictor of coronary artery disease. Our aim was to identify genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions and lipoprotein particle sizes in the recombinant inbred rat set PXO, in which alleles of two rat models of the metabolic syndrome (SHR and PD inbred strains) segregate together with those from Brown Norway rat strain. Adult male rats of 15 PXO strains (n = 8-13/strain) and two progenitor strains SHR-Lx (n = 13) and BXH2/Cub (n = 18) were subjected to one-week of high-sucrose diet feeding. We performed association analyses of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (C) concentrations in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the size of major classes of lipoprotein particles utilizing 704 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the genome-wide significance was validated by 2,000 permutations per trait. Subsequent in silico focusing of the identified quantitative trait loci was completed using a map of over 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In most of the phenotypes we identified substantial gradient among the strains (e.g. VLDL-TG from 5.6 to 66.7 mg/dl). We have identified 14 loci (encompassing 1 to 65 genes) on rat chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 12 showing suggestive or significant association to one or more of the studied traits. PXO strains carrying the SHR allele displayed significantly higher values of the linked traits except for LDL-TG and adiposity index. Cholesterol concentrations in large, medium and very small LDL particles were significantly associated to a haplotype block spanning part of a single gene, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (Lrp1b). Using genome-wide association we have identified new genetic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the recombinant inbred

  4. Role of lipase from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 in hydrolyzing triglycerides into growth-inhibitory free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Brigitte; Vijayakumaran, Vithooshan; Bernards, Mark A; McGavin, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-12-01

    Part of the human host innate immune response involves the secretion of bactericidal lipids on the skin and delivery of triglycerides into abscesses to control invading pathogens. Two Staphylococcus aureus lipases, named SAL1 and SAL2, were identified in the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, which, presumably, are produced and function to degrade triglycerides to release free fatty acids. We show that the SAL2 lipase is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by USA300 and is proteolytically processed from the 72-kDa proSAL2 to the 44-kDa mature SAL2 by the metalloprotease aureolysin. We show that spent culture supernatants had lipase activity on both short- and long-chain fatty acid substrates and that deletion of gehB, encoding SAL2, resulted in the complete loss of these activities. With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that SAL2 hydrolyzed trilinolein to linoleic acid, a fatty acid with known antistaphylococcal properties. When added to cultures of USA300, trilinolein and, to a lesser extent, triolein inhibited growth in a SAL2-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be due to the enzymatic activity of SAL2 on these triglycerides, since the catalytically inactive SAL2 Ser412Ala mutant was incapable of hydrolyzing the triglycerides or yielding delayed growth in their presence. Overall, these results reveal that SAL2 hydrolyzes triglycerides of both short- and long-chain fatty acids and that the released free fatty acids have the potential to cause significant delays in growth, depending on the chemical nature of the free fatty acid.

  5. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H. Henry; Yakar, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. PMID:26058861

  6. PCSK9 and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Irena; Abujrad, Hussein; Ooi, Teik Chye

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pro-protein convertase subtilisin-kexin 9 (PCSK9) is known to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, but there are indications from several lines of research that it may also influence the metabolism of other lipoproteins, especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This review summarizes the current data on this possible role of PCSK9. A link between PCSK9 and TRL has been suggested through the demonstration of (1) a correlation between plasma PCSK9 and triglyceride (TG) levels in health and disease, (2) a correlation between plasma PCSK9 and markers of carbohydrate metabolism, which is closely related to TG metabolism, (3) an effect of TG-lowering fibrate therapy on plasma PCSK9 levels, (4) an effect of PCSK9 on postprandial lipemia, (5) an effect of PCSK9 on adipose tissue biology, (6) an effect of PCSK9 on apolipoprotein B production from the liver and intestines, (7) an effect of PCSK9 on receptors other than low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that are involved in TRL metabolism, and (8) an effect of anti-PCSK9 therapy on serum TG levels. The underlying mechanisms are unclear but starting to emerge. PMID:26320603

  7. A new multienzyme-type biosensor for triglyceride determination.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Alp; Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Sağıroğlu, Ayten

    2016-01-01

    An amperometric multienzyme biosensor for determination of triglycerides (TGs) was constructed by mounting three gelatin membrane-bound enzymes on a glassy carbon electrode (working electrode), then connecting it to electrometer along with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a Pt auxiliary electrode. Characterization and optimization of the multienzyme biosensor, which is prepared with glycerol kinase (GK) (E.C.2.7.1.30), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) (EC 1.1.3.21), and lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), were studied. In the optimization studies for the bioactive layer components of the prepared biosensor, the optimum amounts of gelatin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and glutaraldehyde was calculated as 1 mg/cm(2), 1 mg/cm(2), and 2.5%, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of the reaction of biosensor were determined as 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. Linear range of triolein for the biosensor was found from the calibration curve between several substrate concentration and Δ Current. After optimization and characterization of the biosensor, its operationability in triglycerides was also tested.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorogenic triglycerides as lipase assay substrates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rokhsana J; Brask, Jesper

    2016-06-01

    Three racemic fluorogenic triglycerides are synthesized and evaluated as lipase assay substrates. The presented synthesis route goes through a key triglyceride intermediate which can be chemoselectively functionalized with a wide range of different probes. Hence the substrate can be tailor-made for a specific assay, or focus can be on low cost in larger scale for applications in high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. In the specific examples, TG-ED, TG-FD and TG-F2 are assembled with the Edans-Dabcyl or the fluorescein-Dabcyl FRET pair, or relying on fluorescein self-quenching, respectively. Proof-of-concept assays allowed determination of 1st order kinetic parameters (kcat/KM) of 460s(-1)M(-1), 59s(-1)M(-1) and 346s(-1)M(-1), respectively, for the three substrates. Commercially available EnzChek lipase substrate provided 204s(-1)M(-1). Substrate concentration was identified as a critical parameter, with measured reaction rates decreasing at higher concentrations when intermolecular quenching becomes significant.

  9. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  10. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  11. Coronary heart disease in women: triglycerides and lipoprotein biology.

    PubMed

    Dayspring, Thomas D

    2002-01-01

    An examination of coronary heart disease in women over the past two decades in the United States reveals a disturbing gender difference that points to more treatment success in men than in women, which raises the question as to whether women have been as aggressively evaluated and treated. It is only over the last several years that evidence from randomized clinical trials on coronary heart disease etiology and treatment in women has become available. In addition, the previous widely held viewpoint that estrogen is cardioprotective and should be an integral part of pharmacologic therapy has been abandoned. Triglycerides and their very important influence on lipoproteins have emerged as a critical part of the pathobiological forces related to atherothrombosis in women.

  12. Interactions of Perilipin-5 (Plin5) with Adipose Triglyceride Lipase*

    PubMed Central

    Granneman, James G.; Moore, Hsiao-Ping H.; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Zhu, Zhengxian; Zhou, Li

    2011-01-01

    Members of the perilipin family of lipid droplet scaffold proteins are thought to play important roles in tissue-specific regulation of triglyceride metabolism, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Present results indicate that adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) interacts with perilipin-5 (Plin5) but not perilipin-1 (Plin1). Protein interaction assays in live cells and in situ binding experiments showed that Atgl and its protein activator, α-β-hydrolase domain-containing 5 (Abhd5), each bind Plin5. Surprisingly, competition experiments indicated that individual Plin5 molecules bind Atgl or Abhd5 but not both simultaneously. Thus, the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins at droplet surfaces involves binding to different Plin5 molecules, possibly in an oligomeric complex. The association of Plin5-Abhd5 complexes on lipid droplet surfaces was more stable than Plin5-Atgl complexes, and oleic acid treatment selectively promoted the interaction of Plin5 and Abhd5. Analysis of chimeric and mutant perilipin proteins demonstrated that amino acids 200–463 are necessary and sufficient to bind both Atgl and Abhd5 and that the C-terminal 64 amino acids of Plin5 are critical for the differential binding of Atgl to Plin5 and Plin1. Mutant Plin5 that binds Abhd5 but not Atgl was defective in preventing neutral lipid accumulation compared with wild type Plin5, indicating that the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins on lipid droplets is critical to functional Atgl activity in cells. PMID:21148142

  13. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. )

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  14. Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Asher, Gad

    2014-02-04

    Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild-type and clock-disrupted mice either fed ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (∼17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g., PPARα) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ∼50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation; however, oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock.

  15. Adipose triglyceride lipase and the lipolytic catabolism of cellular fat stores.

    PubMed

    Zechner, Rudolf; Kienesberger, Petra C; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of all lipid classes and pivotal substrates for energy production in all vertebrates. Additionally, they act directly or indirectly as signaling molecules and, when bonded to amino acid side chains of peptides, anchor proteins in biological membranes. In vertebrates, FAs are predominantly stored in the form of triacylglycerol (TG) within lipid droplets of white adipose tissue. Lipid droplet-associated TGs are also found in most nonadipose tissues, including liver, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle. The mobilization of FAs from all fat depots depends on the activity of TG hydrolases. Currently, three enzymes are known to hydrolyze TG, the well-studied hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), discovered more than 40 years ago, as well as the relatively recently identified adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). The phenotype of HSL- and ATGL-deficient mice, as well as the disease pattern of patients with defective ATGL activity (due to mutation in ATGL or in the enzyme's activator, CGI-58), suggest that the consecutive action of ATGL, HSL, and MGL is responsible for the complete hydrolysis of a TG molecule. The complex regulation of these enzymes by numerous, partially uncharacterized effectors creates the "lipolysome," a complex metabolic network that contributes to the control of lipid and energy homeostasis. This review focuses on the structure, function, and regulation of lipolytic enzymes with a special emphasis on ATGL.

  16. Understanding solid-state properties of triglycerides used in pharmaceutical and food microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Elviri, Lisa; Mangia, Mattia; Menabeni, Roberta; Della Bella, Andrea; Camellini, Claudia; Beltrami, Diego; Arduini, Lauro; Bettini, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic materials, in particular hydrogenated vegetable oils, HVO, are extensively used as coating materials in food and pharmaceutical systems. Correct application of these coatings requires an evaluation of their behaviour as a function of various parameters such as melting temperature, solubility, concentration and/or pH. The purpose of this study was to assess the physico-chemical properties of an HVO in terms of composition, crystallisation, phase transition and polymorphism using a variety of analytical techniques, such as electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution ESI-MS allowed establishment of the HVO main composition of long-chain triglycerides (average molecular weight 1183 Da). DSC results showed that thermal history determines the formation of at least two polymorphs of HVO, namely two different crystal forms, assigned as form α, melting point (m.p.) 48 °C, and form β', m.p. 60 °C. A third polymorph, the more thermodynamically stable β-form, having a melting point at 62 °C, is obtained by solution-mediated re-crystallisation. Phase transformation paths were investigated by isothermal DSC experiments, which evidenced that the α-form is kinetically stable at temperatures lower than 25 °C. These data are of particular interest in practical applications such as spray freezing or pan coating where significant heat transfer phenomena are involved.

  17. Maternal undernutrition leads to elevated hepatic triglycerides in male rat offspring due to increased expression of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Fen; Zhu, Jian-Fang; Liang, Li; Shen, Zheng; Wang, Ying-Min

    2016-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which encompasses various symptoms including hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to alterations in hepatic triglyceride content and the gene expression levels of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in SGA male offspring. The present study focused on the male offspring in order to prevent confounding factors, such as estrus cycle and hormone profile. Female Sprague Dawley rats were arbitrarily assigned to receive an ad libitum chow diet or 50% food restricted diet from pregnancy day 1 until parturition. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to measure the gene expression levels of hepatic LPL at day 1 and upon completion of the third week of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantified the binding activity of liver X receptor‑α (LXR‑α) gene to the LXR response elements (LXRE) on LPL promoter and LPL epigenetic characteristics. At 3 weeks of age, SGA male offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of hepatic triglycerides, which was concomitant with increased expression levels of LPL. Since LPL is regulated by LXR‑α, the expression levels of LXR‑α were detected in appropriate for gestational age and SGA male offspring. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to an increase in the hepatic expression levels of LXR‑α, and enriched binding to the putative LXR response elements in the LPL promoter regions in 3‑week‑old male offspring. In addition, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [H3 lysine (K)9 and H3K14] was detected surrounding the LPL promoter. The results of the present study indicated that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to an increase in hepatic triglycerides, via alterations in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the LPL gene.

  18. The lipid droplet enzyme Tgl1p hydrolyzes both steryl esters and triglycerides in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jandrositz, Anita; Petschnigg, Julia; Zimmermann, Robert; Natter, Klaus; Scholze, Hubert; Hermetter, Albin; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Leber, Regina

    2005-06-15

    Based on sequence homology to mammalian acid lipases, yeast reading frame YKL140w was predicted to encode a triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase in yeast and was hence named as TGL1, triglyceride lipase 1. A deletion of TGL1, however, resulted in an increase of the cellular steryl ester content. Fluorescently labeled lipid analogs that become covalently linked to the enzyme active site upon catalysis were used to discriminate between the lipase and esterase activities of Tgl1p. Tgl1p preferred single-chain esterase inhibitors over lipase inhibitors in vitro. Under assay conditions optimal for acid lipases, Tgl1p exhibited steryl esterase activity only and lacked any triglyceride lipase activity. In contrast, at pH 7.4, Tgl1p also exhibited TAG lipase activity; however, steryl ester hydrolase activity was still predominant. Tgl1p localized exclusively to lipid droplets which are the intracellular storage compartment of steryl esters and triacylglycerols in the yeast S. cerevisiae. In a tgl1 deletion mutant, the mobilization of steryl esters in vivo was delayed, but not abolished, suggesting the existence of additional enzymes involved in steryl ester mobilization.

  19. [Prevention of atherosclerosis. The positional specificity of blood triglycerides and lipases, the particular milk lipids, and the modification of the fatty acids of vegetable oils and animal fats].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2011-03-01

    Milk is a biological medium that bears no resemblance to any of the biological fluids and tissues in primates and mammals in the positional composition of fatty acids (FA) in triglycerides. This is determined by the fact that at the very early phylogenesis of mammals, milk is to ensure a high postnatal bioavailability (absorption) of saturated palmitic FA, a substrate for neonatal energy supply despite all obstacles that are formed in the baby's intestine in vivo. Milk is destined for infant nutrition in the biology-destined period (not more than a year); assimilation of triglycerides that are so structurally unusual requires a) high isomerization activity in the enterocytes and b) the ability of blood lipases to hydrolyze palmitate-oleate-palmitate triglycerides as a component of oleic very-low-density lipoproteins. After the period permitted by nature, there is virtually no possibility to physiologically consume milk that contains structurally unusual triglycerides. The use of whole milk and its products by adults impairs the active, receptor cell absorption of FAs as ligand lipoproteins via apoE/B-100-endocytosis and enhances the generation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins as biological debris. The impaired biological function of endoecology and the debris accumulation of the intercellular medium lead to the activation of atheromatosis, atherothrombosis, and coronary sclerosis. Nature has given no sanction for turning the mammals that are not on milk to those on milk for whole life. Up to one year of age, the baby has in vivo conditions for the absorption and hydrolysis of triglycerides with palmitic FA at the sn-2 position. After one year of age, the expression of these lipases and coenzymes is over; re-expression occurs only with the activation of the biological function of locomotion - long-term strenuous physical activity. High physical activity expresses other genes, enzymes, coenzymes, and carrier proteins, which activate the hydrolysis of

  20. New chromone and triglyceride from Cucumis melo seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2014-02-01

    Re-investigation of the MeOH extract of the seeds of Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus (Cucurbitaceae) led to the isolation of a new chromone derivative (5,7- dihydroxy-2-[2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (5) and a triglyceride (1,3-di-(6Z,9Z)-docosa-6,9-dienoyl-2-(6Z) hexacos-6-enoylglycerol (1), together with three known compounds; alpha-spinasterol (2), stigmasta-7,22,25-trien-3-ol (3), and D:B-friedoolean-5-ene-3-beta-ol (4), are reported from this species for the first time. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and mass spectral measurements. Compound 5 displayed significant cytotoxic activity against L5178Y cells, with an ED50 of 5 microM. The MeOH extract and 5 showed antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay.

  1. Efficient phagocytosis requires triacylglycerol hydrolysis by adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Prakash G; Radovic, Branislav; Aflaki, Elma; Kolb, Dagmar; Buchebner, Marlene; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Magnes, Christoph; Sinner, Frank; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Tabas, Ira; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-06-25

    Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in normal mouse macrophages and macrophages of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient mice. ATGL was shown to be the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerol (TG) in many tissues. Here, we demonstrate that Atgl(-/-) macrophages fail to efficiently hydrolyze cellular TG stores leading to decreased cellular FFA concentrations and concomitant accumulation of lipid droplets, even in the absence of exogenous lipid loading. The reduced availability of FFAs results in decreased cellular ATP concentrations and impaired phagocytosis suggesting that fatty acids must first go through a cycle of esterification and re-hydrolysis before they are available as energy substrate. Exogenously added glucose cannot fully compensate for the phagocytotic defect in Atgl(-/-) macrophages. Hence, phagocytosis was also decreased in vivo when Atgl(-/-) mice were challenged with bacterial particles. These findings imply that phagocytosis in macrophages depends on the availability of FFAs and that ATGL is required for their hydrolytic release from cellular TG stores. This novel mechanism links ATGL-mediated lipolysis to macrophage function in host defense and opens the way to explore possible roles of ATGL in immune response, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  2. Apolipoprotein A5: Extracellular and Intracellular Roles in Triglyceride Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses two major functions of apolipoprotein (apo) A5 including (1) its role in maintaining normal plasma levels of circulating triglyceride (TG) and (2) its role as a component of hepatic lipid droplets. ApoA5 is synthesized solely in the liver and circulating concentrations are extremely low. In the plasma, ApoA5 associates with TG-rich lipoproteins and enhances TG hydrolysis and remnant lipoprotein clearance. ApoA5 loss-of-function single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with reduced lipolysis, poor remnant clearance and concomitantly, hypertriglyceridemia. Although there have been substantial breakthroughs in understanding pathophysiology associated with secreted ApoA5, there is a paucity of knowledge on the functionality of intracellular ApoA5. However, recent studies indicate that overexpression of intracellular ApoA5 is positively associated with accumulation of TG-rich lipid droplets in hepatocytes. It is thought that ApoA5 may have a causal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and thus, may serve as a target for developing therapeutics for NAFLD.

  3. WWOX gene is associated with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered lipid profile, and in particular low HDL and high triglyceride (TG) plasma levels, are within the major determinants of cardiovascular diseases. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting these lipid levels is a relevant issue for predictive purposes. The WWOX gene has been recently associated with HDL levels. This gene is located at chromosome 16q23, a region previously linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and HDL. Our objective is to perform a genetic association analysis at the WWOX gene region with HDL, TG and TG/HDL ratio. Methods A quantitative association analysis performed in 801 individuals selected from the Spanish general population. Results For HDL levels, two regions of intron 8 display clustering of positive signals (p < 0.05) but none of them was associated in the haplotypic analysis (0.07 ≤ p ≤ 0.165). For TG levels not only intron 8 but also a 27 kb region spanning from the promoter region to intron 4 are associated in this study. For the TG/HDL genetic association analysis, positive signals are coincident with those of the isolated traits. Interestingly, haplotypic analysis at the 5' region showed that variation in this region modified both HDL and TG levels, especially the latter (p = 0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that WWOX is a QTL for both TG and HDL. PMID:20942981

  4. Effect of Amphiphiles on the Rheology of Triglyceride Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Jyoti

    2014-11-01

    Networks of aggregated crystallites form the structural backbone of many products from the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Such materials are generally formulated by cooling a saturated solution to yield the desired solid fraction. Crystal nucleation and growth followed by aggregation leads to formation of a space percolating fractal-network. It is understood that microstructural hierarchy and particle-particle interactions determine material behavior during processing, storage and use. In this talk, rheology of suspensions of triglycerides (TAG, like tristearin) will be explored. TAGs exhibit a rich assortment of polymorphs and form suspensions that are evidently sensitive to surface modifying additives like surfactants and polymers. Here, a theoretical framework will be presented for suspensions containing TAG crystals interacting via pairwise potentials. The work builds on existing models of fractal aggregates to understand microstructure and its correlation with material rheology. Effect of amphiphilic additives is derived through variation of particle-particle interactions. Theoretical predictions for storage modulus will be compared against experimental observations and data from the literature and micro structural predictions against microscopy. Such a theory may serve as a step towards predicting short and long-term behavior of aggregated suspensions formulated via crystallization.

  5. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  6. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.

  7. Dietary selenium disrupts hepatic triglyceride stores and transcriptional networks associated with growth and Notch signaling in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rosalinda; Marlatt, Vicki L; Baker, Josh A; Lo, Bonnie P; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Dietary Se has been shown to adversely affect adult fish by altering growth rates and metabolism. To determine the underlying mechanisms associated with these observations, we measured biochemical and transcriptomic endpoints in rainbow trout following dietary Se exposures. Treatment groups of juvenile rainbow trout were fed either control Lumbriculus variegatus worms or worms cultured on selenized yeast. Selenized yeast was cultured at four nominal doses of 5, 10, 20 or 40mg/kg Se dry weight (measured dose in the worms of 7.1, 10.7, 19.5, and 31.8mg/kgSedw respectively) and fish were fed for 60days. At 60 d, hepatic triglycerides, glycogen, total glutathione, 8-isoprostane and the transcriptome response in the liver (n=8/group) were measured. Fish fed the nominal dose of 20 and 40mg/kg Se dry weight had lower body weight and a shorter length, as well as lower triglyceride in the liver compared to controls. Evidence was lacking for an oxidative stress response and there was no change in total glutathione, 8-isoprostane levels, nor relative mRNA levels for glutathione peroxidase isoforms among groups. Microarray analysis revealed that molecular networks for long-chain fatty acid transport, lipid transport, and low density lipid oxidation were increased in the liver of fish fed 40mg/kg, and this is hypothesized to be associated with the lower triglyceride levels in these fish. In addition, up-regulated gene networks in the liver of 40mg/kg Se treated fish included epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, growth hormone receptor, and insulin growth factor receptor 1 signaling pathways. These molecular changes are hypothesized to be compensatory and related to impaired growth. A gene network related to Notch signaling, which is involved in cell-cell communication and gene transcription regulation, was also increased in the liver following dietary treatments with both 20 and 40mg/kg Se. Transcriptomic data support the hypothesis that dietary Se increases the

  8. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  9. Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

  10. Endogenous triglyceride-rich lipoproteins accumulate in rat plasma when competing with a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion for a common lipolytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Karpe, F; Hultin, M

    1995-07-01

    The rat liver secretes very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) containing either apoB-100 or apoB-48. After oral fat intake, chylomicrons containing apoB-48 and endogenously synthesized VLDL are mixed in the blood and the triglyceride clearance from these triglyceride-rich lipoprotein species compete for the same lipolytic pathway, i.e., lipoprotein lipase. A situation mimicking alimentary lipemia was induced by a short-term intravenous primed infusion of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion to fed and fasted rats. The plasma concentration of apoB-100 and apoB-48 was monitored in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein subfractions after separation with density gradient ultracentrifugation by analytical SDS-PAGE. The net liver secretory output of VLDL was quantified by lipolytic blockade induced by Triton WR 1339. The chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion induced a linear increase of large VLDL (Sf 60-400 subfraction containing both apoB-100 and apoB-48), almost to the same extent as that induced by Triton. The clearance of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and both lipolysis and clearance of intravenously injected labeled rat chylomicrons was efficiently inhibited by the emulsion but not so complete as for fasting VLDL. The linearity of the VLDL increase and the very early response in the Intralipid-treated rats suggest that enhanced synthesis of VLDL is not a major cause for the accumulation. Rather, the present data indicate that a high plasma concentration of a chylomicron-like triglyceride emulsion competes efficiently with liver-derived VLDL for the same lipolytic pathway, which leads to accumulation in plasma of endogenous VLDL in the postprandial state.

  11. Constitutive Triglyceride Turnover into the Mesenteric Lymph Is Unable to Support Efficient Lymphatic Transport of a Biomimetic Triglyceride Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Hu, Luojuan; Quach, Tim; Simpson, Jamie S; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-02-01

    The triglyceride (TG) mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) biochemically integrates into intestinal lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly pathways and thereby promotes the delivery of mycophenolic acid (MPA) into the lymphatic system. As lipoprotein (LP) formation occurs constitutively, even in the fasted state, the current study aimed to determine whether lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG was dependent on coadministered exogenous lipid. In vitro incubation of the prodrug with rat digestive fluid and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments revealed that hydrolysis and absorption of the prodrug were relatively unaffected by the quantity of lipid in formulations. In vivo studies in rats, however, showed that the lymphatic transport of TG and 2-MPA-TG was significantly higher following administration with higher quantities of lipid and that oleic acid (C18:1) was more effective in promoting prodrug transport than lipids with higher degrees of unsaturation. The recovery of 2-MPA-TG and TG in lymph correlated strongly (R(2) = 0.99) and more than 97% of the prodrug was associated with chylomicrons. Inhibition of LP assembly by Pluronic L81 simultaneously inhibited the lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG and TG. In conclusion, although the TG mimetic prodrug effectively incorporates into TG resynthetic pathways, lipid coadministration is still required to support efficient lymphatic transport.

  12. Anaplerotic Treatment of Long-Chain Fat Oxidation Disorders with Triheptanoin: Review of 15 years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Charles R.; Brunengraber, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment of long-chain mitochondrial β-oxidation disorders (LC-FOD) with a low fat-high carbohydrate diet, a diet rich in medium-even-chain triglycerides (MCT), or a combination of both has been associated with high morbidity and mortality for decades. The pathological tableau appears to be caused by energy deficiency resulting from reduced availability of citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediates required for optimal oxidation of acetyl-CoA. This hypothesis was investigated by diet therapy with carnitine and anaplerotic triheptanoin (TH). Methods Fifty-two documented LC-FOD patients were studied in this investigation (age range: birth to 51 years). Safety monitoring included serial quantitative measurements of routine blood chemistries, blood levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines, and urinary organic acids. Results The average frequency of serious clinical complications were reduced from ~ 60 % with conventional diet therapy to 10 % with TH and carnitine treatment and mortality decreased from ~ 65 % with conventional diet therapy to 3.8 %. Carnitine supplementation was uncomplicated. Conclusion The energy deficiency in LC-FOD patients was corrected safely and more effectively with the triheptanoin diet and carnitine supplement than with conventional diet therapy. Safe intervention in neonates and infants will permit earlier intervention following pre-natal diagnosis or diagnosis by expanded newborn screening. PMID:26547562

  13. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    PubMed

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  15. Osthol attenuates hepatic steatosis via decreased triglyceride synthesis not by insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ho Hyun; Jun, Dae Won; Jeon, Hye Joon; Lee, Jai Sun; Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of osthol on intrahepatic fat synthesis, β-oxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance by multifaceted analysis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were randomly divided into control, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and osthol groups. NAFLD and osthol groups were fed with a high-fat diet for 14 wk. After 8 wk of the high-fat diet, the osthol group also received osthol 20 mg/kg orally 5 times/wk. To assess the insulin resistance, oral glucose tolerance was performed at the end of 14 wk. Immunohistochemical (4-HNE, F4/80) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were performed on liver tissue extracts after animal sacrifice at 14 wk. SREBP1c, FAS, SCD-1, PPAR-α, CROT, MCP-1, IRS-1, and IRS-2 mRNA expressions were assessed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HE staining revealed that, compared with the NAFLD group, the osthol group showed significantly decreased intrahepatic fat content (39.4% vs 21.0%; P = 0.021). SREBP1c expression in the NAFLD group increased compared to controls (P = 0.0001), while osthol treatment decreased SREBP1c expression compared with the NAFLD group (P = 0.0059). In the osthol group, intrahepatic FAS and SCD-1, which act downstream of SREBP1c, decreased significantly compared with the NAFLD group. Moreover, PPAR-α expression in the osthol group was also significantly higher than in the NAFLD group (P = 0.0147). CONCLUSION: Osthol treatment attenuated liver steatosis by decreasing de novo liver triglyceride synthesis and had nominal effects on insulin resistance and liver inflammation. PMID:25206279

  16. Apolipoprotein C3 SstI polymorphism and triglyceride levels in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, S; Narang, R; Krishnan, LR; Vasisht, S; Agarwal, DP; Srivastava, LM; Manchanda, SC; Das, N

    2002-01-01

    Background A close association between Sst I polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the apolipoproteinC3 (APOC3) gene and levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) had been reported by different investigators. Hypertriglyceridemia(HTG) is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the context of Asian Indians. We conducted a study on the relationship between APOC3 SstI polymorphism (S1S1, S1S2 and S2S2 genotypes) and plasma TG levels in a group of 139 male healthy volunteers from Northern India. Methods DNA samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by SstI digestion. Digested PCR products were run on 3% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Rare S2 allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.313) as compared to the Caucasians (0.00–0.11). The genotypic distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. S2 allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group (N = 34) as compared to NTG group (N = 105) (p = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed S1S2 individuals had age-adjusted odds ratio of 2.43 (95%CI = 0.99–6.01, p = 0.054) and S2S2 had 9.9 (95%CI = 2.66–37.29, p = 0.0006) for developing HTG in comparison to S1S1 genotype. Conclusions Our study shows a significant association between rare S2 allele and HTG in Asian Indians. PMID:12052247

  17. [The unity of pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver. The metabolic disorder of fatty acids and triglycerides].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Ivanova, K V; Malyshev, P P; Kaba, S I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver (steatosis) is still as unclear as a loss of hepatocytes similar to apoptosis, development of biological reaction of inflammation, its transformation into steatohepatitis with subsequent fibrosis and formation of atrophic cirrhosis. The article suggests that steatosis is developed due to higher concentration of palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 16:0) in food, intensification of its endogenic synthesis from food carbohydrates and glucose and development of insulin resistance. It is displayed in in hormone ability to activate both oxidation in cells of glucose and synthesis of oleic monoene fatty acid from palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 18:1). The insulin resistance initiates pathologic process on the level of paracrine associations of cells resulting in permanent increase of concentration of non-etherified fatty acids in intercellular medium and intensification of their passive absorption by cells. The phylogenetically ancient mitochondrions will not to oxidize glucose until non-etherified fatty acids are present in cytosol and hence there is an opportunity to oxidize them. To eliminate undesirable action of polar saturated palmitic fatty acid, the cells etherify it by spirit glyceride into triglycerides to deposit in cytosol or to secrete into blood in a form of lipoproteins of very low density. Under insulin resistance, saturated palmitic fatty acid synthesized by hepatocytes from glucose, does not further transform into oleic monoenic fatty acid. The cells are to etherify endogenic (exogenic) palmnitic saturated fatty acid into composition of aphysiologic palmitic triglycerides (saturated palmitic fatty acid in position sn-2 of spirit glyceride). At that, triglycerides of palmitat-palmitat-oleat and even tripalmitat type are formed. The melting temperature of tripalmitat is 48 degrees C and melting temperature of physiologic trioletat is 13 degrees C. The intracellular lipases factually can't hydrolyze

  18. Chain Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-01

    35609 Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal...Ray Heathcock Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command...for Product Assurance has established a rather unique computer program for handling a variety of chain sampling schemes and is available for

  19. Antioxidant capacity and stability of liposomes containing a triglyceride derivative of lipoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-functional nutritional agent lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and then chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl d...

  20. The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.

    PubMed

    Maimanee, Tahia A

    2010-04-01

    Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam.

  1. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect.

  2. Trends in Elevated Triglyceride in Adults: United States, 2001-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... 59, and 30.9% for 60 and over). Did the percentage of adults with elevated triglyceride change ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2012. Did the trend in the percentage of adults with ...

  3. Measurement of triglycerides concentration in human serum using near-infrared transmission spectroscopy and interval PLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Furong; Yu, Jianhui; Li, Shiping

    2011-11-01

    In order to measurement of Triglycerides in human serum with reagent-less using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Interval partial least square (iPLS) was proposed as an effective variable selection approach for multivariate calibration. For this purpose, an independent sample set was employed to evaluate the prediction ability of the resulting model. The spectrum was split into different interval. Then, the informative region of Triglycerides (1654-1746nm), in which the PLS model has a low RMSEP with 0.157mmol/L and a high R with 0.967, is selected with 18 intervals. The results show that the informative region of Triglycerides can be obtained by iPLS and applied to design the simpler reagent-less NIR instruments for inexpensive Triglycerides measurement in future.

  4. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  5. Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Afzal, Veena; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-03-11

    To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

  6. High Triglycerides Are Associated with Low Thrombocyte Counts and High VEGF in Nephropathia Epidemica.

    PubMed

    Martynova, Ekaterina V; Valiullina, Aygul H; Gusev, Oleg A; Davidyuk, Yuriy N; Garanina, Ekaterina E; Shakirova, Venera G; Khaertynova, Ilsiyar; Anokhin, Vladimir A; Rizvanov, Albert A; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Several reports have demonstrated a severe alteration in lipoprotein metabolism. However, little is known about changes in circulating lipids in NE. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in serum total cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDCL), and triglycerides. In addition to evaluation of serum cytokine activation associations, changes in lipid profile and cytokine activation were determined for gender, thrombocyte counts, and VEGF. Elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased HDCL were observed in NE, while total cholesterol did not differ from controls. High triglycerides were associated with both the lowest thrombocyte counts and high serum VEGF, as well as a high severity score. Additionally, there were higher levels of triglycerides in male than female NE patients. Low triglycerides were associated with upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-12, suggesting activation of Th1 helper cells. Furthermore, levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased in patients with lower severity scores, suggesting that a Th1 type immune response is playing protective role in NE. These combined data advance the understanding of NE pathogenesis and indicate a role for high triglycerides in disease severity.

  7. High Triglycerides Are Associated with Low Thrombocyte Counts and High VEGF in Nephropathia Epidemica

    PubMed Central

    Valiullina, Aygul H.; Gusev, Oleg A.; Davidyuk, Yuriy N.; Garanina, Ekaterina E.; Shakirova, Venera G.; Khaertynova, Ilsiyar

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Several reports have demonstrated a severe alteration in lipoprotein metabolism. However, little is known about changes in circulating lipids in NE. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in serum total cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDCL), and triglycerides. In addition to evaluation of serum cytokine activation associations, changes in lipid profile and cytokine activation were determined for gender, thrombocyte counts, and VEGF. Elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased HDCL were observed in NE, while total cholesterol did not differ from controls. High triglycerides were associated with both the lowest thrombocyte counts and high serum VEGF, as well as a high severity score. Additionally, there were higher levels of triglycerides in male than female NE patients. Low triglycerides were associated with upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-12, suggesting activation of Th1 helper cells. Furthermore, levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased in patients with lower severity scores, suggesting that a Th1 type immune response is playing protective role in NE. These combined data advance the understanding of NE pathogenesis and indicate a role for high triglycerides in disease severity. PMID:28053993

  8. Serum Triglyceride Level: A Predictor of Complications and Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Peralta, Richard; Abbas, Naeem; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Thet, Phyo; Zaw, Tin; Hui, Shirley; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study serum triglyceride level as a predictor of complications and outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, 582 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, who had serum triglyceride levels measured within the first 24 hours, were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients with a triglyceride level ≥2.26 mmol/L (group 2) and the control group consisted of triglyceride level of <2.26 mmol/L (group 1). We collected data for baseline demographics, laboratory values, incidence of complications (local and systemic), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ICU length of stay, length of total hospital stay, and death in the two groups. Results. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L was found to be an independent predictor of developing altered mental status (p: 0.004), pancreatic necrosis (p: 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p: 0001), systemic Inflammatory response syndrome (p: 0.001), acute kidney injury (p: 0.001), hospital length of stay (LOS) (p: 0.002), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p: 0.002), and ICU LOS (p: 0.003). Conclusion. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L on admission in acute pancreatitis is an independent predictor of developing local and systemic complications, hospital LOS, admission to ICU, and ICU LOS.

  9. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  10. Hydrolysis characteristics of bovine milk fat and monoacid triglycerides mediated by pregastric lipase from goats and kids.

    PubMed

    Lai, D T; MacKenzie, A D; O'Connor, C J; Turner, K W

    1997-10-01

    Commercial extracts from oro-pharyngeal tissues of goats and kids have been used as the source of pregastric lipase and have been processed to yield partially purified samples of the primary pregastric lipase. The activity of these lipases against tributyrylglycerol has been determined over a range of pH and temperatures. Optimum pH conditions for pregastric lipase ranged from pH 5.6 to 6.5 for goats and from pH 5.5 to 6.2 for kids, respectively; the optimum temperature ranged from 43 to 60 degrees C. Optima for kid lipase extended slightly below pH 5.5 and higher than 60 degrees C; which were the limits of the test conditions. The enzymes were also used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of monoacid triglycerides (C4:0 to C12:0) at 40 degrees C and pH 6.5; activity was maximum against tributyrylglycerol (C4:0). Values for the Michaelis-Menten constant, increased as carbon chain length of the carboxylic moiety on the triglycerides increased, but values were identical for pregastric lipases of both goats and kids. Anhydrous milk fat was hydrolyzed by the commercial extracts of pregastric lipases of goats and kids, and the resulting profiles for free fatty acids were very similar to one another and to the corresponding profile for a commercial sample of Parmesan cheese. There appear to be no significant differences in activity between the enzyme preparations from goats and kids.

  11. Role of lipoprotein lipase activity on lipoprotein metabolism and the fate of circulating triglycerides in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E; Lasunción, M A; Gomez-Coronado, D; Aranda, P; López-Luna, P; Maier, I

    1988-06-01

    The mechanism that induces maternal hypertriglyceridemia in late normal pregnancy, and its physiologic significance are reviewed as a model of the effects of sex steroids on lipoprotein metabolism. In the pregnant rat, maternal carcass fat content progressively increases up to day 19 of gestation, then declines at day 21. The decline may be explained by the augmented lipolytic activity in adipose tissue that is seen in late pregnancy in the rat. This change causes maternal circulating free fatty acids and glycerol levels to rise. Although the liver is the main receptor organ for these metabolites, liver triglyceride content is reduced. Circulating triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride levels are highly augmented in the pregnant rat, indicating that liver-synthesized triglycerides are rapidly released into the circulation. Similar increments in circulating VLDL-triglycerides are seen in pregnant women during the third trimester of gestation. This increase is coincident with a decrease in plasma postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity, indicating a reduced removal of circulating triglycerides by maternal tissues or a redistribution in their use among the different tissues. During late gestation in the rat, tissue lipoprotein lipase activity varies in different directions; it decreases in adipose tissue, the liver, and to a smaller extent the heart, but increases in placental and mammary gland tissue. These changes play an important role in the fate of circulating triglycerides, which are diverted from uptake by adipose tissue to uptake by the mammary gland for milk synthesis, and probably by the placenta for hydrolysis and transfer of released nonesterified fatty acids to the fetus. After 24 hours of starvation, lipoprotein lipase activity in the liver greatly increases in the rat in late pregnancy; this change is not seen in virgin animals. This alteration is similar to that seen in liver triglyceride content and plasma ketone body

  12. Associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty: A Mendelian randomization analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zuyun; Burgess, Stephen; Wang, Zhengdong; Deng, Wan; Chu, Xuefeng; Cai, Jian; Zhu, Yinsheng; Shi, Jianming; Xie, Xuejuan; Wang, Yong; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies suggest associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty. This study aimed to test whether the associations are causal. We used data from the Rugao Longevity and Ageing Study, a population-based cohort study performed in Rugao, China. A variant in the APOA5 gene region (rs662799) was used as the genetic instrument. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to examine the associations of genetically predicted triglycerides with two ageing phenotypes – longevity ( ≥95 years) and frailty (modified Fried frailty phenotype and Rockwood frailty index). C allele of rs662799 was robustly associated with higher triglyceride levels in the comparison group (β = 0.301 mmol/L per allele, p < 0.001), with an F statistic of 95.3 and R2 = 0.040. However MR analysis did not provide strong evidence for an association between genetically predicted triglyceride levels and probability of longevity (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.07 per 1 mmol/L increase in triglycerides). In the ageing arm (70–84 years), genetically predicted triglyceride levels were not associated with the frailty index (β = 0.008; 95% CI: −0.013, 0.029) or the frailty phenotype (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 4.37). In conclusion, there is currently a lack of sufficient evidence to support causal associations of triglyceride levels with longevity and frailty in elderly populations. PMID:28134330

  13. [Measurement of triglyceride content of resin in masson pulp by UV spectral method].

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-qiang; He, Bei-hai

    2007-01-01

    Pitch deposit is one of the most troublesome problems for the paper mills in South China that use the masson pine as a raw material to make paper. The triglyceride has been identified as the main composition accounting for pitch problem. in order to set down effective pitch control scheme, the triglyceride content in papermaking process must be measured quantitatively. A method to measure the content of triglyceride in masson wood pulp was developed based on UV spectrophotometer in the present work. The UV spectrogram and characteristic peak location of standard glycerol trioleate as well as the effect of measuring time on absorbency were discussed. The results showed that at 412 nm the relation between absorbency and consistency of glycerol trioleate was linear and the pertinent coefficient reached 0. 971 in the range of reagent dosage and consistency in this experiment. The absorbency decreased linearly with measuring time and the pertinent coefficient reached 0. 990 2. The results of reproductive experiment showed that the recoveries were 98%-104%0 and the accuracy was 1. 27%-4. 03% for the samples in consistency 1. 25-0. 50 g x L(-1). With this method, the content of triglyceride in hexane extractive of masson TMP and acid SP were measured respectively. The degradative effect of triglyceride before and after enzyme treatment for masson wood pulp was also evaluated. The results showed that the triglyceride content was relatively high, about 50% both in the total extractive of masson TMP and acid SP. After enzyme treatment, the content of triglyceride in masson TMP and acid SP was reduced by 46. 31% and 35. 55% respectively.

  14. Amphiphilic phase-transforming catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaratna, Gayan Ivantha

    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions that involve immiscible liquid-phase reactants are challenging to conduct due to limitations associated with mass transport. Nevertheless, there are numerous reactions such as esterification, transesterification, etherification, and hydrolysis where two immiscible liquid reactants (such as polar and non-polar liquids) need to be brought into contact with a catalyst. With the intention of alleviating mass transport issues associated with such systems but affording the ability to separate the catalyst once the reaction is complete, the overall goal of this study is geared toward developing a catalyst that has emulsification properties as well as the ability to phase-transfer (from liquid-phase to solid-phase) while the reaction is ongoing and evaluating the effectiveness of such a catalytic process in a practical reaction. To elucidate this concept, the transesterification reaction was selected. Metal-alkoxides that possess acidic and basic properties (to catalyze the reaction), amphiphilic properties (to stabilize the alcohol/oil emulsion) and that can undergo condensation polymerization when heated (to separate as a solid subsequent to the completion of the reaction) were used to test the concept. Studies included elucidating the effect of metal sites and alkoxide sites and their concentration effects on transesterification reaction, effect of various metal alkoxide groups on the phase stability of the reactant system, and kinetic effects of the reaction system. The studies revealed that several transition-metal alkoxides, especially, titanium and yttrium based, responded positively to this reaction system. These alkoxides were able to be added to the reaction medium in liquid phase and were able to stabilize the alcohol/oil system. The alkoxides were selective to the transesterification reaction giving a range of ester yields (depending on the catalyst used). It was also observed that transition-metal alkoxides were able to be

  15. Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress causes dysregulation of the cholesterol and triglyceride biosynthetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Werstuck, Geoff H.; Lentz, Steven R.; Dayal, Sanjana; Hossain, Gazi S.; Sood, Sudesh K.; Shi, Yuan Y.; Zhou, Ji; Maeda, Nobuyo; Krisans, Skaidrite K.; Malinow, M. Rene; Austin, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in patients having severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to deficiency for cystathionine β-synthase. However, the mechanism by which homocysteine promotes the development and progression of hepatic steatosis is unknown. We report here that homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates both the unfolded protein response and the sterol regulatory element–binding proteins (SREBPs) in cultured human hepatocytes as well as vascular endothelial and aortic smooth muscle cells. Activation of the SREBPs is associated with increased expression of genes responsible for cholesterol/triglyceride biosynthesis and uptake and with intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. Homocysteine-induced gene expression was inhibited by overexpression of the ER chaperone, GRP78/BiP, thus demonstrating a direct role of ER stress in the activation of cholesterol/triglyceride biosynthesis. Consistent with these in vitro findings, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated in the livers, but not plasmas, of mice having diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. This effect was not due to impaired hepatic export of lipids because secretion of VLDL-triglyceride was increased in hyperhomocysteinemic mice. These findings suggest a mechanism by which homocysteine-induced ER stress causes dysregulation of the endogenous sterol response pathway, leading to increased hepatic biosynthesis and uptake of cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, this mechanism likely explains the development and progression of hepatic steatosis and possibly atherosclerotic lesions observed in hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:11375416

  16. An intrinsic gut leptin-melanocortin pathway modulates intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Li, Xiaosong; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Chan, Lawrence; Schwartz, Gary J; Chua, Streamson C; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2010-07-01

    Fat is delivered to tissues by apoB-containing lipoproteins synthesized in the liver and intestine with the help of an intracellular chaperone, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, acts in the brain and on peripheral tissues to regulate fat storage and metabolism. Our aim was to identify the role of leptin signaling in MTP regulation and lipid absorption using several mouse models deficient in leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling and downstream effectors. Mice with spontaneous LEPR B mutations or targeted ablation of LEPR B in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti gene related peptide (AGRP) expressing cells had increased triglyceride in plasma, liver, and intestine. Furthermore, melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) knockout mice expressed a similar triglyceride phenotype, suggesting that leptin might regulate intestinal MTP expression through the melanocortin pathway. Mechanistic studies revealed that the accumulation of triglyceride in the intestine might be secondary to decreased expression of MTP and lipid absorption in these mice. Surgical and chemical blockade of vagal efferent outflow to the intestine in wild-type mice failed to alter the triglyceride phenotype, demonstrating that central neural control mechanisms were likely not involved in the observed regulation of intestinal MTP. Instead, we found that enterocytes express LEPR, POMC, AGRP, and MC4R. We propose that a peripheral, local gut signaling mechanism involving LEPR B and MC4R regulates intestinal MTP and controls intestinal lipid absorption.

  17. Hypoxia-induced mobilization of stored triglycerides in the euryoxic goby Gillichthys mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Andrew Y; Lee, Tsung-Han; Higashi, Richard M; Fan, Teresa

    2011-09-15

    Environmental hypoxia is a common challenge that many aquatic organisms experience in their habitat. Responding to hypoxia requires metabolic reprogramming so that energy-demanding processes are regulated to match available energy reserves. In this study we explored the transcriptional control of metabolic reorganization in the liver of a hypoxia-tolerant burrow-dwelling goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. Gene expression data revealed that pathways associated with triglyceride hydrolysis were upregulated by hypoxia whereas pathways associated with triglyceride synthesis were downregulated. This finding was supported by tissue histology, which showed that the size of hepatic lipid droplets declined visibly during exposure to hypoxia. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed the mobilization of hepatic triglycerides, which declined 2.7-fold after 5 days of hypoxia. The enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase, was implicated in the mobilization of triglycerides because its expression increased at the level of both transcript and protein. This observation raises questions regarding the regulation of fat metabolism during hypoxia and the role played by the hypoxia-responsive gene leptin.

  18. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  19. Kidney triglyceride accumulation in the fasted mouse is dependent upon serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scerbo, Diego; Son, Ni-Huiping; Sirwi, Alaa; Zeng, Lixia; Sas, Kelli M; Cifarelli, Vincenza; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Huggins, Lesley-Ann; Gumaste, Namrata; Hu, Yunying; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abumrad, Nada A; Kershaw, Erin E; Hussain, M Mahmood; Susztak, Katalin; Goldberg, Ira J

    2017-04-12

    Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [14C]oleic acid. Increasing circulating NEFAs using a beta adrenergic receptor agonist caused a 15-fold greater accumulation of lipid in the kidney, while mice with reduced NEFAs due to adipose tissue deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase had reduced triglycerides. Cd36 mRNA increased 2-fold, and Angptl4, an LpL inhibitor, increased 10-fold. Fasting-induced kidney lipid accumulation was not affected by inhibition of LpL with poloxamer 407 or by use of mice with induced genetic LpL deletion. Despite the increase in CD36 expression with fasting, genetic loss of CD36 did not alter fatty acid uptake or triglyceride accumulation. Our data demonstrate that fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the kidney correlates with the plasma concentrations of NEFAs, but is not due to uptake of lipoprotein lipids and does not involve the fatty acid transporter CD36.

  20. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and the ethanol physical withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Murad, C. A.; Begg, S. J.; Griffiths, P. J.; Littleton, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Physical dependence on ethanol was induced in TO strain mice by chronic administration of ethanol by inhalation. The severity of the behavioral syndrome of withdrawal from ethanol was quantified by a subjective scoring method. During the chronic administration of ethanol, triglycerides accumulated in livers of male or female mice with a time course similar to that of the induction of physical dependence. When ethanol was withdrawn from adult or weaning dependent mice, a relationship was observed between the decline of triglyceride concentrations in liver and the duration of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The addition of DL-carnitine (7% w/w) to diet during the administration of ethanol markedly inhibited the accumulation of triglycerides, and significantly reduced the intensity of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Administration of carbon tetrachloride ((1.3 ml/kg i.p.), however, although augmenting hepatic triglyceride accumulation, had no significant effect on the withdrawal syndrome. The results are interpreted as suggesting either that ethanol-induced liver dysfunction plays a part in dependence, or, more likely, that triglyceride accumulation reflects an ethanol-induced metabolic disorder which is itself related to the induction of dependence. PMID:564703

  1. Genomic interval engineering of mice identified a novel modulator of triglyceride production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jong, M.C.; Frazer, K.A.; Gong, E.; Krauss, R.M.; Cheng, J.F.; Boffelli, D.; Rubin, E.M.

    1999-10-01

    To accelerate the biological annotation of novel genes discovered in sequenced of mammalian genomes, we are creating large deletions in the mouse genome targeted to include clusters of such genes. Here we describe the targeted deletion of a 450 kb region on mouse chromosome 11 which, based on computational analysis of the deleted murine sequences and human 5q orthologous sequences, codes for nine putative genes. Mice homozygous for the deletion had a variety of abnormalities including severe hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic and cardiac enlargement, growth retardation and premature mortality. Analysis of triglyceride metabolism in these animals demonstrated a several-fold increase in hepatic very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride secretion, the most prevalent mechanism responsible for hypertriglyceridemia in humans. A series of mouse BAC and human YAC transgenes covering different intervals of the 450 kb deleted region were assessed for their ability to complement the deletion induced abnormalities. These studies revealed that OCTN2, a gene recently shown to play a role in carnitine transport, was able to correct the triglyceride abnormalities. The discovery of this previously unappreciated relationship between OCTN2, carnitine and hepatic triglyceride production is of particular importance due to the clinical consequence of hypertriglyceridemia and the paucity of genes known to modulate triglyceride secretion.

  2. Distinct metabolic and vascular effects of dietary triglycerides and cholesterol in atherosclerotic and diabetic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Laplante, Marc-André; Charbonneau, Alexandre; Avramoglu, Rita Kohen; Pelletier, Patricia; Fang, Xiangping; Bachelard, Hélène; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Laakso, Markku; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deshaies, Yves; Sweeney, Gary; Mathieu, Patrick; Marette, André

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol and triglyceride-rich Western diets are typically associated with an increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the relative impact of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and endothelial function. C57BL6 wild-type (C57) mice were compared with atherosclerotic LDLr(-/-) ApoB(100/100) (LRKOB100) and atherosclerotic/diabetic IGF-II × LDLr(-/-) ApoB(100/100) (LRKOB100/IGF) mice. Each group was fed either a standard chow diet, a 0.2% cholesterol diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or a high-fat 0.2% cholesterol diet for 6 mo. The triglyceride-rich HFD increased body weight, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance but did not alter endothelial function or atherosclerotic plaque formation. Dietary cholesterol, however, increased plaque formation in LRKOB100 and LRKOB100/IGF animals and decreased endothelial function regardless of genotype. However, cholesterol was not associated with an increase of insulin resistance in LRKOB100 and LRKOB100/IGF mice and, unexpectedly, was even found to reduce the insulin-resistant effect of dietary triglycerides in these animals. Our data indicate that dietary triglycerides and cholesterol have distinct metabolic and vascular effects in obese atherogenic mouse models resulting in dissociation between the impairment of glucose homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis.

  3. Quantitative determination of triglyceride by photoactivated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots through fluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Ping; Li, Yaw-Kuen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2008-07-01

    The quantitative detection of triglycerides is an important issue for health inspection of metabolic disorders and for food and oil-refining industries. Many methods have been designed to approach this target, in which multiple reactions catalyzed by enzymes are normally coupled consecutively. In this study, we demonstrated a simple assay system containing lipase and photoactivated luminescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) for the quantitative detection of triglycerides. Photoactivated CdSe/ZnS QDs function as a sensitive "indicator" to reveal the minute acidity change of the assay system resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides. By controlling the initial buffer condition of the assay system at 5, 10, or 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, respectively, the quenching ratio of the QDs fluorescence intensity monitored at the maximum photoluminescence showed a linear correlation with the concentration of the examined triglyceride in the range of 0.02-6, 0.2-10, or 2-20 mM, respectively. The assay system also provides a convenient way to estimate triglyceride concentration by visualizing the color change of the QDs fluorescence. As compared to most of the existing methods, the system reported herein possessed many advantages, including simplicity, low cost, high flexibility, and high sensitivity. Furthermore, no complicated chemical modification or enzyme immobilization is needed.

  4. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  5. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  6. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P < 0.05) and those of HTGL were lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P < 0.05) in the rats fed docosahexaenoic acid, a major component of fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  7. Association of HS6ST3 gene polymorphisms with obesity and triglycerides: gene x gender interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Wang, Liang; Liu, Xuefeng; Zeng, Min

    2013-12-01

    The heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3 (HS6ST3) gene is involved in heparan sulphate and heparin metabolism, and has been reported to be associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.We hypothesized that HS6ST3 gene polymorphisms might play an important role in obesity and related phenotypes (such as triglycerides). We examined genetic associations of 117 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the HS6ST3 gene with obesity and triglycerides using two Caucasian samples: the Marshfield sample (1442 obesity cases and 2122 controls), and the Health aging and body composition (Health ABC) sample (305 cases and 1336 controls). Logistic regression analysis of obesity as a binary trait and linear regression analysis of triglycerides as a continuous trait, adjusted for age and sex, were performed using PLINK. Single marker analysis showed that six SNPs in the Marshfield sample and one SNP in the Health ABC sample were associated with obesity (P < 0.05). SNP rs535812 revealed a stronger association with obesity in meta-analysis of these two samples (P = 0.0105). The T-A haplotype from rs878950 and rs9525149 revealed significant association with obesity in the Marshfield sample (P = 0.012). Moreover, nine SNPs showed associations with triglycerides in the Marshfield sample (P < 0.05) and the best signal was rs1927796 (P = 0.00858). In addition, rs7331762 showed a strong gene x gender interaction (P = 0.00956) for obesity while rs1927796 showed a strong gene x gender interaction (P = 0.000625) for triglycerides in the Marshfield sample. These findings contribute new insights into the pathogenesis of obesity and triglycerides and demonstrate the importance of gender differences in the aetiology.

  8. Genome-wide scan identifies variation in MLXIPL associated with plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Kooner, Jaspal S; Chambers, John C; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Hinds, David A; Hyde, Craig L; Warnes, Gregory R; Gómez Pérez, Francisco J; Frazer, Kelly A; Elliott, Paul; Scott, James; Milos, Patrice M; Cox, David R; Thompson, John F

    2008-02-01

    We tested over 267,000 SNPs in 1,005 Northern Europeans and 248,000 in 1,006 Indian Asians for association with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol, with replication in 10,536 subjects. We found association of a nonsynonymous SNP (rs3812316, G771C, Gln241His) in MLXIPL with plasma triglyceride levels (combined P = 1.4 x 10(-10)). MLXIPL coordinates transcriptional regulation of enzymes that channel glycolytic end-products into lipogenesis and energy storage, making MLXIPL a plausible 'thrifty gene'.

  9. Clathrin heavy chain, light chain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, F K; Stanley, K K

    1983-01-01

    Purified pig brain clathrin can be reversibly dissociated and separated into heavy chain trimers and light chains in the presence of non-denaturing concentrations of the chaotrope thiocyanate. The isolated heavy chain trimers reassemble into regular polygonal cage structures in the absence of light chains. The light chain fraction can be further resolved into its two components L alpha and L beta which give different one-dimensional peptide maps. Radiolabelled light chains bind with high affinity (KD < 10(-10) M) to heavy chain trimers, to heavy chain cages and to a 110,000 mol. wt. tryptic fragment of the heavy chain. Both light chains compete with each other and with light chains from other sources for the same binding sites on heavy chains and c.d. spectroscopy shows that the two pig brain light chains possess very similar structures. We conclude that light chains from different sources, despite some heterogeneity, have a highly conserved, high affinity binding site on the heavy chain but are not essential for the formation of regular cage structures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 8. PMID:10872336

  10. Bioelectrocatalytic sensor for triglycerides in human skin sebum based on enzymatic cascade reaction of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerophosphate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chi Yong; Han, Yong Duk; Yoon, Jae Ho; Yoon, Hyun C

    2014-04-10

    We report the development of an electrochemical biosensor for the quantification of triglycerides in human skin sebum, based on a multienzyme cascade reaction. The presence of excessive triglycerides in human sebum is one of the leading causes of various skin ailments. However, to the best of our knowledge, no bioelectrocatalytic approach for the quantification of sebum triglycerides has been made. In order to develop triglyceride biosensor, we fabricated a multienzyme-associated electrode incorporating lipase, glycerol kinase, and glycerophosphate oxidase. Enzymes were deposited by electrostatic force and further stabilized via crosslinking between enzymes and polymer matrices. The enzyme-modified biosensing electrode maintained its bioelectrocatalytic activity for five days. An additional constraint was the limited solubility of sebum triglycerides in aqueous electrolytes, impeding the analysis. To address this issue, triglyceride samples were prepared in the form of micelles, enabling efficient sample preparation for biosensor signaling. Calibration tests revealed that the designed assay had a detection range of 15-200mg/dL of micellar triglyceride, which covered the required determination range. The developed biosensing approach was successfully used to determine triglyceride concentrations in real sebum samples of unknown triglyceride content.

  11. Cholesterol and triglyceride reduction in rats fed Matthiola incana seed oil rich in (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Z; Schafferman, D; Shamir, I; Madar, Z

    1999-02-01

    Seeds of Matthiola incana contain oil rich (55-65%) in (n-3) linolenic acid. Selected lines were developed and evaluated for their agronomic and chemical parameters. Extracted oil was fed for 6 weeks to rats, which were compared with rats fed a diet containing coconut oil or sunflower oil. Cholesterol levels were significantly lowest in rats fed diets rich in M. incana oil (27% reduction), and triglycerides were significantly lower in rats receiving either M. incana or sunflower oil (36% reduction). The contents of arachidonic acid and other (n-6) fatty acids were significantly the lowest in the liver and plasma of rats that had received M. incana oil. The levels of (n-3) fatty acids were significantly greater in both the liver and plasma of rats fed M. incana oil. The ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) long-chain fatty acids in the plasma was 7 times higher in rats fed with M. incana oil than in those fed with sunflower oil and 6 times higher than in those fed coconut oil. The results demonstrate for the first time a beneficial effect of dietary M. incana oil in reducing cholesterol levels and increasing (n-3) fatty acid levels in the plasma. This new, terrestrial plant source of (n-3) fatty acids could replace marine oils and thereby contribute beneficially to the human diet.

  12. Detection of triglycerides using immobilized enzymes in food and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichur, Ashish; Lesi, Abiodun; Pedersen, Henrik

    1996-04-01

    A scheme for the determination of total triglyceride (fat) content in biomedical and food samples is being developed. The primary emphasis is to minimize the reagents used, simplify sample preparation and develop a robust system that would facilitate on-line monitoring. The new detection scheme developed thus far involves extracting triglycerides into an organic solvent (cyclohexane) and performing partial least squares (PLS) analysis on the NIR (1100 - 2500 nm) absorbance spectra of the solution. A training set using 132 spectra of known triglyceride mixtures was complied. Eight PLS calibrations were generated and were used to predict the total fat extracted from commercial samples such as mayonnaise, butter, corn oil and coconut oil. The results typically gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 or better. Predictions were typically within 90% and better at higher concentrations. Experiments were also performed using an immobilized lipase reactor to hydrolyze the fat extracted into the organic solvent. Performing PLS analysis on the difference spectra of the substrate and product could enhance specificity. This is being verified experimentally. Further work with biomedical samples is to be performed. This scheme may be developed into a feasible detection method for triglycerides in the biomedical and food industries.

  13. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  14. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  15. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation.

  16. Diurnal regulation of MTP and plasma triglyceride by CLOCK is mediated by SHP.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Yuxia; Wang, Li; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2010-08-04

    We examined the role of clock genes in the diurnal regulation of plasma triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-lipoproteins and their biosynthetic chaperone, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Clock(mt/mt) mice showed sustained hypertriglyceridemia and high MTP expression. CLOCK knockdown activated MTP promoter and reduced small heterodimer partner (SHP, NROB2). CLOCK upregulated SHP by binding to its E box. SHP suppressed MTP expression by binding to the HNF4alpha/LRH-1 at the MTP promoter. Cyclic expression of MTP after serum shock was abrogated by siCLOCK and siSHP. Plasma triglyceride and MTP showed reduced diurnal variations in Shp(-/-) mice. Whereas peaks and nadirs in SHP expression were inversely correlated with those of MTP, these changes were reduced in Clock(mt/mt) mice. Expression of Shp abrogated hypertriglyceridemia in Clock(mt/mt) mice. Together, these studies describe a role of Clock/Shp in the diurnal regulation of MTP and plasma triglyceride and indicate that disruptions in circadian regulation might cause hyperlipidemia.

  17. Triglyceride-increasing alleles associated with protection against type-2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2...

  18. The genetic architecture of fasting plasma triglyceride response to fenofibrate treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic response to the triglyceride (TG)-lowering drug, fenofibrate, is shaped by interactions between genetic and environmental factors, yet knowledge regarding the genetic determinants of this response is primarily limited to single gene effects. Since very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the...

  19. Effects of CETP inhibition on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein composition and apoB-48 metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE) to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This study aimed to determine the effects of CETP inhibition with torcetrapib on TRL composition and apoB-48 metabolism. Study subjects with low HDL cholesterol...

  20. Genetic APOC3 mutation, serum triglyceride concentrations, and coronary heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent decades have witnessed an increased awareness of the importance of lowering triglyceride concentrations in conjunction with lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to achieve optimal reduction of the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Historically, LDL-C was the only target of pharmacologic ther...

  1. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  2. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  3. Preoperative Body Mass Index, Blood Albumin and Triglycerides Predict Survival for Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin Zheng; Tao, Lin; Chen, Yun Zhao; Li, Xu Zhe; Dong, Yu Ling; Ma, Ya Jing; Li, Shu Gang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is common and its prognosis is often poor due to difficulties in early diagnosis and optimal treatment strategies. TNM staging system is useful in predicting prognosis but only possible after surgery. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate prognostic factors/markers that may predict prognosis before surgery by which helps appropriate management decisions preoperatively. Methods A total of 320 GC patients were consecutively recruited from 2004 to 2013 and followed up for 127 months (10.6 years) after surgery. These patients’ were examined for body mass index (BMI) and blood levels of albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to analyze long-term survival using the above potential risk markers. We first employed medians of these variables to reveal maximal potentials of the above prognostic predictors. Results Three major findings were obtained: (1) Preoperative BMI was positively correlated with albumin (r = 0.144, P<0.05) and triglyceride (r = 0.365, P<0.01), but negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.265, P<0.05). Preoperative albumin levels were positively correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.173, P<0.05) but again, negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.137, P<0.05); (2) Poor survival was observed in GC patients with lower levels of BMI (P = 0.028), albumin (P = 0.004), and triglyceride (P = 0.043), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses suggested BMI, albumin and triglyceride to have survival-predictor powers similar to TNM system; and (3) Cox multi-factorial analyses demonstrated that age (P = 0.049), BMI (P = 0.016), cell differentiation (P = 0.001), and TNM staging (P = 0.011) were independent overall survival-predictors for GC patients. Conclusions Preoperative BMI, albumin, and triglyceride levels are capable of predicting survival for

  4. Microbial biosurfactants and hydrolytic enzymes mediates in situ development of stable supra-molecular assemblies in fatty acids released from triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, Arumugam; Kavitha, V; Radhakrishnan, N; Sekaran, G; Rajakumar, G Suseela; Mandal, A B

    2010-07-01

    The present study demonstrates in situ formation of multilamellar stable vesicles (MLSVs) of fatty acids released during the growth of microorganisms in the presence of triglycerides. Release of lipase during initial phase of growth hydrolyzes the triglycerides and release free fatty acids (mono or diglycerides) and glycerol. By extending the growth and the prevailing composition of media (unspent nutrients, salts, pH of the medium, biosurfactants, fatty acids, glycerol) and agitation transforms free fatty acids to MLSV of both cylindrical and spherical macroscopic structures via micelle formation with in 240h of incubation. Cross-sectional view and SEM analysis of macroscopic structures reveal the existence of continuous multilayering. Thermo-gravimetric analysis illustrates the stability of the vesicles. FT-IR analysis emphasizes the presence of amide linkages, responsible for self-assembly processes. Schematic representation of formation of MLSV demonstrated for further understanding. Additional exploration on MLSV formation in arteries and the relationship between MLSV and in situ plaque formation by the components of blood in the arteries are schematically explained and submitted as supporting information (SI-2).

  5. Chain Reacting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, Enrico; Leverett, Miles C.

    This Patent focuses mainly on the description of an automatic system for the control rods in a nuclear reactor (in the present case made of natural uranium and graphite) reporting, aside from several related theoretical points (already considered in previous Patents), a detailed description of it. Since the reproduction ratio of a lattice structure is reduced by the presence of neutron absorbing impurities, such impurities can be introduced in the lattice in the form of control rods, made of a material such as boron or cadmium, which will absorb large amounts of neutrons. The control procedure is based on the fact that the depth to which the control rod penetrates into the lattice will determine the value of the neutron density in the system. This relatively simple task faces the fact that the reproduction ratio of the structure can change due to changes in temperature and pressure in the system. So, a connection of the control rods with an ionization chamber, measuring neutron density, can give an automatic control of the stability of the chain reaction. Moreover, an emergency circuit for operating the safety rods is illustrated in this Patent, and, in case of failure of both the control and emergency circuits, a third automatic circuit is depicted which causes the dump of a portion of the lattice structure for interrupting the neutron density rise. In a system of the type considered, about 92 percent of the total heat generated originates in the uranium toward the center of the lattice, about 6 percent originates in the graphite used as slowing medium, and the remaining 2 percent is generated in the structures surrounding the pile. Accordingly, the permissible power output of the reactor is limited by the rate of heat removal, so that, to prevent the accumulation of heat in the chain reaction pile, a coolant into contact with the uranium must be employed. However, the corrosive effect on uranium of the possible coolants has to be taken into account, because the

  6. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  7. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  8. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

    PubMed Central

    Uthurralt, Julieta; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bradbury, Meg; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Devaney, Joseph; Harmon, Brennan; Reeves, Erica K; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hansen, Barbara C; Seip, Richard L; Thompson, Paul D; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Gordon, Paul M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2007-01-01

    Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037). PMID:17705849

  9. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  10. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels may be due to: Low fat diet Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Malabsorption syndrome (conditions in which the ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency High blood cholesterol levels Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Malabsorption Metabolism Nephrotic syndrome Protein in diet ...

  11. Electronic decay through carbon chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleff, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    Using the multielectron wave-packet propagation method the electronic decay of O2s vacancy in fluorinated cumulenones, OCnF2 , containing a chain of up to five carbons is traced in time and space. It is shown that in all studied cases this state decays non-locally by emitting an electron from the remote fluorines. Even in the pentatetraenone case, where the oxygen and the flourines are more than 7 Å apart, this non-local decay is extremely efficient, with a time constant of about 5 fs. The process can be viewed as an ultrafast energy transfer through the carbon chain and thus our systematic study allows to shed some light on the dependence of the time scale of the electron-correlation driven energy transfer through a medium.

  12. Synthesis, rheological characterization, and constitutive modeling of polyhydroxy triglycerides derived from milkweed oil.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, R E; Carriere, C J

    2002-05-22

    Asclepias syriaca L., the common milkweed, is a new industrial crop. The seed contains about 20-30 wt % of a highly unsaturated oil having unusual fatty acids. Exploring value-added products from the oil, milkweed triglycerides have been oxidized by in situ performic acid to the polyoxirane and polyhydroxy triglycerides (PHTG). The rheological properties of milkweed PHTG were characterized in various shear flows. Milkweed PHTG displayed nonlinear viscoelastic behavior at applied strains greater than 1%. Milkweed PHTG was found to obey time-strain separability. A nonlinear Wagner constitutive model was used successfully to qualitatively predict the behavior of milkweed PHTG in both start-up and cessation of steady-state shear flow.

  13. Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dan; Sun, Xiuqin; Li, Guangyou; Liu, Fayi; Lin, Xuezheng; Shen, Jihong

    2009-09-01

    We compared four esterifiable enzymes. The lipase Novozym 435 possessed the highest activity for the conjugated linoleic acid esterification during the synthesis of triglycerides. The triglycerides were synthesized by esterification of glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a no-solvent system using lipase catalysis. We investigated the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration, water content, and time on esterification. Enzyme and water concentrations of up to 1% of the total reaction volume and a system temperature of 60°C proved optimal for esterification. Similarly, when the esterification was carried out for 24 h, the reaction ratio improved to 94.11%. The esterification rate of the rotating screen basket remained high (87.28%) when the enzyme was re-used for the 5th time. We evaluated the substrate selectivity of lipase (NOVO 435) and determined that this lipase prefers the 10,12-octadacadienoic acid to the 9,11-octadecadienoic acid.

  14. Kidney Function as a Determinant of HDL and Triglyceride Concentrations in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael; Ray, Udayan; Yu, Richard; Hudspeth, Andrew; Smillie, Michael; Jordan, Neville; Bartle, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD risk increases in a stepwise manner with increasing kidney impairment and is significantly reduced by kidney transplantation, suggesting a causal relationship. Dyslipidemia, a well recognised CVD risk factor, is highly prevalent in CKD. While dyslipidemia is a risk factor for CKD, kidney impairment can also induce a dyslipidemic state that may contribute to the excess burden of CVD in CKD. We utilised a multipronged approach to determine whether a causal relationship exists. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case-control analysis of 816 patients admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital in 2008–2009 with different degrees of kidney impairment and retrospective before-after cohort analysis of 60 patients who received a transplanted kidney between 1999 and 2009. Results: Decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) was independently associated with decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL, p < 0.0001) and increased triglyceride concentrations (p < 0.01) in multivariate analysis. There was no significant relationship between eGFR and low density lipoprotein (LDL) or total cholesterol in multivariate analysis. Kidney transplantation increased HDL (p < 0.0001) and decreased triglyceride (p = 0.007) concentration, whereas there was no significant change in LDL and total cholesterol. These effects were dependent on maintenance of graft function, statin therapy (those who were on) if graft failure occurred then HDL again decreased and triglycerides increased. Conclusions: Kidney transplantation ameliorated alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile associated with kidney impairment, an effect that was dependent on the maintenance of graft function. These data suggest that kidney function is a determinant of HDL and triglyceride concentrations in patients with CKD. PMID:27005668

  15. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  16. Loss of FTO in adipose tissue decreases Angptl4 translation and alters triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yung; Shie, Shian-Sen; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chang; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Wu, Delon

    2015-12-15

    A common variant of the FTO (fat mass- and obesity-associated) gene is a risk factor for obesity. We found that mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of FTO gained more weight than control mice on a high-fat diet. Analysis of mice lacking FTO in adipocytes fed a normal diet or adipocytes from these mice revealed alterations in triglyceride metabolism that would be expected to favor increased fatty acid storage by adipose tissue. Mice lacking FTO in adipocytes showed increased serum triglyceride breakdown and clearance, which was associated with lower serum triglyceride concentrations. In addition, lipolysis in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was decreased in adipocytes and ex vivo adipose explants from the mutant mice. FTO is a nucleic acid demethylase that removes N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) from mRNAs. We found that FTO bound to Angptl4, which encodes an adipokine that stimulates intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes. Unexpectedly, the adipose tissue of fasted or fed mice lacking FTO in adipocytes had greater Angptl4 mRNA abundance. However, after high-fat feeding, the mutant mice had less Angptl4 protein and more m(6)A-modified Angptl4 than control mice, suggesting that lack of FTO prevented the translation of Angptl4. Injection of Angptl4-encoding adenovirus into mice lacking FTO in adipocytes restored serum triglyceride concentrations and lipolysis to values similar to those in control mice and abolished excessive weight gain from a high-fat diet. These results reveal that FTO regulates fatty acid mobilization in adipocytes and thus body weight in part through posttranscriptional regulation of Angptl4.

  17. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerwinkle, E. ); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. ); Sharrett, A.R. ); Heiss, G. )

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates and niacin as therapeutic options in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ito, Matthew K

    2015-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia affects approximately 33% of the US population. Elevated triglyceride levels are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Guidelines for the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥5.6 mmol/L [≥500 mg/dL]) recommend immediate use of triglyceride-lowering agents; however, statins remain the first line of therapy for the management of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7-5.6 mmol/L [150-499 mg/dL]). Statins primarily target elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but have also been shown to reduce mean triglyceride levels by up to 18% (or 43% in patients with triglyceride levels≥3.1 mmol/L [≥273 mg/dL]). However, individuals with hypertriglyceridemia may need additional reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant particles to further reduce residual CVD risk. A number of guidelines recommend the addition of fibrates, niacin, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids if elevated triglyceride or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels persist despite the use of high-intensity statin therapy. This review evaluates the impact of fibrates, niacin, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. It also assesses the adverse effects and drug-drug interactions associated with these triglyceride-lowering agents, because although they have all been shown to effectively reduce triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, they differ with regard to their associated benefit-risk profiles. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be a well-tolerated and effective alternative to fibrates and niacin, yet further large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes and CVD risk reduction in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. A severe form of abetalipoproteinemia caused by new splicing mutations of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP).

    PubMed

    Pons, Véronique; Rolland, Corinne; Nauze, Michel; Danjoux, Marie; Gaibelet, Gérald; Durandy, Anne; Sassolas, Agnès; Lévy, Emile; Tercé, François; Collet, Xavier; Mas, Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by low lipid levels and by the absence of apoB-containing lipoproteins. It is the consequence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) deficiency. We report two patients with new MTTP mutations. We studied their functional consequences on the triglyceride transfer function using duodenal biopsies. We transfected MTTP mutants in HepG2 and HeLa cells to investigate their association with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and their localization at the endoplasmic reticulum. These children have a severe abetalipoproteinemia. Both of them had also a mild hypogammaglobulinemia. They are compound heterozygotes with c.619G>T and c.1237-28A>G mutations within the MTTP gene. mRNA analysis revealed abnormal splicing with deletion of exon 6 and 10, respectively. Deletion of exon 6 (Δ6-MTTP) introduced a frame shift in the reading frame and a premature stop codon at position 234. Despite the fact that Δ6-MTTP and Δ10-MTTP mutants were not capable of binding PDI, both MTTP mutant proteins normally localize at the endoplasmic reticulum. However, these two mutations induce a loss of MTTP triglyceride transfer activity. These two mutations lead to abnormal truncated MTTP proteins, incapable of binding PDI and responsible for the loss of function of MTTP, thereby explaining the severe abetalipoproteinemia phenotype of these children.

  20. Expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in lipoprotein-synthesizing tissues of the developing chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Eresheim, Christine; Plieschnig, Julia; Ivessa, N Erwin; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Hermann, Marcela

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to mammals, in the chicken major sites of lipoprotein synthesis and secretion are not only the liver and intestine, but also the kidney and the embryonic yolk sac. Two key components in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We have analyzed the expression of MTP in the embryonic liver, small intestine, and kidney, and have studied the expression of MTP in, and the secretion of apoB from, the developing yolk sac (YS). Transcript and protein levels of MTP increase during embryogenesis in YS, liver, kidney, and small intestine, and decrease in YS, embryonic liver, and kidney after hatching. In small intestine, the MTP mRNA level rises sharply during the last trimester of embryo development (after day 15), while MTP protein is detectable only after hatching (day 21). In the YS of 15- and 20-day old embryos, apoB secretion was detected by pulse-chase metabolic radiolabeling experiments and subsequent immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of coordinated production of MTP and apoB in chicken tissues capable of secreting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins even before hatching.

  1. ADIPOSE TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE REGULATES BASAL LIPOLYSIS AND LIPID DROPLET SIZE IN ADIPOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Perfield, James W.; Obin, Martin S.; Greenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    In adipocytes, lipid droplet (LD) size reflects a balance of triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis) and hydrolysis (lipolysis). Perilipin A (Peri A), is the most abundant phosphoprotein on the surface of adipocyte LDs and has a crucial role in lipid storage and lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are the major rate-determining enzymes for lipolysis in adipocytes. Each of these proteins (Peri A, ATGL and HSL) have been demonstrated to regulate lipid storage and release in the adipocyte. However, in the absence of PKA stimulation (basal state), the lipases (ATGL and HSL) are located mainly in the cytoplasm, and their contribution to basal rates of lipolysis and influence on LD size are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize an adenoviral system to knockdown or overexpress ATGL and HSL in an engineered model system of adipocytes in the presence or absence of Peri A. We are able to demonstrate in our experimental model system, that in the basal state, LD size, triglyceride storage, and fatty acid release are mainly influenced by expression of ATGL. These results demonstrate for the first time the relative contributions of ATGL, HSL, and Peri A on determination of LD size in the absence of PKA-stimulation. PMID:18980248

  2. Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-15

    For triglycerides biosensor design, protein immobilization is necessary to create the interface between the enzyme and the electrode. In this study, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with lipase-nanoporous gold (NPG) biocomposite (denoted as lipase/NPG/GCE). Due to highly conductive, porous, and biocompatible three-dimensional structure, NPG is suitable for enzyme immobilization. In cyclic voltammetry experiments, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode displayed surface-confined reaction in a phosphate buffer solution. Linear responses were obtained for tributyrin concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg dl(-1) and olive oil concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 mg dl(-1). The value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for tributyrin was 10.67 mg dl(-1) and the detection limit was 2.68 mg dl(-1). Further, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode had strong anti-interference ability against urea, glucose, cholesterol, and uric acid as well as a long shelf-life. For the detection of triglycerides in human serum, the values given by the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode were in good agreement with those of an automatic biochemical analyzer. These properties along with a long self-life make the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for the construction of triglycerides biosensor.

  3. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  4. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-03-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion.

  5. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  6. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  7. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  9. Interaction of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides in the regulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1988-01-01

    These studies report the effects of dietary cholesterol and triglyceride on rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL transport in the liver of the hamster. In animals fed diets enriched with 0.1, 0.25, or 1% cholesterol for 1 mo, receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver was suppressed by 43, 63, and 77%, respectively, and there were reciprocal changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. In addition, dietary triglycerides modified the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic LDL transport and plasma LDL concentrations so that at each level of cholesterol intake, polyunsaturated triglycerides diminished and saturated triglycerides accentuated the effect of dietary cholesterol. When animals were raised from weaning on diets containing small amounts of cholesterol, the decline in receptor-dependent LDL transport was nearly abolished by the addition of polyunsaturated or monounsaturated triglycerides, but was markedly augmented by the addition of saturated lipids. When animals raised on diets containing cholesterol and saturated triglycerides were returned to the low cholesterol, low triglyceride control diet, hepatic receptor-dependent LDL transport and plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations returned essentially to normal within 2 wk. Neither receptor-independent LDL transport nor the receptor-dependent uptake of asialofetuin was significantly altered by dietary cholesterol or triglyceride suggesting that the effect of these lipids on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physiochemical properties of hepatic membranes. These studies demonstrate the important role of saturated triglycerides in augmenting the effect of cholesterol in suppressing hepatic LDL receptor activity and elevating LDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:2448340

  10. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  11. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    PubMed

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  12. Cluster analysis for the systematic grouping of genuine cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalent samples based on triglyceride patterns.

    PubMed

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-06-16

    The triglyceride profile of cocoa butters (CBs) from different geographical origins, varieties, growing seasons, and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) was determined by capillary gas liquid chromatography. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the five main triglycerides of the samples for the ability to find natural groupings among (a) CBs of various provenance and (b) CBE samples of different types. The samples were clustered using Ward's method, and the similarity values of the linkages were represented by dendrograms. The five triglycerides contained adequate information to obtain a meaningful sample differentiation. This information can be used to assess the purity and the origin of the CB sample examined.

  13. [Changes of fatty acids spectrum of plasma triglycerides and their pharmacological correction by statins in patients with unstable angina].

    PubMed

    Lyzohub, V H; Artemchuk, O O; Dolynna, O V; Altunina, N V; Sharaieva, M L; Koniuk, T N

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides by gas chromatography, the dynamics of the segment ST, cardiac arrhythmia by daily monitoring of electrocardiogram in patients with unstable angina (progressive) and the effects of treatment with statins were studied. Revealed marked qualitative abnormalities of plasma triglycerides in patients with progressive angina manifest increase in the amount of saturated and reduction--of unsaturated fatty acids. High therapeutic effect of simvastatin and atorvastatin may be due to the identified strong correlation between the dynamics of the fatty acid components of plasma triglycerides and indicators of ischemia, ectopic activity in patients with progressive angina.

  14. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  15. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is required for yolk lipid utilization and absorption of dietary lipids in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Amnon; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2006-12-26

    Although the absorption, transport, and catabolism of dietary lipids have been studied extensively in great detail in mammals and other vertebrates, a tractable genetic system for identifying novel genes involved in these physiologic processes is not available. To establish such a model, we monitored neutral lipid by staining fixed zebrafish larvae with oil red o (ORO). The head structures, heart, vasculature, and swim bladder stained with ORO until the yolk was consumed 6 days after fertilization (6 dpf). Thereafter, the heart and vasculature no longer had stainable neutral lipids. Following a high-fat meal, ORO stained the intestine and vasculature of 6 dpf larvae, and whole-larval triacylglycerol (TAG) and apolipoprotein B levels increased. Levels of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mtp), the protein responsible for packaging TAG and betalipoproteins into lipoprotein particles, were unchanged by feeding. Since the developing zebrafish embryo expresses mtp in the yolk cell layer, liver, and intestine, we determined the effect of targeted knockdown of Mtp expression using an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide approach (Mtp MO) on the transport of yolk and dietary lipids. Mtp MO injection led to loss of Mtp expression and of lipid staining in the vasculature, heart, and head structures. Mtp MO-injected larvae were smaller than age-matched, uninjected larvae, consumed very little yolk, and did not absorb dietary neutral lipids; however, they absorbed a short chain fatty acid that does not require Mtp for transport. Importantly, the vasculature appeared unaffected in Mtp MO-injected larvae. These studies indicate that zebrafish larvae are suitable for genetic studies of lipid transport and metabolism.

  16. Efficacy of dietary arachidonic acid provided as triglyceride or phospholipid as substrates for brain arachidonic acid accretion in baboon neonates.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Boehm, Günther; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2002-03-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a long-chain polyunsaturate (LCP) present in human breast milk as both triglyceride (TG) and as phospholipid (PL). There has been little attention to the metabolic consequences of lipid form of AA in infant formulas. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of dietary TG and PL as carriers of AA for accretion in the brain and associated organs of term baboon neonates consuming a formula with LCP composition typical of human milk. TG and phosphatidylcholine (PC) with [U-(13)C]-AA in the sn-2 position and with unlabeled 16:0 in the remaining positions (TG-AA* or PL-AA*, respectively) were used as tracers to study the tissue AA* incorporation. Baboon neonates received a single oral dose of either TG-AA* (n = 3) or PL-AA* (n = 4) at 18-19 d of life. Tissues were obtained 10 d later (28-29 d of life) and isotopic enrichment was measured. In the brain, 4.5% of the PL-AA* dose and 2.1% of the TG-AA* dose were recovered as brain AA*, respectively, indicating that PL was about 2.1-fold more effective than TG as a substrate for brain AA accretion. Preferential incorporation of PL-derived AA* over TG source of AA* was also observed in the liver, lung, plasma, and erythrocytes. Because of the quantitative predominance of TG-AA in formula, total brain AA accretion, expressed as absolute weight, was 5.0-fold greater from TG-AA than from PL-AA. We estimate that about half of postnatal brain AA accretion is derived from dietary preformed AA in term baboon neonates consuming a formula with lipid composition similar to that of human milk.

  17. [An improved differential medium, CA medium, for differentiating Shigella].

    PubMed

    Tokoro, M; Nagano, I; Goto, K; Nakamura, A

    1990-07-01

    We devised a Citrate-Acetate (CA) medium for rapidly differentiating Shigella. The medium consisted of 3.0 g of sodium citrate, 2.0 g of sodium acetate, 0.2 g of glucose, 1.0 g of dipotassium phosphate, 1.0 g of mono ammonium phosphate, 0.2 g of magnesium sulfate, 5.0 g of sodium chloride, 0.08 g of brom thymol blue, 15.0 g of agar, and 1000 ml of distilled water. An evaluation was made of the CA medium, for the rapid differentiation of 23 Shigella strains, 129 Escherichia coli strains and 130 isolates, that formed colourless colonies suspected to be Shigella on SS agar plate, from feces of healthy people. The results obtained were as follows 1) On the CA medium, all Shigella strains did not grow and there was no change in colour. 2) Positive growth rates of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, sodium acetate medium (Acet) and Christensen citrate medium (C-Cit) were 96.0%, 95.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rate of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on C-Cit medium. 3) Positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, Acet medium and C-Cit medium were 95.4%, 83.1% and 71.5%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on Acet medium and C-Cit medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  19. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  20. Apolipoprotein AV accelerates plasma hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by interaction with proteoglycan-bound lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-06-03

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences in triglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasma triglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In human APOA5 transgenic mice (hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by cross-breeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knock-out and the hAPOA5tr to an lpl-deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5-deficient mice; however, overexpression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr high density lipoprotein, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL-mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line. A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting. It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycan-bound LPL for lipolysis.

  1. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  2. A sequence variation (I148M) in PNPLA3 associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disrupts triglyceride hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    He, Shaoqing; McPhaul, Christopher; Li, John Zhong; Garuti, Rita; Kinch, Lisa; Grishin, Nick V; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2010-02-26

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with deposition of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that a missense mutation (I148M) in PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 protein) is associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content in humans. Here we examined the effect of the I148M substitution on the enzymatic activity and cellular location of PNPLA3. Structural modeling predicted that the substitution of methionine for isoleucine at residue 148 would restrict access of substrate to the catalytic serine at residue 47. In vitro assays using recombinant PNPLA3 partially purified from Sf9 cells confirmed that the wild type enzyme hydrolyzes emulsified triglyceride and that the I148M substitution abolishes this activity. Expression of PNPLA3-I148M, but not wild type PNPLA3, in cultured hepatocytes or in the livers of mice increased cellular triglyceride content. Cell fractionation studies revealed that approximately 90% of wild type PNPLA3 partitioned between membranes and lipid droplets; substitution of isoleucine for methionine at position 148 did not alter the subcellular distribution of the protein. These data are consistent with PNPLA3-I148M promoting triglyceride accumulation by limiting triglyceride hydrolysis.

  3. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S. ); Palmquist, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-({sup 14}C)palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min{sup {minus}1}; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased {sup 14}C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO{sub 2}, and percent of CO{sub 2} from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected.

  4. Piromelatine decreases triglyceride accumulation in insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes: role of ATGL and HSL.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping-Ping; She, Mei-Hua; He, Ping-Ping; Chen, Wu-Jun; Laudon, Moshe; Xu, Xuan-Xuan; Yin, Wei-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Piromelatine, a novel investigational multimodal sleep medicine, is developed for the treatment of patients with primary and co-morbid insomnia. Piromelatine has been shown to inhibit weight gain and improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed (HFHS) rats. Considering that piromelatine has also been implicated in lowering of triglyceride levels in HFHS rats, this work elucidated whether this effect involves in the regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of piromelatine and MT2 receptors inhibition on TG content, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the expressions of ATGL and HSL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes preincubated in high glucose and high insulin (HGI) conditions. Our results showed that culturing 3T3-L1 adipocytes under HGI conditions increased triglyceride accumulation with concomitant decrease of ATGL and HSL expression, inducing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also found that triglyceride accumulation was significantly inhibited and the levels of ATGL/HSL increased after melatonin or piromelatine treatment. The effects of melatonin/piromelatine (10 nM) were counteracted by pretreatment with the relatively selective MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (100 nM). In this study, our data demonstrate that piromelatine reverses high glucose and high insulin-induced triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, possibly through up-regulating of ATGL and HSL expression via a melatonin-dependent manner.

  5. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    BODELL, NATHANIEL G.; GILLUM, TREVOR

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12–16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12–16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials. PMID:27990228

  6. Polyamine Triglycerides: Synthesis and Study of Their Potential in Lubrication, Neutralization, and Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Murray, Rex E

    2015-07-22

    Renewable resources have evoked a new awakening in both scientific and industrial circles in the past decade. Vegetable oil is one category of renewables that is amenable as a source of new industrial products. Because the source feedstock, seeds, are environmentally friendly, the derivatized products from these at the end of their lifetime could also be benign when designed appropriately. Bioethanol and biodiesel are examples of biobased industrial products currently in the market place and have become resources for uplifting the rural economy. Biolubricants also are playing a more prominent role because they have become closely competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. These products are renewable because the crops from which the feedstuff for the biofuels and biolubricants are produced are grown annually in contrast to nonrenewable mineral sources. Added to their renewability is the inherent biodegradability of their end-use products after their useful lifetime. In a recent study of the lubricity characteristics of peracylated polyhydroxy milkweed oil, the derivatives were found to exhibit good oxidative stability as well as excellent antiwear properties. To further explore an expansion in the properties of such materials in lubrication and other applications, in this study the polyhydroxy (OH) moieties of derivatized milkweed triglycerides were replaced with -NHR groupings in the oil. In this process novel polyketo triglyceride intermediates leading to polyamine derivatives of the vegetable oil have been synthesized. The polyamine triglyceride markedly improved the stability of the parent oil to oxidative stress. It has also attenuated the extreme viscosity of the starting polyhydroxy oil to a more useful product that could be amenable for use as a lubricating agent, for example, hydraulic fluid. Both the polyketone and polyimine intermediates of the polyamine have chelating properties. The intermediates and the polyamine were characterized spectroscopically

  7. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bodell, Nathaniel G; Gillum, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12-16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12-16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials.

  8. Interleukin 1B Variant -1473G/C (rs1143623) Influences Triglyceride and Interleukin 6 Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Solivera, Juan; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M.; Fuentes, Francisco; Parnell, Laurence D.; Shen, Jian; Gomez, Purificacion; Jimenez-Gomez, Yolanda; Gomez-Luna, Maria J.; Marin, Carmen; Belisle, Sarah E.; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Meydani, Simin N.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Context: IL1b (IL1B or IL1β), a key modulator of the immune response, exerts its functions mainly via IL6 regulation. Fatty meals cause transient hypertriglyceridemia and are considered to be proinflammatory, but the extent of these responses shows high interindividual susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the influence of a genetic variant located in the promoter region of IL1B (-1473G/C) on fasting and postprandial lipids and IL6. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 477 people over age 65 yr were genotyped for IL1B -1473G/C, and we evaluated fasting lipids depending on genotype. Then, 88 healthy young men were also genotyped and were fed a saturated fatty acid-rich meal. Serial blood samples were drawn for 11 h after the meal, and lipid fractions and IL6 were assayed. Main Outcome and Interventions: Fasting lipids were studied in the aged persons. Fasting and postprandial measurements of lipids and IL6 were performed in the healthy young men. Results: In the aged persons, CC subjects (minor allele homozygotes) showed higher triglyceride (P = 0.002) and cholesterol (P = 0.011) levels. Healthy young male carriers of the minor C allele showed higher postprandial triglycerides (P = 0.037), and those carried into large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (P = 0.004). In addition, they showed higher postprandial IL6 concentrations (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Our work shows that inflammatory genes may regulate fasting and postprandial lipids because the carriers of the minor allele of an IL gene variant have altered lipid metabolism. To reinforce these gene-phenotype findings, IL6 (the natural effector of IL1B) was increased in these persons. PMID:21307135

  9. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

  11. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. |; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K.; Slavin, B.G.

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  12. Serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol from SHR after evening primrose oil and other polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Hoffmann, P; Beitz, J; Förster, W; Wirth, M; Gödicke, W

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets enriched with evening primrose (EPO), sunflower (SO) and linseed oils (LO) as well as palm kernel fat (PKF), the latter being deficient in polyunsarated fatty acids (PUFA). In SHR fed EPO serum triglycerides were lowest and HDL1 cholesterol was highest as compared to the other groups of animals. Total cholesterol was not different. The data suggest that - as with blood pressure - serum lipids and lipoproteins might be influenced most effectively by EPO in comparison to other polyunsaturated fats.

  13. Mutations of the microsomal triglyceride-transfer-protein gene in abetalipoproteinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Narcisi, T.M.E.; Shoulders, C.C.; Chester, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. 49 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Glycogen storage disease type Ia: linkage of glucose, glycogen, lactic acid, triglyceride, and uric acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-01-01

    A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides >5000 mg/dL. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease was made via the result of a liver biopsy, which showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. The patient was treated with dextrose administered orally, which was replaced by frequent feedings of cornstarch, which resulted in an improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years of age, she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3860 mg/dL) and eruptive xanthomas and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL and lactate levels <2 mmol/L. After 15 months on this regimen, her lipids levels (measured in mg/dL) off all medications were as follows: total cholesterol 222, triglycerides 179, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m(2). Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels >75 mg/dL is critical in the management of this disease.

  15. Discovery of Novel Splice Variants and Regulatory Mechanisms for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Human Tissues.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Swift, Larry L

    2016-06-03

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a unique lipid transfer protein essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by the liver and intestine. Previous studies in mice identified a splice variant of MTP with an alternate first exon. Splice variants of human MTP have not been reported. Using PCR approaches we have identified two splice variants in human tissues, which we have named MTP-B and MTP-C. MTP-B has a unique first exon (Ex1B) located 10.5 kb upstream of the first exon (Ex1A) for canonical MTP (MTP-A); MTP-C contains both first exons for MTP-A and MTP-B. MTP-B was found in a number of tissues, whereas MTP-C was prominent in brain and testis. MTP-B does not encode a protein; MTP-C encodes the same protein encoded by MTP-A, although MTP-C translation is strongly inhibited by regulatory elements within its 5'-UTR. Using luciferase assays, we demonstrate that the promoter region upstream of exon 1B is quite adequate to drive expression of MTP. We conclude that alternate splicing plays a key role in regulating cellular MTP levels by introducing distinct promoter regions and unique 5'-UTRs, which contain elements that alter translation efficiency, enabling the cell to optimize MTP activity.

  16. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein promotes the secretion of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin A1.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Jeremy A; Hou, Li; Schoenberg, Daniel R; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia R; Wahli, Walter; Shelness, Gregory S

    2005-04-08

    Vitellogenins (Vtg) are ancient lipid transport and storage proteins and members of the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) gene family, which includes insect apolipophorin II/I, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Lipidation of Vtg occurs at its site of synthesis in vertebrate liver, insect fat body, and nematode intestine; however, the mechanism of Vtg lipid acquisition is unknown. To explore whether Vtg biogenesis requires the apoB cofactor and LLTP family member, MTP, Vtg was expressed in COS cells with and without coexpression of the 97-kDa subunit of human MTP. Expression of Vtg alone gave rise to a approximately 220-kDa apoprotein, which was predominantly confined to an intracellular location. Coexpression of Vtg with human MTP enhanced Vtg secretion by 5-fold, without dramatically affecting its intracellular stability. A comparison of wild type and a triglyceride transfer-defective form of MTP revealed that both were capable of promoting Vtg secretion, whereas only wild type MTP could promote the secretion of apoB41 (amino-terminal 41% of apoB). These studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of Vtg is MTP-dependent and that MTP is the likely ancestral member of the LLTP gene family.

  17. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and α-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18648655

  18. Discovery of Novel Splice Variants and Regulatory Mechanisms for Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takashi; Swift, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a unique lipid transfer protein essential for the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by the liver and intestine. Previous studies in mice identified a splice variant of MTP with an alternate first exon. Splice variants of human MTP have not been reported. Using PCR approaches we have identified two splice variants in human tissues, which we have named MTP-B and MTP-C. MTP-B has a unique first exon (Ex1B) located 10.5 kb upstream of the first exon (Ex1A) for canonical MTP (MTP-A); MTP-C contains both first exons for MTP-A and MTP-B. MTP-B was found in a number of tissues, whereas MTP-C was prominent in brain and testis. MTP-B does not encode a protein; MTP-C encodes the same protein encoded by MTP-A, although MTP-C translation is strongly inhibited by regulatory elements within its 5′-UTR. Using luciferase assays, we demonstrate that the promoter region upstream of exon 1B is quite adequate to drive expression of MTP. We conclude that alternate splicing plays a key role in regulating cellular MTP levels by introducing distinct promoter regions and unique 5′-UTRs, which contain elements that alter translation efficiency, enabling the cell to optimize MTP activity. PMID:27256115

  19. Cloning and gene defects in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein associated with abetalipoproteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, D; Blinderman, L; Combs, K A; Kienzle, B; Ricci, B; Wager-Smith, K; Gil, C M; Turck, C W; Bouma, M E; Rader, D J

    1993-09-02

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces, is a heterodimer composed of the multifunctional protein, protein disulphide isomerase, and a unique large subunit with an apparent M(r) of 88K (refs 1-3). It is isolated as a soluble protein from the lumen of the microsomal fraction of liver and intestine. The large subunit of MTP was not detectable in four unrelated subjects with abetalipoproteinaemia, a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a defect in the assembly or secretion of plasma lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein B (ref. 6). We report here the isolation and sequencing of complementary DNA encoding the large subunit of MTP. A comparison of this sequence to corresponding genomic sequences from two abetalipoproteinaemic subjects revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation in one subject and a homozygous nonsense mutation in the other. The results indicate that a defect in the gene for the large subunit of MTP is the proximal cause of abetalipoproteinaemia in these two subjects, and that MTP is required for the secretion of plasma lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein B.

  20. Azuki bean juice lowers serum triglyceride concentrations in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-07-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and alpha-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles increase macrophage atherogenicity: Stimulation of cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and triglycerides accumulation.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Lauren; Rosenblat, Mira; Paland, Nicole; Aviram, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle research has focused on their toxicity in general, while increasing evidence points to additional specific adverse effects on atherosclerosis development. Arterial macrophage cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmark of early atherogenesis, leading to cardiovascular events. To investigate the in vitro atherogenic effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), J774.1 cultured macrophages (murine cell line) were incubated with SiO2 nanoparticle (SP, d = 12 nm, 0-20 µg/mL), followed by cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, TG and cholesterol metabolism analyses. A significant dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress (up to 164%), in cytotoxicity (up to 390% measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release), and in TG content (up to 63%) was observed in SiO2 exposed macrophages compared with control cells. A smaller increase in macrophage cholesterol mass (up to 22%) was noted. TG accumulation in macrophages was not due to a decrease in TG cell secretion or to an increased TG biosynthesis rate, but was the result of attenuated TG hydrolysis secondary to decreased lipase activity and both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression (by 42 and 25%, respectively). Overall, SPs showed pro-atherogenic effects on macrophages as observed by cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress and TG accumulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 713-723, 2016.

  2. Multi-modal contributions to detoxification of acute pharmacotoxicity by a triglyceride micro-emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Fettiplace, Michael R; Lis, Kinga; Ripper, Richard; Kowal, Katarzyna; Pichurko, Adrian; Vitello, Dominic; Rubinstein, Israel; Schwartz, David; Akpa, Belinda S; Weinberg, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Triglyceride micro-emulsions such as Intralipid® have been used to reverse cardiac toxicity induced by a number of drugs but reservations about their broad-spectrum applicability remain because of the poorly understood mechanism of action. Herein we report an integrated mechanism of reversal of bupivacaine toxicity that includes both transient drug scavenging and a cardiotonic effect that couple to accelerate movement of the toxin away from sites of toxicity. We thus propose a multi-modal therapeutic paradigm for colloidal bio-detoxification whereby a micro-emulsion both improves cardiac output and rapidly ferries the drug away from organs subject to toxicity. In vivo and in silico models of toxicity were combined to test the contribution of individual mechanisms and reveal the multi-modal role played by the cardiotonic and scavenging actions of the triglyceride suspension. These results suggest a method to predict which drug toxicities are most amenable to treatment and inform the design of next-generation therapeutics for drug overdose. PMID:25483426

  3. Multi-modal contributions to detoxification of acute pharmacotoxicity by a triglyceride micro-emulsion.

    PubMed

    Fettiplace, Michael R; Lis, Kinga; Ripper, Richard; Kowal, Katarzyna; Pichurko, Adrian; Vitello, Dominic; Rubinstein, Israel; Schwartz, David; Akpa, Belinda S; Weinberg, Guy

    2015-01-28

    Triglyceride micro-emulsions such as Intralipid® have been used to reverse cardiac toxicity induced by a number of drugs but reservations about their broad-spectrum applicability remain because of the poorly understood mechanism of action. Herein we report an integrated mechanism of reversal of bupivacaine toxicity that includes both transient drug scavenging and a cardiotonic effect that couple to accelerate movement of the toxin away from sites of toxicity. We thus propose a multi-modal therapeutic paradigm for colloidal bio-detoxification whereby a micro-emulsion both improves cardiac output and rapidly ferries the drug away from organs subject to toxicity. In vivo and in silico models of toxicity were combined to test the contribution of individual mechanisms and reveal the multi-modal role played by the cardiotonic and scavenging actions of the triglyceride suspension. These results sugge