Science.gov

Sample records for medium energy proton

  1. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  2. Medium energy proton radiation damage to (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells irradiated by medium energy 2, 5, and 10 MeV protons was evaluated. The Si cells without coverglass and a number of GaAs solar cells with 12 mil coverglass were irradiated simultaneously with bare GaAs cells. The cell degradation is directly related to the penetration of depth of protons with GaAs. The influence of periodic and continuous thermal annealing on the GaAs solar cells was investigated.

  3. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  4. Medium effect on the nuclear modification factor of protons and pions in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, M.; Ma, Y. G.; Chen, J. H.; Fang, D. Q.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear modification factors Rcp of protons and pions are investigated by simulating Au+Au collisions from 0.8 A to 1.8 A GeV in a framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. The Rcp of protons rise with an increase in the transverse particle momentum pT at different beam energies owing to radial flow and the multiple-collision effect. The rate of increase of Rcp is suppressed at higher beam energies. While the Rcp of pions display weaker pT dependence. By changing the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, the Rcp of protons change a lot, while the Rcp of pions do not. In addition, by deactivating the N Δ →N N and π N →Δ channels, the Rcp of protons change slightly in their increasing rates compared with the "original" case (with these two channels). However, the Rcp of pions is shifted down for the "no N Δ →N N " case and has an inverse trend for the "no π N →Δ " case. Based on these observations, we argue that the observable Rcp is a suitable tool to better distinguish in-medium effects of protons and pions.

  5. Proton and light ion deflection at medium energies with planar bent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, C.; Dauvergne, D.

    2017-07-01

    The transmission of protons in planar channeling or in the regime of crystal reflection in bent crystals is now routinely used at high energy. We used the property that channeling critical angle increases as the incident particle momentum decreases, to explore the region of moderate energies (100 MeV-1 GeV). Indeed, such energies are particularly interesting since medical applications such as particle therapy have to face the constraints of being compatible with hospital-based accelerators. Therefore, replacing tens- or even hundreds-tons gantries by bent crystals would - if feasible - meet societal applications. We used binary-encounter simulations of trajectories inside crystals oriented along planar directions. The Molière potential with thermally vibrating lattice atoms was used, and additional transverse heating was introduced to account for multiple elastic scattering by close-collisions on electrons, which depends on the transverse energy of the channeled ions. The survival yield (i.e. the fraction of ions keeping trajectories within plus-minus one critical planar channeling angle with respect to lattice planes) was simulated for protons and carbon ions, as a function of crystal nature (silicon or germanium), crystal temperature, thickness and curvature. Although the transmitted yields are far from the necessary yields required to treat patients, significant survival yields were found through cm-thick crystals at angles beyond 10°. We will discuss possible experimental verification of these findings, and in particular practical aspects of such very large bending angles.

  6. Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, TiO2 and Si using medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Mitchell; Dedyulin, Sergey N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-11-01

    Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, Si, and TiO2 films in the energy range 50-170 keV were determined from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectra by an iterative procedure. The energy loss of protons was investigated for pure Ti and Si films, deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) onto n-Si(100) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) substrates respectively. Consecutive annealing of Ti at 200 °C in O2 resulted in stoichiometric TiO2 thin-films. Thickness and composition of the films and the interfacial properties were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), MEIS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Calculated stopping cross sections of Ti, Si, and TiO2 in the range of energies were compared with the commonly used SRIM2003 values. For Ti and Si, SRIM2003 values appear to be overestimated over the entire energy range. The new stopping cross sections explain deviations from previously reported values for SrTiO3. We note that the stopping cross sections of O in a gaseous phase, used in Bragg's rule calculations, cannot be applied for accurate quantitative ion beam analysis in solid compounds in the medium ion energy range.

  7. Investigation of proton induced reactions on niobium at low and medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Corniani, E.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.; Csikai, J.; Shubin, Yu. N.

    2009-10-01

    Niobium is a metal with important technological applications: use as alloying element to increase strength of super alloys, as thin layer for tribological applications, as superconductive material, in high temperature engineering systems, etc. In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross-sections of charged particle induced reactions on structural materials proton induced excitation functions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of applications in accelerator and reactor technology and for thin layer activation (TLA). The charged particle activation cross-sections on this element are also important for yield calculation of medical isotope production ( 88,89Zr, 86,87,88Y) and for dose estimation in PET targetry. As niobium is a monoisotopic element it is an ideal target material to test nuclear reaction theories. We present here the experimental excitation functions of 93Nb(p,x) 90,93mMo, 92m,91m,90Nb, 88,89Zr and 88Y in the energy range 0-37 MeV. The results were compared with the theoretical cross-sections calculated by means of the code ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-3, TALYS and with the literature data. The theory reproduces the shape of the measured results well and magnitude is also acceptable. Thick target yields calculated from our fitted cross-section give reliable estimations for production of medically relevant radioisotopes and for dose estimation in accelerator technology.

  8. Study of low energy hadronic interaction models based on BESS observed cosmic ray proton and antiproton spectra at medium high altitude

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, Arunava; Mukherjee, Arindam; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Raha, Sibaji; Joarder, Partha S.

    2009-06-01

    We study low energy hadronic interaction models based on BESS observed cosmic ray proton and antiproton spectra at medium high altitude. Among the three popular low energy interaction models, we find that FLUKA reproduces the results of BESS observations on the secondary proton spectrum reasonably well over the whole observed energy range, the model UrQMD works well at relatively higher energies, whereas the spectrum obtained with GHEISHA differs significantly from the measured spectrum. The simulated antiproton spectrum with FLUKA, however, exhibits significant deviation from the BESS observation whereas UrQMD and GHEISHA reproduce the BESS observations within experimental error.

  9. Proton and neutron density distributions at supranormal density in low- and medium-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.; Danielewicz, P.; Iwata, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Background: The distribution of protons and neutrons in the matter created in heavy-ion collisions is one of the main points of interest for the collision physics, especially at supranormal densities. These distributions are the basis for predictions of the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the density range that can be achieved in a given colliding system. We report results of the first systematic simulation of proton and neutron density distributions in central heavy-ion collisions within the beam energy range of Ebeam≤800 MeV /nucl . The symmetric 40Ca+40Ca , 48Ca+48Ca , 100Sn+100Sn , and 120Sn+120Sn and asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca and 100Sn+120Sn systems were chosen for the simulations. Purpose: We simulate development of proton and neutron densities and asymmetries as a function of initial state, beam energy, and system size in the selected collisions in order to guide further experiments pursuing the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Methods: The Boltzmann-Uhlenbeck-Uehling (pBUU) transport model with four empirical models for the density dependence of the symmetry energy was employed. Results of simulations using pure Vlasov dynamics were added for completeness. In addition, the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) model, with the SV-bas Skyrme interaction, was used to model the heavy-ion collisions at Ebeam≤40 MeV /nucl . Maximum proton and neutron densities ρpmax and ρnmax, reached in the course of a collision, were determined from the time evolution of ρp and ρn. Results: The highest total densities predicted at Ebeam=800 MeV /nucl . were of the order of ˜2.5 ρ0 (ρ0=0.16 fm-3 ) for both Sn and Ca systems. They were found to be only weakly dependent on the initial conditions, beam energy, system size, and a model of the symmetry energy. The proton-neutron asymmetry δ =(ρnmax-ρpmax) /(ρnmax+ρpmax) at maximum density does depend, though, on these parameters. The highest value of δ found in all systems and at all investigated beam

  10. Modification of nucleon-nucleon interactions in nuclear medium and neutron densities extracted via proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    Spin rotation parameters of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni have been measured at Ep=200, 300 and 400 MeV. By combining them with the previously measured cross sections and analyzing powers at the same energies, the series of measurements has become the "complete" experiment. Cross sections and analyzing powers of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni at 250 MeV, those of 120Sn at Ep=200, 250, 300 and 400 MeV and spin rotation parameters of 120Sn at Ep=300 MeV have been also newly measured. The experiment has been performed at Research Center for Nuclear Phyiscs, Osaka University. In order to explain the 58Ni data, it has been necessary to use realistic density distributions deduced from the nuclear charge distribution and to modify coupling constants and masses of σ and ω mesons. For 120Sn, we have assumed the same modification and used the proton distribution deduced from the charge distribution, we have searched the neutron density distribution which has reproduced 120Sn data at 300 MeV. The deduced neutron distribution has an increase at the nuclear center, which seems to be due to wave functions of neutrons in the 3s1/2 orbit. It also explains the 120Sn data at other energies than 300 MeV. Effects of ρ meson modifications on neutron densities are also mentioned.

  11. Medium-Energy Neutron Polarimetry and Spin Observables for the LEAD-208(POLARIZED Proton, Polarized Neutron) Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, Marco Roy

    Spin observables for the ^{208 }Pb(vec{rm p} ,vec{rm n}) ^{208}Bi reaction were measured at scattering angles of 0^circ, 3^circ, 6 ^circ, and 9^circ at an incident proton beam energy of 135 Mev. The spin observables investigated are: the transverse polarization -transfer coefficient D_{rm nn }(vartheta), the analyzing power A_{rm Y}( vartheta), and the polarization function P(vartheta). These spin observables were obtained using a calibrated high-performance neutron polarimeter which utilizes the characteristics of n-p scattering at medium energies. Specific to this polarimeter was the use of high-hydrogen-content liquid mineral-oil scintillator for its primary scatterers; this scintillator material has a 40% higher hydrogen density and 25% lower carbon density than conventional plastic scintillators. This is desirable since the preferred reaction in the polarimeter is ^1H( vec{rm n},n)^1 H; reactions on ^{12}C yields events that serve only to dilute the analyzing power. The polarimeter was calibrated with the ^{14 }C(vec{rm p} ,vec{rm n}) ^{14}N and ^ {12}C(vec{rm p},vec{rm n} )^{12}N reactions at 65, 100, and 135 MeV; the efficiency varepsilon , the effective analyzing power overline{A_ y} and the instrumental figure of merit eta^* = varepsilonoverline{A _ y}^2 were extracted from data for these reactions at 0^circ. A consistent set of optimum software parameters were found for all three energies. The resulting values of overline{A_ y} are consistent with Monte-Carlo predictions assuming n-p scattering alone. The values of eta^* are 50% larger than what was obtained in earlier experiments using only plastic scintillator. Experimental results for the ^ {208}Pb(vec{rm p},vec{rm n} )^{208}Bi reaction are compared with plane-wave-impulse approximation (PWIA) calculations, with an overall normalization factor consistent with the eikonal approximation. The nuclear response was obtained from particle-hole Green's functions calculated in the framework of the second

  12. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations.

  13. Calculation of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent induced by medium energy neutrons and protons and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Bishop, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to determine the absorbed dose and dose equivalent for 592-MeV protons incident on a cylindrical phantom and for neutrons from 580-MeV proton-Be collisions incident on a semi-infinite phantom. For both configurations, the calculated depth dependence of the absorbed dose is in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Experimental Medium Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Search for the H Dibaryon at the AGS; hypernuclear weak decay studies at the LAGS; search for strangelets using the 2 GeV/c beam line; experiment to detect double lambda hypernuclei; hyperon photoproduction at CEBAF; the region 1 drift chambers for the CLAS spectrometer; parity violating electron scattering from the proton: the G{sup 0}experiment at CEBAF; and relativistic heavy ion - nucleus collisions at the SPS.

  15. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony; Friendlich, M.R.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Hakey, Mark C.; Dodd, Paul E.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Sierawski, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  16. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-12-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p{bar p} annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  17. [Medium energy meson research

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p[bar p] annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  18. Stability of protonated and ionized hydroxylamine in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo, Laura; Rayón, Víctor M.; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio; Redondo, Pilar

    2009-07-01

    The stability of protonated and ionized hydroxylamine in relation to their reactivity with molecular hydrogen has been studied. All stationary points and transition states for the reactions of H 2 with protonated and ionized hydroxylamine have been determined at the MP2(full) level with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Energetic data have been obtained at the CCSD(T) level employing the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The analysis of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to both reactions shows that molecular H 2 cannot react either with protonated or ionized hydroxylamine under interstellar conditions. Therefore both ionized and protonated hydroxylamine may participate in synthetic routes of amino acids.

  19. Trapped Proton Environment in Medium-Earth Orbit (2000-2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reinhard Hans; Kippen, Richard Marc

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the method used to derive fluxes of the trapped proton belt along the GPS orbit (i.e., a Medium-Earth Orbit) during 2000 – 2010, a period almost covering a solar cycle. This method utilizes a newly developed empirical proton radiation-belt model, with the model output scaled by GPS in-situ measurements, to generate proton fluxes that cover a wide range of energies (50keV- 6MeV) and keep temporal features as well. The new proton radiation-belt model is developed based upon CEPPAD proton measurements from the Polar mission (1996 – 2007). Comparing to the de-facto standard empirical model of AP8, this model is not only based upon a new data set representative of the proton belt during the same period covered by GPS, but can also provide statistical information of flux values such as worst cases and occurrence percentiles instead of solely the mean values. The comparison shows quite different results from the two models and suggests that the commonly accepted error factor of 2 on the AP8 flux output over-simplifies and thus underestimates variations of the proton belt. Output fluxes from this new model along the GPS orbit are further scaled by the ns41 in-situ data so as to reflect the dynamic nature of protons in the outer radiation belt at geomagnetically active times. Derived daily proton fluxes along the GPS ns41 orbit, whose data files are delivered along with this report, are depicted to illustrate the trapped proton environment in the Medium-Earth Orbit. Uncertainties on those daily proton fluxes from two sources are evaluated: One is from the new proton-belt model that has error factors < ~3; the other is from the in-situ measurements and the error factors could be ~ 5.

  20. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  1. Medium modification of the proton form-factor

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen Strauch

    2004-02-01

    I argue that the double ratio of proton-recoil polarization-transfer coefficients, P{prime}{sub x} and P{prime}{sub z}, of the quasielastic {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}p){sup 3}H reaction with respect to the elastic {sup 1}H(e,e{prime}p) reaction is sensitive to possible medium modifications of the proton form factor in {sup 4}He. Recent measurements at both Mainz and Jefferson Lab of this double ratio at four-momentum transfers squared between 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} and 2.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} are discussed. I show that the data challenge state-of-the-art conventional meson-nucleon calculations, as these are unable to describe the results. The data hint at the need to include medium modifications of the proton form factor, as predicted by a quark-meson-coupling model, in the calculations. A recently approved follow-up experiment at a Q{sup 2} of 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} and 1.3 (GeV/c){sup 2} with unprecedented precision will provide one of the most stringent tests of the applicability of various calculations.

  2. Very high energy proton-proton cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Wibig, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The recent Pierre Auger Observatory result suggesting a coincidence of extensive air showers arrival directions with 'nearby' active galactic nuclei and HiRes discovery of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff indicates protons to be only or at least the strongly dominant component of primary extra galactic cosmic ray flux. However, showers initiated by these ultrahigh energy particles developed faster than predicted by the simulation calculations with conventional interaction models. This could be evidence of the substantial increase of the p-air cross section. The progress in understanding the proton-proton cross section description allows us to examine this possibility, and eventually reject it as an explanation of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray 'pure proton' controversy.

  3. Studies in medium energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  4. Medium energy elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

  5. High-energy proton radiation belt.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The experiments and theories to explain the high-energy protons trapped in the earth's radiation belt are reviewed. The theory of cosmic ray albedo neutron decay injection of protons into the radiation belt is discussed. Radial diffusion and change in the earth's dipole moment are considered along with losses of protons by ionization and nuclear collision. It is found that the measured albedo neutron escape current is sufficient to supply trapped protons above 30 MeV. The theoretical calculations of the trapped protons are in agreement with the measurements for L less than or equal to 1.7 both on and off the equator. For L greater than or equal to 1.7, additional trapped proton differential energy measurements should be made before the theory can be adequately tested. It appears that an additional loss mechanism such as pitch angle scattering may be required.

  6. Very high energy proton-proton cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The recent Pierre Auger Observatory result suggesting a coincidence of extensive air showers arrival directions with “nearby” active galactic nuclei and HiRes discovery of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff indicates protons to be only or at least the strongly dominant component of primary extra galactic cosmic ray flux. However, showers initiated by these ultrahigh energy particles developed faster than predicted by the simulation calculations with conventional interaction models. This could be evidence of the substantial increase of the p-air cross section. The progress in understanding the proton-proton cross section description allows us to examine this possibility, and eventually reject it as an explanation of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray “pure proton” controversy.

  7. Heavy quark energy loss in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sascha; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus; Aichelin, Jörg

    2011-07-15

    One of the most promising probes to study deconfined matter created in high energy nuclear collisions is the energy loss of (heavy) quarks. It has been shown in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that even charm and bottom quarks, despite their high mass, experience a remarkable medium suppression in the quark gluon plasma. In this exploratory investigation we study the energy loss of heavy quarks in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at LHC energies. Although the colliding systems are smaller than compared to those at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (p+p vs Au+Au), the higher energy might lead to multiplicities comparable to Cu+Cu collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The interaction of charm quarks with this environment gives rise to a non-negligible suppression of high momentum heavy quarks in elementary collisions.

  8. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined.

  9. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-07

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ(Norm)(0,1) = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ(0,1) are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ(opt)(0,1) factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ(opt)(0,1) was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX(2) where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-  0.46 respectively for Λ(opt)(0), Λ(opt)(1)). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ(Norm)(0,1) than Λ(opt)(0,1) (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ(opt)(0,1) model compared to the Λ(Norm)(0,1) model. Calculation times for Λ(opt)(0,1) are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation.B ased on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ(opt)(0,1) factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton

  10. Developing a phenomenological model of the proton trajectory within a heterogeneous medium required for proton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2015-07-01

    To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ0,1\\text{Norm} = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ0,1{} are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ0,1\\text{opt} factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ0,1\\text{opt} was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX2 where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,-  0.46 respectively for Λ0\\text{opt} , Λ1\\text{opt} ). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ0,1\\text{Norm} than Λ0,1\\text{opt} (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ0,1\\text{opt} model compared to the Λ0,1\\text{Norm} model. Calculation times for Λ0,1\\text{opt} are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation. Based on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ0,1\\text{opt} factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial

  11. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  12. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  13. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zborovský, I.; Tokarev, M. V.

    2007-05-01

    New generalization of the z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematic characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x1 and x2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, x1 and x2 are functions of the momentum fractions ya and yb of the scattered and recoil constituents carried by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the variable z are established to restore energy, angular, and multiplicity independence of ψ(z). The proposed scheme allows a unique description of data on inclusive cross sections at high energies. Universality of the shape of the scaling function for various types of produced hadrons (π, K, p¯, Λ) is shown. Results of the analysis of experimental data are compared with the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations in pT and z-presentations. The obtained results suggest that the z-scaling may be used as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and the high multiplicity region at proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC.

  14. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R.; Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  16. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  17. Energies of backstreaming protons in the foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A predicted pattern of energy vs detector location in the cislunar region is displayed for protons of zero pitch angle traveling upstream away from the quasi-parallel bow shock. The pattern is implied by upstream wave boundary properties. In the solar ecliptic, protons are estimated to have a minimum of 1.1 times the solar wind bulk energy E sub SW when the wave boundary is in the early morning sector and a maximum of 8.2 E sub SW when the boundary is near the predawn flank.

  18. Fisk-Gloeckler Suprathermal Proton Spectrum in the Heliosheath and the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Paschalidis, N.; Chornay, D.; Coplan, M.; Johnson, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    Convergence of suprathermal keV-MeV proton and ion spectra approximately to the Fisk-Gloeckler (F-G) form j(E) = j(sub 0) E(sup -1.5) in Voyager land 2 heliosheath measurements is suggestive of distributed acceleration in Kolmogorov turbulence which may extend well beyond the heliopause into the local interstellar medium (LISM). Turbulence of this type is already indicated by interstellar radio scintillation measurements of electron density power spectra. Previously published extrapolations (Cooper et al., 2003, 2006) of the LISM proton spectrum from eV to GeV energies are highly consistent with the F-G power-law and further indicative of such turbulence and LISM effectiveness of the F-G cascade acceleration process. The LISM pressure computed from this spectrum well exceeds that from current estimates for the LISM magnetic field, so exchange of energy between the protons and the magnetic field would likely have a strong role in evolution of the turbulence as per the F-G theory and as long ago proposed for cosmic ray energies by Parker and others. Pressure-dependent estimates of the LISM field strength should not ignore this potentially strong and even dominant contribution from the plasma. Presence of high-beta suprathermal plasma on LISM field lines could significantly affect interactions with the heliospheric outer boundary region and might potentially account for distributed and more discrete features in ongoing measurements of energetic neutral emission from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission.

  19. Nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, I.; Xapsos, M. A.; Messenger, S. R.; Burke, E. A.; Walters, R. J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-01-01

    The proton induced NIELs for representative spacecraft materials are presented for the energy range between the displacement thresholds of the material to 1000 MeV. All interaction mechanisms (Coulomb and nuclear elastic/inelastic) are fully accounted in the present NIEL calculations.

  20. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Shahnazi, K.; Koss, P.; Sanders, E.

    2007-06-15

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of {+-}0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of {+-}0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  1. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  2. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q{sup 2}; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and {sup 12}C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of {sup 117}Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from {sup 13}C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of {sup 3}He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e{prime}p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N {yields} {Delta} Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q{sup 2} and A-Dependence of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2{gamma} Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions.

  3. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-06-15

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to {+-}21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than {+-}3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  4. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    PubMed Central

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies. PMID:19610318

  5. Elastic Proton Scattering of Medium Mass Nuclei from Coupled-Cluster Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, G.; MichelN.,

    2012-01-01

    Using coupled-cluster theory and interactions from chiral effective field theory, we compute overlap functions for transfer and scattering of low-energy protons on the target nucleus 40Ca. Effects of three-nucleon forces are included phenomenologically as in-medium two-nucleon interactions. Using known asymptotic forms for one-nucleon overlap functions we derive a simple and intuitive way of computing scattering observables such as elastic scattering phase shifts and cross sections. As a first application and proof of principle, we compute phase shifts and differential interaction cross sections at energies of 9.6 and 12.44 MeV and compare with experimental data. Our computed diffraction minima are in fair agreement with experimental results, while we tend to overestimate the cross sections at large scattering angles.

  6. Nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afnan, I. R.

    1984-03-01

    A model of the N-N potential, at medium energies, in the frame work of the BB-πBB equations, is presented. The derivation is based on the Cloudy Bag Model Hamiltonian. Recent N-N calculations are reviewed in the frame work of the model. Theoretical methods for the analysis of dibaryon resonances are compared.

  7. Medium Effects of Low Energy Pions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2004-03-01

    Fits of pion--nucleus potentials to large sets of pionic atom data reveal departures of parameter values from the corresponding free π N parameters. These medium effects can be quantitatively reproduced by a chiral-motivated model where the pion decay constant is modified in the medium or by including the empirical on-shell energy dependence of the amplitudes. No consistency is obtained between pionic atoms and the free π N interaction when an extreme off-shell chiral model is used. The role of the size of data sets is briefly discussed.

  8. Energy Measurements in a Prototype Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Schelin, H. R.; Klock, M. C. L.; Denyak, V. V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Setti, J. A. P.; Assis, J. T. de; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O.

    2007-02-12

    In proton treatment planning, the use of protons instead of X-rays for computerized tomography (CT) studies has potential advantages, especially for medical applications. Proton CT requires accurate measurement of the energy loss of protons passing through the object. The resolution of a proton CT scanner is determined by the resolution of the energy loss measurement, which is limited by the inherent energy straggling of protons. An experiment with a doped CsI(Tl) crystal was designed to determine the resolution of the energy loss measurement of protons in the energy range from 40 MeV to 250 MeV experimentally. It was found that, in principle, the resolution of a proton calorimeter is adequate to CT studies with objects of realistic size.

  9. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has supported much of Proton's technology development through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Awards and other non-SBIR funding.

  10. Particle energy cascade in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Evoli, C.; Ferrara, A.

    2010-05-01

    We study the development of high-energy (Ein <= 1 TeV) cascades produced by a primary electron of energy Ein injected into the intergalactic medium (IGM). To this aim we have developed the new code MEDEA (Monte Carlo Energy Deposition Analysis) which includes Bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton (IC) processes, along with H/He collisional ionizations and excitations, and electron-electron collisions. The cascade energy partition into heating, excitations and ionizations depends primarily not only on the IGM ionized fraction, xe, but also on redshift, z, due to IC on cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. While Bremsstrahlung is unimportant under most conditions, IC becomes largely dominant at energies Ein >= 1 MeV. The main effect of IC at injection energies Ein <= 100 MeV is a significant boost of the fraction of energy converted into low-energy photons (hν < 10.2 eV) which do not further interact with the IGM. For energies Ein >= 1 GeV CMB photons are preferentially upscattered within the X-ray spectrum (hν > 104 eV) and can free stream to the observer. Complete tables of the fractional energy depositions as a function of redshift, Ein and ionized fraction are given. Our results can be used in many astrophysical contexts, with an obvious application related to the study of decaying/annihilating dark matter (DM) candidates in the high-z Universe.

  11. Systematics of proton and diproton separation energies for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    A simple method to estimate proton and two-proton separation energies of proton-rich nuclei is presented that is sufficiently accurate to allow the prediction of suitable candidates for observable diproton decay. The method is based on the systematics of measured particle separation energies. Predictions for proton-rich nuclei with Z=18{minus}24 are compared with the results of previous calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  13. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-07

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To 'scan' the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient's body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s(-1), changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  14. Gamma-Ray Energy Spectra through Decays of Neutral Pions Produced in Proton-Proton Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ching-Yuan

    2003-07-01

    The accuracy of different parameterisations of neutral pion production in proton-proton collisions is investigated based on analyses of accelerator measurements of differential and integrated total cross sections. The energy spectra of gamma-rays from the decay of secondary particles produced by interactions of cosmic-ray protons with ambient gas is calculated over wide energy range for different primary spectra of protons. It is found that a proton flux with a spectral index α = 2.4 ˜ 2.6 is appropriate to repro duce the GeV bump in the diffuse γ -ray flux.

  15. Evaluation at the medium energy region for Pb-208 and Bi-209

    SciTech Connect

    Fukahori, Tokio; Pearlstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Medium energy nuclear data in the 1--1000 MeV range is necessary to accelerator applications which include spallation neutron sources for radioactive waste treatment and accelerator shielding design, medical applications which include isotopes production and radiation therapy, and space applications. For the design of fission and fusion reactors, the nuclear data file for neutrons below 20 MeV is available and well evaluated. Evaluated nuclear data for protons and data in the medium energy region, however, have not been prepared completely. Evaluation in the medium energy region was performed using the theoretical calculation code ALICE-P or experimental data. In this paper, the evaluation of neutron and proton induced nuclear data for Pb-208 and Bi-209 has been performed using ALICE-P, empirical calculations and new systematics for the fission cross section. The evaluated data are compiled for possible inclusion in the ENDF/B-VI High Energy File. 204 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. High Transverse Energy Proton - Nuclear Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, James Allen

    1983-06-01

    A study of high transverse energy events resulting from 400 GeV protons scattering from targets of hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead has been performed with the E609 apparatus at Fermilab. Wire chambers and a highly segmented calorimeter detect secondary particles. The use of efficient jet collecting triggers and of a beam jet calorimeter have been originally applied to nuclear target studies in this thesis. $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling with hydrogen deviations is observed for $E_T$ and planarity. The data provide evidence that $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling results from multiple scattering.Evidence for hadron jets is seen with a large solid angle calorimeter for all the targets when triggers requiring two high $E_T$ single particles are employed. Jet cross-sections for nuclei are approximately determined herein. Jet event angular distributions possibly indicate that low and high transverse energy particles in jets from nuclei may result, in part, from different types of interactions.

  17. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, T.

    2016-07-01

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  18. Cryogenic helium as stopping medium for high-energy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Dendooven, P.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Äystö, J.; Peräjärvi, K.; Takahashi, N.; Gloos, K.

    2008-10-01

    We have investigated the survival and transport efficiency of 219Rn ions emitted by a 223Ra source in high-density cryogenic helium gas, with ionisation of the gas induced by a proton beam. The combined efficiency of ion survival and transport by an applied electric field was measured as a function of ionisation rate density for electric fields up to 160 V/cm and for three temperature and density combinations: 77 K, 0.18 mg/cm3, 10 K, 0.18 mg/cm3 and 10 K, 0.54 mg/cm3. At low beam intensity or high electric field, an efficiency of 30 % is obtained, confirming earlier results. A sharp drop in efficiency is observed at a "threshold" ionisation rate density which increases with the square of the applied electric field. At 160 V/cm, the efficiency stays above 10% up to an ionisation rate density of 1012 ion-electron pairs/cm3/s. The observed behaviour is understood as the result of shielding of the applied field by the weak plasma created by the proton beam: it counteracts the effective transport of ions and electrons, leading to recombination between the two. We conclude that cryogenic helium gas at high-density and high electric field is a promising medium for the transformation of very high-energy ions into low-energy ones.

  19. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  20. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegun, A. K.; Takatsu, J.; Nakaji, T.; van Goethem, M. J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Koffeman, E. N.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images, should be minimized from 3-5% or higher to less than 1%, to make the treatment plan with proton beams more accurate, and thereby better treatment for the patient. With Geant4 we simulated a proton radiography detection system with two position-sensitive and residual energy detectors. A complex phantom filled with various materials (including tissue surrogates), was placed between the position sensitive detectors. The phantom was irradiated with 150 MeV protons and the energy loss radiograph and scattering angles were studied. Protons passing through different materials in the phantom lose energy, which was used to create a radiography image of the phantom. The multiple Coulomb scattering of a proton traversing different materials causes blurring of the image. To improve image quality and material identification in the phantom, we selected protons with small scattering angles. A good quality proton radiography image, in which various materials can be recognized accurately, and in combination with xCT can lead to more accurate relative stopping powers predictions.

  1. Proton Collimator for Fusion Energy Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Miley, George

    2001-10-01

    A proton collimator concept is under study for use with various fusion devices such as an inertial confinement fusion (IEC) reactor. G. H. Miley, et al., IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, 25 (1997), 733. It consists essentially of a pair of coils anti-parallel to an external magnetic channel. Spacing of the coils is equal to the coil radius, forming a "Helmholtz Coil". To eliminate the attractive force between pair coils, a stabilization coil is installed anti-parallel to pair coils. The resulting magnetic configuration is cylindrically symmetric. Currents on each coil are chosen to chancel the magnetic field at the center, forming a hexa-pole magnetic configuration. With the zero-field region near the plasma center, an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor or the IEC could be operated without interference. Isotropic fusion protons, as well as leaking fuel components, from D-D or D-He3 fusion will be collimated by the outer magnetic field. This stream can then be lead to a traveling wave direct energy converter, TWDEC, H. Momota, et al., Fusion Technology, 21 (1992), 2307-2323. or to a thruster for space propulsion. H. Momota, et al., AIAA Joint Propulsion Conf., Huntsville Al. Bombardment of particles on structural devices can largely be avoided by optimizing current ratios on the pair and stabilization coils. Another property of this design is that it scatters charged particles into random directions near the center, providing a separation of low-energy leaking unburned fuel components from energetic fusion products. Such separation is essential for use with a TWDEC or for a space thruster to avoid unwanted waste of costly fuel components. A quantitative discussion of these features will be presented.

  2. First experimental research in low energy proton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jun; Li, Yi-Ding; Long, Ji-Dong; He, Xiao-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Ding; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Ma, Chao-Fan; Zhao, Liang-Chao; Yang, Xing-Lin; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yuan; Pang, Jian; Li, Hong; Li, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Fu-Xin; Shi, Jin-Shui; Zhang, Kai-Zhi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Lin-Wen; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Proton radiography is a new scatheless diagnostic tool providing a potential development direction for advanced hydrotesting. Recently a low energy proton radiography system has been developed at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Phyiscs (CAEP). This system has been designed to use an 11 MeV proton beam to radiograph thin static objects. This system consists of a proton cyclotron coupled to an imaging beamline, which is the first domestic beamline dedicated to proton radiography experiments. Via some demonstration experiments, the radiography system is confirmed to provide clear pictures with spatial resolution ~100 μm within 40 mm field-of-view.

  3. Compact measurement station for low energy proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, H.; Ozbey, A.; Oz, S.; Yasatekin, B.; Turemen, G.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Aydin, Y. O.; Dimov, V. A.; Unel, G.; Alacakir, A.

    2017-02-01

    A compact, remote controlled, cost efficient diagnostic station has been developed to measure the charge, the profile and the emittance for low energy proton beams. It has been installed and tested in the proton beam line of the Project Prometheus at SANAEM of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.

  4. Energy deposition around swift proton tracks in polymethylmethacrylate: How much and how far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapor, Maurizio; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    The use of proton beams in several modern technologies to probe or modify the properties of materials, such as proton beam lithography or ion beam cancer therapy, requires us to accurately know the extent to which the energy lost by the swift projectiles in the medium is redistributed radially around their tracks, since this determines several endpoints, such as the resolution of imaging or manufacturing techniques, or even the biological outcomes of radiotherapy. In this paper, the radial distribution of the energy deposited around swift-proton tracks in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by the transport of secondary electrons is obtained by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. The initial energy and angular distributions of the secondary electrons generated by proton impact, as well as the electronic cross sections for the ejection of these electrons, are reliably calculated in the framework of the dielectric formalism, where a realistic electronic excitation spectrum of PMMA is accounted for. The cascade of all secondary electrons generated in PMMA is simulated taking into account the main interactions that occur between these electrons and the condensed phase target. After analyzing the influence that several angular distributions of the electrons generated by the proton beam have on the resulting radial profiles of deposited energy, we conclude that the widely used Rudd and Kim formula should be replaced by the simpler isotropic angular distribution, which leads to radial energy distributions comparable to the ones obtained from more realistic angular distributions. By studying the dependence of the radial dose on the proton energy we recommend lower proton energies than previously published for reducing proximity effects around a proton track. The obtained results are of relevance for assessing the resolution limits of proton beam based imaging and manufacturing techniques.

  5. Sources of high-energy protons in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The passage of Pioneer 11 through Saturn's magnetosphere revealed an especially intense region of high-energy particle fluxes that places unique constraints on models for sources of high-energy protons in the innermost radiation zones. Of special interest is the flux of protons with energies above 35 MeV which was measured with a fission cell in the innermost magnetosphere between the A ring and the orbit of Mimas. The negative phase space density gradients derived from the proton and electron observations in this region imply that steady-state inward diffusion from the outer magnetosphere is not an adequate source for these high-energy protons. In the present paper, the nature of the Crand source at Saturn is examined, and its significance for injection of high-energy protons into the region inside L = 4 is estimated.

  6. Angular and Energy Dependence of Proton Upset in Optocouplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.; Swift, G. M.; Guertin, S.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2000-01-01

    Proton upset effects in optocouplers were reported by LaBel, et al. that showed an unexpected increase in cross section for incident angles above 80 degrees. Although it appeared that the angular dependence was related to direct ionization from protons, the angular dependence was weaker than expected from basic geometrical arguments using a shallow charge collection depth. Later work showed that the angular dependence of proton upset observed in the earlier studies at a single energy could be explained by considering the distribution of proton recoil energies along with the assumption of a deeper charge collection depth, which was consistent with upset tests from heavy ions. However, an experimental test of the underlying assumptions in the latter work has yet to be done. Protons in space not only arrive over a wide range of incident angles, but also involve a distribution of proton energies. It is necessary to understand both the angular dependence and the dependence of proton upset on energy in order to determine how optocouplers will respond in space. If the angular dependence only occurs for extreme angles of incidence, it will have little impact on the overall cross section because of the narrow acceptance angle. The present work examines mechanisms for proton upset in optocouplers in more detail, investigating the energy dependence and the effects of different load conditions. A model for proton upset is developed, along with a laboratory screening method to determine whether direct ionization is significant for specific device types.

  7. Studies in medium energy physics: Addendum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M. J.; Ray, R. L.; Read, D. E.; Worn, S. D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER-40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind 'exploratory' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  8. Energy spectra of gamma rays, electrons, and neutrinos produced at proton-proton interactions in the very high energy regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kelner, S. R.; Aharonian, F. A.; Bugayov, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present new parameterizations of energy spectra of secondary particles, {pi} mesons, gamma rays, electrons, and neutrinos produced in inelastic proton-proton collisions. The simple analytical approximations based on simulations of proton-proton interactions using the public available SIBYLL code provide very good accuracy for energy distributions of secondary products in the energy range above 100 GeV. Generally, the recommended analytical formulas deviate from the simulated distributions within a few percent over a large range of x=E{sub i}/E{sub p}--the fraction of energy of the incident proton transferred to the secondaries. Finally, we describe an approximate procedure of continuation of calculations towards low energies, down to the threshold of {pi}-meson production.

  9. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-02-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions.

  10. Proton-Nucleus Elastic Cross Sections Using Two-Body In-Medium Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a method was developed of extracting nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium NN cross sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the Langley Research Center. The ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium was investigated. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium NN cross sections to calculate elastic proton-nucleus cross sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions.

  11. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  12. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD`s) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD`s, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  13. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  14. Proton scattering to collective states: what we learn about the effective interaction in the nuclear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electron scattering measurements of the normal parity isoscalar collective excitations of N = Z nuclei completely specify the nuclear structure information required for the analysis of complementary proton scattering experiments. The analysis of the proton scattering data is then interpreted as a study of the medium modifications of the two-nucleon effective interaction. It has been found that the isoscalar spin-independent central component of the effective interaction is strongly dependent upon density and is well described by the local density approximation based upon nuclear matter effective interactions. The results are sensitive to the difference between effective interactions based upon the Hamad-Johnston and Paris potentials, and favor an intermediate interaction. The qualitative features of the medium corrections can be adequately represented by a few physically motivated parameters, which can be chosen so as to reproduce either the Hamada-Johnston or Paris results. 20 references, 10 figures.

  15. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-08-30

    The di erential cross section of exclusive di ractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More speci cally, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to uctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of J= mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strong geometric uctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For meson production we also nd reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the e ect of saturation scale and color charge uctuations and constrain the degree of geometric uctuations.

  16. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-08-30

    The di erential cross section of exclusive di ractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More speci cally, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to uctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of J= mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strong geometric uctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For meson production we also nd reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the e ect of saturation scale and color charge uctuations and constrain the degree of geometric uctuations.

  17. Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

    DOE PAGES

    Mantysaari, H.; Schenke, B.

    2016-08-30

    The di erential cross section of exclusive di ractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More speci cally, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to uctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of J= mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strongmore » geometric uctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For meson production we also nd reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the e ect of saturation scale and color charge uctuations and constrain the degree of geometric uctuations.« less

  18. Proton induced fission of 232Th at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikal, K. B.; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A.; Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V.; Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N.; Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N.; Piasecki, E.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Sahiev, S. K.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vardaci, E.

    2016-12-01

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of 232Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60-170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10-4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  19. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gikal, K. B. Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A.; Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V.; Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N.; Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N.; Piasecki, E.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Sahiev, S. K.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vardaci, E.

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  20. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  1. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  2. Single-Event Upsets Caused by High-Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy secondary ions do not significantly alter device responses. Conclusion that external reaction products cause no significant alteration of single-event-upset response based on comparison of data obtained from both lidded and unlidded devices and for proton beams impinging at angles ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees with respect to chip face. Study also found single-event-upset cross section increases only modestly as proton energy increased to 590 MeV, characteristic of maximum energies expected in belts of trapped protons surrounding Earth and Jupiter.

  3. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Swanson, Scot E.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Van Deusen, Stuart B.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Gordon, M. S.

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data from 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.

  4. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    DOE PAGES

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; ...

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data frommore » 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.« less

  5. Hot spots and the hollowness of proton-proton interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Soto-Ontoso, Alba

    2017-07-01

    We present a dynamical explanation of the hollowness effect observed in proton-proton scattering at √{ s} = 7 TeV. This phenomenon, not observed at lower energies, consists in a depletion of the inelasticity density at zero impact parameter of the collision. Our analysis is based on three main ingredients: we rely gluonic hot spots inside the proton as effective degrees of freedom for the description of the scattering process. Next we assume that some non-trivial correlation between the transverse positions of the hot spots inside the proton exists. Finally we build the scattering amplitude from a multiple scattering, Glauber-like series of collisions between hot spots. In our approach, the onset of the hollowness effect is naturally explained as due to the diffusion or growth of the hot spots in the transverse plane with increasing collision energy.

  6. Transport of low- and medium-energy electron and ion beams in seawater and its vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Daniel A.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    A general theory of stopping power for electrons and ions in a target medium (gas, liquid, or thin solid foil) containing neutral as well as positive and negative ions is developed. The approach is quite accurate in the low- and medium-energy range (less than 1 MeV), where the Bethe stopping-power cross section is inaccurate. The energy transfer during individual collisions is treated by the binary-encounter approximation. The theory is applied to determine the stopping power of seawater, whose major components are H2O molecules and Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. The stopping-power cross sections for low- and medium-energy protons in water show excellent agreement with existing measurements.

  7. High energy protons generation by two sequential laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin

    2015-04-15

    The sequential proton acceleration by two laser pulses of relativistic intensity is proposed to produce high energy protons. In the scheme, a relativistic super-Gaussian (SG) laser pulse followed by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulse irradiates dense plasma attached by underdense plasma. A proton beam is produced from the target and accelerated in the radiation pressure regime by the short SG pulse and then trapped and re-accelerated in a special bubble driven by the LG pulse in the underdense plasma. The advantages of radiation pressure acceleration and LG transverse structure are combined to achieve the effective trapping and acceleration of protons. In a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, protons of 6.7 GeV are obtained from a 2 × 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2} SG laser pulse and a LG pulse at a lower peak intensity.

  8. Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

  9. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-30

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  10. Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.

  11. Maximum kinetic energy considerations in proton stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, Evan R; Mackie, Thomas R

    2011-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum proton kinetic energy required to treat a given percentage of patients eligible for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with coplanar arc-based proton therapy, contingent upon the number and location of gantry angles used. Treatment plans from 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center between June of 2007 and March of 2010 were analyzed. For each target volume within each patient, in-house software was used to place proton pencil beam spots over the distal surface of the target volume from 51 equally-spaced gantry angles of up to 360°. For each beam spot, the radiological path length from the surface of the patient to the distal boundary of the target was then calculated along a ray from the gantry location to the location of the beam spot. This data was used to generate a maximum proton energy requirement for each patient as a function of the arc length that would be spanned by the gantry angles used in a given treatment. If only a single treatment angle is required, 100% of the patients included in the study could be treated by a proton beam with a maximum kinetic energy of 118 MeV. As the length of the treatment arc is increased to 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°, the maximum energy requirement increases to 127, 145, 156, and 179 MeV, respectively. A very high percentage of SRS patients could be treated at relatively low proton energies if the gantry angles used in the treatment plan do not span a large treatment arc. Maximum proton kinetic energy requirements increase linearly with size of the treatment arc.

  12. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  13. Short- and Medium-term Atmospheric Effects of Very Large Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Vitt, Francis M.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Labow, Gordon J.; Randall, Cora E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Long-term variations in ozone have been caused by both natural and humankind related processes. In particular, the humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone from chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine) has led to international regulations greatly limiting the release of these substances. These anthropogenic effects on ozone are most important in polar regions and have been significant since the 1970s. Certain natural ozone influences are also important in polar regions and are caused by the impact of solar charged particles on the atmosphere. Such natural variations have been studied in order to better quantify the human influence on polar ozone. Large-scale explosions on the Sun near solar maximum lead to emissions of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons), some of which enter the Earth's magnetosphere and rain down on the polar regions. "Solar proton events" have been used to describe these phenomena since the protons associated with these solar events sometimes create a significant atmospheric disturbance. We have used the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to study the short- and medium-term (days to a few months) influences of solar proton events between 1963 and 2005 on stratospheric ozone. The four largest events in the past 45 years (August 1972; October 1989; July 2000; and October-November 2003) caused very distinctive polar changes in layers of the Earth's atmosphere known as the stratosphere (12-50 km; -7-30 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). The solar protons connected with these events created hydrogen- and nitrogen- containing compounds, which led to the polar ozone destruction. The hydrogen-containing compounds have very short lifetimes and lasted for only a few days (typically the duration of the solar proton event). On the other hand, the nitrogen-containing compounds lasted much longer, especially in the Winter. The nitrogen oxides were predicted

  14. Triple Parton Scatterings in High-Energy Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Enterria, David; Snigirev, Alexander M.

    2017-03-01

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (p p ) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS . The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5 ±4.5 mb . Estimates for triple charm (c c ¯) and bottom (b b ¯) production in p p collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single c c ¯ , b b ¯ cross sections. At √{s }≈100 TeV , about 15% of the p p collisions produce three c c ¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  15. Very Low Energy Protons From the Beta Decay of Proton Rich Nuclei For Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, E.; Trache, L.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aysto, J.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.; Lotay, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a new experimental technique to measure very low energy protons from beta-delayed p-decay of proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer at TAMU. Recently we have investigated the beta-delayed p-decays of {sup 23}Al and {sup 31}Cl and obtained information on the resonances in the reactions {sup 22}Na(p,gamma){sup 23}Mg and {sup 30}P(p,gamma){sup 31}S, respectively. These reactions are important in explosive H-burning in Novae. A simple setup consisting of a telescope made of a thin double sided Si strip detector (p-detector) backed or sandwiched between two thick Si detectors (beta-detectors) was designed. We studied two different p-detectors and found that the thinner detectors with a small cell size are best to measure proton energies as low as 2-300 keV.

  16. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiochromic film dosimetry of a low energy proton beam.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, A; Miceli, R; Azario, L; Fidanzio, A; delle Canne, S; De Angelis, C; Onori, S; Pacilio, M; Petetti, E; Raffaele, L; Sabini, M G

    2000-07-01

    In this work some dosimetric characteristics of MD-55-2 GafChromic films were studied in a low energy proton beam (21.5 MeV) directly in a water phantom. The nonlinearity of the optical density was quantified by a factor P(lin). A correction factor P(en), that accounts for optical density dependence on the energy, was empirically determined. The effects of detector thickness in depth dose measurements and of the film orientation with respect to beam direction were investigated. The results show that the MD-55-2 films provide dose measurements with the films positioned perpendicularly to the proton beam. A dosimetric formalizm is proposed to determine the dose to water at depth d, with films oriented perpendicularly to the beam axis. This formalism uses a calibration factor of the radiochromic film determined directly on the proton beam at a reference depth in water, and the P(lin) factor, that takes into account the nonlinearity of the calibration curve and the P(en) factor that, in turn takes into account the change of proton beam energy in water. The MD-55-2 films with their high spatial resolution and the quasiwater equivalent material are attractive, positioned perpendicularly along the beam axis, for the absolute dose determination of very small beam sizes and modulated proton beams.

  18. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengbusch, E; Pérez-Andújar, A; DeLuca, P M; Mackie, T R

    2009-02-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180 degrees continuous arc proton therapy and for 180 degrees split arc proton therapy (two 90 degrees arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the

  19. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  20. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate + Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p⊥ in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p⊥ distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p⊥ where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  1. Photoproduction of scalar mesons at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, M. L.; Machado, M. V.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we will focus on photoproduction of mesons states a{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710). The f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) mesons will be considered in distinct mixing possibilities and assuming that a{sub 0}(980) is member of the ground-state nonet. The theoretical formalism is the Regge approach with reggeized {rho} and {omega} exchange. The differential and integrated total cross section are computed for the cases of the mesons a{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) focusing the GlueX energy regime with photon energy E = 9 GeV.

  2. Ionization cooling in a low-energy proton storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David V.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    At the FFAG05 meeting, Mori and Okabe presented a scenario in which the lifetime of protons in a low-energy storage ring ({approx}10 MeV) is extended by energy-loss in a wedge foil, and this enables greater neutron production from the foil. The lifetime extension is due to the cooling effect of this energy loss. We have previously analyzed ionization cooling for muons at optimal cooling energies. The same equations, with appropriate adaptations, can be used to analyze the dynamic situation for proton-material interactions at low energies. In this note we discuss this extension and calculate cooling and heating effects at these very different parameters. The ring could provide a practical application of ionization cooling methods.

  3. Relative Proton Affinities from Kinetic Energy Release Distributions for Dissociation of Proton-Bound Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Hache, John J.; Laskin, Julia ); Futrell, Jean H. )

    2002-12-19

    Kinetic energy release distributions (KERDs) upon dissociation of proton-bound dimers are utilized along with Finite Heat Bath theory analysis to obtain relative proton affinities of monomeric species composing the dimer. The proposed approach allows accurate measurement of relative proton affinities based on KERD measurements for the compound with unknown thermochemical properties versus a single reference base. It also allows distinguishing the cases when dissociation of proton-bound dimers is associated with reverse activation barrier, for which both our approach and the kinetic method become inapplicable. Results are reported for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer, for which there is no significant difference in entropy effects for two reactions and for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer, which is characterized by a significant difference in entropy effects for the two competing reactions. Relative protonation affinities of -1.0?0.3 kcal/mol for the n-butanol-n-propanol pair and 0.27?0.10 kcal/mol for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine pair are in good agreement with literature values. Relative reaction entropies were extracted from the branching ratio and KERD measurements. Good correspondence was found between the relative reaction entropies for the n-butanol-n-propanol dimer (D(DS?)=-0.3?1.5 cal/mol K) and the relative protonation entropy for the two monomers (D(DSp)=0). However, the relative reaction entropy for the pyrrolidine-1,2-ethylenediamine dimer is higher than the difference in protonation entropies (D(DS?)=8.2?0.5 cal/mol K vs. D(DSp)=5 cal/mol K).

  4. Superconducting Magnet Technology for Future High Energy Proton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Interest in high field dipoles has been given a boost by new proposals to build a high-energy proton-proton collider to follow the LHC and programs around the world are taking on the task to answer the need. Studies aiming toward future high-energy proton-proton colliders at the 100 TeV scale are now being organized. The LHC and current cost models are based on technology close to four decades old and point to a broad optimum of operation using dipoles with fields between 5 and 12T when site constraints, either geographical or political, are not a factor. Site geography constraints that limit the ring circumference can drive the required dipole field up to 20T, which is more than a factor of two beyond state-of-the-art. After a brief review of current progress, the talk will describe the challenges facing future development and present a roadmap for moving high field accelerator magnet technology forward. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, High Energy Physics, US Department of Energy, under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  5. Proton and Helium Induced L Subshell Ionization Cross-Section Measurements of Medium to High Z Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Mark Francis

    This thesis deals with the L subshell ionization of medium to high atomic number (Z) targets by proton and He('+) ion bombardment, and the subsequent filling of the inner shell vacancy by the production of X-rays. The L subshell ionization cross sections for antimony (Z = 51), gadolinium (Z = 64), tungsten (Z = 74) and gold (Z = 79) were measured for 0.6-2.0 MeV proton and He('+) ion bombardment, and targets of antimony and gadolinium were bombarded with 90 to 200 keV protons. Energy dispersive Si(Li) detectors were used to detect the characteristic X-rays produced and the measured X-ray yields were used to calculate absolute ionization cross sections. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the ECPSSR theory originally developed by Brandt and Lapicki. The development of the ECPSSR description of the ionization process is presented in detail and major differences between the experimental results and the theoretical calculations are discussed. For ion energies below about 0.2 MeV/a.m.u. the ECPSSR theory underpredicts the experimental results by up to a factor of four. For ion energies >1.0 MeV/a.m.u. the ECPSSR theory predicts the total L shell and L(,3) subshell ionization cross sections to within (TURN)20% or better. The ECPSSR theory also predicts the L(,1) subshell ionization cross sections to within (TURN)20% except near the node in the L(,1) subshell wave function. However, even at these higher energies, the ECPSSR results underpredict the experimental results for the L(,2) subshell by around 25%, with this discrepancy increasing markedly with decreasing projectile energy. The use of more realistic wave functions to describe the target electron states is discussed; however it is shown that the relativistic and binding corrections of the ECPSSR theory cannot be invoked to explain the observed discrepancies. Coulomb deflection effects are examined with a view to considering individual L subshell experimental Coloumb deflection factors. The

  6. Beam-beam interaction study of medium energy eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hao,Y.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2009-07-15

    Medium Energy eRHIC (MeRHIC), the first stage design of eRHIC, includes a multi-pass ERL that provides 4GeV high quality electron beam to collide with the ion beam of RHIC. It delivers a minimum luminosity of 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Beam-beam effects present one of major factors limiting the luminosity of colliders. In this paper, both beam-beam effects on the electron beam and the proton beam in MeRHIC are investigated. The beam-beam interaction can induce a head-tail type instability of the proton beam referred to as the kink instability. Thus, beam stability conditions should be established to avoid proton beam loss. Also, the electron beam transverse disruption by collisions has to be evaluated to ensure that the beam quality is good enough for the energy recovery pass. The relation of proton beam stability, electron disruption and consequential luminosity are carried out after thorough discussion.

  7. Direct Versus Diffusive Access of High-Energy Solar Protons Into the High-Latitude Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Alexei; Knudsen, David; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric

    During solar proton events (SPEs), large fluxes of energetic protons spreading throughout the interplanetary medium (IPM)have access to the upper polar atmosphere where they play important roles in physical and chemical processes. We examine the relation between SPEs as detected through ionospheric absorption measured by the NORSTAR riometer network on one hand, and the proton fluxes measured outside the magnetosphere by the SOHO satellite on the other. We find a high correlation between SOHO fluxes and absorptions in some type of events (those having insignificant electron precipitation and background radio noise) and at given time intervals (within tens of hours following times of maximum flux ) but not others. By using a numerical simulation of high-energy proton propagation through the earth's magnetosphere we show that the flux of SPE particles reaching the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the angular distribution of the source population outside of the magnetosphere. Early in SP events, protons follow solar magnetic field lines and their distributions tend to be highly anisotropic(1), and the strong angular dependence decreases the correlation between IPM fluxes and polar cap absorption. As individual events evolve, flux angular distributions of IPM protons tend to be more isotropic(1) due to encounters with randomly distributed fields of magnetic clouds in the interplanetary medium (obtained closed solution of non-steady-state diffusion equation in P1-approximation allows us to estimate the dynamics of angular modulation). It is only when this diffusive isotropization occurs that we see strong correlations (correlation coefficients of up to 0.98) between IPM fluxes observed at SOHO and the polar cap absorptions observed by the NORSTAR riometers. We aim to use these observations to construct and validate a realistic transport model that will map proton fluxes originating outside the magnetosphere to those incident on the upper atmosphere, and vice versa

  8. Monte Carlo approach for hadron azimuthal correlations in high energy proton and nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to study hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies at midrapidity. We build a hadron event generator that incorporates the production of 2→2 and 2→3 parton processes and their evolution into hadron states. For nucleus-nucleus collisions we include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using a modified fragmentation function approach. In the presence of the medium, for the case when three partons are produced in the hard scattering, we analyze the Monte Carlo sample in parton and hadron momentum bins to reconstruct the angular correlations. We characterize this sample by the number of partons that are able to hadronize by fragmentation within the selected bins. In the nuclear environment the model allows hadronization by fragmentation only for partons with momentum above a threshold pTthresh=2.4 GeV. We argue that one should treat properly the effect of those partons with momentum below the threshold, because their interaction with the medium may lead to showers of low-momentum hadrons along the direction of motion of the original partons as the medium becomes diluted.

  9. Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scobel, W.; Dohrmann, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Scobel, W.; Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bissel, T.; Bollmann, R.; Busch, M.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Danie, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Felden, O.; Flammer, J.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Hebbel, K.; Hinterberger, F.; Hüskes, T.; Jahn, R.; Koch, I.; Langkau, R.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Pfuff, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Steinbeck, S.; Sterzenbach, G.; Thomas, S.; Trelle, H. J.; Walker, M.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.; EDDA Collaboration at COSY; EDDA Collaboration

    1998-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic cross sections have been measured in narrow momentum steps Δp = 28 MeV/c in the kinetic energy range from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV and the angular range 35° ≤ Θcm ≤ 90° with a detector providing ΔΘcm ≈ 1.4° resolution and 82% solid angle coverage. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY with an internal CH 2 fiber target; background corrections were derived from measurements with a carbon fiber target and from Monte Carlo simulations of inelastic pp contributions. Particular care was taken to monitor the luminosity as a function of beam energy. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of unprecedented precision and internal consistency. The measured cross sections are compared to recent phase shift analyses, and their impact on the present solution SM97 [1] is discussed.

  10. CGC/saturation approach for high energy soft interactions: v2 in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.; Maor, U.; Tapia, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions, based on the CGC/saturation approach. We demonstrate that in our model, which describes diffractive physics as well as multiparticle production at high energy, the density variation mechanism leads to the value of v2 , which is about 60%-70% of the measured v2 . Bearing in mind that in the CGC/saturation approach there are two other mechanisms present, Bose enhancement in the wave function and local anisotropy, we believe that the azimuthal long range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions stem from the CGC/saturation physics, and not from quark-gluon plasma production.

  11. Energy dependence of the ridge in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Dusling, Kevin; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that the recent measurement of azimuthally collimated, long-range rapidity (“ridge”) correlations in √s=13 TeV proton-proton (p+p) collisions by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC are in agreement with expectations from the color glass condensate effective theory of high-energy QCD. The observation that the integrated near-side yield as a function of multiplicity is independent of collision energy is a natural consequence of the fact that multiparticle production is driven by a single semihard saturation scale in the color glass condensate framework. We argue further that the azimuthal structure of these recent ATLAS ridge measurements strongly constrainsmore » hydrodynamic interpretations of such correlations in high-multiplicity p+p collisions.« less

  12. Energy dependence of the ridge in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dusling, Kevin; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that the recent measurement of azimuthally collimated, long-range rapidity (“ridge”) correlations in √s=13 TeV proton-proton (p+p) collisions by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC are in agreement with expectations from the color glass condensate effective theory of high-energy QCD. The observation that the integrated near-side yield as a function of multiplicity is independent of collision energy is a natural consequence of the fact that multiparticle production is driven by a single semihard saturation scale in the color glass condensate framework. We argue further that the azimuthal structure of these recent ATLAS ridge measurements strongly constrains hydrodynamic interpretations of such correlations in high-multiplicity p+p collisions.

  13. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, R. B.; Barlow, R. J.; Molson, J. G.; Serluca, M.; Toader, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC.

  14. TH-A-19A-01: An Open Source Software for Proton Treatment Planning in Heterogeneous Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Desplanques, M; Baroni, G; Wang, K; Phillips, J; Gueorguiev, G; Sharp, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Due to its success in Radiation Oncology during the last decade, interest in proton therapy is on the rise. Unfortunately, despite the global enthusiasm in the field, there is presently no free, multiplatform and customizable Treatment Planning System (TPS) providing proton dose distributions in heterogenous medium. This restricts substantially the progress of clinical research for groups without access to a commercial Proton TPS. The latest implementation of our pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for proton beams within the 3D Slicer open-source environment fulfills all the conditions described above. Methods: The core dose calculation algorithm is based on the Hong algorithm (1), which was upgraded with the Kanematsu theory describing the evolution of the lateral scattering of proton beamlets in heterogeneous medium. This algorithm deals with both mono-energetic beams and Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). In order to be user-friendly, we provide a graphical user interface implemented with the Qt libraries, and visualization with the 3D Slicer medical image analysis software. Two different pencil beam algorithms were developed, and the clinical proton beam line at our facility was modeled. Results: The dose distributions provided by our algorithms were compared to dose distributions coming from both commercialized XiO TPS and literature (dose measurements, GEANT4 and MCNPx) and turned out to be in a good agreement, with maximum dose discrepancies of 5% in homogeneous phantoms and 10% in heterogeneous phantoms. The algorithm of SOBP creation from an optimized weigthing of mono-energetic beams results in flat SOBP. Conclusion: We hope that our efforts in implementing this new, open-source proton TPS will help the research groups to have a free access to a useful, reliable proton dose calculation software.(1) L. Hong et al., A pencil beam algorithm for proton dose calculations, Phys. Med. Biol. 41 (1996) 1305–1330. This project is paid for by NCI

  15. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  16. Electron-Proton and High Energy Telescopes for Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao R.; Grunau, Jan; Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Javier; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Kulemzin, Alexander; Wetzel, Moritz; Ravanbakhsh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of five sensors (STEIN, SIS, EPT, LET and HET). The University of Kiel in Germany is responsible for the design, development, and build of EPT and HET which are presented here. The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The Solar Orbiter EPT electron measurements from 20 - 400 keV will cover the gap with some overlap between suprathermal electrons measured by STEIN and high energy electrons measured by HET. The proton measurements from 20 -7000 keV will cover the gap between STEIN and LET. The Electron and Proton Telescope relies on the magnet/foil-technique. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 -100 MeV, and heavy ions from ~20 to 200 MeV/nuc. Thus, HET covers the energy range which is of specific interest for studies of the space environment and will perform the measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy events at the Sun which occasionally accelerate particles to such high energies that they can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and be measured at ground level (ground-level events). These measurement capabilities are reached by a combination of solid-state detectors and a scintillator calorimeter which allows use of the dE/dx vs. total E technique for particle identification and energy measurement. The upper limits on energy listed above refer to particles (ions) stopping in the scintillator and careful modeling of HET properties will allow discrimination of forward/backward penetrating particles in a wider energy range. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET units focusing on the test and calibration results obtained with the demonstration

  17. Solvation energies of the proton in ammonia explicitly versus temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloum, Alhadji; Fifen, Jean Jules; Dhaouadi, Zoubeida; Engo, Serge Guy Nana; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine

    2017-04-01

    We provide in this work, the absolute solvation enthalpies and the absolute solvation free energies of the proton in ammonia explicitly versus temperature. As a result, the absolute solvation free energy of the proton remains quite constant for temperatures below 200 K. Above this temperature, it increases as a linear function of the temperature: Δ Ga m(H+,T ) =-1265.832 +0.210 T . This indicates that a temperature change of 100 K would induce a solvation free energy change of 21 kJ mol-1. Thus, ignoring this free energy change would lead to a bad description of hydrogen bonds and an unacceptable error higher than 3.7 pKa units. However, the absolute solvation enthalpy of the proton in ammonia is not significantly affected by a temperature change and, the room temperature value is -1217 kJ mol-1. The change of the solvation enthalpy is only within 3 kJ mol-1 for a temperature change up to 200 K.

  18. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  19. Triple Parton Scatterings in High-Energy Proton-Proton Collisions.

    PubMed

    d'Enterria, David; Snigirev, Alexander M

    2017-03-24

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (pp) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σ_{eff,TPS}. The value of σ_{eff,TPS} is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σ_{eff,TPS}=12.5±4.5  mb. Estimates for triple charm (cc[over ¯]) and bottom (bb[over ¯]) production in pp collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single cc[over ¯], bb[over ¯] cross sections. At sqrt[s]≈100  TeV, about 15% of the pp collisions produce three cc[over ¯] pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  20. MEGA - Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Bloser, P. F.; Macri, J. R.; McConnell, M. L.; Ajello, M.; Andritschke, R.; Kanbach, G.; Schoenfelder, V.; Zoglauer, A.; Hunter, S. D.; Kurfess, J. D.; Phlips, B.; Strickman, M.; Wulf, E.; Hartmann, D.; Miller, R.; Paciesas, W.; Zych, A. D.; Kippen, R. M.; Vestrand, W. T.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G.; Stacy, J. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Reglero, V.; Di Cocco, G.; Cravens, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy (MEGA) telescope concept will soon be proposed as a MIDEX mission. This mission would enable a sensitive all-sky survey of the medium-energy gamma-ray sky (0.3 - 50 MeV) and bridge the huge sensitivity gap between the COMPTEL and OSSE experiments on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the SPI and IBIS instruments on INTEGRAL, and the visionary Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission. The scientific goals include, among other things, compiling a much larger catalog of sources in this energy range, performing far deeper searches for supernovae, better measuring the galactic continuum and line emissions, and identifying the components of the cosmic diffuse gamma-ray emission. MEGA will accomplish these goals using a tracker made of Si strip detector (SSD) planes surrounded by a dense high-Z calorimeter. At lower photon energies (below 30 MeV), the design is sensitive to Compton interactions, with the SSD system serving as a scattering medium that also detects and measures the Compton recoil energy deposit. If the energy of the recoil electron is sufficiently high (> 2 MeV) its momentum vector can also be measured. At higher photon energies (above 10 MeV), the design is sensitive to pair production events, with the SSD system measuring the tracks of the electron and positron. A prototype instrument has been developed and calibrated, and is currently being prepared for a scientific balloon flight.

  1. Neutrino diagnostics of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Markus; Sarkar, Subir; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2009-04-15

    The energy at which cosmic rays from extra-galactic sources begin to dominate over those from galactic sources is an important open question in astroparticle physics. A natural candidate is the energy at the 'ankle' in the approximately power-law energy spectrum which is indicative of a crossover from a falling galactic component to a flatter extra-galactic component. The transition can occur without such flattening but this requires some degree of conspiracy of the spectral shapes and normalizations of the two components. Nevertheless, it has been argued that extra-galactic sources of cosmic ray protons that undergo interactions on the CMB can reproduce the energy spectrum below the ankle if the crossover energy is as low as the 'second knee' in the spectrum. This low crossover model is constrained by direct measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory, which indicate a heavier composition at these energies. We demonstrate that upper limits on the cosmic diffuse neutrino flux provide a complementary constraint on the proton fraction in ultra-high energy extra-galactic cosmic rays and forthcoming data from IceCube will provide a definitive test of this model.

  2. Phenomenological analysis of fission induced by high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbel, M. H.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy proton induced fission is studied in the framework of a two-step model. In the first step, the projectile penetrates the target nucleus, knocks out few nucleons and leaves the residual nucleus with a spectrum of excitation energies depending upon the number of projectile-nucleon collisions. This stage is described in terms of a simplified version of Glauber's multiple-scattering theory. The second stage in which the residual nucleus fissions, is treated by assuming phenomenological expressions for the dependence of the fission probability on excitation energy which take into account the onset of fragmentation at a certain “crack” energy. Comparison with experimental data suggests that high energy fission of heavy nuclei proceeds in a way similar to low-energy fission. Light nuclei, however, require a more violent fission mechanism.

  3. Spin observables in deuteron proton radiative capture at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, A. A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; van den Berg, A. M.; Castelijns, R.; Deltuva, A.; van Garderen, E. D.; Glöckle, W.; Golak, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kamada, H.; Kiš, M.; Koohi-Fayegh-Dehkordi, R.; Löhner, H.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Nogga, A.; Sauer, P.; Shende, S. V.; Skibinski, R.; Witała, H.; Wörtche, H. J.

    2005-06-01

    A radiative deuteron-proton capture experiment was carried out at KVI using polarized-deuteron beams at incident energies of 55, 66.5, and 90 MeV/nucleon. Vector and tensor-analyzing powers were obtained for a large angular range. The results are interpreted with the help of Faddeev calculations, which are based on modern two- and three-nucleon potentials. Our data are described well by the calculations, and disagree significantly with the observed tensor anomaly at RCNP.

  4. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer 178m2Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a "pure" material as well as mixed with other materials.

  5. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, E P

    2008-12-08

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  6. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2009-03-16

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  7. Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Choi, Daiwon; Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, G.; Sun, C.

    2014-12-12

    This is one of the chapters in the book titled “Advances in batteries for large- and medium-scale energy storage: Applications in power systems and electric vehicles” that will be published by the Woodhead Publishing Limited. The chapter discusses the basic electrochemical fundamentals of electrochemical energy storage devices with a focus on the rechargeable batteries. Several practical secondary battery systems are also discussed as examples

  8. Control of energy density inside turbid medium (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey; Petrenko, Sasha; Bromberg, Yaron; Cao, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Recent breakthroughs in optical wavefront engineering have opened the possibility of controlling light intensity distribution inside highly scattering medium, but their success is limited by the open geometry of the sample and the difficulty of covering all input modes. Here we demonstrate experimentally an efficient control of energy density distribution inside a strong scattering medium. Instead of the open slab geometry, we fabricate a silicon waveguide that contains scatterers and has reflecting sidewalls. The intensity distribution inside the 2D waveguide is probed from the third dimension. With a careful design of the on-chip coupling waveguide, we can access all the input modes. Such unprecedented control of incident wavefront leads to 10 times enhancement of the total transmission or 50 times suppression. A direct probe of light intensity distribution inside the disordered structure reveals that selective excitation of open channels leads to an energy buildup deep inside the scattering medium, while the excitation of closed channels greatly reduces the penetration depth. Compared to the linear decay for random input fields, the optimized wavefront can produce an intensity profile that is either peaked near the center of the waveguide or decay exponentially with depth. The total energy stored inside the waveguide is increased 3.7 times or decreased 2 times. Since the energy density dictates light-matter interactions inside a scattering system, our results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring optical excitations as well as linear and nonlinear optical processes inside the turbid medium in an on-chip platform.

  9. Implications of gamma-ray observations on proton models of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.

    2016-09-01

    The origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) is still unknown. However, great progress has been achieved in past years due to the good quality and large statistics in experimental data collected by the current observatories. The data of the Pierre Auger Observatory show that the composition of UHECRs becomes progressively lighter starting from 1 017 eV up to ˜1 018.3 eV and then, beyond that energy, it becomes increasingly heavier. These analyses are subject to important systematic uncertainties due to the use of hadronic interaction models that extrapolate lower energy accelerator data to the highest energies. Although proton models of UHECRs are disfavored by these results, they cannot be completely ruled out. It is well known that the energy spectra of gamma rays and neutrinos, produced during propagation of these very energetic particles through the intergalactic medium, are a useful tool to constrain the spectrum models. In particular, it has recently been shown that the neutrino upper limits obtained by IceCube challenge the proton models at 95% C.L. In this work we study the constraints imposed by the extragalactic gamma-ray background, measured by Fermi-LAT, on proton models of UHECRs. In particular, we make use of the extragalactic gamma-ray background flux, integrated from 50 GeV to 2 TeV, that originates in point sources, which has recently been obtained by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, in combination with the neutrino upper limits, to constrain the emission of UHECRs at high redshifts (z >1 ), in the context of the proton models.

  10. Proton beam writing using the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, F.; Spemann, D.; Lenzner, J.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

    2005-04-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a very unique technique capable of the direct creation of three dimensional structures with a very high aspect ratio. Since the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION has a very high spatial resolution and is therefore well suited for the creation of structures in the micrometre range or below, it is planned to establish the PBW technique at the University of Leipzig. The results of the first proton beam writing experiments at the LIPSION nanoprobe are presented in this article. Structures with high aspect ratio and smooth side walls with an edge definition of ∼0.2 μm were created in negative SU-8 photo resist using 2.25 MeV protons. Furthermore, investigations were carried out concerning the mechanical stability of single free standing walls in order to collect information for the targeted production of samples with smaller feature sizes in the submicrometre range. Up to now, wall widths down to 1.5 μm were achieved. However, smaller feature sizes could not be obtained due to beam spot fluctuations which enlarge the wall width by a factor of three. Self-supported structures were produced using 2.25 MeV protons and subsequently 1.5 MeV helium ions demonstrating the stability and accuracy of these real three dimensional structures. In addition, different methods for online dose normalization were tested showing that ionoluminescence is the most suitable method for this purpose.

  11. Energy flow along the medium-induced parton cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Blaizot, J.-P.

    2016-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of parton cascades that develop in dense QCD matter, and contrast their properties with those of similar cascades of gluon radiation in vacuum. We argue that such cascades belong to two distinct classes that are characterized respectively by an increasing or a constant (or decreasing) branching rate along the cascade. In the former class, of which the BDMPS, medium-induced, cascade constitutes a typical example, it takes a finite time to transport a finite amount of energy to very soft quanta, while this time is essentially infinite in the latter case, to which the DGLAP cascade belongs. The medium induced cascade is accompanied by a constant flow of energy towards arbitrary soft modes, leading eventually to the accumulation of the initial energy of the leading particle at zero energy. It also exhibits scaling properties akin to wave turbulence. These properties do not show up in the cascade that develops in vacuum. There, the energy accumulates in the spectrum at smaller and smaller energy as the cascade develops, but the energy never flows all the way down to zero energy. Our analysis suggests that the way the energy is shared among the offsprings of a splitting gluon has little impact on the qualitative properties of the cascades, provided the kernel that governs the splittings is not too singular.

  12. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  13. Characteristic Dirac Signature in Elastic Proton Scattering at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Nonrelativistic nucleon-nucleus first-order multiple-scattering calculations are extended to include virtual (Dirac) negative energy states of just the projectile. This effect may be thought of as virtual NN¯ pair production and annihilation in the field of the nucleus. This extension leads to a parameter-free Dirac description of the projectile in elastic proton scattering which produces a characteristic effect in spin observables over a wide range of energies which is in agreement with experiment. This Dirac signature is extremely stable with respect to uncertainties in the microscopic input.

  14. Cluster Productions in Intermediate-Energy Proton-Nucleus Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Hiroki; Uozumi, Yusuke

    2008-04-17

    We propose a model to describe cluster productions within the framework of the intranuclear cascade (INC) model. In our model, combination of the 'surface coalescence' and the 'knockout' is implemented to describe cluster productions in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. In the present work, the basic ingredients of our INC model are defined and applied to nucleon and cluster productions for the proton-nucleus reactions. Although our INC model has some difficulties and room for improvement, it gives a good overall agreement with experimental data of not only nucleon productions but also cluster productions at intermediate energies.

  15. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  16. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Dolney, D; Kondrla, M; Fager, M; Carabe, A

    2016-02-21

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm(-1)) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process.

  17. Analytical calculation of proton linear energy transfer in voxelized geometries including secondary protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Dolney, D.; Kondrla, M.; Fager, M.; Carabe, A.

    2016-02-01

    In order to integrate radiobiological modelling with clinical treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, we extended our in-house treatment planning system FoCa with a 3D analytical algorithm to calculate linear energy transfer (LET) in voxelized patient geometries. Both active scanning and passive scattering delivery modalities are supported. The analytical calculation is much faster than the Monte-Carlo (MC) method and it can be implemented in the inverse treatment planning optimization suite, allowing us to create LET-based objectives in inverse planning. The LET was calculated by combining a 1D analytical approach including a novel correction for secondary protons with pencil-beam type LET-kernels. Then, these LET kernels were inserted into the proton-convolution-superposition algorithm in FoCa. The analytical LET distributions were benchmarked against MC simulations carried out in Geant4. A cohort of simple phantom and patient plans representing a wide variety of sites (prostate, lung, brain, head and neck) was selected. The calculation algorithm was able to reproduce the MC LET to within 6% (1 standard deviation) for low-LET areas (under 1.7 keV μm-1) and within 22% for the high-LET areas above that threshold. The dose and LET distributions can be further extended, using radiobiological models, to include radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) calculations in the treatment planning system. This implementation also allows for radiobiological optimization of treatments by including RBE-weighted dose constraints in the inverse treatment planning process.

  18. Proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B. M.; Brune, C. R.; Karwowski, H. J.; Leonard, D. S.; Ludwig, E. J.; Black, T. C.; Viviani, M.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2006-09-15

    We present new accurate measurements of the differential cross section {sigma}({theta}) and the proton analyzing power A{sub y} for proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at various energies. A supersonic gas-jet target has been employed to obtain these low-energy cross-section measurements. The {sigma}({theta}) distributions have been measured at E{sub p}=0.99, 1.59, 2.24, 3.11, and 4.02 MeV. Full angular distributions of A{sub y} have been measured at E{sub p}=1.60, 2.25, 3.13, and 4.05 MeV. This set of high-precision data is compared to four-body variational calculations employing realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. For the unpolarized cross section, the agreement between the theoretical calculation and data is good when a 3N potential is used. The comparison between the calculated and measured proton analyzing powers reveals discrepancies of approximately 50% at the maximum of each distribution. This is analogous to the existing 'A{sub y} puzzle' known for the past 20 years in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering.

  19. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treekamol, Yaowapa; Schieda, Mauricio; Robitaille, Lucie; MacKinnon, Sean M.; Mokrini, Asmae; Shi, Zhiqing; Holdcroft, Steven; Schulte, Karl; Nunes, Suzana P.

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion® matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity, conductivity, water uptake and dimensional stability, thermal stability and morphology were characterized. The inclusion of functionalized nanoparticles proved advantageous, mainly due to a physical crosslinking effect and better water retention, with functionalized nanoparticles performing better than the pristine silica particles. For the same filler loading, better nanoparticle dispersion was achieved for solvent-cast membranes, resulting in higher proton conductivity. Filler agglomeration, however, was more severe for solvent-cast membranes at loadings beyond 5 wt.%. The composite membranes showed excellent thermal stability, allowing for operation in medium temperature PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell performance of the composite membranes decreases with decreasing relative humidity, but good performance values are still obtained at 34% RH and 90 °C, with the best results obtained for solvent cast membranes loaded with 10 wt.% ODF-functionalized silica. Hydrogen crossover of the composite membranes is higher than that for pure Nafion® membranes, possibly due to porosity resulting from suboptimal particle-matrix compatibility.

  20. Radiative Capture of Polarized Protons by Tritium at Low Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas Jay

    A study of the ('3)H((')p,(gamma))('4)He reaction was made at low proton energies in order to better understand the multipole nature of the emitted (gamma)-rays. Angular distributions of cross section and analyzing power were measured for incident proton energies of 2.0, 5.0, and 9.0 MeV. In addition, the analyzing power at 90(DEGREES) was measured at eleven proton bombarding energies ranging from 0.8 to 9.0 MeV. The coefficients a(,k) and b(,k) were determined from fitting Legendre and associated Legendre polynomial series, respectively, to the angular distributions. The extracted b(,1)-coefficients showed energy structure suggestive of multipole contributions from other than E1 or E2 radiations. A transition matrix element (T-matrix) analysis of the three angular distributions was performed to extract the relative E1 and E2 cross sections and their component singlet and triplet strengths. The triplet (or spin-flip) E2 strength was found to be large (albeit with large error) at 5.0 and 9.0 MeV and negligible at 2.0 MeV. The T-matrix analysis was expanded to include the possibilities of E3, M1, and M2 matrix elements. The E3 and M2 matrix elements failed to give reasonable fits to the data when they were combined with the E1 and E2 elements. Only when M1 strength was included in the T-matrix analysis could viable fits be found at all angular distribution energies. A direct-capture model calculation was performed for the ('3)H((')p,(gamma))- ('4)He reaction for proton energies up to 9.0 MeV. Good agreement was achieved with all experimental a(,k)- and b(,k)-coefficients except b(,1). The model also failed to predict the behavior of the A(90(DEGREES)) data. When M1 was added to the calculation in strengths comparable to those found in the T-matrix analysis, however, good agreement with the b(,1)-coefficient and the A(90(DEGREES)) curve resulted. It was concluded that M1 strengths of 0.5 to 1% of the total cross section are present in the ('3)H(p,(gamma))('4)He

  1. Low energy analyzing powers in pion-proton elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Cröni, M.; Bilger, R.; van den Brandt, B.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Comfort, J. R.; Denz, H.; Erhardt, A.; Föhl, K.; Friedman, E.; Gräter, J.; Hautle, P.; Hofman, G. J.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.; Pätzold, J.; Pavan, M. M.; Wagner, G. J.; von Wrochem, F.

    2004-05-01

    Analyzing powers of pion-proton elastic scattering have been measured at PSI with the Low Energy Pion Spectrometer LEPS and a novel polarized scintillator target. Angular distributions between 40 and 120 deg (c.m.) were taken at 45.2, 51.2, 57.2, 68.5, 77.2, and 87.2 MeV incoming pion kinetic energy for π+p scattering, and at 67.3 and 87.2 MeV for π-p scattering. These new measurements constitute a substantial extension of the polarization data base at low energies. Predictions from phase shift analyses are compared with the experimental results, and deviations are observed at low energies.

  2. The use of the Fermilab antiproton Accumulator in medium energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Church, M.; Harms, E.; Hsueh, S.Y.; Kells, W.; MacLachlan, J.; Marsh, W.; McCarthy, J.; Pastrone, N.; Peoples, J.

    1988-06-07

    The Fermilab antiprotron Accumulator has been modified for use in a medium energy experiment. The experiment is conducted with circulating antiproton beam of momentum between 6.7 GeV/c and 3.7 GeV/c colliding with protons from an internal gas jet. Antiprotons are accumulated at the normal momentum of 8.9 GeV/c and then decelerated to the appropriate energy. It is necessary to cool the beam continually during the time it is colliding with the gas jet. The experiment requires new provisions for the control of magnet power supplies and low level rf system and modifications of the cooling system and high level energy systems to permit variable energy operation. Transition must be crossed to decelerate the beam below 5 GeV/c; because the deceleration is very slow, transition can not be crossed in a conventional manner. This paper will describe the required changes to the Accumulator and operating experience with protons. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Calculation of energy deposition, photon and neutron production in proton therapy of thyroid gland using MCNPX.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Fornasie, Maria Rosa; de Denaro, Mario

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the MCNPX code has been used to simulate a proton therapy in thyroid gland, in order to calculate the proton energy deposition in the target region. As well as, we have calculated the photon and neutron production spectra due to proton interactions with the tissue. We have considered all the layers of tissue, from the skin to the thyroid gland, and an incident high energy pencil proton beam. The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the thyroid tissue, is from 42 to 54 MeV, assuming that the thyroid gland has a 14 mm thickness and is located 11.2mm under the skin surface. The most percentage of deposited energy (78%) is related to the 54 MeV proton energy beam. Total photon and neutron production are linear and polynomial second order functions of the proton energy, respectively.

  4. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  5. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  6. Dirac Calculations for Proton Inelastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nohy, N. A.; El-Hammamy, M. N.; Aly, N. E.; Abdel-Moneim, A. M.; Hamza, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic proton inelastic scattering from different targets (16O, 24Mg, 28Si, 40Ca, 54Fe, 58Ni, 90Zr, 154Sm, 176Yb, and 208Pb) at intermediate energies is analyzed in the framework of phenomenological optical potentials based on the Dirac formalism. Parameters of the Dirac phenomenological potential with Woods Saxon (WS) shape are obtained. The first order vibrational collective model with one phonon is used to calculate the transition optical potentials to the first low-lying excited state (2+) of the investigated target nuclei. Also, the variation of deformation length ( δ) with energy and mass number is studied. It is noticed that the deformation length increases slightly with energy at intermediate range.

  7. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  8. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  9. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  10. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hyojae Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  11. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanankos, G.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; Patterson, R.B.; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  12. Surface NMR measurement of proton relaxation times in medium to coarse-grained sand aquifer.

    PubMed

    Shushakov, O A

    1996-01-01

    A surface NMR investigation of groundwater in the geomagnetic field is under study. To detect the surface NMR a wire loop with a diameter of about 100 m, being an antenna for both an exciting field source and the NMR signal receiver, is laid out on the ground. A sinusoidal current pulse with a rectangular envelope is passed through the loop to excite the NMR signal. The carrier frequency of the oscillating current in this pulse is equal to the Larmor frequency of protons in the Earth's magnetic field. The current amplitude is changed up to 200 amps and the pulse duration is fixed and is equal to 40 ms. The exciting pulse is followed by an induction emf signal caused by the Larmor nuclear precession in geomagnetic field. The relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* were measured by the surface NMR for both groundwater in medium to coarse-grained sand at borehole and for bulk water under the ice surface of frozen lake. To determine T1, a longitudinal interference in experiments with repeated pulses was measured. A sequence with equal period between equal excitation pulses was used. The relaxation times T1, T2, measured for bulk water under the ice of the Ob reservoir were 1.0 s and 0.7 s, respectively. To estimate an influence of dissolved oxygen T1 of the same water at the same temperature was measured by lab NMR with and without pumping of oxygen. The relaxation time T1 measured for water in the medium to coarse-grained sand is 0.65 s. The relaxation time T2 estimated by spin echo sequence is found to be equal to 0.15 s. The relaxation time T2* is found to be about 80 ms. This result contradicts published earlier phenomenological correlation between relaxation time T2* and grain size of water-bearing rock. This could be as a result of unsound approach based on grain size or influence of paramagnetic impurities.

  13. Proton content and nature in perovskite ceramic membranes for medium temperature fuel cells and electrolysers.

    PubMed

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-07-25

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1-5 × 10-3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  14. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    PubMed Central

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure. PMID:24958293

  15. Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong; Shan Zhang; Hong Xueren; Wang Hongyu

    2012-08-15

    The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

  16. Excitation of phonons in medium-energy electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M. A. Vicente; Ascolani, H.; Zampieri, G.

    1996-03-01

    The ``elastic'' backscattering of electrons from crystalline surfaces presents two regimes: a low-energy regime, in which the characteristic low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern is observed, and a medium-energy regime, in which the diffraction pattern is similar to those observed in x-ray photoemission diffraction (XPD) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) experiments. We present a model for the electron scattering which, including the vibrational degrees of freedom of the crystal, contains both regimes and explains the passage from one regime to the other. Our model is based on a separation of the electron and atomic motions (adiabatic approximation) and on a cluster-type formulation of the multiple scattering of the electron. The inelastic scattering events (excitation and/or absorption of phonons) are treated as coherent processes and no break of the phase relation between the incident and the exit paths of the electron is assumed. The LEED and the medium-energy electron diffraction regimes appear naturally in this model as the limit cases of completely elastic scattering and of inelastic scattering with excitation and/or absorption of multiple phonons. Intensity patterns calculated with this model are in very good agreement with recent experiments of electron scattering on Cu(001) at low and medium energies. We show that there is a correspondence between the type of intensity pattern and the mean number of phonons excited and/or absorbed during the scattering: a LEED-like pattern is observed when this mean number is less than 2, LEED-like and XPD/AED-like features coexist when this number is 3-4, and a XPD/AED-like pattern is observed when this number is greater than 5-6.

  17. Medium effects in proton-induced K0 production at 3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Gaitanos, T.; Weil, J.; Hades Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the analysis of the inclusive K0 production in p +p and p +Nb collisions measured with the HADES detector (GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt) at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV. Data are compared to the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model. The data suggest the presence of a repulsive momentum-dependent kaon potential as predicted by the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). For the kaon at rest and at normal nuclear density, the ChPT potential amounts to ≈35 MeV. A detailed tuning of the kaon production cross sections implemented in the model has been carried out to reproduce the experimental data measured in p +p collisions. The uncertainties in the parameters of the model were examined with respect to the sensitivity of the experimental results from p +Nb collisions to the in-medium kaon potential.

  18. Si film separation obtained by high energy proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, C.; Mazen, F.; Papon, A.-M.; Rieutord, F.; Charvet, A.-M.; Ntsoenzok, E.

    2012-11-06

    High energy protons implantation in the 1-1.5 MeV range can be used to detach free-standing thin silicon films with thickness between 15 and 30 {mu}m. Recently, we showed that Si orientation has a strong effect on the layer separation threshold fluence and efficiency. While complete delamination of (111)Si films is achieved, (100)Si films separation is more challenging due to blistering phenomena or partial separation of the implanted layer. In this work, we study the fracture mechanism in (100) and (111)Si after high energy implantation in order to understand the origin of such a behavior. We notably point out that fracture precursor defects, i.e. the platelets, preferentially form on (111) planes, as a consequence of the low strain level in the damaged region in our implantation conditions. Fracture therefore propagates easily in (111)Si, while it requires higher fluence to overcome unfavorable precursors orientation and propagate in (100)Si.

  19. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gašparić, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Stephenson, E. J.; Sworst, R.

    2008-07-01

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the 2H(p→,d)p and 1H(d→,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  20. Phospholipids and glycolipids mediate proton containment and circulation along the surface of energy-transducing membranes.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L; Valentine, Raymond C

    2016-10-01

    Proton bioenergetics provides the energy for growth and survival of most organisms in the biosphere ranging from unicellular marine phytoplankton to humans. Chloroplasts harvest light and generate a proton electrochemical gradient (proton motive force) that drives the production of ATP needed for carbon dioxide fixation and plant growth. Mitochondria, bacteria and archaea generate proton motive force to energize growth and other physiologies. Energy transducing membranes are at the heart of proton bioenergetics and are responsible for catalyzing the conversion of energy held in high-energy electrons→electron transport chain→proton motive force→ATP. Whereas the electron transport chain is understood in great detail there are major gaps in understanding mechanisms of proton transfer or circulation during proton bioenergetics. This paper is built on the proposition that phospho- and glyco-glycerolipids form proton transport circuitry at the membrane's surface. By this proposition, an emergent membrane property, termed the hyducton, confines active/unbound protons or hydronium ions to a region of low volume close to the membrane surface. In turn, a von Grotthuß mechanism rapidly moves proton substrate in accordance with nano-electrochemical poles on the membrane surface created by powerful proton pumps such as ATP synthase.

  1. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Developing a Phenomenological Model of the Proton Trajectory Within a Heterogeneous Medium Required for Proton Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, CA; Doolan, P; Dias, M; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline trajectory (CST) estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Methods: Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various slabs (5–30 cm WET) of different material (LN300, water and CB2–50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (150–330MeV). For each MC trajectory, CST was constructed based on the proton entrance and exit information and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length. Then, a factor Λ is introduced to modify |P0,1|. The factor is varied to minimize the RMS with MC paths for every configuration. Finally, a set of Λopt factors that minimizes the RMS is presented. These are dependent on the ratio between WET and water equivalent path length (WEPL). The resolution along the path is investigated with a set of slabs. MTF analysis is performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories (Λopt and Λ1). Results: Λopt was fitted to the ratio of WET/WEPL using a power function (Y=1-AXB where A=0.36, B=4.07). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC path, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ1 than Λopt (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL=0.86). For 230(330) MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40%(6%) respectively for a thick phantom (30cm) and by 25%(1%) for thinner phantom (25cm) when using the Λopt model compared to the Λ1 model. Conclusion: Based on these results, using CST with the Λopt factor reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton trajectories.

  2. The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K.; Babusci, D.

    1997-12-31

    The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements.

  3. Optimized treatment planning using intensity and energy modulated proton and very-high energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeboah, Collins

    2002-09-01

    Intensity and energy modulated radiotherapy dose planning with protons and very-high energy (50--250 MeV) electron beams has been investigated. A general-purpose inverse treatment planning (ITP) system that can be applied to any combination of proton, electron and photon radiation modalities in therapy has been developed. The new ITP program uses a very fast proton dose calculation engine and employs one of the most efficient optimization algorithms currently available. First, the ITP program was employed to investigate intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) dose optimization for prostate cancer. The second application was to evaluate the potential of intensity-modulated very-high energy electron therapy (VHEET) for dose conformation. For an active proton beam delivery system the required energy resolution to reasonably implement energy modulation was found to be a function of the incident beams' energy spread and became coarser with increasing energy spread. For passive proton beam delivery systems the selection of the required depth resolution for inverse planning may not be critical as long as the depth resolution chosen is at least equal to FWHM/2 of the primary beam Bragg peak. In the study of the number of beam ports selected for IMPT treatment of the prostate, it was found that a maximum of three to four beams is required. Using proton beams for inverse planning of the prostate instead of photon beams gave the same or better target coverage while reducing the sensitive structure dose and normal tissue integral dose by up to 30% and 28% of the prescribed target dose, respectively. In evaluating the potential of VHEET beams for dose conformation, it was found that electron energies greater than 100 MeV are preferable for VHEET treatment of the prostate and that implementation of energy modulation in addition to intensity modulation has only a modest effect on the final dose distribution. VHEET treatment employing approximately nine beams was sufficient to

  4. Intermediate Energy Proton Nucleus Scattering from CALCIUM-40, ZIRCONIUM-90 and LEAD-208.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lawrence

    In recent years, there has been much interest in studying proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate bombarding energies. We focus on two main themes in this thesis. Firstly, we examine the importance of measuring scattering observables out to high momentum transfers where they become sensitive to the matter distribution in the interior of the nucleus. Here, we find that nuclear medium and exchange effects are needed, especially at lower proton kinetic energies (~ 200 MeV). Secondly, we focus on the remarkable and systematic agreement between experimental data and theory when a consistent microscopic approach is used. As part of our study, we have made high momentum transfer measurements at TRIUMF for proton elastic and inelastic scattering from ^{40} Ca, ^{90}Zr and ^{208}Pb. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers are presented for proton kinetic energies of 200, 362 and 400 MeV out to a maximum momentum transfer of q~ 4.8 fm^{-1}, well above the typical limit of ~2.5 fm ^{-1}. Our elastic data are analyzed with a nonrelativistic microscopic optical model based on the Hamburg density -dependent two-body interaction (Ge83a) and on the Decharge and Gogny (De87) theoretical ground states, and involve no adjustable parameters. The calculations show surprisingly good agreement with data as it follows the cross section through typically 9 orders of magnitude and reproduces the oscillations in the analyzing power out to high q for a number of target nuclei and at various bombarding energies. The success of the elastic calculations also suggests that the theoretical model(s) are sufficiently well understood that nuclear structure problems can now be investigated. We study this aspect mainly through the low-lying natural -parity 3^- and 5^ - transitions. The inelastic data are analyzed with distorted-wave Born approximation calculations using the same nonrelativistic density-dependent interaction to drive the transition, the same optical model potential to distort

  5. Analysis of medium-energy transfers to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Kenta; Topputo, Francesco; Campagnola, Stefano; Yanao, Tomohiro

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzes a recently discovered class of exterior transfers to the Moon. These transfers terminate in retrograde ballistic capture orbits, i.e., orbits with negative Keplerian energy and angular momentum with respect to the Moon. Yet, their Jacobi constant is relatively low, for which no forbidden regions exist, and the trajectories do not appear to mimic the dynamics of the invariant manifolds of the Lagrange points. This paper shows that these orbits shadow instead lunar collision orbits. We investigate the dynamics of singular, lunar collision orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted three-body problem, and reveal their rich phase space structure in the medium-energy regime, where invariant manifolds of the Lagrange point orbits break up. We show that lunar retrograde ballistic capture trajectories lie inside the tube structure of collision orbits. We also develop a method to compute medium-energy transfers by patching together orbits inside the collision tube and those whose apogees are located in the appropriate quadrant in the Sun-Earth system. The method yields the novel family of transfers as well as those ending in direct capture orbits, under particular energetic and geometrical conditions.

  6. Analysis of medium-energy transfers to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Kenta; Topputo, Francesco; Campagnola, Stefano; Yanao, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes a recently discovered class of exterior transfers to the Moon. These transfers terminate in retrograde ballistic capture orbits, i.e., orbits with negative Keplerian energy and angular momentum with respect to the Moon. Yet, their Jacobi constant is relatively low, for which no forbidden regions exist, and the trajectories do not appear to mimic the dynamics of the invariant manifolds of the Lagrange points. This paper shows that these orbits shadow instead lunar collision orbits. We investigate the dynamics of singular, lunar collision orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted three-body problem, and reveal their rich phase space structure in the medium-energy regime, where invariant manifolds of the Lagrange point orbits break up. We show that lunar retrograde ballistic capture trajectories lie inside the tube structure of collision orbits. We also develop a method to compute medium-energy transfers by patching together orbits inside the collision tube and those whose apogees are located in the appropriate quadrant in the Sun-Earth system. The method yields the novel family of transfers as well as those ending in direct capture orbits, under particular energetic and geometrical conditions.

  7. Hard photon and energetic proton emission in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Le Faou, J. H.; Suomijarvi, T.; Frascaria, N.; Roynette, J. C.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Peghaire, A.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1998-02-01

    The emission of hard photons and pre-equilibrium protons has been investigated in exclusive clusive experiments performed with MEDEA detector. The observation of the γ-proton anticorrelation indicate that the dominant production mechanism is the first chance neutron-proton collisions. Very energetic protons, with energy more than twice the kinematical limit for nucleon-nucleon collisions, have been observed in several reactions.

  8. Measurement of the OXYGEN-17(PROTON, Alpha Particle) Nitrogen -14 Cross Section at Stellar Energies (proton Energies, Resonant Reaction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Jeffery Curtis

    The isotopic abundance ratio 16O/17O has been shown to be a good probe of mass flow and mixing in stars. This ratio is sensitive to the depth of convective mixing which occurs on the giant branch and to the amount of nonconvective mixing occurring on the main sequence. The interpretation of recent observations of this ratio in red giants is limited by a large uncertainty in the value of the 17O(p, alpha)14N reaction rate. This reaction rate is dominated at stellar energies by a resonance at E_{rm x} = 5673 keV in the compound nucleus 18 F, whose strength was previously uncertain. We have carried out a measurement of the ^ {17}O(p,alpha)^{14 }N cross section at proton energies of 75 keV and 65 keV. Thick, high-purity rm Ta_2O _5 targets enriched to 77% ^ {17}O were used in conjunction with beam currents of 0.45 mA and large-solid-angle detectors. The background for the experiment was measured using targets of natural isotopic composition. The resonance peak was observed in the data collected at 75 keV, and we determined the proton width of the 5673 keV state to be 22 +/- 4 neV. This implies a rate for the 17O(p,alpha)^ {14}N reaction that is ten times greater than the typical rates used previously in stellar models.

  9. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  10. Analytical model of ionization and energy deposition by proton beams in subcellular compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-04-01

    We present an analytical model to evaluate in a fast, simple and effective manner the energy delivered by proton beams moving through a cell model made of nucleus and cytoplasm, taking into account the energy carried by the secondary electrons generated along the proton tracks. The electronic excitation spectra of these subcellular compartments have been modelled by means of an empirical parameterization of their dielectric properties. The energy loss rate and target ionization probability induced by swift protons are evaluated by means of the dielectric formalism. With the present model we have quantified the energy delivered, the specific energy, and the number of ionizations produced per incoming ion in a typical human cell by a typical hadrontherapy proton beam having energies usually reached around the Bragg peak (below 20 MeV). We find that the specific energy per incoming ion delivered in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm are rather similar for all the proton energy range analyzed.

  11. Proton-air collisions in a model of soft interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.; Maor, U.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate both the Pomeron interactions and the inelastic Gribov corrections to the Glauber-Gribov formula, which is used to extract proton-proton cross sections from proton-air collisions at high energies. We demonstrate that these corrections are compatible with the errors for proton-air cross sections measured at ultrahigh energies in cosmic ray experiments. We present the results of a calculation of these cross sections based on our model for the soft interactions at high energies, which provides a good description of available accelerator data, including that for LHC energies.

  12. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  13. Medium-energy electron diffraction from Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Park, Ken T.

    1992-07-01

    We have investigated the polar-angle dependence of medium-energy electron diffraction (MEED) from a Cu(100) surface. It is observed that MEED is characterized by a combination of coherent and incoherent scattering, and the incoherent part is governed by the forward-scattering mechanism. The incoherent MEED pattern differs from that of x-ray photoelectron diffraction and Auger electron diffraction because of the angular distribution of the initial electron scattering. The asymmetry between the incident-beam and exit-beam diffraction is also observed and discussed.

  14. Medium energy gamma ray astronomy with transpacific balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, A. D.; Jennings, M. C.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1981-01-01

    Transpacific balloon flights with the University of California, Riverside (UCR) double scatter telescope are discussed. With flight durations from 5 days up to perhaps 15 days the long observation times necessary for medium energy (1-30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy can be obtained. These flights would be made under the auspices of the Joint U.S.-Japan Balloon Flight Program at NASA. It is proposed that flights can provide at least 30 hours of observation time per flight for many discrete source candidates and 120 hours for detecting low intensity cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  15. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Metzkes, J.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Karsch, L.

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  16. Proton Acceleration: New Developments in Energy Increase, Focusing and Energy Selection

    SciTech Connect

    D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Fuchs, Julien; Antici, Patrizio; Audebert, Patrick; Brambrink, Erik; Romagnani, Lorenzo; Borghesi, Marco; Cecchetti, Carlo Alberto; Kaluza, Malte; Schreiber, Joerg; Lefebvre, Erik; Malka, Victor; Manclossi, Mauro; Meyroneinc, Samuel; Mora, Patrick; Pepin, Henri; Pipahl, Ariane; Toncian, Toma; Willi, Oswald; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2006-11-27

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications. These sources have exceptional properties, i.e. high brightness and high spectral cut-oft high directionality and laminarity, short burst duration. These proton sources open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control, and could stimulate development of compact ion accelerators for many applications. We have studied the variations of the proton acceleration characteristic time with target and laser parameters. We used these variations to correct one of the model recently developed to predict maximum energies of laser-accelerated protons for low energy, short duration laser pulses. We have also developed an ultra-fast laser-triggered micro-lens that allows tunable control of the beam divergence as well as energy selection, therefore solving two of the major problems that these proton beams were facing. We used PIC simulations to explain the focusing and energy selection mechanisms, and to study the symmetry of the expanding plasma inside the cylinder.

  17. Enhancement of the maximum proton energy by funnel-geometry target in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Fan, Dapeng; Li, Yuxiao

    2016-09-01

    Enhancement of the maximum proton energy using a funnel-geometry target is demonstrated through particle simulations of laser-plasma interactions. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminate a thin foil target, the foil electrons are pushed by the laser ponderomotive force, and then form an electron cloud at the target rear surface. The electron cloud generates a strong electrostatic field, which accelerates the protons to high energies. If there is a hole in the rear of target, the shape of the electron cloud and the distribution of the protons will be affected by the protuberant part of the hole. In this paper, a funnel-geometry target is proposed to improve the maximum proton energy. Using particle-in-cell 2-dimensional simulations, the transverse electric field generated by the side wall of four different holes are calculated, and protons inside holes are restricted to specific shapes by these field. In the funnel-geometry target, more protons are restricted near the center of the longitudinal accelerating electric field, thus protons experiencing longer accelerating time and distance in the sheath field compared with that in a traditional cylinder hole target. Accordingly, more and higher energy protons are produced from the funnel-geometry target. The maximum proton energy is improved by about 4 MeV compared with a traditional cylinder-shaped hole target. The funnel-geometry target serves as a new method to improve the maximum proton energy in laser-plasma interactions.

  18. Modeling secondary particle tracks generated by intermediate- and low-energy protons in water with the Low-Energy Particle Track Simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; Traore, Ali; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Using a recent extension of the Low-Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) Monte Carlo code, we model the slowing-down of heavy charged particles propagating in water, combined with an explicit molecular-level description of radiation effects due to the formation of secondary electrons, their propagation through the medium, and electron-induced molecular dissociations. As a case study, we consider the transport of protons with the initial energy of 1 MeV until their thermalization, so that we cover the energy range that contributes mainly to the energy deposition in the Bragg peak region. In order to include protons into the simulation procedure, a comprehensive dataset of integral and differential cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering of intermediate- and low-energy protons from water molecules is created. Experimental and theoretical cross sections available in the literature are carefully examined, compared and verified. The ionization cross section by protons includes recent experimental measurements of the production of different charged fragments.

  19. Fundamentals of charged devices: Energy changes in a capacitor medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. S.; Baudry, L.

    2013-03-01

    Capacitors and derivative devices continue to be as relevant as ever, both at the frontiers of scientific and technological research and in the development of commercial products. Central to such pursuits is the essential requirement that all aspects of the work done in charging or discharging capacitors are clearly understood. Surprisingly, there is a very significant disagreement among standard texts and journal publications regarding this topic. The present work elaborates a thorough analysis of energy changes in a capacitor medium in terms of thermodynamic work and its extension to the more general, electrostatic energy change. Our conclusions agree, for example, with those of Volker Heine, but not with texts by Pippard or Callen. We also note that electric and magnetic analogues are not equivalent.

  20. The EXOSAT medium-energy slew survey catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Parmar, A. N.; Hakala, P. J.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Williams, O. R.; Peacock, A.; Taylor, B. G.

    1999-01-01

    We present a catalog of X-ray sources observed during slew maneuvers by the Medium Energy Detector Array onboard the EXOSAT Observatory. The EXOSAT Medium Energy slew-survey catalog (EXMS) provides a unique record of the 1-8 keV X-ray sky between 1983 and 1986. 98% of the sky was observed, with 85% receiving an exposure of >60 s. 1210 sources were detected. By comparing these source positions with other catalogs, identifications are given for 992 detections (82% of the sample). These identifications consist of 250 distinct objects, including 95 different X-ray binary systems, and 14 different AGN. A further 58 detections have multiple candidates, while 160 detections remain unidentified. Collimator transmission corrected 1-8 keV count rates are given for the identified sources, together with raw count rates for the other detections. The construction of the EXMS and the checks performed to ensure the validity of the derived source properties are discussed. A publically available version of this catalog is maintained on the EXOSAT database and archive system (telnet://xray@exosat.estec.esa.nl). Tables 3, 4 and 5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Quantifying Low Energy Proton Damage in Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Warner, Jeffrey H.; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Lorentzen, Justin R.; Morton, Thomas L.; Taylor, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of low energy proton irradiation on the electrical performance of triple junction (3J) InGaP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells is presented. The Monte Carlo ion transport code (SRIM) is used to simulate the damage profile induced in a 3J solar cell under the conditions of typical ground testing and that of the space environment. The results are used to present a quantitative analysis of the defect, and hence damage, distribution induced in the cell active region by the different radiation conditions. The modelling results show that, in the space environment, the solar cell will experience a uniform damage distribution through the active region of the cell. Through an application of the displacement damage dose analysis methodology, the implications of this result on mission performance predictions are investigated.

  2. Quantifying Low Energy Proton Damage in Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, S. R.; Burke, E. A.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Walters, R. J.; Warner, J. H.; Summers, G. P.; Taylor, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    An analysis of the effects of low energy proton irradiation on the electrical performance of triple junction (3J) InGaP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells is presented. Monte Carlo modelling (SRIM) is used to simulate the damage profile induced in a 3J solar cell under the conditions of typical ground testing and that of the space environment. The results are used to present a quantitative analysis of the defect, and hence damage, distribution induced in the cell active region by the different radiation conditions. The modelling results show that in the space environment the solar cell will experience a uniform damage distribution. Through an application of the displacement damage dose analysis methodology, the implications of this result on mission performance predictions are investigated.

  3. NN inversion potentials intermediate energy proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Love, W.G.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1995-10-01

    Recently developed nucleon-nucleon interactions using the quantum inverse scattering method shed new fight on the off-shell properties of the internucleon effective force for nucleon-nucleus scattering. Calculations of proton elastic scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the 500 MeV region show that variations in off-shell contributions are determined to a great extent by the accuracy with which the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are reproduced. The study is based on the full-folding approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential which allows a deep understanding of the interplay between on- and off-shell effects in nucleon scattering. Results and the promising extension offered by the inversion potentials beyond the range of validity of the low-energy internucleon forces will be discussed.

  4. Self-energy shift of the energy levels of atomic hydrogen in photonic crystal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, R. Kh; Khamadeev, M. A.; Steryakov, O. V.; Ziyatdinova, K. A.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2016-05-01

    Corrections to the average kinetic energy of atomic electrons caused by the change in electron mass in the photonic crystal medium are investigated. Corresponding shift of energy levels of atoms placed in a photonic crystal is shown to be of order of the ordinary Lamb shift.

  5. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton Multiplicity Distributions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report the beam energy (√sNN =7.7-200 GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au +Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamic phase diagram. The products of the moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model.

  6. Note: Proton microbeam formation with continuously variable kinetic energy using a compact system for three-dimensional proton beam writing

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, T. Ishii, Y.

    2015-03-15

    A compact focused gaseous ion beam system has been developed to form proton microbeams of a few hundreds of keV with a penetration depth of micrometer range in 3-dimensional proton beam writing. Proton microbeams with kinetic energies of 100-140 keV were experimentally formed on the same point at a constant ratio of the kinetic energy of the object side to that of the image side. The experimental results indicate that the beam diameters were measured to be almost constant at approximately 6 μm at the same point with the kinetic energy range. These characteristics of the system were experimentally and numerically demonstrated to be maintained as long as the ratio was constant.

  7. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    DOE PAGES

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; ...

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allowsmore » imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.« less

  8. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  9. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, Phillipp M.; LaTessa, Ciara; Shestov, Less; Simoniello, P.; Danly, Christopher R.; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Merrill, Frank Edward; Nedrow, Paul; Wilde, Carl Huerstel; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  10. Structures and spectroscopy of medium size protonated ammonia clusters at different temperatures, H+(NH3)10-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloum, Alhadji; Fifen, Jean Jules; Dhaouadi, Zoubeida; Nana Engo, Serge Guy; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine

    2017-01-01

    Structures of protonated ammonia clusters ( H + ( NH3 ) n ) are very important for the determination of pKa's and solvation energies of the proton in ammonia. In this work, their structures were investigated at M06-2X/6-31++g(d,p) level of theory, for n = 10 - 16 and for temperatures ranging from 0 to 400 K. In the cluster community, this is the first theoretical study on the protonated ammonia clusters larger than the nonamer. We noted that the population of the investigated clusters is reproduced by branched cage or cage like structures at low temperatures, while branched linear and branched cyclic or branched double cyclic isomers are the only isomers responsible for the population at higher temperatures. In these isomers, the proton is highly and entirely solvated at the center of the cluster. In addition, protonated ammonia clusters are all Eigen structures and the first solvation shell of the related ammonium ion core is saturated by four ammonia molecules. Moreover, infrared (IR) spectra of all isomers have been investigated and these spectra show good agreement with the experiment. This allowed us to assign experimental peaks and to provide the constitution of the populations of the various clusters.

  11. Measuring proton energies and fluxes using EIT (SOHO) CCD areas outside the solar disk images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; Jones, A. R.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Gurman, J. B.

    2006-05-01

    An indirect proton flux measuring tool based on discrimination of the energy deposited by protons in 128×128 pixel EIT CCD areas outside the solar disk images is presented. Single pixel intensity events are converted into proton incident energy flux using modeled energy deposition curves for angles of incidence ± 60° in four EIT spatial areas with different proton stopping power. The extracted proton flux is corrected for both the loss of one-pixel events in the range of angles of incidence as well as for the contribution to the single pixel events resulting from scattered middle-energy protons (low-energy or high-energy particles are stopped by the EIT components or pass through them, accordingly). A simple geometrical approach was found and applied to correct for a non-unique relation between the proton-associated CCD output signal and the incident proton energy. With this geometrical approximation four unique proton incident energy ranges were determined as 45-49, 145-154, 297-335, and 390-440 MeV. The indirect proton flux measuring tool has been tested by comparing Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) flux temporal profiles extracted from the EIT CCD frames and downloaded from the GOES database for the Bastille Day (BD) of 2000 July 14 and the more recent 2005 January 20 events. The SEP flux temporal profiles and proton spectra extracted from the EIT in the relatively narrow energy ranges between 45 and 440 MeV reported here are consistent with the related GOES profiles. The four additional EIT extracted ranges provide higher energy resolution of the SEP data.

  12. High-energy proton emission and Fermi motion in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Liu, X.; Wada, R.; Huang, M.; Ren, P.; Tian, G.; Luo, F.; Sun, Q.; Chen, Z.; Xiao, G. Q.; Han, R.; Shi, F.; Liu, J.; Gou, B.

    2016-12-01

    An antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model (AMD-FM), modified to take into account the Fermi motion explicitly in its nucleon-nucleon collision process, is presented. Calculated high-energy proton spectra are compared with those of 40Ar+51V at 44 MeV/nucleon from Coniglione et al. [Phys. Lett. B 471, 339 (2000), 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01383-0] and those of 36Ar+181Ta at 94 MeV/nucleon from Germain et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 620, 81 (1997), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00146-2]. Both of the experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the newly added Fermi boost in the nucleon-nucleon collision process without additional processes, such as a three-body collision or a short-range correlation. The production mechanism of high-energy protons in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  13. {phi}-meson production and the in-medium {phi}-width in proton-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Polyanskiy, A.; Schadet, H.; Wilkin, C.

    2010-12-28

    The production of {phi}-mesons in collisions of 2.83 GeV protons with C, Cu, Al, and Au targets has been measured with the ANKE magnetic spectrometer at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The {phi}-mesons were detected at small angles via their K{sup +}K{sup -} decay. The measured target mass dependence of the production cross section can be related to the in-medium {phi} width. First comparisons with model calculations suggest a significant broadening of the {phi}-width relative to its vacuum value of 4.3 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Dosimetry of low energy proton beams for use in spacecraft parts testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters tes (TLD) were used to measure proton fluences consisting of 5MeV or lower energies. The results were at variance with the corresponding gamma measurements. The results of experiments on low energy proton dosimetry using LiF-in-teflon microrods (TLD-700 or LiF-7), are presented.

  15. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  16. Phoswich scintillator for proton and gamma radiation of high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tengblad, O.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Cruz, C.; Gugliermina, V.; Nacher, E.; Perea, A.; Sanchez del Rio, J.; Nieves, M. Turrion; Nilsson, T.; Johansson, H. T.; Bergstroem, J.; Blomberg, E.; Buelling, A.; Gallneby, E.; Hagdahl, J.; Jansson, L.; Jareteg, K.; Masgren, R.; and others

    2011-11-30

    We present here a Phoswich scintillator design to achieve both high resolution gamma ray detection, and good efficiency for high energy protons. There are recent developments of new high resolution scintillator materials. Especially the LaBr3(Ce) and LaCl3(Ce) crystals have very good energy resolution in the order of 3% for 662 keV gamma radiation. In addition, these materials exhibit a very good light output (63 and 32 photons/keV respectively).A demonstrator detector in the form of an Al cylinder of 24 mm diameter and a total length of 80 mm with 2 mm wall thickness, containing a LaBr3(Ce) crystal of 20 mm diameter and 30 mm length directly coupled to a LaCl3(Ce) crystal of 50 mm length, and closed with a glass window of 5 mm, was delivered by Saint Gobain. To the glass window a Hamamatsu R5380 Photomultiplier tube (PMT) was coupled using silicon optical grease.

  17. Low energy proton induced single event upset in 65 nm DDR and QDR commercial SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, T. Q.; Maaz, K.; Luo, J.; Wang, B.; Yin, Y. N.; Ji, Q. G.; Sun, Y. M.; Hou, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of 65 nm commercial double data rate static random access memory (SRAM) and quad data rate SRAM was investigated by using proton beams with energies in the range of 0.15 MeV to 8.0 MeV. Experimental results show that a significant number of SEU occurrences can be triggered when the energy of incident proton is below 1 MeV. For the low energy protons, the SEU cross section measured in these SRAMs was found to increase with increasing proton energy, attaining a peak value, and then decreases as the proton energy was further increased. While in case of quad data rate SRAMs, it seems that they are more sensitive to SEU occurrences as compared with double data rate SRAMs. The bias voltage and data pattern dependence on SEU cross section induced by the low energy protons were also investigated in this work. In addition, the over-layer thickness of the SRAMs and the impact of degrader use in proton induced SEU test were also analyzed in detail. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate that the use of degrader in case of low energy proton induced SEU test results in a significant reduction of the SEU cross section.

  18. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  19. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  20. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  1. Low-energy particle events associated with sector boundaries. [solar proton enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Z.; Fritzova-Svestkova, L.; Nolte, J. T.; Dodson-Prince, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Onsets of some 40 to 45 low-energy proton events during the years 1957-1969 coincided in time with transits of well-defined sector boundaries across the earth. These events can be interpreted as long-lived proton streams filling up some of the magnetic sectors, indicating an acceleration of protons which is not associated with typical proton-producing flares. The sharp onsets of these particle streams, as well as a deficiency of flare-associated particle events shortly before the boundary transit, indicate that in some cases magnetic sector boundaries can inhibit transverse propagation of low-energy particles in the solar corona or in interplanetary space.

  2. In-medium nuclear interactions of low-energy hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2007-11-01

    Exotic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying strong interactions and nuclear medium effects at zero kinetic energy. Experimental and theoretical developments of the last decade in the study of exotic atoms and some related low-energy reactions are reviewed. The exotic atoms considered are of π-,K-,pbar,Σ-, and also the so far unobserved Ξ- atoms. The analysis of these atomic systems consists of fitting density-dependent optical potentials Vopt=t(ρ)ρ to comprehensive sets of data of strong-interaction level shifts, widths and yields across the periodic table. These provide information on the in-medium hadron-nucleon t matrix t(ρ) over a wide range of densities up to central nuclear densities. For pions, the review focuses on the extraction of the πN in-medium s-wave interaction from pionic atoms, which include also the deeply bound π- atomic states recently observed at GSI in isotopes of Sn and Pb. Also included are recent measurements at PSI of elastic scattering of π± on Si, Ca, Ni and Zr at 21.5 MeV. The experimental results are analyzed in the context of chirally motivated π-nuclear potentials, and the evidence for partial restoration of chiral symmetry in dense nuclear matter is critically discussed. For antikaons, we review the evidence from K- atoms, and also from low-energy K-p scattering and reaction data for and against a deepKbar-nucleus potential of 150-200 MeV attraction at nuclear matter density. The case for relatively narrow deeply bound K-atomic states is made, essentially independent of the potential-depth issue. Recent experimental suggestions from KEK and DA ΦNE (Frascati) for signals of Kbar-nuclear deeply bound states are reviewed, and dynamical models for calculating binding energies and widths of Kbar- nuclear states are discussed. For kaons we review the evidence, from K+ total and reaction cross section measurements at the AGS (BNL) on Li, C, Si and Ca at plab=500-700 MeV/c, for significant absorptivity of t

  3. Energy and momentum deposited into a QCD medium by a jet shower.

    PubMed

    Qin, G-Y; Majumder, A; Song, H; Heinz, U

    2009-10-09

    For a hard parton moving through a dense QCD medium, we compute self-consistently the energy loss and the fraction deposited into the medium due to showering and rescattering of the shower, assuming weak coupling between probe and medium. The same transport coefficients thus determine both the energy loss and its deposition into the medium. This allows a parameter free calculation of the latter once the former are computed or measured. We compute them for a weakly interacting medium. Assuming a short thermalization time for the deposited energy, we determine the medium's hydrodynamical response and obtain a conical pattern that is strongly enhanced by showering.

  4. A Bayesian approach to solve proton stopping powers from noisy multi-energy CT data.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Arthur; Bär, Esther; Bouchard, Hugo

    2017-10-01

    To propose a new formalism allowing the characterization of human tissues from multienergy computed tomography (MECT) data affected by noise and to evaluate its performance in estimating proton stopping powers (SPR). A recently published formalism based on principal component analysis called eigentissue decomposition (ETD) is adapted to the context of noise using a Bayesian estimator. The method, named Bayesian ETD, uses the maximum a posteriori fractions of eigentissues in each voxel to determine physical parameters relevant for proton beam dose calculation. Simulated dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) data are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method to estimate SPR and to compare it to the initially proposed maximum-likelihood ETD and to a state-of-the-art ρe  - Z formalism. To test the robustness of each method towards clinical reality, three different levels of noise are implemented, as well as variations in elemental composition and density of reference tissues. The impact of using more than two energy bins to determine SPR is also investigated by simulating MECT data using two to five energy bins. Finally, the impact of using MECT over DECT for range prediction is evaluated using a probabilistic model. For simulated DECT data of reference tissues, the Bayesian ETD approach systematically gives lower root-mean-square (RMS) errors with negligible bias. For a medium level of noise, the RMS errors on SPR are found to be 2.78%, 2.76% and 1.53% for ρe  - Z, maximum-likelihood ETD, and Bayesian ETD, respectively. When variations are introduced to the elemental composition and density, all implemented methods give similar performances at low noise. However, for a medium noise level, the proposed Bayesian method outperforms the two others with a RMS error of 1.94%, compared to 2.79% and 2.78% for ρe  - Z and maximum-likelihood ETD, respectively. When more than two energy spectra are used, the Bayesian ETD is able to reduce RMS error on SPR

  5. A FOUR-FLUID MHD MODEL OF THE SOLAR WIND/INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INTERACTION WITH TURBULENCE TRANSPORT AND PICKUP PROTONS AS SEPARATE FLUID

    SciTech Connect

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2016-03-20

    We have developed a four-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The unique features of the model are: (a) a three-fluid description for the charged components of the solar wind and interstellar plasmas (thermal protons, electrons, and pickup protons), (b) the built-in turbulence transport equations based on Reynolds decomposition and coupled with the mean-flow Reynolds-averaged equations, and (c) a solar corona/solar wind model that supplies inner boundary conditions at 40 au by computing solar wind and magnetic field parameters outward from the coronal base. The three charged species are described by separate energy equations and are assumed to move with the same velocity. The fourth fluid in the model is the interstellar hydrogen which is treated by separate continuity, momentum, and energy equations and is coupled with the charged components through photoionization and charge exchange. We evaluate the effects of turbulence transport and pickup protons on the global heliospheric structure and compute the distribution of plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence parameters throughout the heliosphere for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions. We compare our results with Voyager 1 observations in the outer heliosheath and show that the relative amplitude of magnetic fluctuations just outside the heliopause is in close agreement with the value inferred from Voyager 1 measurements by Burlaga et al. The simulated profiles of magnetic field parameters in the outer heliosheath are in qualitative agreement with the Voyager 1 observations and with the analytical model of magnetic field draping around the heliopause of Isenberg et al.

  6. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Ray, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    This document constitutes the (1988--1991) technical progress report for the ongoing medium energy physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics;(2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  7. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  8. Jet energy resolution in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] recorded in 2010 with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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    The measurement of the jet energy resolution is presented using data recorded with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text]. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb(-1). Jets are reconstructed from energy deposits measured by the calorimeters and calibrated using different jet calibration schemes. The jet energy resolution is measured with two different in situ methods which are found to be in agreement within uncertainties. The total uncertainties on these measurements range from 20 % to 10 % for jets within |y|<2.8 and with transverse momenta increasing from 30 GeV to 500 GeV. Overall, the Monte Carlo simulation of the jet energy resolution agrees with the data within 10 %.

  9. Electrostatic analyzer design for solar wind proton measurements with high temporal, energy, and angular resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Antoine; Lavraud, Benoit; Fedorov, Andrei; De Keyser, Johan; DeMarco, Rossana; Marcucci, M. Federica; Valentini, Francesco; Servidio, Sergio; Bruno, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present the design study of an electrostatic analyzer that permits combined high temporal, energy, and angular resolution measurements of solar wind ions. The requirements for high temporal, energy, and angular resolutions, combined with the need for sufficient counting statistics, lead to an electrostatic analyzer with large radius (140 mm) and large geometric factor. The resulting high count rates require the use of channel electron multipliers (CEMs), instead of microchannel plates, to avoid saturation. The large radius further permits the placement of 32 CEM detectors at the analyzer focal plane, thereby providing very high angular resolution in azimuth (1.5°). Electrostatic simulations were performed to define the analyzer geometric factor, energy resolution, analyzer constant (K), elevation response, etc. Simulations were also performed to define the geometry of the deflectors and collimator that are used to provide the proper energy resolution, field of view, and angular resolution (1.5°) in elevation as well (the total field of view of the design is ±24° × ±24°). We show how this design permits unprecedented measurements of the fine structure of the solar wind proton beam and other important features such as temperature anisotropy. This design is used for the Cold Solar Wind instrument of the medium-class Turbulent Heating ObserveR mission, currently in phase A at the European Space Agency. These unprecedented measurement capabilities are in accordance with and even beyond the requirements of the mission.

  10. Jet energy measurement and its systematic uncertainty in proton-proton collisions at TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. 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E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector using proton-proton collision data with a centre-of-mass energy of TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of . Jets are reconstructed from energy deposits forming topological clusters of calorimeter cells using the anti- algorithm with distance parameters or , and are calibrated using MC simulations. A residual JES correction is applied to account for differences between data and MC simulations. This correction and its systematic uncertainty are estimated using a combination of in situ techniques exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a jet and a reference object such as a photon or a boson, for and pseudorapidities . The effect of multiple proton-proton interactions is corrected for, and an uncertainty is evaluated using in situ techniques. The smallest JES uncertainty of less than 1 % is found in the central calorimeter region () for jets with . For central jets at lower , the uncertainty is about 3 %. A consistent JES estimate is found using measurements of the calorimeter response of single hadrons in proton-proton collisions and test-beam data, which also provide the estimate for TeV. The calibration of forward jets is derived from dijet balance measurements. The resulting uncertainty reaches its largest value of 6 % for low- jets at . Additional JES uncertainties due to specific event topologies, such as close-by jets or selections of event samples with an enhanced content of jets originating from light quarks or gluons, are also discussed. The magnitude of these uncertainties depends on the event sample used in a given physics analysis, but typically amounts to 0.5-3 %.

  11. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  12. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-21

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  13. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-02-01

    {pi}-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) were used in scattering and reaction experiments on atomic nuclei. The experimental data allow tests of models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. For example, the asymmetries observed in a pion scattering experiment on polarized {sup 13}C nuclei were found to contain unique information on the isoscalar spin density. However, further experiments on polarized nuclei of simpler structure are needed to provide the data for a thorough analysis of the reaction mechanism. For this reason a pion scattering experiment on a polarized {sup 3}He target is planned and a high-resolution study on {sup 6}Li({pi},{pi}{prime}) will be done. An analysis of {pi}-triton coincidence events from the {sup 4}He({pi},{pi}{prime}t)p reaction yielded evidence for direct triton knock-out from {sup 4}He. This work will be continued at higher incident pion energies. Additional work on the {sup 4}He(p,n) reaction at IUCF is planned to determine the isovector strength in mass-4 nuclei and the level parameters of {sup 4}Li.

  14. Energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan; Nešković, Nebojša

    2013-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy loss distributions of the relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent < 100 > Si crystals is presented in this work. The bending angle was varied from 0 to 20 μrad, while the crystal thickness was equal to 1 mm. The proton energy was chosen to be 7 TeV in accordance with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. An accurate energy loss model was used, which takes into account the trajectory dependence of the energy loss of protons during their motion through the crystal channels. Further, the dispersion of the proton's scattering angle caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The calculated dependence of the number of dechanneled protons on the bending angle was excellently fitted by the Gompertz type dechanneling function.

  15. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-12-01

    We report on scattering and reaction experiments on light nuclei using the [pi]-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). Differential cross sections, cross section asymmetries, and angular correlation functions have been measured in order to test models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. At LAMPF we have measured asymmetries for pion scattering from polarized [sup 13]C which are uniquely sensitive to the isoscalar spin density. In order to determine details of the reaction mechanism, we have obtained approval for a scattering experiment on polarized [sup 3]He for which the nuclear structure is very well known. We have completed data taking for two studies of elastic scattering of [pi][sup +] from [sup 6]Li and [sup l3]C. The detailed differential cross sections from these experiments will be used to constrain theoretical analyses of previous polarization experiments done at the Pierre-Scherrer-Institute (PSI) and at LAMPF. We have analyzed [pi]-triton coincidence events from the [sup 4]He([pi],[pi][prime] t)p reaction and have found evidence for direct triton knockout from [sup 4]He. We have extended these angular correlation measurements to higher energies and to [sup 2]H and [sup 3]He targets. At IUCF we have performed the first [sup 4]He(p,n) experiment at intermediate energies, T[sub p] = 100, 147, and 200 MeV, in a search for previously reported narrow states in [sup 4]Li of widths of [approx] 1 MeV. Within the statistics of the data we have found no evidence for such narrow structures.

  16. Electronic relativistic effects on K-shell ionization by low-energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukoyama, T.; Sarkadi, L.

    1981-01-01

    K-shell ionization cross sections by low-energy proton impact have been calculated in the relativistic plane-wave Born approximation, taking into account the effects of binding-energy increase and Coulomb deflection. The calculated values are compared with the recent experimental cross sections of Zander and Andrews. It is found that the use of Dirac wave functions for target electrons improves agreement with the experimental results, but the theoretical predictions are still systematically higher at the lower proton energies.

  17. Enhancement of proton energy by polarization switch in laser acceleration of multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2013-10-15

    We present a scheme to significantly increase the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by a laser beam without increasing the input power. This improvement is accomplished by first irradiating the foil several wave periods with circular polarization and then switching the laser to linear polarization. The polarization switch increases the electron temperature and thereby moves more electrons ahead of the proton layer, resulting in a space charge electric field pushing the protons forwards. The scaling of the proton energy evolution with respect to the switching time is studied, and an optimal switching time is obtained. The proton energy for the case with optimal switching time can reach about 80 MeV with an input laser power of 70 TW, an improvement of more than 30% compared to the case without polarization switch.

  18. Measurements of the proton-air cross section with high energy cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) enables us to measure the proton-air inelastic cross section σinel p-air at energies that we are unable to access with particle accelerators. The proton-proton cross section σp-p is subsequently inferred from the proton-air cross section at these energies. UHECR experiments have been reportingon the proton-air inelastic cross section starting with the Fly's Eye in 1984 at √s =30 TeV and ending with the most recent result of the Telescope Array experiment at √s = 95 TeV in 2015. In this proceeding, I will summarize the most recent experimental results on the σinel p-air measurements from the UHECR experiments.

  19. Study of an improved Allyl Di-Glycol carbonate sheet for high energy proton detection.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, H; Juto, N; Fujisaki, S; Migita, S; Koguchi, Y; Takada, M

    2006-01-01

    An allyl di-glycol carbonate (ADC) sheet which has been utilised as a neutron detector for personal dosimetry has recently been studied for its application as a device for radiation exposure control for astronauts in space, where protons are the dominant radiation. It is known that the fabrication process, modified by adding some kind of antioxidant to improve the sensitivity of ADC to high energy protons, causes a substantial increase in false tracks, which disturb the automatic counting of proton tracks using the auto-image analyser. This made clear the difficulty of fabricating ADC sheets which have sufficient sensitivity to high energy protons, while maintaining a good surface. In this study, we have tried to modify the fabrication process to improve the sensitivity to high energy protons without causing a deterioration of the surface condition of ADC sheets. We have successfully created fairly good products.

  20. A Relativity Enhanced, Medium-Strong Au(I)···H-N Hydrogen Bond in a Protonated Phenylpyridine-Gold(I) Thiolate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Raphael J F; Schoiber, Jürgen; Monkowius, Uwe

    2017-01-17

    Gold is an electron-rich metal with a high electronegativity comparable to that of sulfur. Hence, hydrogen bonds of the Au(I)···H-E (E = electronegative element) type should be possible, but their existence is still under debate. Experimental results are scarce and often contradictory. As guidance for possible preparative work, we have theoretically investigated (ppyH)Au(SPh) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) bearing two monoanionic ligands which are not strongly electronegative at the same time to further increase the charge density on the gold(I) atom. The protonated pyridine nitrogen atom in ppy is geometrically ideally suited to place a proton in close proximity to the gold atom in a favorable geometry for a classical hydrogen bond arrangement. Indeed, the results of the calculations indicate that the hydrogen bonded conformation of (ppyH)Au(SPh) represents a minimum geometry with bond metrics in the expected range for medium-strong hydrogen bonds [r(N-H) = 1.043 Å, r(H···Au) = 2.060 Å, a(N-H···Au) = 141.4°]. The energy difference between the conformer containing the H···Au bond and another conformer without a hydrogen bond amounts to 7.8 kcal mol(-1), which might serve as an estimate of the hydrogen bond strength. Spectroscopic properties were calculated, yielding further characteristics of such hydrogen bonded gold species.

  1. Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes for easy energy supply.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yang, Shui-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Juan; Lei, Han-Wu; Ruan, Roger; Li, Ti; Tu, Zong-Cai; Song, Xin-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Developing a nanoliposome delivery system for an easy energy supply of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) to improve oral doses and bioavailability. Bangham's method and high-pressure microfluidization were used to prepare MCFA liposomes. The easy energy-supply property of MCFA nanoliposomes was estimated by the anti-fatigue experiments of mice including a weight-loaded swimming test and its corresponding parameters (serum urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid, and hepatic glycogen). For comparison, nanoliposomes without MCFAs and MCFAs not entrapped in nanoliposomes were used throughout. Compared with crude MCFA liposomes according to Bangham's method, the MCFA nanoliposomes made by high-pressure microfluidization exhibited great advantages in their characteristics, with a small average diameter (76.2 ± 34.7 nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.207), high ζ-potential (-50.51 mV), great entrapment efficiency (70.5%) and drug loading (9.4%), and good stability. The high-dose group and the MCFA group (680 mg/kg) showed a longer weight-loaded swimming time (104 ± 29 min, P = 0.087, and 108 ± 11 min, P = 0.047, respectively) and significantly higher hepatic glycogen (16.40 ± 1.45 mg/g, P < 0.001 and 17.27 ± 2.13 mg/g, P < 0.001, respectively) than the control group (59 ± 11 min and 8.79 ± 2.76 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, serum urea nitrogen (891.5 ± 113.4 mg/L, P = 0.024, and 876.6 ± 70.8 mg/L, P = 0.015, respectively) and blood lactic acid (6.05 ± 1.40 mmol/L, P = 0.001, and 5.95 ± 1.27 mmol/L, P < 0.001, respectively) in the high-dose group and the group with an equivalent MCFA dose were significantly lower than those in the control group (1153.6 ± 102.5 mg/L and 12.53 ± 1.86 mmol/L, respectively). Similar to MCFAs, MCFA nanoliposomes prepared by high-pressure microfluidization showed a strong easy energy-supply property, which suggested that MCFA nanoliposomes could be a potential drug candidate for an easy energy supply. Copyright © 2011

  2. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    DOE PAGES

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; ...

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less

  3. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.

  4. Stability of extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings to low energy proton bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, M. G.; Corso, Alain Jody; Zuppella, Paola; Windt, D. L.; Mattei, G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2011-08-01

    In this work we present results of an new experiment related to low energy protons bombardments on nano-structured optical coatings. Multilayer structures protected by different capping layers have been fabricated and exposed to low energy protons (1keV). The experimental parameters have been selected considering the potential application of the coatings to solar mission instrumentation. Future solar missions will investigate the Sun from very close distances and optical components are constantly exposed to low energy ion particles irradiation. The experiment was repeated fixing the proton flux while varying the total dose accumulated. Results show that physical processes occurred at the uppermost interfaces can strongly damage the structure.

  5. Stability of extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings to low energy proton bombardment.

    PubMed

    Pelizzo, M G; Corso, Alain Jody; Zuppella, Paola; Windt, D L; Mattei, G; Nicolosi, P

    2011-08-01

    In this work we present results of an new experiment related to low energy protons bombardments on nano-structured optical coatings. Multilayer structures protected by different capping layers have been fabricated and exposed to low energy protons (1 keV). The experimental parameters have been selected considering the potential application of the coatings to solar mission instrumentation. Future solar missions will investigate the Sun from very close distances and optical components are constantly exposed to low energy ion particles irradiation. The experiment was repeated fixing the proton flux while varying the total dose accumulated. Results show that physical processes occurred at the uppermost interfaces can strongly damage the structure.

  6. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  7. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  8. Generalized Chou-Yang Model and Meson-Proton Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Aleem, Fazal-E.; Rashid, Haris

    The various characteristics of meson-proton elastic scattering at high energies are explained by using the generalized Chou-Yang model which takes into consideration the anisotropic scattering of objects constituting pions(kaons) and protons. A new parametrization of the proton form factor consistent with the recent experimental data is proposed. It is then shown that all the data for meson-proton elastic scattering at 200 and 250 GeV/c are in agreement with theoretical computations. The physical picture of generalized Chou-Yang model which is based on multiple scattering theory is given in detail.

  9. Nuclear binding energies and empirical proton-neutron interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G. J.; Jiang Hui; Zhao, Y. M.; Pittel, S.; Arima, A.

    2010-09-15

    By using an exponential function to simulate the residual proton-neutron interaction between valence nucleons, we derive a new set of local mass formulas that are competitive with the Garvey-Kelson mass relations for relating neighboring nuclear masses.

  10. Development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Madland, D.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors report on the development of new global optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus scattering at medium energies. Using both Schroedinger and Dirac scattering formalisms, the goal is to construct a physically realistic optical potential describing nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering observables for a projectile energy range of (perhaps) 20 meV to (perhaps) 2 GeV and a target mass range of 16 to 209, excluding regions of strong nuclear deformation. They use a phenomenological approach guided by conclusions from recent microscopic studies. The experimental database consists largely of proton-nucleus elastic differential cross sections, analyzing powers, spin-rotation functions, and total reaction cross sections, and neutron-nucleus total cross sections. They will use this database in a nonlinear least-squares adjustment of optical model parameters in both relativistic equivalent Schroedinger (including relativistic kinematics) and Dirac (second-order reduction) formalisms. Isospin will be introduced through the standard Lane model and a relativistic generalization of that model.

  11. RHIC: The World's First High-Energy, Polarized-Proton Collider (423rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Mei

    2007-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has been colliding polarized proton at a beam energy of 100 billion electron volts (GeV) since 2001. In addition to reporting upon the progress of RHIC polarized-proton program, this talk will focus upon the mechanisms that cause the beam to depolarize and the strategies developed to overcome this. As the world first polarized-proton collider, RHIC is designed to collide polarized protons up to an energy of 250 GeV, thereby providing an unique opportunity to measure the contribution made by the gluon to a proton's spin and to study the spin structure of proton. Unlike other high-energy proton colliders, however, the challenge for RHIC is to overcome the mechanisms that cause partial or total loss of beam polarization, which is due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. In RHIC, two Siberian snakes have been used to avoid these spin depolarizing resonances, which are driven by vertical closed-orbit distortion and vertical betatron oscillations. As a result, polarized-proton beams have been accelerated to 100 GeV without polarization loss, although depolarization has been observed during acceleration from 100 GeV to 205 GeV.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation and analysis of proton energy-deposition patterns in the Bragg peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Muñoz, Gloria; Tilly, Nina; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2008-06-01

    The spatial pattern of energy depositions is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that modify the relative biological effectiveness of different radiation qualities. In this paper, we present data on energy-deposition properties of mono-energetic protons (1-20 MeV) and their secondary electrons in liquid water. Proton-impact ionization was described by means of the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht doubly differential cross section (DDCS), thus modelling both the initial energy and angle of the emitted electron. Excitation by proton impact was included to account for the contribution of this interaction channel to the electronic stopping power of the projectile. Proton transport was implemented assuming track-segment conditions, whereas electrons were followed down to 50 eV by the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Electron intra-track energy-deposition properties, such as slowing-down and energy-imparted spectra of electrons, were calculated. Furthermore, the use of DDCSs enabled the scoring of electron inter-track properties. We present novel results for 1, 5 and 20 MeV single-proton-track frequencies of distances between the nearest inter- (e--e-, e--H+) and intra-track (e--e-, e--H+, H+-H+) energy-deposition events. By setting a threshold energy of 17.5 eV, commonly employed as a surrogate to discriminate for elementary damage in the DNA, the variation in these frequencies was studied as well. The energy deposited directly by the proton represents a large amount of the total energy deposited along the track, but when an energy threshold is adopted the relative contribution of the secondary electrons becomes larger for increasing energy of the projectile. We found that the frequencies of closest energy-deposition events per nanometre decrease with proton energy, i.e. for lower proton energies a denser ionization occurs, following the trend of the characteristic LET curves. In conclusion, considering the energy depositions due to the delta electrons and at the core of the

  13. Monte Carlo simulation and analysis of proton energy-deposition patterns in the Bragg peak.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Gloria; Tilly, Nina; Fernández-Varea, José M; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2008-06-07

    The spatial pattern of energy depositions is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that modify the relative biological effectiveness of different radiation qualities. In this paper, we present data on energy-deposition properties of mono-energetic protons (1-20 MeV) and their secondary electrons in liquid water. Proton-impact ionization was described by means of the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht doubly differential cross section (DDCS), thus modelling both the initial energy and angle of the emitted electron. Excitation by proton impact was included to account for the contribution of this interaction channel to the electronic stopping power of the projectile. Proton transport was implemented assuming track-segment conditions, whereas electrons were followed down to 50 eV by the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Electron intra-track energy-deposition properties, such as slowing-down and energy-imparted spectra of electrons, were calculated. Furthermore, the use of DDCSs enabled the scoring of electron inter-track properties. We present novel results for 1, 5 and 20 MeV single-proton-track frequencies of distances between the nearest inter- (e(-)-e(-), e(-)-H+) and intra-track (e(-)-e(-), e(-)-H+, H+-H+) energy-deposition events. By setting a threshold energy of 17.5 eV, commonly employed as a surrogate to discriminate for elementary damage in the DNA, the variation in these frequencies was studied as well. The energy deposited directly by the proton represents a large amount of the total energy deposited along the track, but when an energy threshold is adopted the relative contribution of the secondary electrons becomes larger for increasing energy of the projectile. We found that the frequencies of closest energy-deposition events per nanometre decrease with proton energy, i.e. for lower proton energies a denser ionization occurs, following the trend of the characteristic LET curves. In conclusion, considering the energy depositions due to the delta electrons and at the

  14. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, C. M.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Gray, R. J.; Rosinski, M.; Deppert, O.; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Hassan, S. M.; Lancaster, K. L.; Li, K.; Musgrave, I. O.; Norreys, P. A.; Pasley, J.; Roth, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Spindloe, C.; Tatarakis, M.; Winstone, T.; Wolowski, J.; Wyatt, D.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2014-02-01

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5-30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ˜1 ps.

  15. Highly proton-conductive thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole for medium-temperature and low-humidity polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-02-01

    Here a new membrane design concept to improve proton conductivity and to maintain a constant acid doping level for an extended period of time for medium-temperature and low-humidity polymer electrolyte fuel cells (MT/LH-PEFC) is presented. A polymer electrolyte membrane is prepared via thermal rearrangement of hydroxyl-containing polyimide (HPI) precursor membranes over 350 °C, followed by subsequent acid-impregnation. The thermal treatment for 1 h converts HPI into a thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole (TR-PBO) membrane with high surface area, similar to zeolites. The microporous structure and the basic sites (-Cdbnd N-) in benzoxazole moieties contribute to the stable impregnation of small acidic molecules (e.g., HCl, HNO3, H3PO4, and HPF6) in large quantities within the polymer matrix. The acid-doping level decreases with the increasing size of acidic dopants. TR-PBO impregnated using HCl with the smallest radius has a much higher doping level and excellent proton conductivity (1.60 × 10-1 S cm-1 at 130 °C and RH 28%) when compared with PBI (6.59 × 10-2 S cm-1 at the same conditions). Different from a common acid-doped PBI system, the acid-doped TR-PBO membranes do not exhibit a severe acid leaching even in repeated heating and cooling cycles between 90 and 130 °C.

  16. Laser-driven proton scaling laws and new paths towards energy increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; D'Humières, E.; Lefebvre, E.; Borghesi, M.; Brambrink, E.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Kaluza, M.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Meyroneinc, S.; Mora, P.; Schreiber, J.; Toncian, T.; Pépin, H.; Audebert, P.

    2006-01-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable progress in the development of laser-based particle accelerators. The ability to produce ultrabright beams of multi-megaelectronvolt protons routinely has many potential uses from engineering to medicine, but for this potential to be realized substantial improvements in the performances of these devices must be made. Here we show that in the laser-driven accelerator that has been demonstrated experimentally to produce the highest energy protons, scaling laws derived from fluid models and supported by numerical simulations can be used to accurately describe the acceleration of proton beams for a large range of laser and target parameters. This enables us to evaluate the laser parameters needed to produce high-energy and high-quality proton beams of interest for radiography of dense objects or proton therapy of deep-seated tumours.

  17. Energy and Angular Spectra of Albedo Protons and Neutrons Emitted from Hydrated Layers of Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Zaman, F.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Mazur, J. E.; Looper, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    Energy and angular yields of albedo protons and neutrons emitted from the lunar surface as a function of hydration layer thickness in the lunar regolith using the MCNP computer code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented.

  18. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  19. The energy spectra of solar energetic protons in the large energy range: their functional form and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho; Pervaia, Taisia

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the fluxes of protons of solar energetic particles (SEP) are analyzed. It is known that above energies of 2-45 MeV (averaging 27-30 MeV), the proton spectra are a power-law function of the energy (at relativistic energies - from the momentum) of the particles. At lower energies, the spectra become harder, with the high-energy part of the spectra forming the "knee". This report is devoted to the determination of the parameters of the SEP spectra, having the form of a "double power-law shape", to ascertain the reliability of the parameters of the approximations of the experimental data.

  20. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy van allen proton belt.

    PubMed

    Konradi, A

    1988-12-02

    Orbital debris in the near-Earth environment has reached a number density sufficient for a significant collisional interaction with some of the long-lived high-energy protons in the radiation belt. As a result of a continuing buildup of a shell of man-made debris, the lifetimes of high-energy protons whose trajectories remain below 1500 kilometers will decrease to the point where in the next decades we can expect a noticeable reduction in their fluxes.

  1. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy Van Allen proton belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, Andrei

    1988-01-01

    The lifetimes of high-energy (greater than 55 MeV) protons in the Van Allen radiation belt are calculated, assuming that in time the protons will collide with and be absorbed by particulate orbiting material. The calculations are based on the NASA/DoD Civil Needs Database for orbital debris (Gaines, 1966) and moderate assumptions of future space traffic. It is found that the lifetimes of high-energy protons below 1500 km will decrease, leading to a noticeable redution in their fluxes.

  2. Effect of the orbital debris environment on the high-energy Van Allen proton belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, Andrei

    1988-01-01

    The lifetimes of high-energy (greater than 55 MeV) protons in the Van Allen radiation belt are calculated, assuming that in time the protons will collide with and be absorbed by particulate orbiting material. The calculations are based on the NASA/DoD Civil Needs Database for orbital debris (Gaines, 1966) and moderate assumptions of future space traffic. It is found that the lifetimes of high-energy protons below 1500 km will decrease, leading to a noticeable redution in their fluxes.

  3. Correlations in intermediate energy two-proton removal reactions.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, K; Bazin, D; Gade, A; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Chajecki, Z; Coupland, D; Famiano, M A; Ghosh, T K; Grinyer, G F; Hodges, R; Howard, M E; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Manning, B; Meierbachtol, K; Quarterman, P; Ratkiewicz, A; Sanetullaev, A; Simpson, E C; Stroberg, S R; Tsang, M B; Weisshaar, D; Winkelbauer, J; Winkler, R; Youngs, M

    2012-11-16

    We report final-state-exclusive measurements of the light charged fragments in coincidence with (26)Ne residual nuclei following the direct two-proton removal from a neutron-rich (28)Mg secondary beam. A Dalitz-plot analysis and comparisons with simulations show that a majority of the triple-coincidence events with two protons display phase-space correlations consistent with the (two-body) kinematics of a spatially correlated pair-removal mechanism. The fraction of such correlated events, 56(12)%, is consistent with the fraction of the calculated cross section, 64%, arising from spin S=0 two-proton configurations in the entrance-channel (shell-model) (28)Mg ground state wave function. This result promises access to an additional and more specific probe of the spin and spatial correlations of valence nucleon pairs in exotic nuclei produced as fast secondary beams.

  4. SU-E-T-772: Uncertainties in Treatment Planning for IROC-Houston Proton Phantom QA Program Due to Variable CT Technique and Proton Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M; Taylor, P; Poenisch, F; Court, L; Guindani, M; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To understand the uncertainties in proton therapy treatment planning for the IROC- Houston proton phantom QA program due to variations in CT technique and proton energy. Methods: A CT phantom used by IROC-H during therapy site visits was scanned using three CT techniques (80, 120, 140kV) with a CT scanner used for proton therapy simulations and irradiated with a passively scattered beam at three energies (140, 200, 250 MeV) to measure, respectively, HU and Relative Linear Stopping Power (RLSP) in order to create HU to RLSP calibration curves for comparison with reference curves used by current proton treatment planning systems. The phantom has proton equivalent materials with a wide variety of HU and RLSPs to allow for the creation of a calibration curve for common tissue equivalent materials. Treatment plans were created for a lung phantom using the various CT technique/ beam energy calibration curves to determine the differences in the dose distributions by performing a gamma analysis. Results: Comparison of the calibration curves created using the phantom materials showed a maximum difference of 12% for a given material between the custom curve and the reference curve currently used by the treatment planning system. The highest differences were a Result of using an 80 kV CT technique and a 250 MeV high proton energy. A comparison of the completed treatment plans will be presented. Conclusion: These results indicate the possibility of differences in proton HU to RLSP calibration curves caused by varying CT technique and proton energy that could manifest as differences in planned and delivered dose distributions, particularly at high proton energies and low kV CT techniques. These differences could Result in discrepancies not accounted for by IROC-Houston and could possibly affect proton institutions’ pass rate when irradiating the proton phantoms.

  5. Optimized undulator to generate low energy photons from medium to high energy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Chiu, Mau-Sen; Luo, Hao-Wen; Yang, Chin-Kang; Huang, Jui-Che; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-07-01

    While emitting low energy photons from a medium or high energy storage ring, the on-axis heat load on the beam line optics can become a critical issue. In addition, the heat load in the bending magnet chamber, especially in the vertical and circular polarization mode of operation may cause some concern. In this work, we compare the heat loads for the APPLE-II and the Knot-APPLE, both optimized to emit 10 eV photons from the 3 GeV TPS. Under this constraint the heat load analysis, synchrotron radiation performance and features in various polarization modes are presented. Additional consideration is given to beam dynamics effect.

  6. Energy spectrum of medium energy gamma-rays from the galactic center region. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Ramanujarao, K.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Kniffen, D. A.; Morris, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A balloon-borne magnetic core digitized spark chamber with two assemblies of spark-chambers above and below the scintillation counters was used to measure the medium energy gamma ray flux from the galactic center region. Gamma ray calculations are based on the multiple scattering of the pair electrons in 15 aluminum plates interleaved in the spark chamber modules. Counting rates determined during ascent and at ceiling indicate the presence of diffuse component in this energy range. Preliminary results give an integral flux between 15 and 70 MeV compared to the differential points in other results.

  7. Numerical studies on alpha production from high energy proton beam interaction with Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Korn, G.

    2017-05-01

    Numerical investigations on high energy proton beam interaction with high density Boron plasma allows to simulate conditions concerning the alpha production from recent experimental measurements . The experiments measure the alpha production due to p11B nuclear fusion reactions when a laser-driven high energy proton beam interacts with Boron plasma produced by laser beam interaction with solid Boron. The alpha production and consequently the efficiency of the process depends on the initial proton beam energy, proton beam density, the Boron plasma density and temperature, and their temporal evolution. The main advantage for the p11B nuclear fusion reaction is the production of three alphas with total energy of 8.9 MeV, which could enhance the alpha heating effect and improve the alpha production. This particular effect is termed in the international literature as the alpha avalanche effect. Numerical results using a multi-fluid, global particle and energy balance, code shows the alpha production efficiency as a function of the initial energy of the proton beam, the Boron plasma density, the initial Boron plasma temperature and the temporal evolution of the plasma parameters. The simulations enable us to determine the interaction conditions (proton beam - B plasma) for which the alpha heating effect becomes important.

  8. Medium Modification of Hadronic Interactions from Low Energy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    Medium-modification of hadronic interactions is defined as the differences between hadron-hadron interaction in the nuclear medium and the corresponding interaction in free space. Deeply penetrating hadrons provide such information and we discuss here pionic atoms and scattering by nuclei of 21.5 MeV pions. Brief mention is made also of the interaction of 500-700 MeV/c K+ with nuclei.

  9. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of High-energy Protons in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 105) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ˜2 × 103, similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20-W90) SEP events.

  10. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-26

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at {radical}(s) = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A{sub LL}, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV.

  11. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at √s = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, ALL, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of ALL for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at √s = 200 GeV.

  12. The quest for spinning glue in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrow, B.

    2008-05-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at s√ = 200 - 500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, ALL, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of ALL for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at s√ = 200 GeV.

  13. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  14. High-energy monoenergetic proton bunch from laser interaction with a complex target

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fengchao; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Jin Zhangying; Wen Meng; Ji Liangliang; Wang Wenpeng; Xu Jiancai; Yu, M. Y.; Cary, J.

    2009-09-15

    Generation of high-energy proton bunch in the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with a complex target consisting of a front horizontal slice adjoining a conventional heavy ion and proton double-layer slab is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The laser pulse propagates along both sides of the slice. A large number of hot electrons are generated and accelerated by the surface ponderomotive force, and transported through the double layer, forming a backside sheath field which is considerably stronger and more localized than that produced by the electrons from a simple double layer. As a result, the protons in the proton layer can be accelerated to energies more than three times, and the energy spread halved, that from the simple double layer.

  15. Cognitive effects of proton irradiation at differing energy levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During exploratory class missions to space outside of the magnetic field of the Earth, astronauts will be exposed to various forms of radiation including solar particle events (SPE) which are predominantly composed of protons. As such it is important to characterize the cognitive effects of exposure...

  16. Stoichiometric relationship between energy-dependent proton ejection and electron transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0. PMID:1061146

  17. Stoichiometric relationship between energy-dependent proton ejection and electron transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-01

    The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0.

  18. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-07

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  19. A Study of Proton Production From Energy Ordered Jets Near 10 GeV Center of Mass Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsall, C

    2004-06-11

    The authors investigate hadronic jets ordered by energy from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations near 10 GeV center of mass energy. The fraction of protons produced from both two jet and three jet events are measured using jet finding software. They find the average ratio of protons in lowest energy jets compared to the average of the two highest energy jets to be 1.3705 {+-} 0.0298 {+-} 0.0260 where the first error is systematic and the second is statistical. This work is performed with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC).

  20. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

  1. Evaluation of energy deposition and secondary particle production in proton therapy of brain using a slab head phantom

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sayyed Bijan; Hadizadeh, Mohammad Hadi; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Loushab, Mahdy Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of energy deposition of protons in human brain and calculation of the secondary neutrons and photons produced by protons in proton therapy. Background Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of treating localized cancer tumors. The use of high energy proton beam in radiotherapy was proposed almost 60 years ago. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in this subject in the context of radiation therapy. High energy protons suffer little angular deflection and have a well-defined penetration range, with a sharp increase in the energy loss at the end of their trajectories, namely the Bragg peak. Materials and methods A slab head phantom was used for the purpose of simulating proton therapy in brain tissue. In this study simulation was carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Results By using mono energetic proton pencil beams, energy depositions in tissues, especially inside the brain, as well as estimating the neutron and photon production as a result of proton interactions in the body, together with their energy spectra, were calculated or obtained. The amount of energy escaped from the head by secondary neutrons and photons was determined. Conclusions It was found that for high energy proton beams the amount of escaped energy by neutrons is almost 10 times larger than that by photons. We estimated that at 110 MeV beam energy, the overall proton energy “leaked” from the head by secondary photons and neutrons to be around 1%. PMID:25337410

  2. Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Infrared Spectra of Crystalline Vitamin C with Analysis of Double Minimum Proton Potentials for Medium-Strong Hydrogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Brela, Mateusz Z; Wójcik, Marek J; Boczar, Marek; Witek, Łukasz; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-06-25

    We studied proton dynamics of a hydrogen bonds of the crystalline l-ascorbic acid. Our approach was based on the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics. The focal point of our study was simulation of the infrared spectra of l-ascorbic acid associated with the O-H stretching modes that are very sensitive to the strength of hydrogen bonding. In the l-ascorbic acid there are four kinds of hydrogen bonds. We calculated their spectra by using anharmonic approximation and the time course of the dipole moment function as obtained from the Car-Parrinello simulation. The quantization of the nuclear motion of the protons was made to perform detailed analysis of strength and properties of hydrogen bonds. We presented double minimum proton potentials with small value of barriers for medium-strong hydrogen bonds. We have also shown the difference character of medium-strong hydrogen bonds compared to weaker hydrogen bonds in the l-ascorbic acid.

  3. Modeling of exclusive parton distributions and long-range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, V. N.

    2013-10-01

    The soft part of proton-proton interaction is considered within a phenomenological model that involves the formation of color strings. Under the assumption that an elementary collision is associated with the interaction of two color dipoles, the total inelastic cross section and the multiplicity of charged particles are estimated in order to fix model parameters. Particular attention is given to modeling of exclusive parton distributions with allowance for the energy-conservation law and for fixing the center of mass, which are necessary for describing correlations. An algorithm that describes the fusion of strings in the transverse plane and which takes into account their finite rapidity width is developed. The influence of string-fusion effects on long-range correlations is found within this mechanism.

  4. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  5. Propensity and risk assessment for solar particle events: Consideration of integral fluence at high proton energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew; Feiveson, Alan; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The propensity for SPE occurrence with large proton fluence was estimated as a function of time within a solar cycle from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy >30 MeV, Φ30 . The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made for blood forming organ (BFO) dose ranging from its 5th to 95th percentile. In addition to the total particle intensity of SPEs, the detailed energy spectra of protons, especially at high energy levels, were recognized as extremely important for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Φ60 and Φ100 , respectively, the expected numbers of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  6. Propensity and Risk Assessment for Solar Particle Events: Consideration of Integral Fluence at High Proton Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The expected SPE propensity for large proton fluence was estimated from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, Phi(sub 30). The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made including the 95% confidence level. In addition to total particle intensity of SPE, the detailed energy spectra of protons especially at high energy levels were recognized as extremely important parameter for the risk assessment, since there remains a significant cancer risks from those energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Phi(sub 60) and Phi(sub 100), respectively, the expected propensities of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  7. Propensity and Risk Assessment for Solar Particle Events: Consideration of Integral Fluence at High Proton Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For future space missions with longer duration, exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with high energy levels is the major concern during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Mars surface. The expected SPE propensity for large proton fluence was estimated from a non-homogeneous Poisson model using the historical database for measurements of protons with energy > 30 MeV, Phi(sub 30). The database includes a continuous data set for the past 5 solar cycles. The resultant SPE risk analysis for a specific mission period was made including the 95% confidence level. In addition to total particle intensity of SPE, the detailed energy spectra of protons especially at high energy levels were recognized as extremely important parameter for the risk assessment, since there remains a significant cancer risks from those energetic particles for large events. Using all the recorded proton fluence of SPEs for energies >60 and >100 MeV, Phi(sub 60) and Phi(sub 100), respectively, the expected propensities of SPEs abundant with high energy protons were estimated from the same non-homogeneous Poisson model and the representative cancer risk was analyzed. The dependencies of risk with different energy spectra, for e.g. between soft and hard SPEs, were evaluated. Finally, we describe approaches to improve radiation protection of astronauts and optimize mission planning for future space missions.

  8. Spin-spin correlations in proton-proton collisions at high energy and threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, G.F.

    1988-05-01

    The striking effects in the spin structure observed in elastic proton collisions and the Nuclear Transparency phenomenon recently discovered at BNL are described in terms of heavy quark threshold enhancements. The deviations from scaling laws and the broadening of the angular distributions at resonance are also consistent with the introduction of new degrees of freedom in the pp system. This implies new s-channel physics. Predictions are given for the spin effects in pp collisions near 18.5 GeV/c at large p/sub T//sup 2/ where new measurements are planned. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Kooy, Hanne M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  10. Shortening delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing proton energy layers during treatment plan optimization.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Steven; Kooy, Hanne M; Heijmen, Ben J M; Hoogeman, Mischa S

    2015-06-01

    To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system "Erasmus-iCycle." The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust "time-efficient plan" (with energy layer reduction) with a robust "standard clinical plan" (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  12. Proton transfer and energy coupling in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the rate constants and the energetics of the elementary reaction steps of the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin has been helpful in understanding the mechanism of proton transport in this light-driven pump. The evidence suggests a single unbranched reaction sequence, BR-hv----K in equilibrium with L in equilibrium with M1----M2 in equilibrium with N in equilibrium with O----BR, where coupling to the proton-motive force is at the energetically and mechanistically important M1----M2 step. The consequences of site-specific mutations expressed homologously in Halobacterium halobium have revealed characteristics of the Schiff base deprotonation in the L----M1 reaction, the reorientation of the Schiff base from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side in the M1----M2 reaction, and the reprotonation of the Schiff base in the M2----N reaction.

  13. On the dynamics of latitudinal profiles of low-energy solar protons in the Earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L. L.

    2017-03-01

    Many works have been devoted to studying the boundaries of the penetration of solar protons into the Earth's magnetosphere. This work first considers the dynamics of not only the boundary, but the latitudinal profiles of penetration in general depending on the energy and local time of measurement according to the data of the low-altitude CORONAS-F satellite. When flying through the polar cap, the isotropic pitchangle distribution of protons leads to the equality of the recorded precipitating flux and the proton flux in the interplanetary space. Beginning at a particular latitude, the proton flux begins to drop and, over time, reaches the level of the background of galactic cosmic rays. The latitudinal profile measured in this manner on the night side reaches the bending point when the Larmor radius of the proton becomes comparable with the radius of the curvature of the line of force; after partial trapping, the flux of precipitating protons successively drops. The protons are transferred to the day side by the magnetic drift and, unlike the night profile, the character of the day profile depends on the configuration of the entire magnetosphere. The character of latitudinal profiles has been studied depending on the local time and energy of the particles, which enabled the features of the magnetosphere deformation to be evaluated at certain times of magnetic storms.

  14. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  15. Ultrahigh energy proton generation in sequential radiation pressure and bubble regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Ji Liangliang; Wang Fengchao; Wen Meng; Wang Wenpeng; Xu Jiancai; Yu Yahong

    2010-12-15

    Protons in a microtarget embedded in an underdense high-mass plasma can be accelerated sequentially by the radiation pressure of a short circularly polarized laser pulse and the induced wake bubble field in the background plasma, which has been shown in detail by two-dimensional particle in cell simulations. It has been found that instead of using transverse Gaussian pulses proton energy can be increased dramatically by using a transverse super-Gaussian laser pulse. With a 2.14x10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse in a tritium plasma of density 1.5x10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3}, 76 GeV high-quality quasimonoenergetic protons have been obtained. The scaling relations between the obtainable proton energy and the laser amplitude as well as the background plasma density have been shown.

  16. β-particle energy-summing correction for β-delayed proton emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Z.; del Santo, M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Grinyer, G. F.; Langer, C.; Montes, F.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.

    2017-02-01

    A common approach to studying β-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the β-delayed proton-emitting (βp) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the β-particle emitted from the βp nucleus, an effect referred to here as β-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for β-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the βp nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + β) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  17. β-particle energy-summing correction for β-delayed proton emission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meisel, Z.; del Santo, M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Grinyer, G. F.; Langer, C.; Montes, F.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.

    2016-11-14

    One common approach to studying β-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the β-delayed proton-emitting (βp) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the β-particle emitted from the βp nucleus, an effect referred to here as β-summing. Here, we present an approach to determine an accurate correction for β-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the βp nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + β) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  18. Efficient energy conversion from laser to proton beam in a laser-foil interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Kawata, S.; Satoh, D.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.

    2010-09-15

    Demonstrated is a remarkable improvement on the energy conversion efficiency from laser to protons in a laser-foil interaction by particle simulations. The total laser-proton energy conversion efficiency becomes 16.7%, although a conventional plane foil target serves a rather low efficiency. In our previous study we found that Al multihole thin-foil target was efficient for the energy conversion from laser to protons [Y. Nodera and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. E 78, 046401 (2008)], and the energy conversion efficiency was 9.3%. In our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the Al multihole structure is also employed, and the parameters of the Al multihole wing width and length are optimized in the paper. The present results clarify the roles of the target Al hole width and depth in the laser-proton energy conversion. The main physical reason for the enhancement of the conversion efficiency is a reduction of the laser reflection at the target surface area. The optimized multihole foil target provides a remarkable increase in the laser-proton energy conversion efficiency as shown above.

  19. β-particle energy-summing correction for β-delayed proton emission measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meisel, Z.; del Santo, M.; Crawford, H. L.; ...

    2016-11-14

    One common approach to studying β-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the β-delayed proton-emitting (βp) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the β-particle emitted from the βp nucleus, an effect referred to here as β-summing. Here, we present an approach to determine an accurate correction for β-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the βp nucleus within themore » DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + β) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.« less

  20. Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons.

    PubMed

    Toncian, Toma; Borghesi, Marco; Fuchs, Julien; d'Humières, Emmanuel; Antici, Patrizio; Audebert, Patrick; Brambrink, Erik; Cecchetti, Carlo Alberto; Pipahl, Ariane; Romagnani, Lorenzo; Willi, Oswald

    2006-04-21

    We present a technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, mega-electron volt proton beams with the use of radial, transient electric fields (10(7) to 10(10) volts per meter) triggered on the inner walls of a hollow microcylinder by an intense subpicosecond laser pulse. Because of the transient nature of the focusing fields, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the polyenergetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, such as their broad spectrum and divergence at the source.

  1. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  2. Cylindrical radiant energy direction device with refractive medium

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for directing radiant energy and includes a refractive element and a reflective boundary. The reflective boundary is so contoured that incident energy directed thereto by the refractive element is directed to the exit surface thereof or onto the surface of an energy absorber positioned at the exit surface.

  3. Proton collisions with the water dimer at keV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinet, O.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    Proton collisions with the water dimer are studied using a nonadiabatic, direct, time-dependent approach called electron nuclear dynamics (END). Fragmentation of the water dimer in collisions with protons at energies of 5.0, 1.0 keV and 200 eV is the primary aim of this initial study of water clusters using END. We report on the initial fragmentation dynamic, that is, for times less than 200 fs.

  4. Energy relaxation of multi-MeV protons traveling in compressed DT+Be plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhigang; He, Bin; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping

    2014-07-15

    We investigate the stopping power of the multi-MeV protons moving in the hot dense deuterium-tritium plasmas mixed with beryllium (Be), which is important in inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is shown that with increasing the density of Be, the stopping power of the proton also increases with the peaks shifting towards higher projectile velocity, which leads to the reduction of both the projectile range and the energy transferred to the electrons.

  5. On the origin of fast proton emission in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Peghaire, A.; Iori, I.; Manduci, L.; Moroni, A.

    1994-02-01

    Exclusive measurements of multiplicity distributions of fast protons emitted in 40Ar and 132Xe induced reactions at 44 MeV/u bombarding energy have been performed using MEDEA 4 π detection sytem. The data reflect the impact parameter dependence of the overlap region size and scale from system to system as the number of participant protons. The hypothesis of pre-equilibrium emission following first order p-N collisions is consistent with the data.

  6. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  7. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  8. Microstructured snow targets for high energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Baspaly, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Abricht, F.; Branzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Steinke, S.; Andreev, A.; Schnuerer, M.; Sandner, W.; Gordon, D.; Sprangle, P.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Zigler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Compact size sources of high energy protons (50-200MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications 1-8. One promising approach is the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) scheme 9,10, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser 11. In general, laser intensity exceeding 1018 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Another approach is the Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) scheme which is a more efficient acceleration scheme but requires an extremely clean pulse with contrast ratio of above 10-10. Increasing the energy of the accelerated protons using modest energy laser sources is a very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions 12,13 but no significant enhancement of the accelerated proton energy was measured. Here we report on the generation of up to 20MeV by a modest (5TW) laser system interacting with a microstructured snow target deposited on a Sapphire substrate. This scheme relax also the requirement of high contrast ratio between the pulse and the pre-pulse, where the latter produces the highly structured plasma essential for the interaction process. The plasma near the tip of the snow target is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and enhanced charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. PIC simulations of this targets reproduce the experimentally measured energy scaling and predict the generation of 150 MeV protons from laser power of 100TW laser system18.

  9. η-meson production in proton-proton collisions at excess energies of 40 and 72 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrén, H.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslavsky, D.; Calén, H.; Clement, H.; Demirörs, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Fäldt, G.; Gerén, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Lindberg, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Skorodko, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Tegnér, P.-E.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wilkin, C.; Wolke, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zartova, I.; Złomańczuk, J.

    2010-11-01

    The production of η mesons in proton-proton collisions has been studied using the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring at excess energies of Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV. The η was detected through its 2γ decay in a near-4π electromagnetic calorimeter, whereas the protons were measured by a combination of straw chambers and plastic scintillator planes in the forward hemisphere. About 6.9×104 and 9.3×104 events were found at Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV, respectively, with background contributions of less than 5%. A simple parametrization of the production cross section in terms of low partial waves was used to evaluate the acceptance corrections. Strong evidence was found for the influence of higher partial waves. The Dalitz plots show the presence of p waves in both the pp and the η{pp} systems and the angular distributions of the η in the center-of-mass frame suggest the influence of d-wave η mesons.

  10. {eta}-meson production in proton-proton collisions at excess energies of 40 and 72 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Petren, H.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Faeldt, G.; Hoeistad, B.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Koch, I.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Schoenning, K.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Thoerngren Engblom, P.

    2010-11-15

    The production of {eta} mesons in proton-proton collisions has been studied using the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring at excess energies of Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV. The {eta} was detected through its 2{gamma} decay in a near-4{pi} electromagnetic calorimeter, whereas the protons were measured by a combination of straw chambers and plastic scintillator planes in the forward hemisphere. About 6.9x10{sup 4} and 9.3x10{sup 4} events were found at Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV, respectively, with background contributions of less than 5%. A simple parametrization of the production cross section in terms of low partial waves was used to evaluate the acceptance corrections. Strong evidence was found for the influence of higher partial waves. The Dalitz plots show the presence of p waves in both the pp and the {eta}{l_brace}pp{r_brace} systems and the angular distributions of the {eta} in the center-of-mass frame suggest the influence of d-wave {eta} mesons.

  11. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  12. The effect of low energy protons on silicon solar cells with simulated coverglass cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, S.; Anspaugh, B.; Francis, R.; Marvin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a series of low-energy proton (LEP) tests are presented. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of low-energy protons on the electrical performance of solar cells with simulated cracked covers. The results of the tests were then related to the space environment. A matrix of LEP tests was set up using solar cells with simulated cracks to determine the effect on electrical performance as a function of fluence, energy, crack width, coverglass adhesive shielding, crack location, and solar cell size. The results of the test were, for the most part, logical, and consistent.

  13. The effect of low energy protons on silicon solar cells with simulated coverglass cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasner, S.; Anspaugh, B.; Francis, R.; Marvin, D.

    Results of a series of low-energy proton (LEP) tests are presented. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effect of low-energy protons on the electrical performance of solar cells with simulated cracked covers. The results of the tests were then related to the space environment. A matrix of LEP tests was set up using solar cells with simulated cracks to determine the effect on electrical performance as a function of fluence, energy, crack width, coverglass adhesive shielding, crack location, and solar cell size. The results of the test were, for the most part, logical, and consistent.

  14. Meson Production in Proton-Proton and Antiproton - Interactions at Center of Mass Energy = 24.3 GEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vinay Mohan

    Experiment UA6 measured the inclusive production cross section of pi^0, eta, and omega mesons in the p_{T} range 3.5 to 6.1 GeV/c in the reactions;eqalignno {p + p&to M + Xcrnoalign{hbox {rm and}}|{p} + p& to M + Xcr}where M represents a meson and X any other associated particles, at center of mass energy sqrt{s} = 24.3 GeV. The experiment was located at the CERN SppS collider and utilized a fixed hydrogen gas jet as the target in oppositely circulating proton and antiproton beams of momenta 315 GeV/c. The apparatus could be rotated to select either proton-proton or antiproton-proton interactions. The meson production cross section results were obtained from the analysis of 3.7 inverse picobarns (pb ^{-1}) of pp data collected in 1988 and 3.2 pb^{-1} of pp data collected in 1989. The eta/pi ^0 production ratio is measured to be 0.61 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.07 for pp and 0.62 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.07 for pp. The omega/ pi^0 production ratio is measured to be 0.87 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 for pp and 0.84 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 for pp. The inclusive pi^0 cross section is determined as a function of p_{T} averaged over the rapidity range 0.6 <= y <= 1.2. Comparison of the production between pp and pp reveals no significant difference. The cross section and production ratios are also compared with results from other experiments and found to be in agreement.

  15. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  16. Stochastic spatial energy deposition profiles for MeV protons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid advances being made in novel high-energy ion-beam techniques such as proton beam writing, single-ion-event effects, ion-beam-radiation therapy, ion-induced fluorescence imaging, proton/ion microscopy, and ion-induced electron imaging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the spatial energy-deposition profiles of energetic ions as they penetrate matter. In this work we present the results of comprehensive yet straightforward event-by-event Monte Carlo calculations that simulate ion/electron propagation and secondary electron ( δ ray) generation to yield spatial energy-deposition data. These calculations combine SRIM/TRIM features, EEDL97 data and volume-plasmon-localization models with a modified version of one of the newer δ ray generation models, namely, the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht. The development of the computer code DEEP (deposition of energy due to electrons and protons) offers a unique means of studying the energy-deposition/redistribution problem while still retaining the important stochastic nature inherent in these processes which cannot be achieved with analytical modeling. As an example of an application of DEEP we present results that compare the energy-deposition profiles of primary MeV protons and primary keV electrons in polymethymethacrylate. Such data are important when comparing proximity effects in the direct write lithography processes of proton-beam writing and electron-beam writing. Our calculations demonstrate that protons are able to maintain highly compact spatial energy-deposition profiles compared with electrons.

  17. Accelerating protons to therapeutic energies with ultraintense, ultraclean, and ultrashort laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultrathin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10−11 achieved on the Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W∕cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultrathin double-layer (heavy ions∕light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for the Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 μm (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the maximum proton energy on the foil thickness has been found and the laser pulse characteristics have been matched with the thickness of the target to ensure the most efficient acceleration. Moreover, the proton spectrum demonstrates a peaked structure at high energies, which is required for radiation therapy. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that a 150–500 TW laser pulse is able to accelerate protons up to 100–220 MeV energies. PMID:18561651

  18. Low energy proton beam induces tumor cell apoptosis through reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kheun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jin-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Proton beam is useful to target tumor tissue sparing normal cells by allowing precise dose only into tumor cells. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which proton beam induces tumor cell death are still undefined. We irradiated three different tumor cells (LLC, HepG2, and Molt-4) with low energy proton beam (35 MeV) with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) in vitro, and investigated cell death by MTT or CCK-8 assay at 24 h after irradiation. LLC and HepG2 cells were sensitive to proton beam at over 10 Gy to induce apoptosis whereas Molt-4 showed rather low sensitivity. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for the death rate relative to γ-ray were ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 in LLC and HepG2 but from 0.3 to 0.7 in Molt-4 at 11 d after irradiation by colony formation assay. The typical apoptotic nuclear DNA morphological pattern was observed by staining with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Tiny fragmented DNA was observed in HepG2 but not in Molt-4 by the treatment of proton in apoptotic DNA fragment assay. By FACS analysis after stained with FITC-Annexin-V, early as well as median apoptotic fractions were clearly increased by proton treatment. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced a cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and procaspases-3 and -9. Activity of caspases was highly enhanced after proton beam irradiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly increased and N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced by proton beam. Furthermore, p38 and JNK but not ERK were activated by proton and dominant negative mutants of p38 and JNK revived proton-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p38 and JNK pathway may be activated through ROS to activate apoptosis. In conclusion, our data clearly showed that single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP increased ROS and induced cell death of solid tumor cells (LLC and HepG2) in an apoptotic cell death program by the induction of caspases

  19. Metamaterial-based lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero medium for energy collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Zhang, Peng; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2016-06-01

    A lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium may lead to a counterintuitive phenomenon of omnidirectional bending-to-normal refraction [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.193904], which offers a fabulous strategy for energy collimation and energy harvesting. Here, in the scope of effective medium theory, we systematically investigate two simple metamaterial configurations, i.e., metal-dielectric-layered structures and the wire medium, to explore the possibility of fulfilling the conditions of such an anisotropic lossy ENZ medium by playing with materials' parameters. Both realistic metamaterial structures and their effective medium equivalences have been numerically simulated, and the results are in excellent agreement with each other. Our study provides clear guidance and therefore paves the way towards the search for proper designs of anisotropic metamaterials for a decent effect of energy collimation and wave-front manipulation.

  20. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  1. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  2. Laser-driven ultraintense proton beams for high energy-density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Slawomir; Badziak, Jan; Parys, Piotr; Rosinski, Marcin; Wolowski, Jerzy; Szydlowski, Adam; Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Mancic, A.

    2008-04-01

    The results of studies of high-intensity proton beam generation from thin (1 -- 3μm) solid targets irradiated by 0.35-ps laser pulse of energy up to 15J and intensity up to 2x10^19 W/cm^2 are reported. It is shown that the proton beams of multi-TW power and intensity above 10^18 W/cm^2 at the source can be produced when the laser-target interaction conditions approach the Skin-Layer Ponderomotive Acceleration requirements. The laser-protons energy conversion efficiency and proton beam parameters remarkably depend on the target structure. In particular, using a double-layer Au/PS target (plastic covered by 0.1 -- 0.2μm Au front layer) results in two-fold higher conversion efficiency and proton beam intensity than in the case of a plastic target. The values of proton beam intensities attained in our experiment are the highest among the ones measured so far.

  3. 90° Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Mitaroff, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: 208Pb 82+ lead ions at 40 GeV/ c per nucleon and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/ c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90° with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that—for such high energy heavy ion beams—a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0.84.

  4. Free-Energy Landscape and Proton Transfer Pathways in Oxidative Deamination by Methylamine Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zelleke, Theodros; Marx, Dominik

    2017-01-18

    The rate-determining step in the reductive half-reaction of the bacterial enzyme methylamine dehydrogenase, which is proton abstraction from the native substrate methylamine, is investigated using accelerated QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Generation of the multidimensional thermal free-energy landscape without restriction of the degrees of freedom beyond a multidimensional reaction subspace maps two rather similar pathways for the underlying proton transfer to one of two aspartate carboxyl oxygen atoms, termed OD1 and OD2, which hydrogen bond with Thr122 and Trp108, respectively. Despite significant large-amplitude motion perpendicular to the one-dimensional proton transfer coordinate, due to fluctuations of the donor-acceptor distance of about 3 Å, it is found that the one-dimensional proton transfer free-energy profiles are essentially identical to the minimum free-energy pathways on the multidimensional free-energy landscapes for both proton transfer channels. Proton transfer to one of the acceptor oxygen atoms-the OD2 site-is slightly favored in methylamine dehydrogenase by approximately 2 kcal mol(-1) , both kinetically and thermodynamically. Mechanistic analyses reveal that the hydrogen bond between Thr122β and OD1 is always present in the transition state independently of the proton transfer channel. Population analysis confirms that the electronic charge gained upon oxidation of the substrate is delocalized within the ring systems of the tryptophan tryptophylquinone cofactor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Results on damage induced by high-energy protons in LYSO calorimeter crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissertori, G.; Luckey, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pauss, F.; Quittnat, M.; Wallny, R.; Glaser, M.

    2014-05-01

    Lutetium-Yttrium Orthosilicate doped with Cerium (LYSO), as a bright scintillating crystal, is a candidate for calorimetry applications in strong ionising-radiation fields and large high-energy hadron fluences are expected at the CERN Large Hadron Collider after the planned High-Luminosity upgrade. There, proton-proton collisions will produce fast hadron fluences up to ~ 5 ×1014cm-2 in the large-rapidity regions of the calorimeters. The performance of LYSO has been investigated, after exposure to different fluences of 24 GeV c-1 protons. Measured changes in optical transmission as a function of proton fluence are presented, and the evolution over time due to spontaneous recovery at room temperature is studied. The activation of materials will also be an issue in the described environment. Studies of the ambient dose induced by LYSO and its evolution with time, in comparison with other scintillating crystals, have also been performed through measurements and FLUKA simulations.

  6. Coulomb explosion effect and the maximum energy of protons accelerated by high-power lasers.

    PubMed

    Fourkal, E; Velchev, I; Ma, C-M

    2005-03-01

    The acceleration of light ions (protons) through the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with a double-layer target is theoretically studied by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and a one-dimensional analytical model. It is shown that the maximum energy acquired by the accelerated light ions (protons) depends on the physical characteristics of a heavy-ion layer (electron-ion mass ratio and effective charge state of the ions). In our theoretical model, the hydrodynamic equations for both electron and heavy-ion species are solved and the test-particle approximation for the light ions (protons) is applied. The heavy-ion motion is found to modify the longitudinal electric field distribution, thus changing the acceleration conditions for the protons.

  7. Three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy using a high-energy proton probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, G.; Reichart, P.; Datzmann, G.; Hauptner, A.; Körner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    It is a challenge to measure two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen profiles on a micrometer scale. Quantitative hydrogen analyses of micrometer resolution are demonstrated utilizing proton-proton scattering at a high-energy proton microprobe. It has more than an-order-of-magnitude better position resolution and in addition higher sensitivity than any other technique for 3D hydrogen analyses. This type of hydrogen imaging opens plenty room to characterize microstructured materials, and semiconductor devices or objects in microbiology. The first hydrogen image obtained with a 10 MeV proton microprobe shows the hydrogen distribution of the microcapillary system being present in the wing of a mayfly and demonstrates the potential of the method.

  8. Experimental Studies of Low Energy Proton Irradiation of Thin Vacuum Deposited Aluminum Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Thomas; Sznajder, Maciej; Geppert, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    We present experimental studies of degradation effects caused by low energetic proton irradiation on thin Aluminum layers. The studies were performed by use the Complex Irradiation Facility (CIF) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Bremen, Germany. Different proton doses and energies at two temperature levels of the samples were considered.The result of the irradiation tests is a formation of bubbles at the Aluminum surface. They are filled with molecular Hydrogen gas, which is created by the recombination processes of the metal free electrons and the incident protons. The average size of the bubbles increases with higher proton doses. As a consequence of the effect the metallic surface morphology is changed significantly.

  9. Single inclusive jet transverse momentum and energy spectra at very forward rapidity in proton-proton collisions with √{ s} = 7 and 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    We present predictions of single inclusive jet transverse momentum, energy, and Feynman-x spectra at forward rapidity (5.2 < y < 6.6) in proton-proton collisions with √{ s} = 7 and 13 TeV. Calculations based on high-energy factorization and kT-dependent parton densities are compared to simulations using the PYTHIA event generator. Effects from parton density evolution, parton shower dynamics, multi-parton interactions, and saturation of parton densities are investigated.

  10. Energy loss by resonance line photons in an absorbing medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mean path length of photons undergoing repeated scatterings in media of large optical thickness is calculated from accurate numerical solutions of the transfer equation including the effect of frequency redistribution characteristic of combined Doppler and natural broadening. Energy loss by continuous absorption processes, such as ionization or dust absorption, is discussed, and asymptotic scaling laws for the energy loss, the mean path length, and the mean number of scatterings are inferred from the numerical data.

  11. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  12. A simulation study of Methane by proton at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quashie, Edwin E.; Correaa, Alfredo A.; Schwegler, Eric R.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2014-05-01

    Proton impact molecular collisions have received considerable attentions over last few decades due to wide applications in various fields such as plasma physics, astrophysics, material science, and radiation therapy. Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon and has recently been detected in the atmosphere of the outer planets. In addition to provide the fundamental information, the charge exchange studies remain critical for understanding the phenomena in studies of comets, the solar wind, and space weather. The charge exchange processes in recent years have been used as diagnostics for temperature and transport. Using the time dependent density functional theory our results for both the elastic and inelastic scattering will be presented. Supported by National Nuclear Security Agency & Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  13. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thompson, R. J.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vujicic, M.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-03-01

    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti- k t algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta p T≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities | η|<4.5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2.5 % in the central calorimeter region (| η|<0.8) for jets with 60≤ p T<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for p T<30 GeV in the most forward region 3.2≤| η|<4.5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon p T, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low- p T jets recoiling against a high- p T jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high- p T jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced

  14. Theoretical Understanding of Enhanced Proton Energies from Laser-Cone Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kluge, T.; Gaillard, S. A.; Bussmann, M.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S. D.; Metzkes, J.; Rassuchine, J.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Cowan, T. E.; Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Gall, B.; Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M.; Lockard, T.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-04

    For the past ten years, the highest proton energies accelerated with high-intensity lasers was 58 MeV, observed in 2000 at the LLNL NOVA Petawatt laser, using flat foil targets. Recently, 67.5 MeV protons were observed in experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Trident laser, using one-fifth of the PW laser pulse energy, incident into novel conical targets. We present a focused study of new theoretical understanding of this measured enhancement from collisional Particle-in-Cell simulations, which shows that the hot electron temperature, number and maximum energy, responsible for the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) at the cone-top, are significantly increased when the laser grazes the cone wall. This is mainly due to the extraction of electrons from the cone wall by the laser electric field, and their boost in the forward direction by the vxB term of the Lorentz force. This result is in contrast to previous predictions of optical collection and wall-guiding of electrons in angled cones. This new wall-grazing mechanism offers the prospect to linearly increase the hot electron temperature, and thereby the TNSA proton energy, by extending the length over which the laser interacts in a grazing fashion in suitably optimized targets. This may allow achieving much higher proton energies for interesting future applications, with smaller, lower energy laser systems that allow for a high repetition rate.

  15. Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces of Polyenes and Protonated Schiff Bases.

    PubMed

    Send, Robert; Sundholm, Dage; Johansson, Mikael P; Pawłowski, Filip

    2009-09-08

    The potential energy surface of the (1)Bu and (1)A' states of all-trans-polyenes and the corresponding protonated Schiff bases have been studied at density functional theory and coupled cluster levels. Linear polyenes and protonated Schiff bases with 4 to 12 heavy atoms have been investigated. The calculations show remarkable differences in the excited state potential energy surfaces of the polyenes and the protonated Schiff bases. The excited states of the polyenes exhibit high torsion barriers for single-bond twists and low torsion barriers for double-bond twists. The protonated Schiff bases, on the other hand, are very flexible molecules in the first excited state with low or vanishing torsion barriers for both single and double bonds. Calculations at density functional theory and coupled cluster levels yield qualitatively similar potential energy surfaces. However, significant differences are found for some single-bond torsions in longer protonated Schiff bases, which indicate a flaw of the employed time-dependent density functional theory methods. The close agreement between the approximate second and third order coupled cluster levels indicates that for these systems calculations at second order coupled cluster level are useful in the validation of results based on time-dependent density functional theory.

  16. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  17. Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

  18. The energy source of the interplanetary medium and the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eugene N.

    1987-01-01

    The activity of the interplanetary medium arises from occasional transient outbursts of the active corona and, for the most part, from the interaction of fast and slow streams in the solar wind. The basic driver is the heat input to the corona, both transient and steady. The fast streams issue from coronal holes where the heat input may be Alfven waves with root mean squared (rms) fluid velocities of nearly 100 km/sec or may be wholly or in part the waves refracted into the hole from neighboring active regions. If the latter, then the character of the wind from the coronal hole depends upon the proximity and vigor of active regions, with significant differences between the polar and low altitude solar wind. In any case, there is no observational support for any of these ideas, so that the primary cause of the wind from the Sun, as well as any other similar star is not without mystery. It is to be hoped that ground-based observations together with the input from the Solar Optical Telescope and the International Solar Polar Mission may in time succeed in clearing up some of the basic questions.

  19. Stepwise Internal Energy Change of Protonated Methanol Clusters By Using the Inert Gas Tagging.

    PubMed

    Shimamori, Takuto; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-11-23

    Structural isomer population of a hydrogen-bonded cluster generally depends on temperature. Therefore, determination of an isomer population profile in a wide temperature range is important to understand the nature of hydrogen bond networks of the cluster. To explore an isomer population profile, stepwise changes of internal vibrational energy of a protonated hydrogen-bonded cluster are performed by inert gas tagging. We observe infrared spectra of the protonated methanol pentamer with various tag species. The bare protonated methanol pentamer practically has only two possible isomer types. With the tagging, the relative population of the two isomer types changes according to the binding energy with the tag species. The observed relative population follows its theoretically predicted temperature dependence.

  20. Mechanical engineering of a 75-keV proton injector for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hodgkins, D.J.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    A dc injector capable of 75-keV, 110-mA proton beam operation is under development for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project at Los Alamos. The injector uses a dc microwave proton source which has demonstrated 98% beam availability while operating at design parameters. A high-voltage isolation transformer is avoided by locating all ion source power supplies and controls at ground potential. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses two solenoid focusing and two steering magnets for beam matching and centroid control at the RFQ matchpoint. This paper will discuss proton source microwave window design, H{sub 2} gas flow control, vacuum considerations, LEBT design, and an iris for beam current control.

  1. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  2. Density slope of the symmetry energy L (ρ0) constrained by proton radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Niu; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-10-01

    Background: Recently, the cluster radioactivity of heavy nuclei decaying to 208Pb was successfully used to constrain the density slope of the symmetry energy L (ρ0) at saturation density ρ0. Purpose: By using well-measured experimental decay energy and half-life, proton radioactivity is proposed to further constrain L (ρ0) in this work. Method: From the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, L (ρ0) is found to be directly related to the magnitude of the symmetry potential, which can be extracted from the proton radioactivity within the density-dependent cluster model. Results: By investigating the radioactivity of proton emitters with large isospin asymmetry, the value of the density slope is found to be L (ρ0)=51.8 ±7.2 MeV.

  3. Production of [11C]CO2 with gas target at low proton energies.

    PubMed

    Sansaloni, Francesc; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Llop, Jordi; Arce, Pedro; Díaz, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, José Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays the demand and the installation of self-shielded low-energy cyclotrons is growing, allowing the use of (11)C in many more centers. The aim of this study was the design of a new target and the evaluation of the production of (11)C as [(11)C]CO2 at low proton energies. The target was coupled to an IBA Cyclone-18/9 and the energy was decreased to 4-16 MeV. The newly designed target allowed the production of [(11)C]CO2 at different proton energies, and the results suggest that the cyclotron energy of Cyclone-18/9 is slightly higher than the nominal 18 MeV.

  4. Limits of the energy-spin phase space beyond the proton drip line : entry distributions fo Pt and Au isobars.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Danchev, M.; Davids, C. N.; Hartley, D. J.; Heinz, A.; Lister, C. J.; Ma, W. C.; Poli, G. L.; Ressler, J. J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Rutgers univ.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Maryland; Washington Univ.

    2003-01-09

    Entry distributions in angular momentum and excitation energy have been measured for several very proton-rich isotopes of Pt and Au. This is the first systematic study of the energy-spin phase space for nuclei near and beyond the proton drip line. Comparisons are made between the distributions associated with proton-unbound Au nuclei and more stable Pt isobars. In {sup 173}Au the first evidence is seen for the limits of excitation energy and angular momentum which a nucleus beyond the proton drip line can sustain.

  5. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  6. Proton-proton elastic scattering analyzing power in the 2.16 to 2.28 GeV energy region.

    SciTech Connect

    Arvieux, J.; Ball, J.; Bystricky, J.; Fontaine, J. M.; Gaillard, G.; Goudour, J. P.; Hess, R.; Kunne, R.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lopiano, D.; de Mali, M.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Rapin, D.; van Rossum, L.; Sans, J. L.; Spinka, H. M.; High Energy Physics; Lab. National Saturne; CEA; Univ. of Geneva; CENB; Lab. National Saturne; Univ. of Geneva

    1997-11-01

    The angular dependence of the pp elastic scattering analyzing power was measured at SATURNE II with an unpolarized proton beam and the Saclay polarized proton target. The energy region in the vicinity of the accelerator depolarizing resonance G g = 6 at Tkin = 2.202 GeV was studied. Measurements were carried out at seven energies between 2.16 and 2.28 GeV from 17 to 55 CM. No significant anomaly was observed in the angular and energy dependence of the results presented, whereas the existing data sets differ in this energy range.

  7. Measurement and Simulation of the Variation in Proton-Induced Energy Deposition in Large Silicon Diode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Christina L.; Weller, Robert A.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    The proton induced charge deposition in a well characterized silicon P-i-N focal plane array is analyzed with Monte Carlo based simulations. These simulations include all physical processes, together with pile up, to accurately describe the experimental data. Simulation results reveal important high energy events not easily detected through experiment due to low statistics. The effects of each physical mechanism on the device response is shown for a single proton energy as well as a full proton space flux.

  8. Spin-Transfer Measurements for the Pion Deuteron Going to Proton Proton Reaction at Energies Spanning the Delta Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Andrew G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the first spin-transfer experiment performed for the pi{vec d} to{vec p}p reaction. Three spin-transfer parameters were measured: K_sp {LS}{'}; K _sp{SS}{'}; and K_sp{NN}{' }, each at a single angle for a number of energies spanning the Delta resonance of this system. The apparatus employed in this experiment consisted of established systems, including a dynamically polarized deuteron target and a proton polarimeter which utilized the well known proton-carbon analyzing powers. Two arms of detectors were used to minimize the background contribution by preferentially selecting those two-body final states corresponding to the pi dto pp reaction kinematics. We compare our results with the predictions of published partial wave amplitude fits pertaining to existing data on the time-reversed ppto dpi reaction, and demonstrate the inadequacy of these established fits in providing a complete description of this fundamental process. In addition, our data are compared with the predictions of two current theories. The failure of these theories to describe the fundamental features of this reaction clearly demonstrates the need for further theoretical work in this area. The data presented in this thesis are essential for the unique determination of the partial wave amplitudes characterizing the pprightleftharpoons d pi reaction. The accurate experimental determination of these amplitudes will provide an important framework for testing further theoretical developments.

  9. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  10. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  11. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  12. Total variation superiorization in dual-energy CT reconstruction for proton therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Penfold, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Proton therapy is a precise form of radiotherapy in which the range of an energetic beam of protons within a patient must be accurately known. The current approach based on single-energy computed tomography (SECT) can lead to uncertainties in the proton range of approximately 3%. This range of uncertainty may lead to under-dosing of the tumour or over-dosing of healthy tissues. Dual-energy CT (DECT) theoretically has the potential to reduce these range uncertainties by quantifying electron density and the effective atomic number. In practice, however, DECT images reconstructed with filtered backprojection (FBP) tend to suffer from high levels of noise. The objective of the current work was to examine the effect of total variation superiorization (TVS) on proton therapy planning accuracy when compared with FBP. A virtual CT scanner was created with the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. Tomographic images were reconstructed with FBP and TVS combined with diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (TVS-DROP). A total variation minimization (TVM) filter was also applied to the image reconstructed with FBP (FBP-TVM). Quantitative accuracy and variance of proton relative stopping power (RSP) derived from each image set was assessed. Mean RSPs were comparable with each image; however, the standard deviation of pixel values with TVS-DROP was reduced by a factor of 0.44 compared with the FBP image and a factor of 0.66 when compared with the FBP-TVM image. Proton doses calculated with the TVS-DROP image set were also better able to predict a reference dose distribution when compared with the FBP and FBP-TVM image sets. The study demonstrated the potential advantages of TVS-DROP as an image reconstruction method for DECT applied to proton therapy treatment planning.

  13. Effects of very low fluences of high-energy protons or iron ions on irradiated and bystander cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Magpayo, N; Rusek, A; Chiang, I-H; Sivertz, M; Held, K D

    2011-12-01

    In space, astronauts are exposed to radiation fields consisting of energetic protons and high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) particles at very low dose rates or fluences. Under these conditions, it is likely that, in addition to cells in an astronaut's body being traversed by ionizing radiation particles, unirradiated cells can also receive intercellular bystander signals from irradiated cells. Thus this study was designed to determine the dependence of DNA damage induction on dose at very low fluences of charged particles. Novel techniques to quantify particle fluence have been developed at the NASA Space Radiation Biology Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The approach uses a large ionization chamber to visualize the radiation beam coupled with a scintillation counter to measure fluence. This development has allowed us to irradiate cells with 1 GeV/nucleon protons and iron ions at particle fluences as low as 200 particles/cm(2) and quantify biological responses. Our results show an increased fraction of cells with DNA damage in both the irradiated population and bystander cells sharing medium with irradiated cells after low fluences. The fraction of cells with damage, manifest as micronucleus formation and 53BP1 focus induction, is about 2-fold higher than background at doses as low as ∼0.47 mGy iron ions (∼0.02 iron ions/cell) or ∼70 μGy protons (∼2 protons/cell). In the irradiated population, irrespective of radiation type, the fraction of damaged cells is constant from the lowest damaging fluence to about 1 cGy, above which the fraction of damaged cells increases with dose. In the bystander population, the level of damage is the same as in the irradiated population up to 1 cGy, but it does not increase above that plateau level with increasing dose. The data suggest that at fluences of high-energy protons or iron ions less than about 5 cGy, the response in irradiated cell populations may be dominated by the bystander response.

  14. Propagation anisotropies of solar flare protons and electrons at low energies in interplanetary space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    Flux anisotropies in interplanetary space were investigated for protons with E greater than 0.66 MeV and electrons with E greater than 400 keV. Data were taken from the University of Chicago charged-particle telescope aboard the deep-space probe Pioneer 7 and from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometer aboard the same spacecraft. Flux anisotropies lying to the east of the average interplanetary magnetic field direction were first reported by McCracken et al. (1971), late in a solar particle event, for proton energies greater than 7.5 MeV. This work extends this investigation to much lower proton energies, studies the proton and electron anisotropies during both early and late phases of a particle event, and makes use of detailed magnetic field data. The investigation consists of two parts, a study of many periods taken at random during solar events, for both protons and electrons, and a detailed analysis of one period, early in an event, during which the magnetic field was near the solar direction.

  15. Low energy proton radiation damage to (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Kamath, S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-seven 2 times 2 sq cm (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells were fabricated and subjected to 50 keV, 100 keV, and 290 keV of proton irradiation along with eighteen high efficiency silicon solar cells. The results of the study further corroborate the advantages for space missions offered by GaAs cells over state of the art silicon cells. Thus, even though the GaAs cells showed greater degradation when irradiated by protons with energy less than 5 MeV, the solar cells were normally protected from these protons by the glass covers used in space arrays. The GaAs cells also offered superior end of life power capability compared with silicon. The change in the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, spectral response, and dark 1-5 characteristics after irradiation at each proton energy and fluence were found to be consistent with the explanation of the effect of the protons. Also dark 1-5 characteristics showed that a new recombination center dominates the current transport mechanism after irradiation.

  16. Energy performance of medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia- a case study.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini; Elkadi, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy performance of three medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia, that operate only during the daytime. The aim is to provide preliminary understanding of energy consumption in this particular typology in Australia in relation to the available benchmarks. This paper also identifies the differences of energy consumption between different functional areas within medium health facilities. Building features and operational characteristics contributing to the variations in healthcare energy performance are discussed. The total annual energy consumption data ranging from 167-306 kWh/m(2) or 42-72 kWh/m(3) were compared against international data from various climatic zones. Some of the drivers of energy consumption were determined and potentials for energy and water conservation were identified. Comparison with international standards shows a possibility to achieve lower energy consumption in Victorian healthcare buildings.

  17. Investigation of the Effective NN Interaction in the Nuclear Medium Through BORON-10(POLARIZED Proton, Polarized Proton') BORON-10 Polarization Transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shining X.

    An investigation of transitions in ^ {10}rm B(vec p,vec p^ ')^{10}B was undertaken to characterize changes to the NN effective interaction that take place in the nuclear medium. The K600 high resolution spectrometer provided a means to observe the excitation of discrete states in the recoil ^{10 }B nucleus. The use of polarized beam at 200 MeV and the polarimeter mounted after the K600 focal plane detectors produced a variety of observables that can delineate the spin-dependence of the effective interaction. In this experiment measurements have been made for the ^{10}B in-plane polarization transfer observables D_sigma=D_{SS ^'} cos alpha+D _{SL^'} sin alpha and D_lambda=D _{LS^'} cos alpha+D_{LL^'} sin alpha over five scattering angles ranging from theta_{lab}=20 ^circ to 60^circ. The angle alpha is the spin -precession angle for protons passing through the K600 spectrometer. This is an extension of former measurements (E338) on the normal component polarization observables for transitions in ^{10}rm B(vec p,vec p^')^{10}B.. Distorted-wave Born approximation calculations made with the programs LEA and DW81 were carried out for a number of low-lying, natural-parity transitions. The calculations are more consistent with the experimental data when the interaction does not include corrections to the isoscalar central and spin-orbit portions of the effective NN interaction that arise from Pauli blocking effects. Further study is needed since this conclusion contradicts results on nearby nuclei such as ^ {16}O. To provide information on the isovector part of the spin-orbit and tensor portions of the effective NN interaction, a detailed study was made of the 0 ^+, T = 1 state at E_{x } = 1.74 MeV. Constraints on the transition formfactor were taken from electron scattering measurements. The structure of this state is well-described by assuming a single particle-hole component (1p_{3/2 }1p_sp{3/2}{-1}), and the reaction mechanism was taken E_ {x}=1.71 MeV. Constraints on

  18. Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium.

    PubMed

    Daraio, C; Nesterenko, V F; Herbold, E B; Jin, S

    2006-02-10

    We report the first experimental observation of impulse confinement and the disintegration of shock and solitary waves in one-dimensional strongly nonlinear composite granular materials. The chains consist of alternating ensembles of beads with high and low elastic moduli (more than 2 orders of magnitude difference) of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" sections of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and precompression.

  19. Radiobiological Characterization of Two Therapeutic Proton Beams With Different Initial Energy Spectra Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    SciTech Connect

    Calugaru, Valentin; Nauraye, Catherine; Noeel, Georges; Giocanti, Nicole; Favaudon, Vincent; Megnin-Chanet, Frederique

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) generated. In this article, we report on the variation of the RBE with depth in the SOBP of the 76- and 201-MeV proton beams used for treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods and Materials: The RBE (relative to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays) of the two modulated proton beams at three positions in the SOBP was determined in two human tumor cells using as endpoints clonogenic cell survival and the incidence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with enzymatic treatment to reveal clustered lesions. Results: The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201-MeV protons, it was close to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. Conclusions: Until now, little attention has been paid to the variation of RBE with depth in the SOBP as a function of the nominal energy of the primary proton beam and the molecular nature of the DNA damage. The RBE increase in the 76-MeV SOBP implies that the tumor tissues at the distal end receives a higher biologically equivalent dose than at the proximal end, despite a homogeneous physical dose. This is not the case for the 201-MeV energy beam. The precise determination of the effects of incident beam energy, modulation, and depth in tissues on the linear energy transfer-RBE relationship is essential for treatment planning.

  20. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  1. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, Sergei M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  2. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and alpha particle SEE data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of understanding and using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies

  3. Proton Nonionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) for Device Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Insoo; Xapsos, Michael A.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoff; Jordan, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) is a quantity that describes the rate of energy loss due to atomic displacements as a particle traverses a material. The product of the NIEL and the particle fluence (time integrated flux) gives the displacement damage energy deposition per unit mass of material. NIEL plays the same role to the displacement damage energy deposition as the stopping power to the total ionizing dose (TID). The concept of NIEL has been very useful for correlating particle induced displacement damage effects in semiconductor and optical devices. Many studies have successfully demonstrated that the degradation of semiconductor devices or optical sensors in a radiation field can be linearly correlated to the displacement damage energy, and subsequently to the NIEL deposited in the semiconductor devices or optical sensors. In addition, the NIEL concept was also useful in the study of both Si and GaAs solar cells and of high temperature superconductors, and at predicting the survivability of detectors used at the LHC at CERN. On the other hand, there are some instances where discrepancies are observed in the application of NIEL, most notably in GaAs semiconductor devices. However, NIEL is still a valuable tool, and can be used to scale damages produced by different particles and in different environments, even though this is not understood at the microscopic level.

  4. Proton Nonionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) for Device Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Insoo; Xapsos, Michael A.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoff; Jordan, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) is a quantity that describes the rate of energy loss due to atomic displacements as a particle traverses a material. The product of the NIEL and the particle fluence (time integrated flux) gives the displacement damage energy deposition per unit mass of material. NIEL plays the same role to the displacement damage energy deposition as the stopping power to the total ionizing dose (TID). The concept of NIEL has been very useful for correlating particle induced displacement damage effects in semiconductor and optical devices. Many studies have successfully demonstrated that the degradation of semiconductor devices or optical sensors in a radiation field can be linearly correlated to the displacement damage energy, and subsequently to the NIEL deposited in the semiconductor devices or optical sensors. In addition, the NIEL concept was also useful in the study of both Si and GaAs solar cells and of high temperature superconductors, and at predicting the survivability of detectors used at the LHC at CERN. On the other hand, there are some instances where discrepancies are observed in the application of NIEL, most notably in GaAs semiconductor devices. However, NIEL is still a valuable tool, and can be used to scale damages produced by different particles and in different environments, even though this is not understood at the microscopic level.

  5. Properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, M. L. Shlomo, Sh. Tulupov, B. A. Urin, M. H.

    2015-07-15

    The recently developed particle-hole dispersive optical model is applied to describe properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei. In particular, the double transition density averaged over the energy of the isoscalar monopole excitations is considered for {sup 208}Pb in a wide energy interval, which includes the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone. The energy-averaged strength functions of these resonances are also analyzed.

  6. Study of microdosimetric energy deposition patterns in tissue-equivalent medium due to low-energy neutron fields using a graphite-walled proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Waker, A J; Aslam

    2011-06-01

    To improve radiation protection dosimetry for low-energy neutron fields encountered in nuclear power reactor environments, there is increasing interest in modeling neutron energy deposition in metrological instruments such as tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs). Along with these computational developments, there is also a need for experimental data with which to benchmark and test the results obtained from the modeling methods developed. The experimental work described in this paper is a study of the energy deposition in tissue-equivalent (TE) medium using an in-house built graphite-walled proportional counter (GPC) filled with TE gas. The GPC is a simple model of a standard TEPC because the response of the counter at these energies is almost entirely due to the neutron interactions in the sensitive volume of the counter. Energy deposition in tissue spheres of diameter 1, 2, 4 and 8 µm was measured in low-energy neutron fields below 500 keV. We have observed a continuously increasing trend in microdosimetric averages with an increase in neutron energy. The values of these averages decrease as we increase the simulated diameter at a given neutron energy. A similar trend for these microdosimetric averages has been observed for standard TEPCs and the Rossi-type, TE, spherical wall-less counter filled with propane-based TE gas in the same energy range. This implies that at the microdosimetric level, in the neutron energy range we employed in this study, the pattern of average energy deposited by starter and insider proton recoil events in the gas is similar to those generated cumulatively by crosser and stopper events originating from the counter wall plus starter and insider recoil events originating in the sensitive volume of a TEPC.

  7. Selective 4e-/4H+ O2 reduction by an iron(tetraferrocenyl)porphyrin complex: from proton transfer followed by electron transfer in organic solvent to proton coupled electron transfer in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Mittra, Kaustuv; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Samanta, Subhra; Dey, Abhishek

    2013-12-16

    An iron porphyrin catalyst bearing four ferrocenes and a hydrogen bonding distal pocket is found to catalyze 4e(-)/4H(+) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in organic solvent under homogeneous conditions in the presence of 2-3 equiv of Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and resonance Raman data along with H2O2 assay indicate that one out of the four electrons necessary to reduce O2 to H2O is donated by the ferrous porphyrin while three are donated by the distal ferrocene residues. The same catalyst shows 4e(-)/4H(+) reduction of O2 in an aqueous medium, under heterogeneous conditions, over a wide range of pH. Both the selectivity and the rate of ORR are found to be pH independent in an aqueous medium. The ORR proceeds via a proton transfer followed by electron transfer (PET) step in an organic medium and while a 2e(-)/1H(+) proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) step determines the electrochemical potential of ORR in an aqueous medium.

  8. The kinetic energy spectrum of protons produced by the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetic energy spectra of protons resulting from the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact have been measured for electron impact energies from threshold (approximately 17 eV) to 160 eV at 90 deg and 30 deg detection angles, using a crossed-beam experimental arrangement. To check reliability, two separate proton energy analysis methods have been employed, i.e., a time-of-flight proton energy analysis and an electrostatic hemispherical energy analyzer. The present results are compared with previous measurements.

  9. The kinetic energy spectrum of protons produced by the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetic energy spectra of protons resulting from the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact have been measured for electron impact energies from threshold (approximately 17 eV) to 160 eV at 90 deg and 30 deg detection angles, using a crossed-beam experimental arrangement. To check reliability, two separate proton energy analysis methods have been employed, i.e., a time-of-flight proton energy analysis and an electrostatic hemispherical energy analyzer. The present results are compared with previous measurements.

  10. ELENA: the extra low energy anti-proton facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, Stephan; Oelert, Walter; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Belochitskii, Pavel; Breuker, Horst; Butin, Francois; Carli, Christian; Eriksson, Tommy; Pasinelli, Sergio; Tranquille, Gerard

    2014-04-01

    At the last LEAP conference in Vancouver 2011 the authors stated that a project "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring and as first discussed in 1982 for LEAR by H. Herr et al., was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and that it was under consideration to be built at CERN. ELENA is an upgrade of the Anti-proton Decelerator (AD) at CERN and is devoted to special experiments with physics using low energy anti-protons. The main topics are the anti-hydrogen production and consecutive studies of the features of this anti-matter atom as well as the anti-proton nucleon interaction by testing the QED to high precision. During the last years the project underwent several steps in presentations at different committees at CERN and was finally approved such that the construction has started. ELENA will increase the number of useful anti-protons by about two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments simultaneously. Very first and convincing results from the experiments at the AD have been published recently. For high precision physics, however, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of anti-proton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility will drastically increase, when the anti-proton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy is reduced by the additional decelerator ELENA to 100 keV.

  11. Search for medium-energy gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for pulsed gamma rays from four radio pulsars, chosen for their interest to gamma-ray astronomers in previous studies. The data set used for the search consists of gamma-ray events at energies of 1-30 MeV, detected during a 40-hour balloon flight of the UCR double Compton scatter telescope launched at the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas, USA on September 30, 1978. No statistically significant signals were detected from any of the pulsars. Three sigma upper limits to pulsed 1-30 MeV gamma ray flux from PSR 0950+08, PSR 1822+09, PSR 1929+10, and PSR 1953+29 are presented. Two complete exposures to PSR 0950+08 were obtained. The reported tentative detection of 1-20 MeV gamma rays from PSR 0950+08 is not confirmed.

  12. Intermediate energy proton stopping power for hydrogen molecules and monoatomic helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stopping power in the intermediate energy region (100 keV to 1 MeV) was investigated, based on the work of Lindhard and Winther, and on the local plasma model. The theory is applied to calculate stopping power of hydrogen molecules and helium gas for protons of energy ranging from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV. Agreement with the experimental data is found to be within 10 percent.

  13. Multiplicity Distributions from Antiproton-Proton Collisions at 1.8 Tev Center of Mass Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Ho.

    Charged-particle multiplicity distributions from antiproton-proton collisions at 1800 GeV center of mass energy, obtained with the E735 detector multiplicity hodoscope, are presented and discussed. A simple iteration method is used for conversion from number of observed hodoscope hits to true charged-particle multiplicity. The first four moments of the distribution are compared with distributions from lower energies. The distributions are also fit to KNO-G and negative binomial functions.

  14. Intermediate energy proton stopping power for hydrogen molecules and monoatomic helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stopping power in the intermediate energy region (100 keV to 1 MeV) was investigated, based on the work of Lindhard and Winther, and on the local plasma model. The theory is applied to calculate stopping power of hydrogen molecules and helium gas for protons of energy ranging from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV. Agreement with the experimental data is found to be within 10 percent.

  15. Measurement of multi-jet cross sections in proton-proton collisions at a 7 TeV center-of-mass energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A. D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N. P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holtsch, A.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Homma, Y.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horton, K.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Howell, D. F.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huang, G. S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Imbault, D.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishii, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D. K.; Jankowski, E.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jež, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Jha, M. K.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L. 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I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schneider, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, H. S.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-11-01

    Inclusive multi-jet production is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, using the ATLAS detector. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 pb-1. Results on multi-jet cross sections are presented and compared to both leading-order plus parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions and to next-to-leading-order QCD calculations.

  16. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvénic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagates in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvén waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.

  17. Proton and hydride transfers in solution: hybrid QMmm/MM free energy perturbation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L. Lawrence |; Bash, P.A.; Kerell, A.D., Jr

    1996-03-01

    A hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy perturbation (FEP) method is implemented in the context of molecular dynamics (MD). The semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonian (Austin Model 1) represents solute molecules, and the molecular mechanical (MM) CHARMM force field describes the water solvent. The QM/MM FEP method is used to calculate the free energy changes in aqueous solution for (1) a proton transfer from methanol to imidazole and (2) a hydride transfer from methoxide to nicotinamide. The QM/MM interaction energies between the solute and solvent arc calibrated to emulate the solute-solvent interaction energies determined at the Hartee-Fock 6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The free energy changes for the proton and hydride transfers are calculated to be 15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol, respectively, which compare favorably with the corresponding experimental values of 12.9 and {minus}7.4 kcal/mol. An estimate of the reliability of the calculations is obtained through the computation of the forward (15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol) and backward ({minus}14.1 and 9.1 kcal/mol)free energy changes. The reasonable correspondence between these two independent calculations suggests that adequate phase space sampling is obtained along the reaction pathways chosen to transform the proton and hydride systems between their respective reactant and product states.

  18. The divide-and-conquer second-order proton propagator method based on nuclear orbital plus molecular orbital theory for the efficient computation of proton binding energies.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Romero, Jonathan; Reyes, Andrés; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-10-05

    An efficient computational method to evaluate the binding energies of many protons in large systems was developed. Proton binding energy is calculated as a corrected nuclear orbital energy using the second-order proton propagator method, which is based on nuclear orbital plus molecular orbital theory. In the present scheme, the divide-and-conquer technique was applied to utilize local molecular orbitals. This use relies on the locality of electronic relaxation after deprotonation and the electron-nucleus correlation. Numerical assessment showed reduction in computational cost without the loss of accuracy. An initial application to model a protein resulted in reasonable binding energies that were in accordance with the electrostatic environment and solvent effects.

  19. Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tie Jun; Kong, Jin Au

    2004-11-01

    From Maxwell’s equations and the Poynting theorem, the time-domain electric and magnetic energy densities are generally defined in the frequency-dispersive media based on the conservation of energy. As a consequence, a general definition of electric and magnetic energy is proposed. Comparing with existing formulations of electric and magnetic energy in frequency-dispersive media, the new definition is more reasonable and is valid in any case. Using the new definition and staring from the equation of motion, we have shown rigorously that the total energy density and the individual electric and magnetic energy densities are always positive in a realistic artificial left-handed medium (LHM) [

    R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001)
    ], which obeys actually the Lorentz medium model, although such a LHM has negative permittivity and negative permeability simultaneously in a certain frequency range. We have also shown that the conservation of energy is not violated in LHM. The earlier conclusions can be easily extended to the Drude medium model and the cold plasma medium model. Through an exact analysis of a one-dimensional transient current source radiating in LHM, numerical results are given to demonstrate that the work done by source, the power flowing outwards a surface, and the electric and magnetic energy stored in a volume are all positive in the time domain.

  20. The contribution of low-energy protons to the total on-orbit SEU rate

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Martinez, Marino J.; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Lee, David S.; Swanson, Scot E.; Bhuva, B. L.; Warren, K. M.; Reed, R. A.; Trippe, J.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Mahatme, N.; Gaspard, N.; Assis, T.; Austin, R.; Massengill, L. M.; Swift, G.; Wirthlin, M.; Cannon, M.; Liu, R.; Chen, L.; Kelly, A. T.; Marshall, P.; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Wen, S. -J.; Wong, R.; Narasimham, B.; Pellish, J. A.; Puchner, H.; Weeden-Wright, S. L.

    2015-11-10

    Low- and high-energy proton experimental data and error rate predictions are presented for many bulk Si and SOI circuits from the 20-90 nm technology nodes to quantify how much low-energy protons (LEPs) can contribute to the total on-orbit single-event upset (SEU) rate. Every effort was made to predict LEP error rates that are conservatively high; even secondary protons generated in the spacecraft shielding have been included in the analysis. Across all the environments and circuits investigated, and when operating within 10% of the nominal operating voltage, LEPs were found to increase the total SEU rate to up to 4.3 times as high as it would have been in the absence of LEPs. Therefore, the best approach to account for LEP effects may be to calculate the total error rate from high-energy protons and heavy ions, and then multiply it by a safety margin of 5. If that error rate can be tolerated then our findings suggest that it is justified to waive LEP tests in certain situations. Trends were observed in the LEP angular responses of the circuits tested. As a result, grazing angles were the worst case for the SOI circuits, whereas the worst-case angle was at or near normal incidence for the bulk circuits.

  1. The contribution of low-energy protons to the total on-orbit SEU rate

    DOE PAGES

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Martinez, Marino J.; Dodd, Paul E.; ...

    2015-11-10

    Low- and high-energy proton experimental data and error rate predictions are presented for many bulk Si and SOI circuits from the 20-90 nm technology nodes to quantify how much low-energy protons (LEPs) can contribute to the total on-orbit single-event upset (SEU) rate. Every effort was made to predict LEP error rates that are conservatively high; even secondary protons generated in the spacecraft shielding have been included in the analysis. Across all the environments and circuits investigated, and when operating within 10% of the nominal operating voltage, LEPs were found to increase the total SEU rate to up to 4.3 timesmore » as high as it would have been in the absence of LEPs. Therefore, the best approach to account for LEP effects may be to calculate the total error rate from high-energy protons and heavy ions, and then multiply it by a safety margin of 5. If that error rate can be tolerated then our findings suggest that it is justified to waive LEP tests in certain situations. Trends were observed in the LEP angular responses of the circuits tested. As a result, grazing angles were the worst case for the SOI circuits, whereas the worst-case angle was at or near normal incidence for the bulk circuits.« less

  2. Proton transfer in phenol-amine complexes: phenol electronic effects on free energy profile in solution.

    PubMed

    Aono, Shinji; Kato, Shigeki

    2010-12-01

    Free energy profiles for the proton transfer reactions in hydrogen-bonded complex of phenol with trimethylamine in methyl chloride solvent are studied with the reference interaction site model self-consistent field method. The reactions in both the electronic ground and excited states are considered. The second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP) theory or the second-order multireference MP theory is used to evaluate the effect of the dynamical electron correlation on the free energy profiles. The free energy surface in the ground state shows a discrepancy with the experimental results for the related hydrogen-bonded complexes. To resolve this discrepancy, the effects of chloro-substitutions in phenol are examined, and its importance in stabilizing the ionic form is discussed. The temperature effect is also studied. In contrast to the ground state, the ππ* excited state of phenol-trimethylamine complex exhibits the proton transfer reaction with a low barrier. The reaction is almost thermoneutral. This is attributed to the reduction of proton affinity of phenol by the ππ* electronic excitation. We further examine the possibility of the electron-proton-coupled transfer in the ππ* state through the surface crossing with the charge transfer type πσ* state.

  3. Energy Loss of High Intensity Focused Proton Beams Penetrating Metal Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Evans, M.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Canning, D.; Mastrosimone, D.; Foord, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Shortpulse-laser-driven intense ion beams are appealing for applications in probing and creating high energy density plasmas. Such a beam isochorically heats and rapidly ionizes any target it enters into warm dense matter with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we present experimental measurements taken with the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP BL shortpulse laser of the proton and carbon spectra after passing through metal foils. The laser irradiated spherically curved C targets with intensity 4×1018 W/cm2, producing proton beams with 3 MeV slope temperature and a sharp low energy cutoff at 5 MeV which has not been observed on lower energy, shorter pulse intense lasers. The beam either diverged freely or was focused to estimated 1016 p +/cm2 ps by a surrounding structure before entering the metal foils (Al or Ag and a Cu tracer layer). The proton and ion spectra were altered by the foil depending on material and whether or not the beam was focused. Transverse proton radiography probed the target with ps temporal and 10 micron spatial resolution, indicating an electrostatic field on the foil may also have affected the beam. We present complementary particle-in-cell simulations of the beam generation and transport to the foils. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA National Laser User Facility program, Contract DE-SC0001265.

  4. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  5. Can the Abraham Light Momentum and Energy in a Medium Constitute a Lorentz Four-Vector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbiao

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing the Einstein-box thought experiment with the principle of relativity, it is shown that Abraham's light momentum and energy in a medium cannot constitute a Lorentz four-vector, and they consequentially break global momentum and energy conservation laws. In contrast, Minkowski's momentum and energy always constitute a Lorentz four-vector no matter whether in a medium or in vacuum, and the Minkowski's momentum is the unique correct light momentum. A momentum-associated photon mass in a medium is exposed, which explains why only the Abraham's momentum is derived in the traditional "center-of-mass-energy" approach. The EM boundary-condition matching approach, combined with Einstein light-quantum hypothesis, is proposed to analyze this thought experiment, and it is found for the first time that only from Maxwell equations without resort to the relativity, the correctness of light momentum definitions cannot be identified. Optical pulling effect is studied as well.

  6. Solar Modulation of Low-Energy Antiproton and Proton Spectra Measured by BESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Abe, Ko; Fuke, Hideyuki; Haino, Sadakazu; Hams, Thomas; Horikoshi, Atsushi; Kim, Ki-Chun; Lee, MooHyun; Makida, Yashuhiro; Matsuda, Shinya; hide

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of low-energy cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons have been measured by BESS in nine high-latitude balloon flights between 1993 and 2004. These measurements span a range of solar activity from the previous solar minimum through solar ma>:im%am and the onset of the present solar minimum, as well as a solar magnetic field reversal from positive to negative in 2000. Because protons and antiprotons differ only in charge sign, these simultaneous measurements provide a sensitive probe of charge dependent solar modulation. The antiproton to proton ratio measured by BESS is consistent with simple spherically symmetric models of solar modulation during the Sun's positive polarity phase, but favor charge-sign-dependent drift models during the negative phase. The BESS measurements will be presented and compared to various models of solar modulation.

  7. Solar Modulation of Low-Energy Antiproton and Proton Spectra Measured by BESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Abe, Ko; Fuke, Hideyuki; Haino, Sadakazu; Hams, Thomas; Horikoshi, Atsushi; Kim, Ki-Chun; Lee, MooHyun; Makida, Yashuhiro; Matsuda, Shinya; Moiseev, Alexander; Nishimura, Jun; Nozaki, Mitsuaki

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of low-energy cosmic-ray protons and antiprotons have been measured by BESS in nine high-latitude balloon flights between 1993 and 2004. These measurements span a range of solar activity from the previous solar minimum through solar ma>:im%am and the onset of the present solar minimum, as well as a solar magnetic field reversal from positive to negative in 2000. Because protons and antiprotons differ only in charge sign, these simultaneous measurements provide a sensitive probe of charge dependent solar modulation. The antiproton to proton ratio measured by BESS is consistent with simple spherically symmetric models of solar modulation during the Sun's positive polarity phase, but favor charge-sign-dependent drift models during the negative phase. The BESS measurements will be presented and compared to various models of solar modulation.

  8. Comparison of MCNPX and Geant4 proton energy deposition predictions for clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Titt, U.; Bednarz, B.; Paganetti, H.

    2012-01-01

    Several different Monte Carlo codes are currently being used at proton therapy centers to improve upon dose predictions over standard methods using analytical or semi-empirical dose algorithms. There is a need to better ascertain the differences between proton dose predictions from different available Monte Carlo codes. In this investigation Geant4 and MCNPX, the two most-utilized Monte Carlo codes for proton therapy applications, were used to predict energy deposition distributions in a variety of geometries, comprising simple water phantoms, water phantoms with complex inserts and in a voxelized geometry based on clinical CT data. The gamma analysis was used to evaluate the differences of the predictions between the codes. The results show that in the all cases the agreement was better than clinical acceptance criteria. PMID:22996039

  9. Ion Desorption Stability in Superconducting High Energy Physics Proton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-05-29

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of cold beam tube vacuum in a superconducting proton collider to include ion desorption in addition to thermal desorption and synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. The new ion desorption terms introduce the possibility of vacuum instability. This is similar to the classical room temperature case but now modified by the inclusion of ion desorption coefficients for cryosorbed (physisorbed) molecules which can greatly exceed the coefficients for tightly bound molecules. The sojourn time concept for physisorbed H{sub 2} is generalized to include photodesorption and ion desorption as well as the usually considered thermal desorption. The ion desorption rate is density dependent and divergent so at the onset of instability the sojourn time goes to zero. Experimental data are used to evaluate the H{sub 2} sojourn time for the conditions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the situation is found to be stable. The sojourn time is dominated by photodesorption for surface density s(H{sub 2}) less than a monolayer and by thermal deposition for s(H{sub 2}) greater than a monolayer. For a few percent of a monolayer, characteristic of a beam screen, the photodesorption rate exceeds ion desorption rate by more than two orders of magnitude. The photodesorption rate corresponds to a sojourn time of approximately 100 sec. The paper next turns to the evaluation of stability margins and inclusion of gases heavier than H{sub 2} (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), where ion desorption introduces coupling between molecular species. Stability conditions are worked out for a simple cold beam tube, a cold beam tube pumped from the ends and a cold beam tube with a co-axial perforated beam screen. In each case a simple inequality for stability of a single component is replaced by a determinant that must be greater than zero for a gas mixture. The connection with the general theory of feedback stability is made and it is shown that the gains

  10. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    SciTech Connect

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Sanami, Toshiya; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Saito, Kiwamu; Ishibashi, Kenji; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Lee, Hee-Seock; Ramberg, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, protoninduced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30{sup o} and 5 m 90{sup o} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multiparticle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

  11. Medium modification of γ jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Yan

    2013-08-09

    Two puzzling features in the experimental study of jet quenching in central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC are explained within a linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation. A γ-tagged jet is found to lose about 15% of its initial energy while its azimuthal angle remains almost unchanged due to rapid cooling of the medium. The reconstructed jet fragmentation function is found to have some modest enhancement at both small and large fractional momenta as compared to that in the vacuum because of the increased contribution of leading particles to the reconstructed jet energy and induced gluon radiation and recoiled partons. A γ-tagged jet fragmentation function is proposed that is more sensitive to jet-medium interaction and the jet transport parameter in the medium. The effects of recoiled medium partons on the reconstructed jets are also discussed.

  12. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2016-02-01

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  13. Comparison of linear energy transfer scoring techniques in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2015-07-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are commonly used to study linear energy transfer (LET) distributions in therapeutic proton beams. Various techniques have been used to score LET in MC simulations. The goal of this work was to compare LET distributions obtained using different LET scoring techniques and examine the sensitivity of these distributions to changes in commonly adjusted simulation parameters. We used three different techniques to score average proton LET in TOPAS, which is a MC platform based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. We determined the sensitivity of each scoring technique to variations in the range production thresholds for secondary electrons and protons. We also compared the depth-LET distributions that we acquired using each technique in a simple monoenergetic proton beam and in a more clinically relevant modulated proton therapy beam. Distributions of both fluence-averaged LET (LETΦ) and dose-averaged LET (LETD) were studied. We found that LETD values varied more between different scoring techniques than the LETΦ values did, and different LET scoring techniques showed different sensitivities to changes in simulation parameters.

  14. E710, Proton, Antiproton Elastic Scattering at Tevatron Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Sasan

    Experiment E710, located at site E0 of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab, was conceived in order to measure pp elastic scattering. The measured parameters were: the total cross section sigma_{t }, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude rho, the nuclear slope parameter B, the nuclear curvature parameter C, the total elastic cross section sigma _{el}, and the single diffractive cross section sigma_{sd} . These measurements were taken at center-of-mass energies of sqrt{s}=1.02 and 1.8 TeV.

  15. Tungsten fragmentation in nuclear reactions induced by high-energy cosmic-ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Chechenin, N. G. Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, A. A.; Kadmenskii, A. G.

    2015-01-15

    Tungsten fragmentation arising in nuclear reactions induced by cosmic-ray protons in space-vehicle electronics is considered. In modern technologies of integrated circuits featuring a three-dimensional layered architecture, tungsten is frequently used as a material for interlayer conducting connections. Within the preequilibrium model, tungsten-fragmentation features, including the cross sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons of energy between 30 and 240 MeV; the yields of isotopes and isobars; their energy, charge, and mass distributions; and recoil energy spectra, are calculated on the basis of the TALYS and EMPIRE-II-19 codes. It is shown that tungsten fragmentation affects substantially forecasts of failures of space-vehicle electronics.

  16. Unexpected neutron/proton ratio and isospin effect in low-energy antiproton-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2017-09-01

    The inclusive spectra of pre-equilibrium nucleons produced in low-energy antiproton-nucleus collisions are thoroughly investigated within the the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics transport approach for the first time. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange, and inelastic processes in antibaryon-baryon, baryon-baryon, and meson-baryon collisions have been implemented in the model. The unexpected neutron to proton yield ratios are caused from the isospin effects of pion-nucleon collisions and the symmetry energy. It is found that the π--neutron collisions enhance the neutron emission in the antiproton annihilation in a nucleus. A soft symmetry energy with the stiffness of γs=0.5 at subsaturation densities is constrained from the available data of the neutron/proton spectra.

  17. Stepwise Internal Energy Control for Protonated Methanol Clusters by Using the Inert Gas Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamori, Takuto; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    Preferred isomer structures of hydrogen-bonded clusters should depend on their temperature because of the entropy term in the free energy. To observe such temperature dependence, we propose a new approach to control the internal energy (vibrational temperature) of protonated clusters in the gas phase. We performed IR spectroscopy of protonated methanol clusters, H+ (CH{_3}OH) {_n}, n= 5 and 7, with the tagging by various inert gas species (Ar, CO{_2}, CO, CS{_2}, C{_2}H{_2}, and C{_6}H{_6}). We found that vibrational temperature of the tagged clusters raises with increase of the interaction energy with the tag species, and the observed cluster structures follow the theoretical prediction of the temperature dependence of the isomer population.

  18. Enhancing laser-driven proton acceleration by using micro-pillar arrays at high drive energy.

    PubMed

    Khaghani, Dimitri; Lobet, Mathieu; Borm, Björn; Burr, Loïc; Gärtner, Felix; Gremillet, Laurent; Movsesyan, Liana; Rosmej, Olga; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Wagner, Florian; Neumayer, Paul

    2017-09-12

    The interaction of micro- and nano-structured target surfaces with high-power laser pulses is being widely investigated for its unprecedented absorption efficiency. We have developed vertically aligned metallic micro-pillar arrays for laser-driven proton acceleration experiments. We demonstrate that such targets help strengthen interaction mechanisms when irradiated with high-energy-class laser pulses of intensities ~10(17-18) W/cm(2). In comparison with standard planar targets, we witness strongly enhanced hot-electron production and proton acceleration both in terms of maximum energies and particle numbers. Supporting our experimental results, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show an increase in laser energy conversion into hot electrons, leading to stronger acceleration fields. This opens a window of opportunity for further improvements of laser-driven ion acceleration systems.

  19. Energy deposition of multi-MeV protons in compressed targets of fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, M; Koohrokhi, T

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss and penetration of multi-megelectronvolt protons into a uniform deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma has been calculated. The effects of nuclear elastic scattering and Coulomb interactions are treated from a unified point of view. In general, multiple scattering enhances the proton linear-energy transfer along the initial proton direction, thus the energy deposition increases near the end of its range. The net effect of multiple scattering is to reduce the penetration from 1.20 to 1.02 g cm-2 for 12 MeV protons in a ρ=500 g cm-3 plasma at T=5 keV. These results should have relevance to proton fast ignition, specifically to energy deposition calculations that critically assess quantitative ignition requirements.

  20. Influence of medium chirality on electric dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Justo J.; Salam, A.

    2010-09-01

    Electric dipole-dipole resonance energy transfer taking place between two chromophores in an absorptive and dispersive chiral medium is studied. Quantized electromagnetic field operators in this environment are first obtained from the time-harmonic Maxwell equations and the Drude-Born-Fedorov equations. Second-order time-dependent perturbation theory and the Fermi Golden rule are used to calculate the transfer rate. A complicated dependence on the permittivity, permeability and chirality admittance of the medium is found. In the near-zone, the rate is amplified in a medium with negligible absorption comprised of one enantiomer relative to that in a racemic mixture.

  1. Thickness uniformity of beryllium foils derived from energy loss broadening of transmitted MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietel, B.; Wittmaack, K.

    2000-03-01

    The thickness uniformity of beryllium foils commonly in use as entrance windows of Si(Li) detectors has been determined by measuring the broadening in energy loss of 1.5-2.5 MeV protons transmitted through such foils. The energy loss spectra were measured after backscattering of the transmitted protons from a thin layer of gold on a polypropylene film. The contribution due to energy loss straggling was assessed in transmission studies on uniform films of polypropylene and polyester (Mylar). The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the loss peaks for the polymer films increased with the square root of the energy loss Δ E, in accordance with theory. By contrast, the FWHM of the energy loss in Be increased linearly with increasing Δ E, with a maximum FWHM=0.21Δ E at 2.5 MeV. After correcting for the straggling contribution in quadrature, the net excess broadening was found to range from 18% to 20%, for Be foils with a nominal thickness between 12.5 and 37.5 μm. The excess broadening is attributed to a corresponding variation in thickness across the foils, probably due to a significant porosity generated during the fabrication process (sintering). This result supports previous indirect evidence derived from studies on background generation in proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE).

  2. First polarized proton collision at a beam energy of 250 GeV in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bai,M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    After providing collisions of polarized protons at a beam energy of 100 GeV since 2001, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL had its first opportunity to collide polarized protons at its maximum beam energy of 250 GeV in the 2009 polarized proton operations. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes [1] in each ring, RHIC preserves polarization during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with precise control of the betatron tunes and vertical orbit distortions. However, the strong intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are more than two times stronger than those below 100 GeV, requiring much tighter tolerances on vertical orbit distortions and betatron tunes. With the currently achieved orbit correction and tune control, average polarizations of {approx_equal} 42% at top energy and average polarizations of {approx_equal} 55% at injection energy were achieved. Polarization measurements as a function of beam energy also indicated aU polarization losses occurred around three strong intrinsic resonances at 136 GeV, 199.3 GeV and 220.8 GeV Peak luminosity of 122 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was also demonstrated. This paper presents the performance of the first RHIC 250 GeV operation and discusses the depolarization issues encountered during the run.

  3. Energy loss of proton, alpha particle, and electron beams in hafnium dioxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Behar, Moni; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M.; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Arista, Nestor R.

    2009-12-15

    The electronic stopping power, S, of HfO{sub 2} films for proton and alpha particle beams has been measured and calculated. The experimental data have been obtained by the Rutherford backscattering technique and cover the range of 120-900 and 120-3000 keV for proton and alpha particle beams, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the energy loss for the same projectiles have been done by means of the dielectric formalism using the Mermin energy loss function--generalized oscillator strength (MELF-GOS) model for a proper description of the HfO{sub 2} target on the whole momentum-energy excitation spectrum. At low projectile energies, a nonlinear theory based on the extended Friedel sum rule has been employed. The calculations and experimental measurements show good agreement for protons and a quite good one for alpha particles. In particular, the experimental maximums of both stopping curves (around 120 and 800 keV, respectively) are well reproduced. On the basis of this good agreement, we have also calculated the inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and the stopping power for electrons in HfO{sub 2} films. Our results predict a minimum value of the IMFP and a maximum value of the S for electrons with energies around 120 and 190 eV, respectively.

  4. Investigation of the Effective NN Interaction in the Nuclear Medium Through SILICON-28(POLARIZED Proton, Polarized PROTON')SILICON-28 Polarization Transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian

    1996-08-01

    Reaction cross section and spin polarization observables were measured for a number of transitions in ^{28}Si(vec p,vec p^ '){^{28}Si} using the K600 high-resolution spectrometer located at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. This information was used to check and expand on models of the effect of the nuclear medium on the NN interaction, and to examine the distribution of 6^- strength among the excited states of ^{28} Si. The spectrometer's resolution of 50 keV made possible the separation of the excited states needed for this study, and the number of polarization observables available was enhanced by the use of the focal plane polarimeter associated with the spectrometer. Four different experimental results are part of this thesis. Measurements were made of the p+^ {28}Si elastic scattering cross section (dsigma/dOmega) and analyzing power (A_{y}) in order to constrain the wave functions used to describe the projectile-target system. This provided information necessary for a subsequent distorted-wave Born approximation treatment of inelastic scattering transitions. Measurements were made in the angle range from 8^circ to 65^circ, and were well described using complex central and spin-orbit potentials within a Schrodinger-equation framework. A combination of polarization transfer observables (D_{c}) was observed at 19.8^circ and 24.0 ^circ to confirm earlier measurements of the in-medium corrections to the spin-independent, isoscalar central and spin-orbit portions of the effective NN interaction. These checks were performed for a number of low-lying, natural -parity transitions, and showed excellent agreement. To provide information on the spin-orbit and tensor portions of the effective NN interaction (both isoscalar and isovector), a detailed study of the T = 0 and T = 1 6^- states at 11.58 and 14.36 MeV was conducted. Constraints on the transition form factor were taken from electron scattering measurements, and pion scattering confirmed the isospin

  5. Dosimetric response of radiochromic films to protons of low energies in the Bragg peak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, M. C.; Schardt, D.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Lallena, A. M.; Miras, H.; Guirado, D.

    2016-06-01

    One of the major advantages of proton or ion beams, applied in cancer treatment, is their excellent depth-dose profile exhibiting a low dose in the entrance channel and a distinct dose maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range in tissue. In the region of the Bragg peak, where the protons or ions are almost stopped, experimental studies with low-energy particle beams and thin biological samples may contribute valuable information on the biological effectiveness in the stopping region. Such experiments, however, require beam optimization and special dosimetry techniques for determining the absolute dose and dose homogeneity for very thin biological samples. At the National Centre of Accelerators in Seville, one of the beam lines at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator was equipped with a scattering device, a special parallel-plate ionization chamber with very thin electrode foils and target holders for cell cultures. In this work, we present the calibration in absolute dose of EBT3 films [Gafchromic radiotherapy films, http://www.ashland.com/products/gafchromic-radiotherapy-films] for proton energies in the region of the Bragg peak, where the linear energy transfer increases and becomes more significant for radiobiology studies, as well as the response of the EBT3 films for different proton energy values. To irradiate the films in the Bragg peak region, the energy of the beam was degraded passively, by interposing Mylar foils of variable thickness to place the Bragg peak inside the active layer of the film. The results obtained for the beam degraded in Mylar foils are compared with the dose calculated by means of the measurement of the beam fluence with an ionization chamber and the energy loss predicted by srim2008 code.

  6. Probing the acidity of carboxylic acids in protic ionic liquids, water, and their binary mixtures: activation energy of proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Kumar, Anil

    2013-02-28

    Acidity functions were used to express the ability of a solvent/solution to donate/accept a proton to a solute. The present work accounts for the acidity determination of HCOOH, CH3COOH, and CH3CH2COOH in the alkylimidazolium-based protic ionic liquids (PILs), incorporated with carboxylate anion, water, and in a binary mixture of PIL and water using the Hammett acidity function, H0. A reversal in the acidity trend was observed, when organic acids were transferred from water to PIL. It was emphasized that an increased stabilization offered by PIL cation toward the more basic conjugate anion of organic acid was responsible for this anomalous change in acidity order in PILs, which was absent in water. The greater stabilization of a basic organic anion by PIL cation is discussed in terms of the stable hard–soft acid base (HSAB) pairing. A change in the H0 values of these acids was observed with a change in temperature, and a linear correlation between the ln H0 and 1/T was noted. This relationship points toward the activation energy of proton transfer (E(a,H+)), a barrier provided by the medium during the proton transfer from Brønsted acid to indicator. The H0 function in binary mixtures points to the involvement of pseudosolvent, the behavior of which changes with the nature and concentration of acid. The presence of the maxima/minima in the H0 function is discussed in terms of the synergetic behavior of the pseudosolvent composed of the mixtures of aqueous PILs.

  7. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons axially channeled in the bent <1 1 0> Si crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent <1 1 0> Si crystal are studied. The crystal thickness is equal to 1 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, Λ, equal to 1.22, whereas the bending angle, α, was varied from 0 to 30 μrad. The proton energy of 7 TeV was chosen in accordance with the concept of using the bent crystals as a tool for selective deflection of the beam halo particles from the LUA9 experiment at LHC. For the continuum interaction potential of the proton and the crystal the Molière's expression was used and the energy loss of a proton was calculated by applying the trajectory dependent stopping power model. Further, the uncertainness of the scattering angle of the proton caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The energy loss distribution of the channeled protons was obtained via the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. The analysis of the obtained theoretical data shows that the shape of the energy loss distribution strongly depends on the horizontal or vertical direction of the curvature of the crystal. The number of dechanneled protons as a function of the bending angle also strongly depends on the direction of the crystal's curvature. As a result, the dechanneling rates and ranges, obtained from the Gompertz type sigmoidal fitting functions, have different sets of values for different bending orientations. We have also studied the influence of the proton beam divergence on the energy loss distribution of channeled protons.

  8. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  9. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, S.

    2015-01-15

    Using a simple density-dependent finite-range effective interaction having Yukawa form, the density dependence of isoscalar and isovector effective masses is studied. The isovector effective mass is found to be different for different pairs of like and unlike nucleons. Using HVH theorem, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is represented in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope. It is again observed that the neutron-proton effective mass splitting has got a positive value when isoscalar effective mass is greater than the isovector effective mass and has a negative value for the opposite case. Furthermore, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is found to have a linear dependence on asymmetry β. The second-order symmetry potential has a vital role in the determination of density slope of symmetry energy but it does not have any contribution on neutron-proton effective mass splitting. The finite-range effective interaction is compared with the SLy2, SKM, f{sub −}, f{sub 0}, and f{sub +} forms of interactions.

  10. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Rulon; Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-15

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  11. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Rulon; Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  12. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  13. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  14. Improvement of energy-conversion efficiency from laser to proton beam in a laser-foil interaction.

    PubMed

    Nodera, Y; Kawata, S; Onuma, N; Limpouch, J; Klimo, O; Kikuchi, T

    2008-10-01

    Improvement of energy-conversion efficiency from laser to proton beam is demonstrated by particle simulations in a laser-foil interaction. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminates the thin-foil target, the foil electrons are accelerated around the target by the ponderomotive force. The hot electrons generate a strong electric field, which accelerates the foil protons, and the proton beam is generated. In this paper a multihole thin-foil target is proposed in order to increase the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to protons. The multiholes transpiercing the foil target help to enhance the laser-proton energy-conversion efficiency significantly. Particle-in-cell 2.5-dimensional ( x, y, vx, vy, vz) simulations present that the total laser-proton energy-conversion efficiency becomes 9.3% for the multihole target, though the energy-conversion efficiency is 1.5% for a plain thin-foil target. The maximum proton energy is 10.0 MeV for the multihole target and is 3.14 MeV for the plain target. The transpiercing multihole target serves as a new method to increase the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to ions.

  15. Proton transfer pathways, energy landscape, and kinetics in creatine-water systems.

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, Olga; Whittleston, Chris S; Carr, Joanne M; Imhof, Petra; Goerke, Steffen; Bachert, Peter; Wales, David J

    2014-02-27

    We study the exchange processes of the metabolite creatine, which is present in both tumorous and normal tissues and has NH2 and NH groups that can transfer protons to water. Creatine produces chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proton transfer pathway from zwitterionic creatine to water is examined using a kinetic transition network constructed from the discrete path sampling approach and an approximate quantum-chemical energy function, employing the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method. The resulting potential energy surface is visualized by constructing disconnectivity graphs. The energy landscape consists of two distinct regions corresponding to the zwitterionic creatine structures and deprotonated creatine. The activation energy that characterizes the proton transfer from the creatine NH2 group to water was determined from an Arrhenius fit of rate constants as a function of temperature, obtained from harmonic transition state theory. The result is in reasonable agreement with values obtained in water exchange spectroscopy (WEX) experiments.

  16. Simulation of high-energy proton production by fast magnetosonic shock waves in pinched plasma discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Haruki, Takayuki; Masugata, Katsumi

    2007-03-01

    High-energy particles of a few hundred keV for electrons and up to MeV for ions were observed in a plasma focus device. Haruki et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 082106-1 (2006)] studied the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges by use of a 3D relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. It was found that the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy electrons were observed, but protons with MeV energies were not observed. In this paper the same pinch dynamics as Haruki and co-workers is investigated, focusing on the shock formation and the shock acceleration during the pinched current. It is found that a fast magnetosonic shock wave is produced during the pinching phase which, after the maximum pinch occurs, is strongly enhanced and propagates outwards. Some protons trapped in the electrostatic potential produced near the shock front can be accelerated to a few MeV by the surfatron acceleration mechanism. It is also found that the protons accelerated along the pinched axis have a ring-shaped angular distribution that is observed from numerous experiments.

  17. Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Meng, Xu-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Ab initio research of energy loss for energetic protons in solid-density Be is made based on the average atom model. Our results are found in good agreement with the recent experiment for both warm and cool matter. Our results are compared with the local density approximation model and the reason for their difference is also explored. The energy loss at smaller projectile energies is predicted by our model and local density approximation, which helps probe the higher reliability of the proving model and judge the existence of the non-Fermi-Dirac velocity distribution for free electrons exists in dense plasmas in future.

  18. Study of open charm production in proton+proton collisions at center of mass energies = 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsyk, Sergey

    2005-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with its unique electron identification system enables us to perform high precision measurements of electron yields. By measuring electron production at high transverse momentum, we can disentangle the contribution of electrons originating from semi-leptonic decays of heavy quarks (charm or bottom) from the less interesting "photonic" decay modes of light mesons. D/B mesons carry single heavy valence quarks and are usually referred to as "Open Charm" and "Open Bottom" particles, differentiating them from Closed Flavor particles such as J/psi, and Y mesons. Due to the large mass of the heavy quarks, their production mechanisms can be adequately explained by perturbative QCD (pQCD) theory. This dissertation presents the measurement of electrons from heavy flavor decays in proton + proton collisions at RHIC at collision energy s = 200 GeV over a wide range of transverse moment (0.4 < pT < 5 GeV/c). Two independent analysis techniques of signal extraction were performed. The "Cocktail" subtraction is based on the calculation and subtraction of the expected "photon-related" electron background based upon measured yields of light mesons. The "Converter" subtraction is based upon a direct measurement of photon yields achieved introducing additional material in the PHENIX acceptance and deducing the photon abundance by measuring the increase in electron yield. This is the first measurement of the Open Charm crossection at this collision energy and it is an important baseline measurement for comparison with nucleus + nucleus collisions. The modification of Open Charm production in heavy ion collisions compared to the presented p + p result can be used to study the final state interaction of the heavy quarks with hot dense matter inside the collisions. The results of the Open Charm measurements are compared to current pQCD predictions both in Leading Order (LO) O a2s and Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) O a3s

  19. Study of the effects of high-energy proton beams on escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious risks to public health care today. However, discouragingly, the development of new antibiotics has progressed little over the last decade. There is an urgent need for alternative approaches to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel methods, which include photothermal therapy based on gold nano-materials and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, have been reported. Studies of the effects of high-energy proton radiation on bacteria have mainly focused on Bacillus species and its spores. The effect of proton beams on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been limitedly reported. Escherichia coli is an important biological tool to obtain metabolic and genetic information and is a common model microorganism for studying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. In addition, E. coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal tract of mammals. In this research, the morphological and the physiological changes of E. coli after proton irradiation were investigated. Diluted solutions of cells were used for proton beam radiation. LB agar plates were used to count the number of colonies formed. The growth profile of the cells was monitored by using the optical density at 600 nm. The morphology of the irradiated cells was observed with an optical microscope. A microarray analysis was performed to examine the gene expression changes between irradiated samples and control samples without irradiation. E coli cells have observed to be elongated after proton irradiation with doses ranging from 13 to 93 Gy. Twenty-two were up-regulated more than twofold in proton-irradiated samples (93 Gy) compared with unexposed one.

  20. Pauli-blocking effect in two-body collisions dominates the in-medium effects in heavy-ion reactions near Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yong-Zhong; Zhang, H. F.; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zheng, Yu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The dissipation phenomenon in the heavy-ion reaction at incident energy near Fermi energy is studied by simulating the reactions 129Xe + 129Sn and 58Ni + 58Ni with isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD). The isotropy ratio in terms of transverse and longitudinal energies of the free protons emitted in the final states of these reactions is quantitatively analyzed to explore the in-medium correlation of the binary collisions. Comparison of the calculations with the experimental data recently released by INDRA collaboration exhibits that the ratio is very sensitive to the Pauli blocking effect in two-body collisions and Pauli exclusion principle is indispensable in the theoretical simulations for the heavy-ion reactions near the Fermi energy.

  1. Using low-energy neutrinos from pion decay at rest to probe the proton strangeness.

    PubMed

    Pagliaroli, G; Lujan-Peschard, C; Mitra, M; Vissani, F

    2013-07-12

    The study of the neutral current elastic scattering of neutrinos on protons at lower energies can be used as a compelling probe to improve our knowledge of the strangeness of the proton. We consider a neutrino beam generated from pion decay at rest, as provided by a cyclotron or a spallation neutron source and a 1 kton scintillating detector with a potential similar to the Borexino detector. Despite several backgrounds from solar and radioactive sources, it is possible to estimate two optimal energy windows for the analysis, one between 0.65 and 1.1 MeV and another between 1.73 and 2.2 MeV. The expected number of neutral current events in these two regions, for an exposure of 1 yr, is enough to obtain an error on the strange axial charge 10 times smaller than available at present.

  2. Robust energy enhancement of ultrashort pulse laser accelerated protons from reduced mass targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, K.; Metzkes, J.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Kraft, S. D.; Sauerbrey, R.; Schmidt, B.; Zier, M.; Schramm, U.

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports on a systematic investigation of the ultrashort pulse laser driven acceleration of protons from thin targets of finite size, so-called reduced mass targets (RMTs). Reproducible series of targets, manufactured with lithographic techniques, and varying in size, thickness, and mounting geometry, were irradiated with ultrashort (30 fs) laser pulses of intensities of about 8 × 1020 W cm-2. A robust maximum energy enhancement of almost a factor of two was found when comparing gold RMTs to reference irradiations of plain gold foils of the same thickness. Furthermore, a change of the thickness of these targets has less influence on the measured maximum proton energy when compared to standard foils, which, based on detailed particle-in-cell simulations, can be explained by the influence of the RMT geometry on the electron sheath. The performance gain was, however, restricted to lateral target sizes of greater than 50 µm, which can be attributed to edge and mounting structure influences.

  3. First measurement of the spectral function at high energy and momentum in medium-heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Daniela Rohe; E97-006 collaboration

    2005-09-26

    The experiment E97-006 was performed at Jefferson Lab to measure the momentum and energy distribution of protons in the nucleus far from the region of the (approximate) validity of the mean field description, i.e. at high momentum and energies. The occurrence of this strength is long known from occupation numbers less than one. In the experiment reported here this strength was directly measured for the first time. The results are compared to modern many-body theories. Further the transparency factor of C12 was determined in the Q{sup 2}-region of 0.6 to 1.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  4. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ingo; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen; Yan, Xueqing; Al-Omari, Husam

    2012-07-01

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  5. High Energy Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering for Large Momentum Transfers and Van der Waals Type Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, F.

    1980-03-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution in proton-proton elastic scattering at sqrt{s}=27.4, 45 and 62GeV with squared four momentum transfer, -t, extending up to 14(GeV/c)2, have been explained using Van der Waals type model.

  6. Low energy plasma treatment of a proton exchange membrane used for low temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Ramdutt, D.; Brault, P.; Caillard, A.; Bulla, D.; Boswell, R.; Rabat, H.; Dicks, A.

    2007-05-01

    A low energy (~30 V) plasma treatment of Nafion, a commercial proton exchange membrane used for low temperature fuel cells, is performed in a helicon radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) plasma system. For argon densities in the 109-1010 cm-3 range, the water contact angle (hydrophobicity) of the membrane surface linearly decreases with an increase in the plasma energy dose, which is maintained below 5.1 J cm-2, and which results from the combination of an ion energy dose (up to 3.8 J cm-2) and a photon (mostly UV) energy dose (up to 1.3 J cm-2). The decrease in water contact angle is essentially a result of the energy brought to the surface by ion bombardment. The measured effect of the energy brought to the surface by UV light is found to be negligible.

  7. Production of [15O]Water at Low-Energy Proton Cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.

    2005-12-12

    We report a simple system for producing [15O]H2O from nitrogen-15 in a nitrogen/hydrogen gas target with recycling of the target nitrogen, allowing production on low-energy proton-only accelerators with minimal consumption of isotopically enriched nitrogen-15. The radiolabeled water is separated from the target gas and radiolytically produced ammonia by temporary freezing in a small trap at -40 C.

  8. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; and L. Zhu

    2007-05-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  9. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Y.A.; Konobeyev, A.Y.; Pereslavtsev, P.E.

    1995-10-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclide transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  10. Integral Equation Calculation of Solvent Activation Free Energies for Electron and Proton Transfer Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-04

    6. AUTHOR(S) P.P. Schmidt Indrani Bhattacharya- Kodali and Gregory Voth 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) 8. PERIORMING ORGANIZATION...13. ABSTRACT (Maimum 200 words) The extended reference interaction site method (RISM) integral equation theory is applied to calculate the solvent...Integral Equation Calculation of Solvent Activation Free Energies for Electron and Proton Transfer Reactions Indrani Bhattacharya- Kodali and Gregory A. Voth

  11. Recoil-proton polarization in high-energy deuteron photodisintegration with circularly plarized photons.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Arrington, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Qattan, I. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Physics; Rutgers Univ.; Univ. Blaise Pascal; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    2007-05-01

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  12. Recoil-Proton Polarization in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration with Circularly Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Camsonne, A.

    2007-05-04

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  13. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code [1].

  14. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.

    1995-09-15

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  15. Validation of the effect of cross-calibrated GOES solar proton effective energies on derived integral fluxes by comparison with STEREO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. V.; Sandberg, I.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Daglis, I. A.; Jiggens, P.

    2017-02-01

    The derivation of integral fluxes from instrument coincidence rates requires accurate knowledge of their effective energies. Recent cross calibrations of GOES with the high-energy-resolution Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8 Goddard Medium Energy Experiment (GME) (Sandberg et al., Geophys. Res. Lett, 41, 4435, 2014a) gave significantly lower effective energies than those currently used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center to calculate solar proton integral fluxes from GOES rates. This implies systematically lower integral fluxes than currently produced. This paper quantifies the differences between the current and the cross-calibrated GOES integral fluxes and validates the latter. Care is taken to rule out the spectral resolution of the measurements or different integration algorithms as major contributors to differences in the magnitudes of the derived integral fluxes. The lower effective energies are validated by comparison with the independent, high-resolution observations by the STEREO Low-Energy Telescope (LET) and High-Energy Telescope (HET) during the December 2006 solar proton events. The current GOES product is similar to the >10 MeV integral fluxes recalculated by using the Sandberg et al. effective energies but is substantially greater at higher energies. (The median ratios of the current to the recalculated fluxes are 1.1 at >10 MeV, 1.7 at >30 MeV, 2.1 at >60 MeV, and 2.9 at >100 MeV.) By virtue of this validation, the cross-calibrated GOES integral fluxes should be considered more accurate than the current NOAA product. The results of this study also demonstrate good consistency between the two long-term IMP 8 GME and STEREO LET and HET solar proton data sets.

  16. Optimization of dual-energy CT acquisitions for proton therapy using projection-based decomposition.

    PubMed

    Vilches-Freixas, Gloria; Létang, Jean Michel; Ducros, Nicolas; Rit, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been presented as a valid alternative to single-energy CT to reduce the uncertainty of the conversion of patient CT numbers to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) of tissues relative to water. The aim of this work was to optimize DECT acquisition protocols from simulations of X-ray images for the treatment planning of proton therapy using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition algorithm. We have investigated the effect of various voltages and tin filtration combinations on the SPR map accuracy and precision, and the influence of the dose allocation between the low-energy (LE) and the high-energy (HE) acquisitions. For all spectra combinations, virtual CT projections of the Gammex phantom were simulated with a realistic energy-integrating detector response model. Two situations were simulated: an ideal case without noise (infinite dose) and a realistic situation with Poisson noise corresponding to a 20 mGy total central dose. To determine the optimal dose balance, the proportion of LE-dose with respect to the total dose was varied from 10% to 90% while keeping the central dose constant, for four dual-energy spectra. SPR images were derived using a two-step projection-based decomposition approach. The ranges of 70 MeV, 90 MeV, and 100 MeV proton beams onto the adult female (AF) reference computational phantom of the ICRP were analytically determined from the reconstructed SPR maps. The energy separation between the incident spectra had a strong impact on the SPR precision. Maximizing the incident energy gap reduced image noise. However, the energy gap was not a good metric to evaluate the accuracy of the SPR. In terms of SPR accuracy, a large variability of the optimal spectra was observed when studying each phantom material separately. The SPR accuracy was almost flat in the 30-70% LE-dose range, while the precision showed a minimum slightly shifted in favor of lower LE-dose. Photon noise in the SPR images (20 mGy dose

  17. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  18. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  19. Measurement of the inclusive energy spectrum in the very forward direction in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Zykunov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis,